Sunteți pe pagina 1din 34

13.

STABILITATEA GENERAL
A TLPII COMPRIMATE
13.1. Aspecte generale
n cazl p!"r#l!r pe gr#nz# pr#nc#pale c z$%rele& "esc'#se& la care talpa sper#!ar$ n este
(#)at$ *n plan !r#z!ntal "e ! c!ntra+,nt#re care s$ re"c$ lng#-ea "e (la-%a.& #nter+#ne pr!%le-a
(la-%a.l# general al t$lp## c!-pr#-ate& respect#+ sta%#l#tatea general$ a gr#nz## c z$%rele.
Pr!%le-a (la-%a.l# general al t$lp## c!-pr#-ate la p!"r# pe gr#nz# c z$%rele& calea .!s&
"esc'#se& este "e!se%#t "e #-p!rtant$ pentr s#gran/a *n e)pl!atare& c!nsec#n/ele legate "e
p#er"erea sta%#l#t$/## (##n" "e!se%#t "e gra+e sa c'#ar catastr!(ale 0"e1a lngl t#-pl# (##n"
*nreg#strate -a# -lte acc#"ente "e aceast$ natr$2.
Pr!%le-a sta%#l#t$/## generale a gr#nz#l!r pr#nc#pale se pne 3# *n cazl ta%l#erel!r la care
gr#nz#le snt real#zate *n +ar#anta "e gr#nz# c #n#-$ pl#n$& *ns$ *n acest caz per#c!ll "e p#er"ere a
sta%#l#t$/## t$lp## c!-pr#-ate n este at,t "e -are ca *n cazl gr#nz#l!r pr#nc#pale c z$%rele. Se
rec!-an"$ *ns$& s$ (#e e(ectat$ +er#(#carea sta%#l#t$/## generale #n"#(erent "e -!"l "e alc$t#re a
gr#nz#l!r pr#nc#pale.
13.4. Baze "e calcl. Gr#n"a pe -e"# elast#c
13.4.1. M!"elarea t$lp## sper#!are
Se c!ns#"er$ gr#n"a c z$%rele a+,n" talpa sper#!ar$ "e sec/#ne c!nstant$& s!l#c#tat$ la
! (!r/$ "e c!-pres#ne c!nstant$& talpa (##n" pr#ns$ la capete *n se-#ca"re trans+ersale s(#c#ent
"e r#g#"e pentr a real#za (#)area aceste#a *n sens trans+ersal. n acest caz se-#ca"rele
#nter-e"#are snt ec'#+alente n!r reaze-e elast#ce& #ar se-#ca"rele "e cap$t n!r reaze-e
r#g#"e& (#gra 13.1.
5#g. 13.1. Gr#n"$ pr#nc#pal$ c z$%rele. Sc'e-a stat#c$ a t$lp## sper#!are
R#g#"#tatea -#n#-$ a reaze-el!r laterale elast#ce pentr care n!"r#le *ncep s$ se
c!-p!rte ca 3# c- ar (# ne"eplasa%#le este6
178
9 -#n :
Ncr
;
<5 L=
013.12
n"e6
Ncr :
> 4EIz
4
1 sarc#na cr#t#c$ Eler a %are# art#clat$ 1 s#-pl reze-at$
"e lng#-e : L - ?
1 (act!r n-er#c care "ep#n"e "e n-$rl - al pan!r#l!r&
ta%ell 13.1 3# (#gra 13.1& 0 ; @ A.48A pentr - B 112.
Ta%ell 13.1
;
-
;
4
A.8AA
3
A.333
C
A.4D3
8
A.47E
E
A.4EF
7
A.4E3
F
A.48F
D
A.488
Gac$ ! se-#n"$ a t$lp## c!-pr#-ate (la-%ate este -a# -are "ec,t lng#-ea a pan!l#&
p!ate (# ($ct$ ! s#-pl#(#care pr#n *nl!c#rea 3#rl# "e reaze-e elast#ce a(late la "#stan/ac n
-e"# elast#c c!nt#n ec'#+alent 0(#g. 13.42& a+,n" -!"ll "e elast#c#tate 9& "en-#t r#g#"#tatea
l#n#ar$ a -e"#l# elast#c 0c!e(#c#ent "e pat26
9 5
013.429: A 4
L
5#g. 13.4. Gr#n"a pe -e"# elast#c
Pentr "eter-#narea +al!r#l!r l# 9A 3# 9 se scr#e rela/#a "#ntre ! (!r/$ H apl#cat$ la cap$tl
sper#!r al n# -!ntant 3# "eplasarