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English Language and Comprehension 471 One Word Substi tuti on

K KUNDAN
Introduction
Brevity is the soul of wit. Then, you have to be precise
and to the point. You just cannot put your ideas across
succinctly without mincing words unless you
are direct and forthright. Too many words (verbosity)
and roundabout statements (circumlocution) impede
Chapter 28
One Word Substitution
the smooth flow of thoughts and often create
confusion. So, in exhibiting your sentiment by speech,
the narrower the compass of the word is, the more
energetic is the impression.
You have, in English, different words for group of
people in the different situations of life. For example,
A COLLECTION OF PEOPLE
at a lecture or concert : audi ence
at a match : spectators
in the street : crowd
in a riot : mob
in a church, mosque, temple : congregati on
in a rowdy scene : r abbl e
watching a TV programme : vi ewers
attending a funeral : mour ners
listening to a broadcast programme : l i stener s
It is, therefore, advisable to study the list of one-word substitution to help add pep to your expression.
A minister representing a sovereign or a state in a foreign country : ambassador
A person sent on a mission : emi ssary
A person who spends his money recklessly : spendthri ft
A person who can neither read nor write : i l l i ter ate
A person who lives at the same time as another : contempor ar y
A lover of mankind : phi l anthropi st
A lover of womankind : phi l ogyni st
A lover of oneself : egoi st
A lover of others : al trui st
A lover of food : gourmand
A person who loves his own country : patri ot
A person who regards the whole world as his country : cosmopol i tan
A person who believes in the total abolition of war : paci f i st
A person who is fond of fighting : bel l i cose
A man who is womanish in his habits : eff emi nate
A person who is devoted to the welfare of women : f emi ni st
One who is all-powerful : omni potent
One who is present everywhere : omni present
One who knows everything : omni sci ent
One who believes in fate : f atal i st
One who supplicates or entreats earnestly : suppl i cant
One who has narrow religious views : bi got
472 English Language and Comprehension One Word Substi tuti on
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One who plays for pleasure : amateur
One who plays for money : pr of essi onal
One who eats too much : gl utton
One who feeds on vegetables : vegetari an
One who eats human flesh : canni bal
One who breaks images and idols : i conocl ast
One who is over-enthusiastic about some religious principles or beliefs : f anati c
One who walks in sleep : somnambul i st
One who talks in sleep : somni l oquent
One who makes a scientific study of language : l i ngui st
One who knows many languages : pol ygl ot
One who enjoys another persons confidence : confi dant
One who is appointed by parties to settle disputes : arbi trator
One who breaks in a house to steal : burgl ar
One who sails around stopping and robbing ships at sea : pi r ate
One who abstains from alcoholic drink : teetotal l er
A person who leaves his own country and goes to live in another : emi grant
A person who comes to one country from another to settle : i mmi gr ant
To send out of ones native country : expatri ate
One who leads others in any field : pi oneer
One who commits the first act of attack : aggressor
One who speaks for others : spokesman
One who wastes money for luxury : extravagant
One who is unable to pay his debt : i nsol vent/bankrupt
One who abandons his religious faith : apostate
One who makes an eloquent public speech : orator
One who undergoes the penalty of death for persistence in his faith : mar tyr
A child whose parents are dead : orphan
A man whose wife is dead : wi dower
A woman whose husband is dead : wi dow
A person who takes advantage of every change for success, sometimes
to other peoples disadvantage : opportuni st
A girl or woman who flirts, that is, tries to attract people and make
advances in love simply to satisfy her vanity : coquette
A person who has a long experience of any occupation : veter an
A person who does clever tricks which appear magical : conjuror
A person who travels into or through a country for the purpose of learning
about it : expl or er
A disease that can be spread by touch : contagi ous
A disease that is found regularly in a particular place : endemi c
A disease that causes death : f atal
A child born after the death of its father : posthumous
A child brought up by persons who are not its parents : f oster -chi l d
Having a tendency to break the law to do socially unacceptable things : del i nquent
A disease caused by bacteria and passed from one person to another : i nf ecti ous
A remedy for all kinds of diseases : panacea
A medicine that induces sleep : nar coti c
An office which has no work but high salary : si necur e
A game or battle in which no party gains victory : drawn
A roundabout way of expression : ci r cuml ocuti on
English Language and Comprehension 473 One Word Substi tuti on
K KUNDAN
A story in which ideas are symbolized as people : al l egor y
A short simple story designed to teach a moral or religious lesson : par abl e
A short story in which animals or objects speak a story that gives
wholesome moral lesson : f abl e
A talk between two people : di al ogue
An old story about great events and people in ancient times, which may
not be true : l egend
A long speech for a single actor or actress, usually alone on a stage : monol ogue
An introduction to a long poem, a play, etc : prol ogue
A speech made by one of the actors at the end of a play : epi l ogue
A string of beads used for prayer : rosary
The act of speaking aloud ones thoughts when alone : sol i l oquy
A speech which is delivered without any previous preparation : extempore
The first venture of a person : mai den
The life-history of a man written by himself : autobiography
The life-history of a man written by someone else : bi ography
Animals which live both on land and in water : amphi bi ans
Animals which live in flocks : gregarious
Animals which give milk and suckle their young ones : mammal s
An animal which lives on the flesh of others : carni vor ous
Animals which live in water : aquati c
A style full of words : verbose
A style in which a writer displays his knowledge : pedanti c
Repetition or writing word for word : ver bati m
Matter written by hand : manuscr i pt
Words opposite in meaning : antonym
Words different in meaning but similar in sound : homonym
Words similar in meaning : synonym
Anything which is no longer in use : obsol ete
Article sold by one country to another : export
Article bought by one country from another : i mpor t
A state which is impartial to all religions : secul ar
That which cannot be heard : i naudi bl e
That which cannot be consumed by fire : i ncombusti bl e
That which cannot be believed : i ncr edi bl e
That which cannot be blotted : i ndel i bl e
That which cannot be denied or questioned : i ndi sputabl e
That which cannot be cured : i ncur abl e
That which cannot be corrected or reformed : i ncor r i gi bl e
That which cannot be explained : i nexpl i cabl e
That which cannot be expressed in words : i nexpr essi bl e
That without which one cant do : i ndi spensabl e
That which cannot be extinguished : i nexti ngui shabl e
That which cannot be avoided : i nevi tabl e
That which never tires out : i nexhausti bl e
That which cannot be easily reached : i naccessi bl e
That which cannot be admitted or allowed : i nadmi ssi bl e
That which cannot be defended : i ndef ensi bl e
That which cannot be excused : i nexcusabl e
That which can be easily set on fire : i nf l ammabl e
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That which never fails : i nf al l i bl e
That which can be seen through : transparent
That which cannot be seen : i nvi si bl e
That which cannot be repaired : i r repar abl e
That which cannot be perceived by the senses : i mper cepti bl e
That which cannot be changed : i r r evocabl e
That which is not to the point : i r r el evant
That which cannot be taken by force or arms : i mpr egnabl e
Incapable of being read : i l l egi bl e
Incapable of being wounded : i nvul ner abl e
Incapable of being divided : i ndi vi si bl e
Incapable of being dissolved : i nsol ubl e
Incapable of being understood : uni ntel l i gi bl e
Incapable of being imitated : i ni mi tabl e
Incapable of being practised : i mpr acti cabl e
Fit to be chosen : el i gi bl e
That which cannot be seen through : opaque
That which happens every two years : bi enni al
That which happens every four years : quadrenni al
That which happens every half year : semi annual
That which occurs time after time : per enni al
That which happens once in three years : tr i enni al
A man who leads an immoral life : l i ber ti ne
A medicine to counteract the effect of poison : anti dote
A medicine which can loosen the bowels : l axati ve
The science of speech sound : phoneti cs
The science of reasoning : l ogi c
The science which deals with the derivation of words : etymol ogy
Related to the sun : sol ar
Related to the moon : l unar
The practice of marrying only once : monogamy
The practice of having two wives or two husbands at a time : bi gamy
The practice of marrying more than one wife at a time : pol ygamy
The practice of marrying more than one husband at a time : pol yandr y
Allowance due to a wife on legal separation from her husband : al i mony
Property inherited from ones father or ancestors : patri mony
Of unknown or unadmitted authorship : anonymous
An imaginary name assumed by an author for disguise : pseudonym
The cessation of warfare before a treaty is signed : ar mi sti ce
The act of violating the sanctity of the church : sacr i l ege
The act of speaking disrespectfully about sacred things : bl asphemy
An office for which no salary is paid : honorary
The sum paid to a man for his labour : remuner ati on
Yearly return of a date : anni versary
Compulsory enlistment of military and other services : conscri pti on
Of ones own free will : vol untar y
All of one mind : unani mous
Occurring at the same time : si mul taneous
Give tit for tat : r etal i ate
A figure with many angles and sides : pol ygon
English Language and Comprehension 475 One Word Substi tuti on
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Total loss of voice : aphoni a
One who walks on foot : pedestri an
One who is fond of entertaining guests : hospi tabl e
One who is out to destroy all government, law and order : anarchi st
One who is revengeful : vi ndi cti ve
One who is interested in old things, works of art or books : anti quar i an
One who deceives by pretending to be someone else : i mpostor
The worship of idols or images : i dol atr y
The original inhabitants of a country : abori gi nes
Persons who work in the same department of an office : col l eagues
A soldier who fights for the sake of money : mer cenar y
A formal written charge against a person for some crime or offence : i ndi ctment
Forensic examination of a dead body : postmor tem
Engaged in war : bel l i ger ent
A person who has many love affairs without intending to marry : phi l ander er
A person who helps a helpless person or stranger : Samari tan
One who can use either hand with perfect ease : ambi dextrous
The state of abstention from marriage : cel i bacy
Land that grows things in abundance : f er ti l e
Land that does not grow anything : barren
A disease that spreads over a large area : epi demi c
A house which is visited by ghosts : haunted
The place where clothes are kept : wardrobe
A political leader who tries to appeal to the feelings of people to
stir them up : demagogue
A place of rest and recuperation for the sick : sanatori um
A place for the burial of dead bodies : cemeter y
A place where birds and beasts are kept for public to see : zoo
A person who introduces the performers, speakers etc : comper e
A place where books are bound : bi ndery
A boastful fellow who behaves recklessly : swashbuckl er
A place where stone, slate, etc is obtained for building, road-making etc : quarry
A structure erected in remembrance of a person or event : monument
A gambling den : casi no
Closed vehicle for carrying sick or wounded people : ambul ance
Force of aircraft used to protect a military or naval operation : ai r -cover
List of things to be done, business to be discussed by a committee : agenda
A record of list of ones ancestors in the order of succession or descent : geneal ogy
An imaginary place where ideally perfect social and political
conditions are supposed to exist : Utopi a
Paradise or a place where one gets supreme delight and bliss : El ysi um
A small set or committee of top leaders which runs the election
for the party : caucus
Person who pilots or travels in a balloon, airship or other aircraft : aeronaut
Person who writes from dictation from somebody : amanuensi s
Person who believes that nothing can be known about God or
of anything except material things : agnosti c
476 English Language and Comprehension One Word Substi tuti on
K KUNDAN
Directions: Out of the four alternatives,
choose the one which can be substituted for the
given words/sentence
1. One who knows many languages.
a) Linguist b) Polyglot
c) Translater d) Phonetician
2. One who does not follow the usual rules of social
life.
a) Bohemian b) Artisan
c) Partisan d) Physician
3. Placing a thing beside another.
a) Impose b) Repose
c) Juxtapose d) Expose
4. To throw or drop unnecessary goods or fuel from
a ship, an aircraft, a spacecraft etc.
a) Capsize b) Enthral
c) Volley d) Jettison
5. Wild and noisy disorder.
a) Agitation b) Revolution
c) Pandemonium d) Stir
6. Possessing unlimited powers.
a) Omniscient b) Omnipotent
c) Omnipresent d) Omnicompetent
7. He is a doctor who is a specialist in skin
diseases.
a) Cardiologist b) Physician
c) Dermatologist d) Physicist
8. One who retires from society and lives alone.
a) Saint b) Giant
c) Plaintiff d Recluse
9. The art of making pots, bricks etc, with clay.
a) Potting b) Ceramics
c) Crockery d) Dynamics
10. Living at the same time.
a) Concurrent b) Contemporary
c) Coincident d) Concomitant
11. Give and receive mutually
a) Present b) Reciprocate
c) Compromise d) Approve
12. One who can think about the future with
imagination and wisdom
a) Dreamer b) Seer
c) Idealist d) Visionary
13. A doctor who treats children
a) Paediatrician b) Pedagogue
c) Pedestrian d) Paedophile
14. One who studies election trends by means of
opinion polls
a) Entomologist b) Psephologist
c) Demagogue d) Eugenist
15. One who believes in offering equal opportunities
to women in all spheres
a) Male Chauvinist b) Feminist
c) Fatalist d) Futurist
16. Killing of a child
a) Homicide b) Genocide
c) Infanticide d) Suicide
17. The art of good eating
a) Gastronomy b) Astronomy
c) Vegetarianism d) Gourmet
18. One who is indifferent to pleasure or pain
a) Stoic b) Stylist
c) Cynic d) Psychic
19. Lasting only for a moment
a) Momentous b) Momentary
c) Trivial d) Petty
20. To seize control of a vehicle in order to force it
to go to a new destination, or demand something
a) Attack b) Contract
c) Hijack d) Detour
21. Simple, fast-spreading plant without flowers or
leaves, which can often cause disease.
a) Bacteria b) Amoeba
c) Virus d) Fungus
22. One who is greedy
a) Voracious b) Avaricious
c) Carnivorous d) Omnivorous
23. An area of land that is controlled by a ruler
a) Colony b) Dominion
c) County d) Municipality
24. A place where Jews worship according to their
religion
a) Cathedral b) Synagogue
c) Chapel d) Demagogue
25. One who is indifferent to pleasure and pain
a) Ascetic b) Esoteric
c) Stoic d) Sceptical
26. The study of religion and religious ideas and
beliefs
a) Theocracy b) Theosophy
c) Theology d) Theism
27. Dissection of a dead body to find out the cause
of death
a) Biopsy b) Investigation
c) Surgery d) Autopsy
28. A person without training or experience in a skill
or subject
a) Chaplain b) Mason
c) Artisan d) Novice
29. One who stays away from school without
permission
a) Pedant b) Supplicant
c) Mendicant d) Truant
30. The act of killing a whole group of people,
especially a whole race
a) Patricide b) Parricide
c) Matricide d) Genocide
31. One who deserts his principles or party.
a) Apostle b) Proselytize
c) Renegade d) Critic
Exercise
English Language and Comprehension 477 One Word Substi tuti on
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32. One who intervenes between two or more parties
to settle differences
a) Neutral b) Intermediary
c) Judge d) Connoisseur
33. The habit of always admiring oneself
a) Psychosis b) Neurosis
c) Narcissism d) Paranoia
34. To take back, withdraw or renounce
a) Repent b) Retrace
c) Refuse d) Recant
35. A pen for small animals
a) Hutch b) Lair
c) Den d) Cage
Pen = a small piece of land surrounded
by a fence in which farm animals
are kept
36. A woman having more than one husband at the
same time
a) Polyandry b) Polygamy
c) Polyphony d) Polyglot
37. Feeding on food made both of plants and flesh
a) Carnivorous b) Omnipotent
c) Omnivorous d) Optimist
38. One who destroys images or attacks popular
beliefs
a) Imagist b) Misanthropist
c) Iconoclast d) Masochist
39. Violation of something holy and sacred
a) Pollution b) Pilferage
c) Sacrilege d) Pittance
40. A place where nuns live and work
a) Church b) School
c) Convent d) Abode
41. One who has obstinate and narrow religious
views
a) Theosophist b) Bigot
c) Philosopher d) Theologian
42. The sound of a funeral bell
a) Knell b) Spell
c) Ding d) Ding-dong
43. Military waking signal sounded in the morning
a) Reveille b) Lullaby
c) Anthem d) Soprano
44. Study of insects
a) Ecology b) Embryology
c) Entomology d) Biology
45. A person in his seventies
a) Sexagenarian b) Septuagenarian
c) Centurion d) Patriarch
46. Belief that war and violence are unjustified
a) Neutralisation b) Pessimism
c) Naturalisation d) Pacifism
47. A group of girls
a) Bevy b) Convoy
c) Troupe d) Coterie
48. Causing or ending in death
a) Fatal b) Deadly
c) Serious d) Dangerous
49. A short poem or speech addressed to the
spectators after the conclusion of a drama
a) Prologue b) Dialogue
c) Epilogue d) Monologue
50. One who loves books
a) Scholar b) Bibliographer
c) Teacher d) Bibliophile
51. That which would burn easily
a) Incendiary b) Incantatory
c) Inflammable d) Incandescent
52. Place of gathering for public discussion
a) Platform b) Dais
c) Stage d) Forum
53. An addition to the end of a letter
a) Post-script b) Prelude
c) Post-natal d) Postmortem
54. Young cow that has not yet had a calf
a) Cowlet b) Colt
c) Ewe d) Heifer
55. A mournful song (or poem) for the dead
a) Ballad b) Dirge
c) Ode d) Lyric
56. The dead skin cast off by a snake
a) Bough b) Slough
c) Peelings d) Borough
57. Science dealing with bird life
a) Zoology b) Ornithology
c) Etymology d) Philology
58. One who is from 60 to 69 years old
a) Sexton b) Sexologist
c) Sexagenarian d) Sextuplet
59. Someone who keeps bees
a) Apiarist b) Horticulturist
c) Ornithologist d) Pathologist
60. Speaking one's thoughts aloud to oneself
a) Apostrophise b) Memorise
c) Soliloquize d) Solemnise
61. A person with a long experience of any occupation
a) Veteran b) Genius
c) Seasoned d) Ambidexterous
62. Words written on a tomb
a) Epithet b) Epigraph
c) Soliloquy d) Epitaph
63. Stealthily done
a) Devious b) Nefarious
c) Surreptitious d) Villainous
64. Something no longer in use
a) Desolate b) Absolute
c) Obsolete d) Primitive
65. One not concerned with right or wrong
a) Moral b) Amoral
c) Immoral d) Immortal
66. A person who opposes war or use of military force
a) Fascist b) Pacifist
c) Narcissist d) Fatalist
67. Severely abusive writing in journals
a) Imaginary b) Speculative
c) Scurrilous d) Sarcastic
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68. Call upon God or any other power (like law) etc,
for help or protection
a) Invocation b) Involution
c) Inundation d) Revocation
69. Fear of being enclosed in a small closed space
a) Agoraphobia b) Claustrophobia
c) Xenophobia d) Paranoia
70. One who has become dependent on something
of drugs is
a) Adamant b) Edict
c) Addict d) Derelict
71. Succession of rulers belonging to one family
a) Dynasty b) Lineage
c) Ancestry d) Progeny
72. To cut something into two pieces
a) Severe b) Sever
c) Sewer d) Sow
73. Flat metal or porcelain plate fixed on a wall as
an ornament or memorial
a) Tabloid b) Poster
c) Board d) Plaque
74. Act of deceiving somebody in order to make money
a) Fraud b) Robbery
c) Pickpocket d) Theft
75. A short poem or speech addressed to the
spectators after the conclusion of a drama
a) Prologue b) Dialogue
c) Epilogue d) Monologue
76. Capable of being understood in either of two or
more possible senses, and therefore not definite
a) Amphibious b) Ambiguous
c) Amorphous d) Confusing
77. A person who is unable to pay his debts
a) Solvent b) Banker
c) Insolvent d) Lender
78. Anything which is no longer in use
a) Obscure b) Obsolete
c) Pristine d) Lapsed
79. A person coming to a foreign land to settle there
a) Immigrant b) Emigrant
c) Tourist d) Settler
80. Something capable of being done
a) Probable b) Feasible
c) Tenable d) Explicable
81. One who goes to settle in another country
a) Immigrant b) Alien
c) Citizen d) Emigrant
82. One who hates mankind
a) Philanthropist b) Terrorist
c) Misanthrope d) Misogynist
83. Belonging to all parts of the world
a) Versatile b) Universal
c) Cosmopolitan d) Secular
84. One who walks on ropes
a) Funambulist b) Upholsterer
c) Acrobat d) Aviator
85. The study of the origin and history of words
a) Linguistics b) Etymology
c) Verbose d) Anthology
86. A person who breaks into a house in order to
steal
a) Poacher b) Bandit
c) Intruder d) Burglar
87. The study of maps
a) Cartography b) Geography
c) Geology d) Atlas
88. Tough tissues in joints
a) Ligaments b) Endoderm
c) Muscles d) Fibre
89. The first model of a new device
a) Prototype b) Sculpture
c) Icon d) Photograph
90. A building where an audience sits
a) Aquarium b) Gymnasium
c) Auditorium d) Stadium
91. One who collects coins
a) Archaeologist b) Numismatist
c) Philatelist d) Connoisseur
92. A system of Government in which only one
political party is allowed to function
a) Oligarchy b) Dictatorship
c) Totalitarianism d) Theocracy
93. Customs and habits of a particular group
a) Mores b) Traditions
c) Rites d) Rituals
94. A body of persons appointed to hear evidence
and give their verdict in trials
a) Association b) Council
c) Bar d) Jury
95. Indifference to pleasure or pain
a) Perseverance b) Tolerance
c) Stoicism d) Reticence
96. Building in which dead bodies are kept for a time
a) Mortuary b) Monastery
c) Sanatorium d) Crematorium
97. One who believes that gaining pleasure is the
most important thing in life
a) Hedonist b) Pessimist
c) Misanthrope d) Philistine
98. One who breaks the established traditions and
image
a) Fatalist b) Fanatic
c) Iconoclast d) Philologist
99. Property handed down after the death of a person
a) Legacy b) Legend
c) Patrimony d) Inheritance
100. General view of a person's character
a) Biography b) Profile
c) Introduction d) Sketch
101. Wild and noisy disorder
a) Agitation b) Revolution
c) Pandemonium d) Stir
102. The first public speech delivered by a person
a) Maiden speech b) Inaugural speech
c) Trial speech d) Marathon speech
103. One who does not follow the usual rules of social
life
a) Bohemian b) Artisan
c) Partisan d) Physician
English Language and Comprehension 479 One Word Substi tuti on
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104. Placing a thing beside another
a) Impose b) Repose
c) Juxtapose d) Expose
105. Expert in the scientific study of birds.
a) Dermatologist b) Zoologist
c) Ornithologist d) Astronaut
106. To be biased against
a) Partial b) Objective
c) Prejudiced d) Predestined
107. Motion of head, hands etc, as a mode of
expression indicating attitude
a) Gesture b) Grin
c) Gestation d) Grimace
108. Bitter and violent attack in words
a) Diaspora b) Diacriticism
c) Diadem d) Diatribe
109. Treatment by means of exercise and massage
a) Chemotherapy b) Hydrotherapy
c) Physiotherapy d) Psychotherapy
110. The abandonment of one's country or cause
a) Defection b) Disloyalty
c) Desertion d) Migration
111. A place where birds are ketp
a) Aquarium b) Den
c) Aviary d) Sanctuary
112. A method which never fails
a) Unflinching b) Irreparable
c) Irremediable d) Infallible
113. Something which cannot be believed
a) Inevitable b) Ineffable
c) Incredible d) Ineluctable
114. Body of a human being or animal embalmed for
burial
a) Corpse b) Mummy
c) Morgue d) Mortuary
115. Of very bad morals, characterised by debasement
or degeneration
a) Desultory b) Dilapidated
c) Depraved d) Dilatory
116. Government by a ruler who has unlimited power
a) Despotism b) Autocracy
c) Monarchy d) Anarchy
117. An occasion of great importance
a) Exemplary b) Momentous
c) Herculean d) Grandiose
118. A person who is always hopeful and looks upon
the brighter side of things
a) Florist b) Artist
c) Theist d) Optimist
119. Place of burial
a) Cave b) Church
c) Synagogue d) Cemetery
120. To have a very high opinion of oneself
a) Exaggeration b) Adulation
c) Abundance d) Conceited
121. One who believes in giving equal opportunity to
women in all fields
a) Fanatic b) Misogynist
c) Philanderer d) Feminist
122. Inability to sleep
a) Hysteria b) Insomnia
c) Aphasia d) Amnesia
123. One who is given to pleasures of the flesh
a) Terrestrial b) Epicurean
c) Celestial d) Pedestrian
124. A tank where fish or water plants are kept
a) Aquarium b) Sanatorium
c) Nursery d) Aviary
125. A person who never takes alcoholic drinks
a) Teetotaller b) Alcoholic
c) Addict d) Bagpipes
126. That which lasts for a short time
a) Regular b) Transitory
c) Rotatory d) Repository
127. Ready to believe anything
a) Credible b) Incredible
c) Credulous d) Incredulous
128. A four footed animal
a) Tetraped b) Quadruped
c) Polyped d) Double-paired
129. A person who believes in the total abolition of
war
a) Socialist b) Communist
c) Fascist d) Pacifist
130. Constant efforts to achieve something
a) Patience b) Vigour
c) Attempt d) Perseverance
131. A government in which all religions are honoured
a) Communist b) Socialistic
c) Secular d) Capitalist
132. A place where government/public records are kept
a) Archive b) Museum
c) Shelf d) Cellar
133. Living together of a man and woman without being
married to each other
a) Marriage b) Equipage
c) Lineage d) Concubinage
134. Too much official formality
a) Bureaucracy b) Red-tapism
c) Nepotism d) Formalism
135. Dry weather with no rainfall
a) Draught b) Draft
c) Drought d) Desert
136. The worship of idols or images
a) Atheism b) Theism
c) Idolatry d) Iconoclasm
137. Something that is poisonous or unhealthy
a) Trivial b) Toxic
c) Torpid d) Tragic
138. A remedy for all diseases
a) Amnesia b) Panacea
c) Intelligentsia d) Parasol
139. A hater of mankind
a) Misanthrope b) Misogynist
c) Philanthropist d) Misogamist
140. Irresistible craving for alcoholic drinks
a) Megalomania b) Dipsomania
c) Kleptomania d) Pyromania
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141. A government by officials
a) Oligarchy b) Aristocracy
c) Plutocracy d) Bureaucracy
142. One who walks in sleep
a) Somniloquist b) Egoist
c) Somnambulist d) Altruist
143. Commencement of adjacent words with the same
letter
a) Pun b) Alliteration
c) Transferred epithet d) Oxymoron
144. A specialist who tests eyesight
a) Optician b) Ophthalmologist
c) Ichthyologist d) Neurologist
145. A wall built to prevent the sea or a river from
flooding an area
a) Dam b) Mound
c) Dyke d) Embankment
146. Belief that God is in everything and that
everything is God
a) Atheism b) Pantheism
c) Scepticism d) Animism
147. A picture of a person or a thing drawn in such a
highly exaggerated manner as to cause laughter
a) Cartoon b) Cacography
c) Cartography d) Caricature
148. The state of being miserable bereft of all
possessions
a) Dependant b) Complacent
c) Destitute d) Omnipresent
149. That which cannot be called back
a) Irresponsible b) Irrevocable
c) Irredeemable d) Incalculable
150. One who journeys from place to place
a) Quack b) Cannibal
c) Itinerant d) Courier
151. Study of insects is
a) Etymology b) Entomology
c) Ecology d) Embryology
152. Careful in the spending of money, time etc
a) Punctual b) Economical
c) Miserly d) Calculative
153. Reproducing or memorizing word for word
a) Verbatim b) Verbose
c) Verbiage d) Verbalism
154. That which cannot be captured
a) Untakable b) Ungrippable
c) Impregnable d) Slippery
155. One who breaks the law
a) Aggressor b) Politician
c) Transgressor d) Pedestrian
156. Study of the problems of legal punishment and
prison management
a) Penology b) Criminology
c) Neurology d) Ragamuffin
157. Paying the back injury with injury
a) Repression b) Reprisal
c) Subjugation d) Vendetta
158. The firing of a number of guns together as a
salute
a) Salvo b) Gunsalute
c) Reception d) Jingoism
159. Short remaining end of a cigarette
a) Filing b) Pinch
c) Filament d) Stub
160. A person who makes love without intentions
a) Romeo b) Goon
c) Consort d) Philanderer
161. One who abstains from alcoholic drinks
a) Teetotaller b) Drunkard
c) Idiot d) Philosopher
162. Information gathering activity
a) Logistics b) Reconnaissance
c) Subversion d) Camouflage
163. Hard to understand
a) Punctilious b) Obtuse
c) Absurd d) Abstruse
164. Subtle difference in colour, meaning, etc
a) Nuance b) Variant
c) Indifference d) Change-over
165. A place of refuge and safety
a) Sanatorium b) Asylum
c) Nursery d) Resort
166. Incapable of being corrected
a) Inconsolable b) Incredible
c) Brilliant d) Incorrigible
167. Skilful at handling things
a) Handicraft b) Clever
c) Dexterous d) Fastidious
168. A hater of women
a) Misogamist b) Misogynist
c) Philanderer d) Misanthrope
169. One who collects coins
a) Meteorologist b) Metallurgist
c) Alchemist d) Numismatist
170. That which is out of place
a) Anachronistic b) Obsolete
c) Incongruous d) Archaic
171. Equal in rank, merit or quality
a) Contemporary b) Colleague
c) Chum d) Peer
172. Science of heredity
a) Hereditary b) Genetics
c) Genesis d) Inheritance
173. Arrangement in order of occurrence
a) Timely b) Chronological
c) Chronic d) Temporal
174. Occurring at night
a) Nightly b) Dark
c) Neurotic d) Nocturnal
175. Determine the nature of the disease
a) Investigate b) Determine
c) Diagnose d) Detect
176. To feel or express disapproval of something or
someone
a) Declare b) Deprive
c) Depreciate d) Deprecate
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177. Handwriting that cannot be read
a) Ineligible b) Decipher
c) Ugly d) Illegible
178. Animals that can live on land and in water
a) Anthropoid b) Aquatic
c) Amphibian d) Aquarium
179. Easily duped or fooled
a) Insensible b) Perceptible
c) Gullible d) Indefensible
180. Fear of water
a) Claustrophobia b) Hydrophobia
c) Insomnia d) Obsession
181. Concluding part of a literary work
a) Epilogue b) Bibliography
c) Soliloquy d) Episode
182. One who is beyond reform
a) Optimistic b) Incorrigible
c) Indefatigable d) Notorious
183. Science of diseases
a) Philology b) Pathology
c) Psychology d) Virology
184. One who secretly listens to the talk of others
a) Spy b) Detective
c) Emissary d) Eavesdropper
185. One who believes in no government and
therefore incites disorder in a State
a) Monarchist b) Anarchist
c) Autocrat d) Naxalite
186. A mild or indirect expression substituted for an
offensive or harsh one
a) Euphemism b) Truism
c) Favouritism d) Altruism
187. The murder of parent or a near relative
a) Patricide b) Parricide
c) Matricide d) Homicide
188. Animals who live in herds
a) Sociable b) Gregarious
c) Carnivorous d) Social
189. A broad road bordered with trees
a) Boudoir b) Boulevard
c) Avenue d) Facade
190. Violation of something holy or sacred
a) Profanity b) Sedition
c) Sacrilege d) Slander
191. A sly look that is lustful
a) Leer b) Lore
c) Lark d) Littoral
192. A jocular person who is full of amusing anecdotes
a) Wiles b) Yokel
c) Wag d) Aeon
193. Deep in thought
a) Meditation b) Pensive
c) Pesky d) Purloin
194. Without risk of punishment
a) Impudent b) Impunity
c) Inexorable d) Imperturbable
195. Excessive preoccupation with ones health
a) Hypochondria b) Malaise
c) Disaffected d) Malinger
196. Ceremonial sounding of trumpets
a) Fanfare b) Symphony
c) Orchestra d) Band
197. One who is fond of superior foods and drinks
a) Fastidious b) Drunkard
c) Glutton d) Epicure
198. Something that is believable
a) Credible b) Credulous
c) Gullible d) Genuine
199. Swelling from abnormal growth in some part of
the body
a) Graft b) Ulcer
c) Hemorrhage d) Tumour
200. A person who lends money at a very high rate of
interest
a) Investor b) Usurper
c) Usurer d) Lender
201. Opinion contrary to accepted doctrine
a) Blasphemy b) Perjury
c) Iconoclasm d) Heresy
202. One who does not care for art or literature
a) Bureaucart b) Illiterate
c) Philanderer d) Philistine
203. A person or a thing which is unrivalled
a) Nonpareil b) Nincompoop
c) Niggardly d) Non sequitur
204. One who is beyond correction or reform
a) Insurmountable b) Inimitable
c) Incorrigible d) Invincible
205. A group of stars forming a pattern in the sky
a) Galaxy b) Constellation
c) Orbit d) Stellar
206. Work for which one does not take salary or
payment
a) Remunerated b) Charge-sheet
c) Complementary d) Honorary
207. No longer in use
a) Absolute b) Obsolete
c) Contemporary d) Remote
208. Careful and thorough enquiry
a) Investigation b) Interview
c) Examination d) Exploration
209. The violent storm made it difficult for them to
reach the shore
a) Weather b) Rains
c) Breeze d) Tempest
210. A person who dishonestly pretends to be
somebody else
a) Imperialist b) Impressionist
c) Implorer d) Impostor
211. A situation that stops an activity from
progressing
a) Bypass b) Breach
c) Bottleneck d) Blockhead
212. A body of persons appointed to hear evidence
and give their verdict in trials
a) Association b) Council
c) Bar d) Jury
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213. A movement of part of the body to express an
idea or feeling
a) Jibe b) Gesture
c) Pose d) Mimicry
214. Failing to discharge one's duty
a) Debacle b) Dereliction
c) Determination d) Deterrent
215. A person who is physically dependent on a
substance
a) Criminal b) Martyr
c) Gladiator d) Addict
216. A child born after the death of its father is called
a) An orphan b) A deprived child
c) A waif d) A posthumous child
217. A legal agreement by which a person borrows
money from a bank usually to buy a house
a) Document b) Mortgage
c) Lease d) Invoice
218. Able to use the left hand and right hand equally
well
a) Ambivert b) Ambidextrous
c) Ambivalent d) Ambitious
219. One who hates women
a) Philanthropist b) Ascetic
c) Misogamist d) Misogynist
220. A system of naming things
a) Horticulture b) Miniature
c) Genocide d) Nomenclature
221. A raised passageway in a building
a) Walkway b) Walkout
c) Walkabout d) Walkover
222. A cure for all diseases
a) Laxative b) Panacea
c) Antidote d) Purgative
223. A person who loves mankind
a) Misanthrope b) Anthropologist
c) Philanthropist d) Mercenary
224. To confirm with the help of evidence
a) Corroborate b) Implicate
c) Designate d) Extricate
225. The action of looking within or into one's own
mind
a) Observation b) Examination
c) Introspection d) Introvert
226. One who has narrow and prejudiced religious
views
a) Religious b) Fanatic
c) Bigot d) God-fearing
227. Capable of being interpreted in two ways
a) Confusing b) Unclear
c) Ambiguous d) Ambivert
228. To be dogmatic in one's opinions
a) Plaintive b) Opinionated
c) Undoubtable d) Secular
229. Intense and unreasoned fear or dislike
a) Horror b) Phobia
c) Fright d) Scare
230. Excessively enthusiastic unreasonably about
something
a) Spirited b) Interested
c) Fanatical d) Despotic
231. An agreement between two countries or groups
to stop fighting
a) Compromise b) Ceasefire
c) Outpost d) Protocol
232. Full of criticism and mockery
a) Discrimination b) Ridicule.
c) Satire d) Contempt
233. A remedy for all diseases
a) Narcotic b) Antiseptic
c) Tonic d) Panacea
234. The killing of whole group of people
a) Genocide b) Germicide
c) Patricide d) Suicide
235. The plants and vegetation of a region
a) Fauna b) Flora
c) Landscape d) Environment
236. That which is without opposition
a) Unaware b) Verdict
c) Unanimous d) Spontaneous
237. Strong dislike between two persons
a) Aversion b) Antipathy
c) Apathy d) Despair
238. Place where wine is made
a) Bakery b) Cloakroom
c) Tannery d) Brewery
239. A paper written by hand
a) Handicraft b) Handiwork
c) Manuscript d) Thesis
240. The art of preserving skin of animals, birds and
fish
a) Taxonomy b) Taxidermy
c) Topology d) Seismology
241. Related to moon
a) Solar b) Moony
c) Lunar d) Honeymoon
242. To run away with a lover
a) Deceive b) Cheat
c) Escape d) Elope
243. An underhand device resorted to in order to
justify misconduct
a) Subterfuge b) Manoeuvre
c) Stratagem d) Complicity
244. Impossible to describe
a) Miraculous b) Ineffable
c) Stupendous d) Appalling
245. One who criticizes popular beliefs which he
thinks are mistaken or unwise
a) Philistine b) Iconoclast
c) Impostor d) Cannibal
246. Detaining and confining someone
a) Interruption b) Interrogation
c) Interment d) Internment
247. Science of the races of mankind
a) Genealogy b) Epistemology
c) Ethnology d) Sociology
248. One who hides away on a ship to obtain a free
passage
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a) Compositor b) Stoker
c) Stowaway d) Shipwright
249. Clues available at a scene
a) Circumstantial b) Derivative
c) Inferential d) Suggestive
250. An unexpected piece of good fortune
a) Windfall b) Philanthropy
c) Benevolence d) Turnstile
251. An emolument over and above fixed income or
salary
a) Honorarium b) Sinecure
c) Perquisite d) Prerogative
252. The animals of a particular region
a) Flora b) Museum
c) Zoo d) Fauna
253. One who is unable to pay debts
a) Debtor b) Indebted
c) Borrower d) Insolvent
254. A roundabout way of speaking
a) Loose-tongued b) Loquacious
c) Circumlocution d) Talkative
255. An order requiring a person to attend a court
a) Courtship b) Agreement
c) Subpoena d) Command
256. An imaginary name assumed by an author for
disguise
a) Facsimile b) Surname
c) Alias d) Pseudonym
257. Murder of brother
a) Homicide b) Infanticide
c) Patricide d) Fratricide
258. An extreme fear of being in a small confined place
a) Hydrophobia b) Paraphernalia
c) Claustrophobia d) Progeria
259. An inscription on a tomb
a) Epitaph b) Crypt
c) Obituary d) Legacy
260. Allowance due to a wife from her husband on
separation
a) Patrimony b) Antimony
c) Parsimony d) Alimony
261. Practice of employing spies in war
a) Esplanade b) Espionage
c) Espadrille d) Estrangement
262. A fixed territory in which authority can be
exercised
a) Jurisdiction b) Judiciary
c) Jurisprudence d) Juristic
263. Instrument to measure atmospheric pressure
a) Metronome b) Compass
c) Pedometer d) Barometer
264. One who tends to take a hopeful view of life
a) Magnate b) Creator
c) Pacifist d) Optimist
265. Belonging to all parts of the world
a) Common b) Universal
c) Worldly d) International
266. To be known for bad acts
a) Famous b) Notorious
c) Criminal d) Terrorist
267. Words of similar meaning
a) Homonyms b) Pseudonyms
c) Antonyms d) Synonyms
268. An official call to appear in a court of law
a) Summon b) Notice
c) Memorandum d) Petition
269. To cut a part of a person's body
a) Amputate b) Mutilate
c) Ambuscade d) Mitigate
270. One who is filled with excessive and mistaken
enthusiasm about his religion
a) Fatalist b) Lunatic
c) Fanatic d) Stoic
271. A list of items to be transacted at a meeting
a) Menu b) Agenda
c) Minutes d) Records
272. List of issues to be discussed at a meeting
a) Schedule b) Agenda
c) Time-table d) Plan
273. One who cannot speak
a) Deaf b) Dumb
c) Visionless d) Lame
274. The highest point
a) Zenith b) Height
c) Zeal d) Ridge
275. A speech delivered without previous preparation
a) Soliloquy b) Extempore
c) Rhetoric d) Expression
276. One who pretends to be what he is not
a) Crocodile b) Flatterer
c) Hhypocrite d) Counterfeiter
277. Study of heavenly bodies
a) Astrology b) Astronomy
c) Atargazing d) Astrophysics
278. To give one's authority to another
a) Assign b) Delegate
c) Represent d) Designate
279. One who intervenes between two or more parties
to settle differences
a) Neutral b) Intermediary
c) Judge d) Connoisseur
280. The absence of law and order
a) Rebellion b) Mutiny
c) Revolt d) Anarchy
281. A voice that cannot be heard
a) Unheard b) Faint
c) Audible d) Inaudible
282. High sea waves caused by underwater earthquake
a) Tsunami b) Tornado
c) Hurricane d) Cyclone
283. A disease which is spread by direct contact
a) Contagious b) Infectious
c) Epidemic d) Endemic
284. The study of ancient civilizations
a) History b) Anthropology
c) Ethnology d) Archaeology
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285. An animal story with a moral
a) Fable b) Tale
c) Anecdote d) Parable
286. A thing likely to be easily broken
a) Vulnerable b) Flexible
c) Brittle d) Delicate
287. Body of singers
a) Coir b) Quorum
c) Quire d) Choir
288. To secretly store more than what is allowed
a) Hoard b) Store
c) Hide d) Aboard
289. Very dramatic
a) Histrionic b) Hippocratic
c) Hirsute d) Hoary
290. A figure of speech by which a thing is spoken of
as being that which it only resembles
a) Metaphor b) Simile
c) Personification d) Alliteration
291. The process by which a person or an organization
reduces the amount of money it spends
a) Budgeting b) Retrenchment
c) Saving d) Closure
292. An established principle of practical wisdom
a) Marxism b) Maxim
c) Neologism d) Platonism
293. A small room in a big house, hotel, ship etc
where glasses, dishes, spoons, food etc are kept
a) Portico b) Pantry
c) Mezzanine d) Kitchen
294. A foreigner who settles in a country
a) Immigrant b) Emigrant
c) Alien d) Visitor
295. Doing something according to one's own free will
a) Wilfully b) Obligingly
c) Voluntarily d) Compulsorily
296. Place that provides refuge
a) Shelter b) House
c) Country d) Asylum
297. A person who gambles or bets
a) Punter b) Backer
c) Customer d) Client
298. Art of writing for newspapers and magazines
a) Literature b) Journalism
c) Biography d) Artistry
299. An abandoned child of unknown parents who is
found by somebody
a) Foundling b) Sibling
c) Urchin d) Orphan
300. Parts of a country behind the coast or a river
bank
a) Swamps b) Marshes
c) Hinterland d) Isthmuses
301. A written statement about someone's character,
usually provided by an employer
a) Testimonial b) Memorandum
c) Certificate d) Licence
302. One who does not make mistakes
a) Pessimist b) Optimist
c) Infallible d) Hypocrite
303. Murder of a man
a) Regicide b) Fratricide
c) Homicide d) Genocide
304. Use of force or threats to get someone to agree
to something
a) Coercion b) Conviction
c) Confession d) Cajolement
305. Animal that feeds on plants
a) Carnivorous b) Herbivorous
c) Insectivorous d) Omnivorous
306. A number of stars grouped together
a) Orbit b) Constellation
c) Solar system d) Comet
307. Lasting only for a very short while
a) Transparent b) Temporal
c) Temporary d) Temperate
308. An involuntary action under a stimulus is
described as a
a) Complex b) Reflex
c) Reflection d) Response
309. A continuous process of change is known as
a) Transformation b) Metamorphosis
c) Flux d) Dynamism
310. The use of many words where only a few are
necessary
a) Circumlocution b) Circumspection
c) Circumscription d) Circumvention
311. Circular building or hall with a dome
a) Edifice b) Palace
c) Rotunda d) Spire
312. One who is a citizen not of a country but of the
world
a) Bohemian b) Cosmopolitan
c) Philanthropist d) Internationalist
313. Person who insists on adherence to formal rules
or literary meaning
a) Scholar b) Pedant
c) Pedagogue d) Literalist
314. Calmness and indifference to suffering
a) Stoicism b) Despair
c) Agony d) Materialism
315. The practice of having more than one husband
a) Polyandry b) Polygamy
c) Bigamy d) Debauchery
316. Seeing something which is not actually present
a) Imagination b) Presumption
c) Hallucination d) Supposition
317. With much liveliness and a sense of purpose
a) Lousily b) Jocularly
c) Zealously d) Jauntily
318. Code of diplomatic etiquette and precedence
a) Statesmanship b) Diplomacy
c) Hierarchy d) Protocol
319. To renounce a high position of authority or
control
a) Abduct b) Abandon
c) Abort d) Abdicate
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320. Not to be moved by entreaty
a) Rigorous b) Negligent
c) Inexorable d) Despotic
321. An object or portion serving as a sample
a) Specification b) Spectre
c) Spectacle d) Specimen
322. The practice of submitting a proposal to popular
vote
a) Election b) Reference
c) Popularity d) Referendum
323. An inscription on a tomb
a) Espionage b) Epilogue
c) Epitaph d) Elegy
324. Feeling inside you which tells you what is right
and what is wrong
a) Cleverness b) Conscience
c) Consciousness d) Fear
325. Release of a prisoner from jail on certain terms
and conditions
a) Parole b) Parley
c) Pardon d) Acquittal
326. Loss of memory
a) Ambrosia b) Amnesia
c) Insomnia d) Forgetting
327. To struggle helplessly
a) Flounder b) Founder
c) Fumble d) Finger
328. A person who writes decoratively
a) Calligrapher b) Collier
c) Choreographer d) Cartographer
329. Pertaining to cattle
a) Canine b) Feline
c) Bovine d) Verminous
330. To look at someone in an angry or threatening
way
a) Glower b) Gnaw
c) Gnash d) Grind
331. A post with little work but high salary
a) Director b) Trustee
c) Sinecure d) Ombudsman
332. Something that causes death
a) Dangerous b) Fatal
c) Brutal d) Horrible
333. A person who has no money to pay off his debts
a) Insolvent b) Poor
c) Destitute d) Pauper
334. Words uttered impiously about God
a) Amoral b) Philosophy
c) Logic d) Blasphemy
335. The study of insects
a) Anthropology b) Zoology
c) Etymology d) Entomology
336. One who compiles a dictionary
a) Geographer b) Lexicographer
c) Lapidist d) Linguist
337. A test in which cells from diseased organs are
removed and tested
a) Biopsy b) Autopsy
c) Operation d) Amputation
338. Speed of an object in one direction
a) Pace b) Tempo
c) Velodrome d) Velocity
339. The place where public, government or historical
records are kept
a) Coffer b) Pantry
c) Archives d) Scullery
340. Theft of another persons writings or ideas and
passing them off as ones own
a) Plagiarism b) Burglary
c) Piracy d) Pilferage
Answers and explanations
1. b; Linguist = a person who knows several
foreign languages well; a person
who studies languages
Polyglot = knowi ng, using or wri tten in
more than one l anguage;
multilingual
Phonetician = a person who studies speech
sounds and how they are
produced
2. a; Artisan = a person who does skilled work,
making things with their hands
Partisan = a person who strongly supports a
particular leader, group or idea
Bohemian = a person, often somebody who is
involved with the arts, who lives
i n very i nf ormal way wi thout
f oll owing accepted rul es of
behaviour
3. c; Impose = to force somebody/something to have
to deal wi th somethi ng that i s
difficult or unpleasant
Repose = to be or be kept in a particular place;
a state of rest, sleep or feeling calm
Juxtapose = to put people or things together,
especially in order to show a contrast
or a new relationship between them
4. d; Capsize = i f a boat capsizes or somethi ng
capsizes it, it turns over in the water
Enthral = if something enthrals you, it is so
interesting, beautiful, etc that you give
it all your attention
Volley = to hit or kick the ball before it reaches
the ground
Jettison = to throw something out of a moving
plane or ship to make it lighter
5. c; Pandemonium = a situation in which there is
a l ot of noi se, acti vity
and conf usi on especi all y
because peopl e are feel ing
angry
486 English Language and Comprehension One Word Substi tuti on
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Stir = to move or make somebody
move, i n order to do
something
6. b; Omniscient = knowing everything
Omnipotent = having total power; able to do
anything
Omnipresent = present everywhere
7. c; Physicist = a scientist who studies physics
Physician = a doctor, especially one who is a
specialist in general medicine and
not surgery
8. d; Saint = a person that the Christian Church
recognizes as being very holy, because
of the way they have lived or died
Giant = a very large strong person who is
often cruel and stupid
Plaintiff = a person who makes a f ormal
complaint against somebody in court
Recluse = a person who lives alone and likes
to avoid other people
9. b; Ceramics = the art of making and decorati ng
ceramic.
Ceramic = a pot or other object made of clay that
has been made permanenetly hard by
heat
10. b; Concurrent = existing or happening at the
same time
Contemporary = belonging to the same time
Concomitant = happening at the same time
as something else, especially
because one thing is related
to or causes the other
11. b; Reciprocate = to behave or feel towards
somebody in the same way as they
behave or feel towards you
12. d; Seer = a person who claims that they can see
what is going to happen in the future
13. a; Paediatrician = a doctor who studies and treats
the diseases of children
Pedagogue = a person who likes to teach
peopl e things, especi al l y
because they think they know
more than other people
Pedestrian = a person walking in the street
and not travelling in a vehicle
Pedophile = a person who is sexuall y
attracted to children
14. b; Entomologist = a person who studies insects
scientifically
Psephologist = a person who studies how
people vote in elections
Demagogue = a political leader who seeks
support by appeal i ng to
popul ar desires and
prej udices rather than
through rational arguments
Eugemist = a person who studies the
methods to i mprove the
mental and physical
characteristics of the human
race by choosi ng who may
become parents
15. b; Male-chauvinist = a man who believes men
are more i mportant,
i ntel li gent, etc than
women
Feminist = a person who supports the
belief that women should
have the same rights and
opportunities as men
Fatalist = a person who believes that
events are decided by fate
and that you cannot control
them
16. c; Homicide = the cri me of ki l l ing somebody
deliberately
Genocide = the murder of a whole race or group
of people
17. c; Gastronomy = the art and practice of cooking
and eating good food
Gourmet = a person who knows a lot about
good food and wines and who
enjoys choosi ng, eati ng and
drinking them
18. a; Stoic = a person who is able to suffer pain
or trouble without complaining or
showing what they are feeling
Cynic = a person who believes that people
only do things to help themselves,
rather than for good or sincere
reasons; a person who does not
believe that something good will
happen or that somethi ng i s
important
Indifferent = having or showing no interest in
somebody/something; not very good
19. b; Momentous = very i mportant or seri ous,
especially because there may be
important result
Momentary = lasting for a very short time
Trivial = not important or serious; not
wroth considering
Petty = small and unimportant
20. c; Detour = a longer route that you take in order to
avoid a problem or to visit a place
21. a
22. b; Voracious = eating or wanting large amount
of food; wanting a lot of new
information and knowledge
Avaricious = having extreme desire for wealth
Carnivore = an animal that eats meat
Omnivorous = eati ng al l types of f ood,
especially both plants and meat
23. b; Dominion = authority to rule; control; an area
controlled by one ruler
24. b; Cathedral = the main church of a district,
under the care of a Bishop (=a
priest of high rank)
Chapel = a small building or room used for
Christian worship in a school,
prison, large private house, etc
Synagogue = a building where Jews meet for
religious worship and teaching
Demagogue = a political leader who tries to win
support by using arguments based
on emotions rather than reason
25. c; Ascetic = not al lowi ng yoursel f physical
pleasure, especi al l y f or rel igi ous
reasons; related to a simple and strict
way of living
Esoteric = to be understood or enjoyed by only
a few people wi th a speci al
English Language and Comprehension 487 One Word Substi tuti on
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knowledge or interest
Stoic = a person who is able to suffer pain
or trouble without complaining or
showing what they are feeling
Sceptical = havi ng doubts that a cl ai m or
statement is true or that something
will happen
26. c; Theocracy = government of a country by
religious leaders; a country that is
governed by religious leaders
Theosophy = a religious system of thought that
tries to know God by means of
meditation, player, etc
Theology = the study of religion and beliefs; a
set of religious beliefs
Theism = belief in the existence of God or
gods
27. d; Dissect = to cut up a dead person, animal or
plant in order to study it
Biopsy = the removal and examination of tissue
from the body of somebody who is ill/
sick, in order to find out more about
their disease
Autopsy = an official examination of dead body
by a doctor in order to discover the
cause of death
28. d; Chaplain = a priest or other Christian minister
who is responsible for the religious
needs of people in a prison, hospital,
etc or in the armed forces
Mason = a person who builds using stone or
works with stone
Artisan = a person who does skill ed work,
making things with their hands
Novice = a person who is new and has little
experience in a skill, job or situation
29. d; Pedant = a person who is too concerned
wi th smal l detail s or rul es
especi al l y when l earni ng or
teaching
Supplicant = a person who asks for something
in a humble way, especially from
God or a powerful person
Mendicant = (especially of members of religious
groups) living by asking people for
money and food
Truant = a chi l d who stays away from
school without permission
30. d; Patricide = the crime of killing your father, a
person who is guilty of this crime.
Parricide = the crime of ki lli ng your f ather,
mother or a close relative; a person
who is guilty of this crime
Matricide = the crime of killing your mother; a
person who is guilty of this crime
Genocide = the murder of a whole race or group
of people; a person who is guilty of
this crime
31. c; Apostle = a person who strongly believes in
a policy or an idea and tries to
make other people believe in it
Proselytize = To try to persuade other people to
accept your beli ef s, especi all y
about religion and politics
Renegade = a person who leaves one political,
religious, etc group to join another
that has very different views; a
person who opposes and l i ves
outside a group or society that they
used to belong to
32. b; Intermediary = a person or an organisation that
helps other people or organisa-
tions to make an agreement by
being a means of communica-
tion between them; to go bet-
ween
Connoisseur = an expert on matters involving
the judgement of beauty, quality
or skill in art, food or music
33. c; Psychosis = a serious mental il l ness that
affects the whole personality
Neurosis = a mental i ll ness i n whi ch a
person suffers strong feelings of
fear and worry; any strong fear
or worry
Narcissism = the habit of admiring yourself too
much, especially your appearance
Paranoia = a mental i ll ness i n whi ch a
person may wrongly believe that
other people are trying to harm
them, that they are somebody very
important, etc; fear or suspicion
of other people when there is no
evidence or reason for this
34. d; Repent = to feel or show that you are sorry for
something bad or wrong that you
have done
Retrace = to go back along exactly the same
path or route that you have come
along; to make the same trip that
somebody else has made in the past
Recant = to say, often publicly, that you no
l onger have the same bel i ef or
opinion that you had before
Renounce = to state officially that you are no
longer going to keep title, position,
etc; to state publicly that you no
longer have a particular belief or that
you wi ll no l onger behave in a
particular way
35. a; Hutch = a cage, usually of wood and wire, mesh
for small animals.
Lair = den, wild animals resting place.
Den = a lair of predatory animals, lions den.
Cage = framework with wires or bars in which
small birds or animals may be kept.
36. a; Polyandry = the custom of having more than
one husband at the same time
Polygamy = the custom of having more than one
wife at the same time
Pol yphony = the combination of several different
patterns of musi cal notes sung
together to form a single piece of
music
Polyglot = knowing, using or written in more
than one language
37. c; Omnipotent = having total power; able to do
anything
Optimist = a person who always expects
good things to happen or things
to be successful
488 English Language and Comprehension One Word Substi tuti on
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38. c; Misanthrope = a person who hates and avoids
other people
Iconoclast = a person who criticizes popular
beliefs or established customs
and ideas
Masochism = the enjoyment of something that
most peopl e woul d fi nd
unpl easant or pai nful ; the
practi ce of getti ng sexual
pleasure from being physically
hurt
39. c; Sacred = very important and treated with great
respect
Sacrilege = an act of treating a holy thing or
place without respect
Pilfer = to steal things of little value or in
small quantities, especially from the
place where you work
Pittance = a very small amount of money that
somebody receives, for example as a
wage, and that is hardly enough to
live on
40. c; Convent = a building in which nuns (=members
of a female religious community) live
together
Abode = the place where somebody lives
41. b; Obstinate = refusing to change your opinions,
way of behaving etc, when other
people try to persuade you to
Theosophy = a religious system of thought that
tries to know God by means of
meditation, preyer, etc
Theologian = a person who studies theology
Theology = the study of religion and beliefs
Bigot = a person who has very strong,
unreasonable beliefs or opinions
about race, religion or politics and
who will not listen to or accept
the opini ons of anyone who
disagrees
42. a; Funeral = a ceremony, usually a religious one,
for burying or cremating (=burning)
a dead person
Knel l = an event that means that the end
or destruction of something will
come soon; knell
Ding-dong = used to represent the sound made
by a bell
Ding =used to represent the sound made
by a bell
43. a; Reveille = a tune that is played to awake soldiers
in the morning
Lullaby = a soft gentle song sung to make a child
go to sleep
Soprano = a singing voice with the highest range
for a woman or boy
44. c; Embryology = the scientif i c study of the
development of embryos
Entomology = the scientific study of insects
45. b; Sexagenarian = a person between 60 and 69
years old
Septuagenarian = a person between 70 and 79
years old
Centurion = (in ancient Rome) an army
officer who commanded 100
soldiers
Patriarch = the male head of a family or
community
46. d; Pessimism = a feel ing that bad thi ngs wi l l
happen and that something will
not be successful
Pacifism = the belief that war and violence
are always wrong
47. a; Bevy = a large group of people or things of the
same kind
Convoy = a group of vehicles or ships travelling
together especially when soldiers or
other vehicles travel wi th them for
protection
Coterie = a small group of people who have the
same interests and do things together
but do not like to include others
48. a; Fatal = causing or ending in death
Deadly = causing or likely to cause death
49. c; Prologue = a speech etc at the beginning of a
play, book or f i l m/movi e that
introduces it
Monologue = a long speech in a play, film/movie
etc spoken by one actor, especially
when alone
Epilogue = a speech, etc at the end of a play,
book or film/movie that comments
on or acts as a conclusion to what
has happened
50. d; Bibliographer = a person who studies history
of books and their production
Bi bliophi le = a person who loves or collects
books
51. c; Incendiary = designed to cause fire; causing
strong feelings or violence
Incantatory = adjective of the word incanta-
tion.
Incantation = a series of words said as a magic
spell or charm
Inflammable = that can burn easily
Incandescent = giving out light when heated
52.d; Dais = a stage, especially at one end of a room,
on which people stand to make
speeches to an audience
Forum = a pl ace where peopl e can exchange
opinions and ideas on a particular issue
53. a; Post-natal = connected with the period after
the birth of a child
Prelude = a short piece of music, especially
an introduction to a longer piece;
an action or event that happens
before another more important
one and forms an introduction to
it
54. d; Cowlet = there is no such word in dictionary
Colt = a young made horse up to the age of
four or five
Ewe = a female sheep
Heifer = a young female cow, especially one
that has not yet had a calf
55. b; Mournful = very sad
Ballad = a song or poem that tells a story; a
slow popular song about love
Dirge = a song in the past at a funeral or
for a dead person; any song or
piece of music that is too slow and
sad
English Language and Comprehension 489 One Word Substi tuti on
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Ode = a poem that speaks to a person or
thing or celebrates a special event
56. b; Bough = a large branch of a tree
Slough = to lose a layer of dead skin
Borough = a town or part of a city that has its
own local government
Peelings = the skin of fruit or vegetables that
has been removed
57. b; Ornithology = the scientific study of birds
Etymology = the study of the origi n and
hi story of words and thei r
meanings; the origin and history
of a particular word
Philology = the scientif i c study of the
development of language or of a
particular language
58. c; Sexton = a person whose job is to take
care of a church and its
surroundings, ring the church
bell etc
Sexologist = a person who studies the
human sexual behaviour
Sexagenarian = a person between 60 and 69
years old
Sextuplet = one of six children born at the
same time to the same mother
59. a; Apiary = a place where bees are kept
Ornithologist = a person who studies birds
Horticulture = the study or practi ce of
growi ng f l owers, f rui t and
vegetables
60. c; Apostrophise = to address what you are saying,
or a poem, a speech in a play,
etc to a particular person
Solemnise = to perform a rel i gious
ceremony, especi al ly a
marriage
Soliloquy = a speech in a play in which a
character, who is alone on the
stage, speaks hi s or her
thoughts
61. a; Veteran = a person who has a l ot of
experience in a particular area
or activity
Ambidextrous = able to use the left hand or the
right hand equally well
62. d; Tomb = a large grave, especially one built of
stone above or below the ground
Epithet = an adjective or phrase that is used to
describe somebody/somethi ng s
character or most important quality,
especially in order to give praise or
criticism
Epitaph = words that are written or said about
a dead person, especially words on a
gravestone
Epigraph = a line of writing, short phrase, etc
on a building or statue, or as an
introduction to part of a book
63. c; Devious = behavi ng i n a di shonest or
indirect way, or tricking people,
in order to get something
Nefarious = criminal; immoral
Surreptitious = done secretly or quickly, in the
hope that other people will not
notice
64. c; Desolate = very lonely and unhappy; empty and
without people, making you feel sad
or frightened
Obsolete = no longer used because something
new has been invented
65. b; Amoral = not following any moral rules and
not caring about right and wrong
Immortal = that lives or lasts for ever
66. b; Fascist = a person who supports fascism
(=an extreme right-wing political
system or atti tude whi ch i s in
f avours of strong central
government and which does not
allow any opposition)
Pacifist = a person who believes in pacifism
(=the belief that war and violence
are always wrong)
Narcissism = the habit of admiring yourself too
much, especially your appearance
Fatalism = the belief that events are decided
by fate and that you cannot control
them; the fact of accepting that
you cannot prevent something from
happeni ng
67. c; Speculative = based on guessi ng or on
opi ni ons that have been f ormed
without knowing all the facts
Scurrilous = very rude and i nsul ti ng, and
i ntended to damage somebody s
reputation
68. a; Invocation = the act of asking for help, from a
god or from a person in authority
Inundate = to cover an area of land with a
large amount of water
Revocation = the act of cancelling a law, etc
69. b; Agoraphobia = a fear of being in public places
where there are many other
people
Claustrophobia = an extreme fear of being in a
small confined place
Xenophobia = a strong feeling of dislike or
f ear of peopl e f rom other
countries
Paranoia = f ear or suspi cion of other
peopl e when there i s no
evidence or reason for this
70. c; Edict = an official order or statement given
by somebody in authority
Adamant = determined, not to change your mind
or to be persuaded about something
Addict = a person who is unable to stop taking
harmful drugs
Derelict = (especially of land or buildings) not
used or cared f or and i n bad
condition; a person without a home,
a job or property
71. a; Ancestry = the family or the race of people that
you come from
Lineage = the series of families that somebody
comes from originally
Dynasty = rule of the same family by succession
72. b; Severe = extremely bad or serious
Sever = to cut something into two pieces
Sewer = an underground pipe that is used to
carry sewage away from houses,
factories, etc
490 English Language and Comprehension One Word Substi tuti on
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Sow = to plant or spread seeds in or on the
ground
73. d; Tabloid = a newspaper with small pages
Plaque = a flat piece of stone, metal, etc usually
with a name and dates on, attached to
a wall in memory of a person or an
event
74. a; Pickpocket = a person who steals money, etc
f rom other peopl es pockets,
especially in crowded places
75. c; Prologue = a speech, etc at the beginning of
a play, book, or film/movie that
introduces it
Epilogue = a speech, etc at the end of a play,
book or film/movie that comments
on or acts as a conclusion to what
has happened
Monologue = a long speech in a play, film/movie
etc, spoken by one actor, especially
when alone
76. b; Amphibious = able to live both on land and in
water
Ambiguous = that can be understood in more
than one way; having different
meanings
Amorphous = having no definite shape, form
or structure
77. c; Solvent = having enough money to pay your
debts; not in debt
Insolvent = not having enough money to pay
what you owe
78. b; Obscure = not well known; unknown; difficult
to understand
Obsolete = no longer used because something
new has been invented; out of date
Pristine = f resh and cl ean, as i f new; not
developed or changed in any way
79. a; Immigrant = a person who has come to live
permanently in a country that is
not their own
Emigrant = a person who leaves their country
to live in another
Settler = a person who goes to live in a new
country or region
80. b; Feasible = that i s possible and likely to be
achieved
Tenable = easy to defend against attack or
criticism
Explicable = that can be explained or understood
81. d; Alien = from another country or society; foreign
82. c; Philanthropist = a rich person who helps the
poor and those in need,
especially by giving money
Misanthrope = a person who hates and
avoids other people
Misogynist = a man who hates women
83. c; Versatile = abl e to do many dif f erent
thi ngs
Cosmopolitan = containing people of different
types or f rom dif f erent
countries, and influenced by
their culture
84. c; Upholsterer = a person whose job is to upholster
furniture
Upholster = to cover a chair, etc with soft
material and cloth
Acrobat = an entertainer who perf orms
difficult acts such as balancing
on hi gh ropes, especi ally at a
circus
Aviator = a person who flies an aircraft
85. b; Etymology = the study of the origin and history
of words and their meanings
Verbose = using or containing more words
than are needed
Anthology = a collection of poems, stories, etc
that have been written by different
people and published together in
a book
86. d; Poacher = a person who illegally hunts birds,
animals or fish on somebodys elses
property
Bandit = a member of an armed group of thieves
who attack travellers
Burglar = a person who enters a bui l di ng
illegally in order to steal
Intruder = a person who enters a building or an
area illegally
87. a; Cartography = the art or process of drawing or
making maps
88. a; Ligament = a strong band of tissue in the body
that connects bones and supports
organs and keeps them i n
position
89. a; Prototype = the first design of something from
which other forms are copied or
developed
90. c; Auditorium = the part of a theatre, concert hall,
etc in which the audience sits; a
large building or room in which
public meetings, concerts, etc are
hel d
91. c; Numismatist = a person who collects or studies
coins or medals
Philatelist = a person who collects or studies
stamps
Connoisseur = an expert on matters involving
the judgement of beauty, quality
or skill in art, food or music
92. a; Oligarchy = a form of government in which
only a small group of people hold
all the power
Totalitarian = ( of a country or system of
government) in which there is
only one political party that has
complete power and control over
the people
Theocracy = government of a country by
religious leaders
93. b; Mores = the customs and behaviour that are
considered typical of a particular
social group or community
Rite = a ceremony performed by a particular
group of people, often for religious
purposes
Ritual = a series of actions that are always
perf ormed in the same way,
especial ly as part of a reli gi ous
ceremony
94. d; Verdict = a decision that is made by a jury in
court, stati ng i f somebody i s
English Language and Comprehension 491 One Word Substi tuti on
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considered guilty of a crime or not
Jury = a group of members of the public
who listen to the facts of a case in a
court and decide whether or not
somebody is guilty of a crime
95. c; Perseverance = the quality of continuing to try
to achieve a parti cul ar ai m
despite difficulties
Stoicism = the fact of not complaining or
showing what you are feeling
when you are suffering
Reticent = unwilling to tell people about
thi ngs
96. a; Mortuary = a room or building, for example
part of a hospital , in whi ch
dead bodies are kept before they
are buried or cremated
Monastery = a bui ldi ng i n whi ch monks
(=members of a male religious
community) live together
Sanatorium = a place like a hospital where
patients who have a lasti ng
illness or who are getting better
after an illness are treated
Crematorium = a building in which the bodies
of dead people are burned
97. a; Hedonist = one who l i ves f or pleasure-
seeking
Pessimist = a person who always expects
the worst to happen
Misanthrope = one who hates mankind
Philistine = a person who has no
understanding f or arts;
uncivilized person
98. c; Fatalist = a person who believes strongly
in fate
Fanatic = diehard believer and supporter
of some reli gi on, cause or
political ideology
Philologist = a person having in-depth study
of a language
99. d; Legacy = property that which is given to a
person by one's will
* Legacy may be acquired even
during the lifetime of the previous
owner.
Patrimony = property inheri ted f rom one' s
father or ancestors
100. b; Biography = writing of a person's life
Profile = very short biography of a person
101. c; Pandemonium = a situation in which there is
a l ot of noi se, acti vity and
conf usi on, especi al l y because
peopl e are f eel ing angry or
frightened
102. a; Maiden speech = the first speech made by an
MP in the parliaments of some
countries
103. a; Bohemian = a person, often somebody who is
involved with the arts, who lives
in a very informal way without
f oll owing accepted rul es of
behaviour
Artisan = a person who does skilled work,
making things with their hands
Partisan = showing too much support for one
person, group or idea, especially
without considering it carefully
104. c; Repose = to be or be kept in a particular
place
Juxtapose = to put people or things together,
especial l y i n order to show a
contrast or a new relationship
between them
105. c; Dermatologist = specialist of skin diseases
106. c; Prejudiced = having an unreasonable dislike of
or preference f or somebody/
something, especially based on
their race, religion, sex, etc
Predestined = already decided or planned by God
or by fate
107. a; Gesture = a movement that you make with
your hands, your head or your face
to show a particular meaning
Grin = a wide smile
Gestation = the process by which an idea or a
plan develops
Grimace = an ugl y expressi on made by
twisting your face, used to show
pai n, di sgust etc or to make
somebody laugh
108. d; Diaspora = the movement of people from any
nation or group away from their
own country
Diacritic = a mark such as an accent, placed
over, under or through a letter in
some languages, to show that the
letter should be pronounced in a
different way from the same letter
without a mark
Diadem = a crown, worn especially as a sign
of royal power
Diatribe = a long and angry speech or piece
of writing attacking and critici-
zing somebody/something
109. c
110. c; Abandonment = the act of leaving a person,
thing or place wi th no
intention of returning
Defect = to l eave a pol i ti cal party,
country etc to join another
that is considered to be an
enemy
Desert = to go away from a place and
leave it empty
111. c; Aviary = a large cage or building for keeping
birds in, for example in a zoo
Den = the hidden home of some types of wild
animal
112. d; Unflinching = remai ni ng strong and
determined, even in a difficult
or dangerous situation
Infallible = never wrong; never maki ng
mistakes
113. c; Inevitable = that you cannot avoid or prevent
Ineffable = too great or beautiful to describe
in words
Ineluctable = that you cannot avoi d;
unavoidable
114. b; Embalm = to prevent a dead body from
decaying by treating it with special
substances to preserve it
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Corpse = a dead body, especially of a human
Morgue = a place where dead bodies that have
been found are kept until they can
be identified
Mortuary = a room or building, for example part
of a hospital in which dead bodies
are kept before they are buried or
cremated
115. c; Debase = to make somebody/somethi ng
less valuable or repect; to devalue
Desultory = going from one thing to another,
wi thout a def i nite pl an and
without enthusiasm
Dilapidated = (of furniture an buildings) old and
in very bad condition
Depraved = morally bad; wicked; evil
Dilatory = not acti ng qui ckl y enough;
causing delay
116. a; Despotism = the rule of a despot (= a ruler with
great power, especially one who
used it in a cruel way)
Autocracy = a system of government of a
country in which one person has
complete power
Monarchy = a system of government by a king
or a queen
Anarchy = a si tuati on i n a country, an
organisation etc in which there
i s no government, order or
control.
117. b; Exemplary = providing a good example f or
people to copy
Momentous = very i mportant or seri ous,
especially because there may be
important results
Herculean = needi ng a l ot of strength
determination or effort
Grandiose = seeming very impressive but too
large, complicated expensive, etc
to be practical or possible
118. d; Florist = a person who owns or works in a
shop/store that sel ls flowers and
plants
Theist = a person who bel i eves i n the
existence of God or gods
119. d; Synagogue = a building where Jews meet for
religious worship and teaching
Cemetery = an area of land used for burying
dead people, especially one that
is not beside a church
120. d; Adulation = admiration and praise, especially
when this is greater than is nec-
essary
Conceited = having too much pride in yourself
and what you do
121. d; Fanatic = a person who is extremely en-
thusiastic about something
Misogynist = a man who hates women
Philanderer = a man who has sexual
relati onships with many
different women
Feminist = a person who supports the
beliefs that women should have
the same rights and opportuni-
ties as men
122. b; Hysteria = a state of extreme excitement fear
or anger in which a person, or a
group of people, loses control of
their emotions and starts to cry,
laugh, etc
Insomnia = the condition of being unable to
sl eep
Aphasia = the loss of the ability to understand
or produce speech, because of brain
damage
Amnesia = a medical condi ti on i n which
somebody partly or completely loses
their memory
123. b; Terrestrial = connected with the planet earth
Epicurean = devoted to pleasure and enjoying
yourself
Celestial = of the sky or of heaven
Pedestrian = a person walking in the street
and not travelling in a vehicle
124. a; Aquarium = a large glass container in which
fish and other water creatures
and plants are kept
Sanatorium = a place like a hospital where
pati ents who have a lasting
illness or who are getting better
after an illness are treated
Aviary = a large cage or bui ldi ng or
keeping birds in, for example
in a zoo
125. a; Teetotaller = a person who does not drink
alcohol
Bagpipes = a musical instrument played
especially in Scotland
126. b; Transitory = continuing for only a short time
Repository = a pl ace where somethi ng i s
stored in large quantities
127. c; Credulous = too ready to believe things and
therefore easy to trick
128. b; Quadruped = any creature with four feet
Pol yp = a smal l and very si mpl e sea
creature with a body shaped like
a tube
129. d
130. d; Vigour = energy, force or enthusiasm
Perseverance = the quality of continuing to try
to achieve a particular aim
despite difficulties
131. c
132. a; Cellar = an underground room often used for
storing things
133. d; Lineage = the seri es of f ami l ies that
somebody comes from originally
Concubine = a woman who lives with a man,
often in addition to his wife or
wives, but who is less important
than they are
134. b; Nepotism = giving unfair advantages to your
own family if you are in a position
of power, especi al ly by gi vi ng
them jobs
135. c; Draught = a flow of cool air in a room or other
confined space
136. c; Atheism = the belief that God does not exist
Theism = the belief that God exists
Idolatry = the practice of worshipping stat-
ues as Gods
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Iconoclasm = destruction of religious statues
or objects
137. b; Trivial = of very little importance; not worth
considering
Toxic = containing poison
Torpid = with no energy or enthusiasm; not
active
Tragic = making you feel very sad
138. b; Amnesia = a medical condition in which
someone completely or partly
loses ones memory.
Panacea = something that will solve all
the problems of a particular
situation; something that can
cure any disease
Intelligentsia = the people in a country or
society who are well educated
and are interested in culture,
politics or literature
Parasol = a type of light umbrella that
women in the past carried to
protect themselves from the
sun; presently the same thing
is being used in its big form
on the beaches or outside
cafes to protect people from
hot sun
139. a; Misanthrope = a person who hates and
avoids other people
Misogynist = a man who hates women
Philanthropist = a rich person who helps the
poor and those in need,
especially by giving money
Misogamist = one who hates marriages
140. b; Megalomania = a mental illness or condition
in which somebody has an
exaggerated belief in his own
importance or power
Dipsomania = dipso + mania
alcohol craving to the extent
of madness; a person who has
a strong desire for alcoholic
drink that he cannot control
Kleptomania = a mental il l ness in whi ch
somebody has a strong desire
to steal things
Pyromania = a mental illness that causes
a strong desire to set fire to
thi ngs
141. d; Oligarchy = a form of government in which
only a small group of people hold
all the power
Aristocracy = people born in the highest social
class, who have special titles
Plutocracy = government by the reachest
people of a country
142. c; Egoist = a person who thinks that he
or she is better than other
people and who thinks and
talks too much about himself
or herself
Somnambulist = sleepwalker
Altruist = a person who cares about the
needs and happiness of other
people more than your own
143. b; Pun = the clever or humorous use of a
word that has more than one
meaning, or of words that have
different meanings but sound
the same
Alliteration = the use of the same letter or
sound at the beginning of words
that are close together, as in
sing a song of sixpence
Epithet = an adjective or phrase that is
used to descri be somebody/
somethings character or most
important quality, especially in
order to give praise or criticism
Oxymoron = a phrase that combi nes two
words that seem to be opposite
of each other, for example, a
deafening silence.
144. b; Optician = a person whose job is to
examine peoples eyes and
to recommend and sel l
glasses
Ophthalmologist = a doctor who studies and
treats the disease of the
eye
145. d; Dyke = a long thick wall that is built
to stop water flooding on to a
low area of land, especially
from the sea
Mound = a large pile of earth or stones;
a small hill
Embankment = a wall of stone or earth made
to keep water back or carry a
road or rai l way over low
ground
146. b; Atheism = the belief that the god does not
exi st
Pantheism = the belief that God is present in
all natural things; belief in many
or all gods.
Scepticism = an attitude of doubting that claims
or statements are true or that
something will happen
Animism = the belief that plants, objects and
natural things such as weather
have a living soul
147. a; Cacography = a mixture of loud unpleasant
sounds
Cartography = the art or process of drawing
or making maps
Caricature = a funny drawing or picture of
somebody that exaggerates some
of their features
148. c; Bereft of
something = completely lacking something;
having lost something
Complacent = too satisfied with yourself or
with a situation, so that you
do not feel that any change is
necessary
Dependant = a person, especial ly a chi ld
who depends on another per-
son for a home, food, money
etc
Destitute = without money, food and other
things necessary for life
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Omnipresent = present everywhere
149. c; Irrevocable = that cannot be changed; final
150. c; Quack = a person who dishonestly claims
to have medi cal knowl edge or
ski ll s
Cannibal = a person who eats human flesh
Itinerant = travel li ng f rom place to pl ace,
especially to find work
151. b; Etymology = the study of the origi n and
hi story of words and thei r
meanings
Entomology = the scientific study of insects
152. b; Mi serly = a person who is always unhappy and
complaining
153. a; Verbatim = exactly as spoken or written
Verbose = using or containing more words
that are needed
Verbiage = the use of too many words, or of
more di f f icul t words than are
needed, to express an idea
154. b; Impregnable = strong and impossible to defeat
or change; invincible
155. c; Transgress = to go beyond the limit of what is
morally or legally acceptale
156. a; Penology = the scientif i c study of the
punishment of criminals and the
operation of prisons
Ragamuffin = a person usually a child, who is
wearing old clothes that are torn
and dirty
157. b; Repression = the act of using force to control a
group of people and restrict their
freedom
Reprisal = a vi ol ent or aggressi ve act
towards somebody because of
something bad that they have
done towards you
Subjugate = to defeat somebody/something;
to gain control over somebody/
something
Vendetta = a long and violent disagreement
between two families or groups,
in which people are murdered
in return for previous murders
158. a; Salvo = the act of firing several guns or
dropping several bombs etc at the
same time
Jingoism = a strong bel i ef that your own
country is best, especially when
this is expressed in support of war
with another country
159. d; Fil l ing = the act of putting documents, letters,
etc into a file
Pinch = the amount of something that you can
hold between your finger and thumb
Stub = a short piece of a cigarette, pencil,
etc that is left when the rest of it
has been used
160. d; Goon = a cri mi nal who i s pai d to
frighten or injure people
Consort = the husband or wife of a ruler
Philanderer = a man who has sexual
relati onships with many
different woman
To make love
(somebody) = to have sex
161. a; Abstain = to stay away from something
Teetotaller = a person who does not dri nk
alcohol
Drunkard = a person who gets drunk very
often
162. b; Logistics = the practical organi-sation
that is needed to make a
complicated plan success-
ful when a lot of people and
equipment is involved.
Reconnaissance = the activity of getting in-
formation about an area for
military purposes, using
soldiers, planes etc.
Subversive = trying or likely to destroy
or damage a government or
political system by attract-
ing it secretly or indirectly.
Camouflage = a way of hiding soldi ers
and mili tary equipment,
using point, leaves or nets,
so that they look like part
of their surroundings.
163. d; Punctilious = very careful to behave correctly
or to perform your duties exactly
as you should.
Obtuse = slow or unwi l li ng to
understand something.
Absurd = completely ridiculous
Abstruse = difficult to understand
164. a; Subtle = not very noticeable or obvious.
Nuance = a very sl i ght dif f erence i n
meani ng, sound, col our or
somebodys feelings that is not
usually very obvious
Indifference = a lack of interest, feeling or
reacti on towards somebody/
something
Change-over = a change from one system, or
method of working to another
165. b; Sanatorium = pl ace li ke a hospi tal where
patients who have a lasti ng
illness or who are getting better
an illness are treated
Asylum = protection that a government
gives to people who have left
thei r own country, usual l y
because they were in danger
for political reasons
Refuge = shel ter or protection from
danger, trouble etc
166. d; Inconsolable = very sad and unable to accept
help or comfort.
Incredible = impossible or very difficult to
believe.
Incorrigible = havi ng bad habi ts whi ch
cannot be changed or
improved.
167. c; Dexterous = skilful with your hands; skilfully
done.
Fastidious = being careful that every detail of
something is correct
168. b
169. d; Alchemist = a person who studied alchemy
(= a mysterious power or magic
that can change things)
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Numismatist = the study of coins and medals.
170. c; Anachronism = a person, a custom or an idea
that seems old-fashioned and
does not belong to the present.
Incongruous = strange, and not suitable in a
particular situation.
Archaic = old and no longer used; very
old-fashioned.
171. d; Chum = a friend
Peer = a person who is the same age or who
has the same social status as you.
172. b
173. b; Chronic = lasting for a long time; having had
a disease for a long time
Temporal = connected with or limited by time
174. d; Neurotic = not behaving in a reasonable, calm
way, because you are worried
about something
Nocturnal = active at night
175. c
176. d; Deprecate = to f eel and express strong
disapproval of something
177. d; Decipher = to succeed in finding the meaning
of something that is difficult to
read or understand.
Illegible = difficult or impossible to read.
178. c; Anthropoid = looking like a human.
Aquatic = growing or living in, on or near
water.
Aquarium = a large glass container in which
fish and other water creatures
and plants are kept
179. c; Dupe = to trick or cheat somebody
Gull ible = too willing to believe or accept what
other people tell you and therefore
easily tricked.
180. b; Claustrophobia = an extreme fear of being in
a small confined place
Hydrophobia = extreme f ear of water,
which happens with rabbies
infection in humans.
Insomnia = the condi tion of bei ng
unable to sleep.
Obsession = the state i n whi ch a
persons mind is completely
filled with thoughts of one
particular thing or person
in a way that is not normal.
181. a; Epilogue = a speech, etc at the end of a
play, book or film/movie that
comments on or act as a
concl usi on to what has
happened.
Bibliography = a list of books or articles about
a particular subject or by a
particular author.
Soliloquy = a speech in a play in which a
character, who is alone on the
stage, speaks hi s or her
thoughts; monologue.
182. b; Optimistic = expecti ng good things to
happen or something to be
successful.
Incorrigible = havi ng bad habi ts whi ch
cannot be changed or
improved.
Indefatigable = never giving up or getting tired
of doing something.
Notorious = well known for being bad.
183. b; Philology = the scientif i c study of the
development of language or of a
particular language.
Virology = the scientific study of viruses and
the diseases caused by them.
184. d; Emissary = a person who i s sent to
deliver an official message,
especially from one country
to another, or to perform a
special task.
Eavesdropper = a person who listens secretly
to what other peopl e are
saying.
185. b; Incite = to encourage somebody to do
somethi ng vi olent, i ll egal or
unpl easant especi al l y by
making them angry or excited.
Monarchist = a person who beli eves that a
country should be ruled by a king
or queen.
Anarchist = a person who believes that laws
and governments are not
necessary.
Autocrat = a ruler who has complete power.
186. a; Euphemism = an indirect word or phrase that
people often use to refer to
somethi ng embarrassi ng or
unpleasant, sometimes to make
it seem more acceptable than it
really is
Truism = a statement that is clearly true
and does not therefore add
anythi ng i nteresti ng or
important to a discussion.
Altruism = the fact of caring about the needs
and happiness of other people
more than your own.
187. a; Patricide = the crime of killing your father; a
person who is guilty of this.
Parricide = the crime of killing your father,
mother or a close relative; a person
who is guilty of this crime.
Matricide = the crime of killing your mother; a
person who is guilty of this crime.
Homicide = the cri me of ki l l ing somebody
deliberately.
188. b; Gregarious = (of animals) living in groups.
189. b; Boudoir = a womans small private room or
bedroom
Boulevard = a wide city street, often with trees
on either side.
Facade = the front of a building.
190. c; Profanity = behaviour that shows a lack of
respect for god or holy things.
Sedition = the use of words or actions that
are intended to encourage people
to oppose a government.
Sacrilege = an act of treating a holy thing or
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place without respect.
Slander = a false spoken statement intended
to damage the good opinion people
have of somebody; the legal offence
of making this kind of statement.
191. a; Sly = suggesting that you know something
secret that other people do not know.
Lustf ul = f eel i ng of showi ng strong sexual
desire.
Leer = an unpl easant l ook or smi le that
shows somebody is interested in a
person in an evil or sexual way.
Lore = knowledge and information related to
a particular subject, especially when
this is not written down.
Lark = a thing that you do for fun or as a
joke.
Littoral = the part of a country that is near the
coast.
192. c; Jocular = humorous; enjoying making people
laugh.
Anecdote = a short, interesting or amusing
story about a real person or event.
Wi l es = clever tricks that somebody uses in
order to get what they want or to
make somebody behave in a
particular way.
Yokel = if you call a person yokel, you are
saying that they do not have much
educati on or understandi ng of
modern l ife, because they come
from the countryside.
Wag = a person who enjoys making jokes.
Aeon = extremel y long period of time,
thousands of years.
193. b; Pensive = thinking deeply about something
especially because you are sad or
worried.
Pesky = annoying
Purloin = steal something or use it without
permission.
194. b; Impudent = rude; not showing respect for
other people.
Impunity = if a person does something bad
with impunity, they do not get
punished for what they have
done.
Inexorable = that cannot be stopped or
changed; relentless
Imperturbable = not easily upset or worried by
a difficult situation; calm.
195. a; Hypochondria = a state in which somebody
worri es al l the ti me about
their health and believes that
they are ill/sick when there
is nothing wrong with them.
Malaise = a general feeling of being ill/
sick, unhappy or not satisfied,
without signs of any particular
problem.
Disaffected = no longer satisfied with your
situation, organi-sation, belief
etc and therefore not loyal to it.
Malinger = to pretend to be il l /si ck
especi al l y i n order to avoi d
work.
196. a; Trumpet = a brass musical instrument made
of a curved metal tube that you
blow into, with three valves for
changing the note.
Fanfare = a short loud piece of music that is
played to cel ebrate somebody/
something important arriving.
Symphony = a long complicated piece of music
for a large orchestra, in three or
four main parts.
197. d; Fastidious = being careful that every detail of
something is correct.
Drunkard = a person who gets drunk very
often.
Glutton = a person who enjoys doing difficult
or unpleasant tasks.
Epicure = who enjoys food and drink of high
quality and knows a lot about it.
198. a; Credulous = too ready to believe things and
therefore easy to trick.
Gull ible = too wi lling to bel ieve or accept
what other people tell you and
therefore easily tricked.
199. d; Graft = a piece of skin, bone, etc removed from
a living body and placed in another
part of the body which has been
damaged.
200. c; Usurper = a person who takes somebody s
posi tion and/or power wi thout
having the right to do this.
Usurer = a person who lends money to people
at unfairly high rates of interest.
201. d; Blasphemy = behavi our or l anguage that
i nsul ts or shows a l ack of
respect for God or religions.
Perjury = the crime of telling a lie in court.
Iconoclasm = criti cizi ng popul ar beli ef s or
established customs and ideas.
Heresy = a belief or an opinion that is
agai nst the pri ncipl es of
particular religion.
202. d; Philanderer = a man who has sexual
relati onships with many
different women.
Philistine = a person who does not like or
understand art, literature, music
etc.
203. a; Nonpareil = a person or thi ng that i s
better than others in a
particular area.
Nincompoop = a stupid person.
Niggardly = unwilling to be generous with
money, time, etc.
Non sequitur = a statement that does not seem
to follow what has just been said
in any natural or logical way.
204. c; Insurmountable = that cannot be dealt with
successfully.
Inimitable = too good or individual for
anyone else to copy with
the same effect.
Incorrigible = having bad habits which
cannot be changed or
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improved.
Invincible = too strong to be defeated or
challenged.
205. b; Stellar = connected with the stars.
206. d; Remunerate = to pay somebody for work that
they have done.
207. b; Obsolete = no longer used because something
new has been invented.
208. a; Exploration = an examination of some-thing
in order to find out about it.
209. d
210. d; Implore = to ask somebody to do
something i n the anxious
way because you want or
need it very much
Impressionist = a person who entertai ns
people by copying the way a
f amous person speaks or
behaves.
211. c; Breach = a break i n a rel ati onshi p
between people or countries; a
failure to do something that must
be done by law.
Bottleneck = anything that delays development
or progress, particul arl y i n
business or industry.
Blockhead = a very stupid person.
212. d
213. b; Jibe = an unkind or insulting remark about
somebody.
Gesture = a movement that you make with your
hands, your head or your face to show
a particular meaning.
214. b; Debacle = an event or a situation that is
a complete failure and causes
embarrassment.
Dereliction = the fact of deliberately not doing
what you should do, especially
when it is part of your job.
Deterrent = a thing that makes somebody
less likely to do something.
215. d; Martyr = a person who suffers very much
or i s ki l led because of thei r
religious or political beliefs.
Gladiator = a man trained to fight other men
or animals in order to entertain the
public.
216. d; Wai f = a small thin person, usually a
child, who looks as if they do
not have enough to eat.
Posthumous = happening, done, published,
etc after a person has died.
217. b; Invoice = a list of goods that have been sold,
work what has been done etc
showing what you must pay.
218. b; Ambivalent = showi ng or having both
good and bad feelings about
somebody/some-thing.
Ambidextrous = able to use the left hand or
the right hand equally well
219. d; Philanthropist = a rich person who helps
the poor and those in need,
especially by giving money.
Ascetic = not all owing yoursel f
physi cal pl easures,
especial l y f or reli gi ous
reasons; related to a simple
and strict way or living.
Misogynist = a man who hates women
220. d; Horticulture = the study or practi ce of
growing flowers, fruit and
vegetables.
Miniature = very small; much smaller than
usual.
Genocide = the murder of a whole race
or group of people.
Nomenclature = a system of naming things,
especial l y i n a branch of
science.
221. a; Walkway = a passage or path for walking
along, often outside and raised
above the ground.
Walkout = the act of suddenly leaving a
meeti ng as a protest agai nst
something.
Walkabout = an occasion when an important
person walks among ordinary
people to meet and talk to them.
Walkover = an easy vi ctory in a game or
competition.
222. d; Laxative = a medicine, food or drink that
makes somebody empty thei r
bowels easily.
Panacea = something that will solve all the
problems of a particular situation.
Antidote = a substance that controls the effects
of a poison or disease.
Purgative = a substance, especially a medicine,
that causes your bowels to empty.
223. c; Mercenary = a soldier who will fight for any
country or group that of f ers
payment.
224. a; Corroborate = to provi de evi dence or
information that supports a
statement, theory etc.
Implicate = to show or suggest that
somethi ng i s the cause of
something bad.
Designate = to choose or name somebody for
to a particular job or position.
Extricate = to escape or enable somebody to
escape from a difficult situation.
225. c; Introspection = the careful examination of
your own thoughts, feelings
and reasons for behaving in
a particular way.
Introvert = a quiet person who is more
i nterested i n thei r own
thoughts and feelings than
in spending time with other
people.
226. c; Prejudiced = having an unreasonable dislike
of or preference for somebody/
something, especially based on
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their race, religion, sex etc.
Bigot = a person who has very strong,
unreasonable beliefs or opinions
about race, religion or politics and
who will not listen to or accept
the opini ons of anyone who
disagrees.
Fanatic = a person who holds extreme or
dangerous opinions.
227. d; Ambiguous = not clearly stated or defined; that
can be understand in more than
one way; having different mean-
ings.
228. b; Dogmatic = being certain that your beliefs
are right and that others
should accept them, without
paying attention to evidence
or other opinions.
Plaintive = sounding sad, especially in a
weak complaining way.
Opinionated = having very strong opinions that
you are not willing to change.
229. b
230. c; Despot = a ruler with great power, especially
one who uses it in a cruel way.
231. b; Outpost = a small town or group of buildings
in a lonely part of country.
Protocol = the first or original version of an
agreement, especi all y a treaty
between countries
232. c 233. d
234. a; Germicide = a substance which destroys
bacteria etc.
235. b; Fauna = all the animals living in an area or
in a particular period of history.
Flora = the plants of a particular area, type of
environment or period of time.
236. c; Unanimous = if a decision or an opinion is
unanimous, it is agreed or
shared by everyone in a group.
Spontaneous = happening naturally, without
being made to happen.
237. b; Aversion = a strong f eel ing of not l iking
somebody/something
Antipathy = a strong feeling of dislike.
Apathy = the feelings of not being interested
in or enthusiastic about anything.
Despair = the feeling of having lost all hope.
238. d; Cloakroom = a room in a public building
where people can leave coats,
bags, etc for a time.
Tannery = a place where animal skins are
tanned and made into leather.
Brewery = a factory where beer is made; a
company that makes beer.
239. c; Handiwork = a work that you do, or
something that you have made,
especially using your artistic
ski l l ; a thi ng done by a
parti cul ar person or group,
especially something bad.
240. b; Taxonomy = the sci enti f i c process of
classifying things (= arranging
them into group)
Taxidermy = the art of stuffing dead animals,
birds and fish with a special
material so that they look like
l i vi ng ones and can be
displayed.
241. c
242. d; Elope = to run away with somebody in
order to marry them secretly
243. b; To resort to = to make use of something,
especially something bad, as
a means of achi eving
somethi ng, of ten because
there is no other possi bl e
solution.
Subterfuge = a secret, usually dishonest,
way of behaving.
Manoeuvre = a movement performed with
care and skill.
Stratagem = a trick or plan that you use to
gain an advantage or to trick
an opponent.
Complicity = the act of taking part with
another person in a crime
244. b; Miraculous = l i ke a mi racl e; compl etel y
unexpected and very lucky.
Ineffable = too great or beautiful to describe
in words.
Stupendous = extremely large or impressive,
especially greater or better than
you expect.
Appalli ng = shocking; extremely bad
245. b; Philistine = a person who does not like or
understand art, l i terature,
music, etc,
Iconoclast = a person who criticizes popular
beliefs or established customs
and ideas
Imposter = a person who pretends to be
somebody else in order to trick
people.
Cannibal = a person who eats human flesh.
246. d; Internment = a student or new graduate who
is getting practical experience
in a job, for example during
the summer holiday/vacation.
Interment = the act of burying a dead person.
247. c; Genealogy = the study of family history,
including the study of who
the ancestors of a particular
person were
Epistemology = the part of philosophy that
deals with knowledge.
Ethnology = the sci enti f i c study and
comparison of human races.
248. c; Compositor = a person who arranges text on
a page before printing.
Stoker = a person whose job is to add coal
or other fuel to a f i re, etc,
especi al ly on a shi p or stream
train.
Stowaway = a person who hides in a ship or
plane before it leaves, in order to
travel without paying or being
English Language and Comprehension 499 One Word Substi tuti on
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seen.
249. a
250. a Windf al l = an amount of money that
somebody/something wins or
receives unexpectedly.
Philanthropy = the practice of helping the poor
and those in need, especially
by giving money.
Benevolent = kind, helpful and generous.
Turnstile = a gate at the entrance to a
public building, stadium etc
that turns in a circle when
pushed, allowing one person
to go through at a time.
251. c; Emolument = money pai d to somebody for
work they have done especially
to somebody who earns a lot of
money.
Honorarium = a payment made for somebodys
professional services.
Sinecure = a job that you are paid for even
through it involves little or no
work.
Perquisite = something to which somebody
has a special right because of
their social position.
Prerogative = a right or advantage belonging
to a particular person or group
because of their importance or
social position.
252. d
253. d; Insolvent = not having enough money to pay
what you owe; bankrupt
254. c; Roundabout = not done or said using the
shortest, simplest or most
direct way possible.
Loquacious = talking a lot
Circumlocution = using more words that are
necessary instead of speak-
ing or writing in a clear,
direct way.
255. c; Courtship = the time when two people have
a romantic relationship before
they get married; the process or
act of attracti ng a busi ness
partner, etc.
Subpoena = a written order to attend court as
a witness to give evidence.
256. d; Facsimile = an exact copy of something.
Pseudonym = a name used by somebody,
especially a writer, instead of
their real name.
Alias = used when a person, especially
a criminal or an actor, is known
by two names.
257. d; Homicide = the crime of killing somebody
deliberately.
Infanticide = a person who is guilty of killing
a body.
Patricide = a person who kills his father.
Fratricide = a person who kills his brother
or sister.
258. c; Paraphernalia = a large number of objects or
personal possessions especi-
ally the equipment that you
need for a particular activity.
259. a; Epitaph = words that are written or said
about a dead person, especially
words on a gravestone
Crypt = a room under the floor of a Church,
used especially in the past as a
place for burying people.
Obituary = an article about somebodys life and
achievements, that is printed in a
newspaper soon after they have
di ed.
Legacy = money or property that is given to
you by somebody when they die.
260. d; Patrimony = property that i s gi ven to
somebody when thei r father
dies.
Antimony = a chemical element.
Parsimony = the f act of bei ng extremel y
unwilling to spend money.
Alimony = the money that a court orders
somebody to pay regularly to their
former wife or husband when
the marriage is ended.
261. b; Esplanade = a level area of open ground
in a town for people to walk
along, often by the sea or a
river.
Espionage = the activity of secretly getting
important political or military
information about another
country or of f i ndi ng out
another companys secrets by
using spies
Espadrille = a light shoe made of strong
cloth with a sole made of rope
Estrangement = the state of being estranged
Estranged = no l onger li vi ng with your
husband or wife
262. a; Jurisprudence = the scientific study of law
263. d; Metronome = a device that makes a regular
sound like a clock and is used
by musicians to help them keep
the correct rhythm when playing
a piece of music
Pedometer = an instrument for measuri ng
how far you have walked
264. d; Pacifist = a person who believes in pacifism
and who refuses to fight in a war
Pacifism = the belief that war and violence are
always wrong
265. b 266. b
267. d; Homonym = a word that is spelt like another
word (or pronounced like it) but
which has a different meaning
for example, can meaning be
abl e and can meani ng put
something in a container.
Pseudonym = a name used by somebody,
especially a writer, instead of
their real name
268. a; Summon = to order somebody to appear
in court
Memorandum = a record of a legal agreement
which has not yet been
500 English Language and Comprehension One Word Substi tuti on
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formally prepared and signed
Petition = a written document signed by
a large number of people that
asks somebody in a position
of authority to do or change
something
269. a; Amputate = to cut off somebodys arm, leg,
finger or toe in a medical operation
Mutilate = to damage somebodys body very
severely, especially by cutting or
tearing off part of it
Mitigate = to make something less harmful,
serious, etc
270. c; Fatalist = a person who believes that events
are decided by f ate and that you
cannot control them
Lunatic = a person who does crazy things that
are often dangerous
Fanatic = a person who is extremel y
enthusiastic about something
Stoic = a person who is able to suffer pain
or trouble without complaining or
showing what they are feelin
271. b 272. b 273. b
274. a Zenith = the highest point that the sun or moon
reaches in the sky, directly above you
Zeal = great energy or enthusiasm connected
with something that you feel strongly
about
275. b; Soliloquy = a speech in a play in which a
character, who is alone on the
stage, speaks his or her thoughts
Extempore = spoken or done wi thout any
previous thought or preparation
Rhetoric = speech or wri ti ng that i s
intended to influence people, but
that is not completely honest or
si ncere; the skil l of usi ng
language in speech or writing
in a special way that influences
or entertains people
276. c; Hypocrite = a person who pretends to have
moral standards or opinions
that they do not actually have
Counterfeiter = a person who counterf ei ts
money or goods
Counterfeit = to make an exact copy of
something in order to trick
people into thinking that it is
the real thing
277. b 278. b
279. b; Connoisseur = an expert on matters
involving the judgement of
beauty, quality or skill in art,
food or music
280. d; Rebellion = opposition to authority; an attempt
by some of the people in a country
to change their government, using
viol ence
Muti ny = the act of ref usi ng to obey the
orders of somebody in authority,
especially by soldiers or sailors
Anarchy = a si tuati on i n a country, an
organisation, etc in which there
is no government, order or control
281. d 282. a
283. a; Contagious = a contagious disease spreads by
people touching each other
Infectious = an infectious disease can be
passed easily from one person to
another, especially through the
air they breathe
Epidemic = a l arge number of cases of a
particular disease happening at
the same time in a particular
community
Endemic = regularly found in a particular
place or among a particular group
of people and difficult to get rid
of
284. d; Anthropology = the study of the human race,
especi al l y of its ori gins,
devel opment, customs and
beliefs
Ethnology = the sci enti f i c study and
comparison of human races
Archaeology = the study of cultures of the
past, and of periods of history
by examining the remains of
buildings and objects found in
the ground
285. a; Fable = a traditional short story that teaches
a moral lesson, especially one with
animals as characters
Tele = a story created usi ng the
imagination, especially one that is
full of action and adventure
Anecdote = a short, interesting or amusing
story about a real person or event
Parable = a short story that teaches a moral
or spiritual lesson, especially one
of those told by Jesus as recorded
in Bible
286. c; Vulnerable = weak and easily hurt physically
or emotionally
Brittle = hard but easily broken
Delicate = easily damaged or broken
287. d; Coir = rough material made from the shells
of coconuts, used for making ropes,
for covering floors
Quorum = the smallest number of people who
must be at a meeting before it can
begin or decisions can be made
Quire = four sheets of paper folded to make
eight leaves
Choir = a group of people who sing together,
for example in church services or
public performances
288. a
289. a; Histrionic = histrionic behavi our i s very
emotional and i s i ntended to
attract attention in a way that
does not seem sincere
The Hippo-
cratic oath = the promise that doctors make to
keep to the pri ncipl es of the
medical profession
Hirsute = having a lot of hair on the face
or body
Hoary = very old and well known and
therefore no longer interesting
English Language and Comprehension 501 One Word Substi tuti on
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290. c; Metaphor = a word or phrase used to describe
somebody/something else, in a
way that is dif ferent f rom its
normal use in order to show that
the two things have the same
qual i ti es and to make the
description more powerful
Simile = a word or phrase that compares
something to something el se
using the words like or as, for
example, a face like a mask or as
white as snow.
Personify = to be an example of a quality or
characteristic, or to have a lot of
it
Alliteration = the use of the same letter or
sound at the beginning of words
that are close together, as in sing
a song of sixpence.
291. a; Retrench = to spend less money; to reduce costs
292. b; Maxim = a wel l-known phrase that
expresses somethi ng that i s
usually true or that people think
is a rule for sensible behaviour
Neologism = a new word or expression or a
new meaning of a word
Platonism = the idea of the ancient Greek
philosopher Plato and those who
followed him
293. b; Portico = a roof that i s supported by
columns, especially one that forms
the entrance to a large building
Mezzanine = a floor that is built between two
floors of a building and is smaller
than the other floors
294. a; Immigrant = a person who has come to live
permanently in a country that is
not their own
Emigrant = a person who leaves their country
to live in together
Alien = from another country or society
295. c; Wi l f ul = done deliberately, although the
person doing it knows that it is
wrong; not cari ng about what
other people want; determined to
do what you want
296. d
297. a; Punter = a person who gambles on the result
of a horse race
Backer = a person or company that gives
support to somebody/something,
especially financial support
298. b
299. a; Foundling = a baby who has been left by its
parents and who is found and
taken care of by somebody else
Sibling = a brother or sister
Urchin = a young child who is poor and
dirty, often one who has no home
Orphan = a child whose parents are dead
300. c; Swamp = an area of ground that is very wet
or covered wi th water and i n
whi ch pl ants, trees, etc are
growi ng
Marsh = an area of low land that is always
sof t and wet because there i s
nowhere for the water to f low
away to
Hinterland = the areas of a country that are
away from the coast, from the
banks of a large river or from the
main cities
Isthmus = a narrow strip of land, with water
on each side, that joins two larger
pieces of land
301. a; Testimonial = a formal written statement,
often by a former employer,
about somebody s abil ities,
qualities and character
Memorandum = a record of a legal agreement
which has not yet been
formally prepared and signed
302. c; Infallible = never wrong; never maki ng
mistakes
Hypocrite = a person who pretends to have
moral standards or opinions that
they do not actually have
303. c; Regicide = a person who is guilty of killing a
king or queen
304. a; Coercion = the action of making somebody do
something that they do not want
to do, using force or threatening
to use force
Conviction = a strong opinion or belief
Confession = a statement that a person makes,
admitting that they are guilty of a
crime
Cajole = to make somebody do something
by talking to them and being very
nice to them
305. b 306. b 307. c 308. b
309. c; Metamorphosis = a process in whi ch
s o me bo d y / s o me t h i ng
changes compl etel y into
something different
Fl ux = continuous movement and
change; a flow; an act of
f lowing
310. a; Circumlocution = using more words than are
necessary, i nstead of
speaking or writing in a
clear direct way
Circumspect = thinki ng very caref ul l y
about somethi ng before
doing it, because there may
be risks involved
Circumscribe = to l i mi t somebody
somethi ngs f reedom,
rights, power, etc
Circumvent = to find a way of avoiding a
difficulty or a rule
311. c; Edifice = a large impressive building
Spire = a tall pointed structure on the top of
a building, especially a church
Rotunda = a round building or hall, especially
one with a curved roof (= a dome)
312. b; Bohemian = a person, often somebody
who is involved with the
arts, who lives in a very
i nf ormal way wi thout
following accepted rules of
502 English Language and Comprehension One Word Substi tuti on
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behaviour
Cosmopolitan = a person who has
experi ence of many
different parts of the world
Philanthropist = a rich person who helps
the poor and those in need,
especially by giving money
Internationalist = a person who believes that
countri es shoul d work
together in a friendly way
313. b; Adherence
to something = to behave accordi ng to a
particul ar law, rule, set of
instructions, etc; to follow a
particular set of beliefs or a
fixed way of doing something
Pedant = a person who is too concerned
wi th small detai ls or rules
especially when learning or
teaching
Pedagogue = a teacher; a person who likes
to teach peopl e thi ngs,
especially because they think
they know more than other
people
314. a; Stoicism = the f act of not compl eti ng or
showi ng what you are feel ing
when you are suffering
Despair = the feeling of having lost all hope
315. a; Polyandry = the custom of having more than
one husband at the same time
Polygamy = the custom of having more than
one wife at the same time
Bigamy = the crime of marrying somebody
when you are sti l l l egal l y
married to somebody else
Debauchery = i mmoral behavi our i nvol vi ng
sex, alcohol or drugs
316. c; Hallucination = the fact of seeming to see or
hear somebody/somethi ng
that is not real l y there,
especially because of illness
or drugs
317. d; Lousy = very bad; awful; terrible
Jocularly = humorous; enjoying making people
laugh
Zealous = showi ng great energy and
enthusi asm f or something,
especially because you feel strongly
about it
318. d; Etiquette = the formal rules of correct or polite
behaviour i n soci ety or among
member of a particular profession
Precedence = the condi tion of being more
important than somebody else and
theref ore comi ng or being dealt
with first
Protocol = a system of fixed rules and formal
behaviour used at official meetings,
usually between governments
319. d; Renounce = to state officially that you are no
l onger going to keep a ti tl e,
position, etc
Abdicate = to give up the position of being king
or queen; to f ai l or ref use to
perform a duty
320. d; Entreaty = a serious and often emotional
request
Inexorable = that cannot be stopped or
changed; relentless
Despot = with great power, especially one
who used it in a cruel way
321. d; Spectre = something unpleasant that people
are afraid might happen i n the
future
322. d
323. c; Espionage = the activity of secretly getting
important politi cal or mil itary
i nf ormati on about another
country or of finding out another
companys secrets by using spies
Epitaph = words that are written or said
about a dead person especially
words on a gravestone
Epilogue = a speech, etc at the end of a play,
book, or fi l m/movie that
comments on or acts as a
conclusion to what has happened
Elegy = a poem or song that expresses
sadness, especially for somebody
who has died
324. b; Conscience = the part of your mind that tells
you whether your actions are right
or wrong
325. a; Parole = permi ssi on that i s gi ven to a
prisoner to leave prison before the
end of their sentence on condition
that they behave well
Parley = a discussion between enemies or
people who disagree, in order to
try and fi nd a way of solving a
problem
Acquittal = an official decision in court that a
person is not guilty of a crime
326. b; Ambrosia = the food of the gods; something that
is very pleasant to it
Amnesia = a medical condi ti on i n which
somebody partly or completely loses
their memory
Insomnia = the condition of being unable to
sl eep
327. a; Flounder = to struggle to know what to say or
do or how to conti nue wi th
something
Fumble = to use your hands in an awkward
way when you are doing something
or looking for something
328. a; Calligraphy = beautiful handwriting that you do
with a special pen or brush
Collier = a ship that carries coal; coal
miner
329. c; Canine = connected with dogs; one of the
four pointed teeth in the front of
a humans or animals mouth
Feline = connected with an animal of the
cat family
Bovine = connected with cows
Verminous = covered with vermin
Vermin = wi ld ani mals or bi rds that
destroy plants or food, or attack
farm animals and birds
English Language and Comprehension 503 One Word Substi tuti on
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330. c; Gl ower = to l ook i n an angry
aggressive way
Gnaw = to keep biting something
or chewi ng i t hard, so
that it gradual l y
disappears
Gnash your teeth = to f eel very angry and
upset about something,
especi al l y because you
cannot get what you want
Grind = to break or crush
something into very small
pieces between two hard
surf aces or usi ng a
special machine
331. c; Trustee = a member of a group of people
that control s the f inanci al
aff ai rs of a charity or other
organisation
Sinecure = A job that you are paid for even
though it involves little or no
work
Ombudsman = an of f ici al whose j ob i s to
exami ne and report on
complai nts made by ordinary
people about compani es, the
government or public authorities
332. b
333. a; Insolvent = not having enough money to pay
what you owe
Destitute = without money, food and the other
things necessary for life
Pauper = a very poor person
334. d; Impious = showing a lack of respect for God
and religion
Blasphemy = behavi our or l anguage that
insults or shows a lack or respect
for God or religion
335. d; Etymology = the study of the origi n and
hi story of words and thei r
meanings
Entomology = the scientific study of insects
336. b; Lapidary = ( especi al ly of wri tten language)
elegant and exact; concise
337. a; Biopsy = the removal and examination of
tissue from the body of somebody
who is il l/sick, in order to find
out more about their disease
Autopsy = an official examination of a dead
body by a doctor in order to discover
the cause of death
Amputate = to cut off somebodys arm, finger or
toe in a medical operation
338. d; Velodrome = a track or building used for cycle
racing
Tempo = the speed of any movement or
activity
339. c; Coffer = a way of referring to the money that
a government, an organisation, etc
has available to spend
Scullery = a small room next to the kitchen in
an old house, originally used for
washing dishes
340. a; Plagiarism = the art of plagiarizing something
Plagiarize = to copy another persons ideas,
words or work and pretend that
they are your own
Pilfer = to steal things of little value or in
small quantities, especially from
the place where you work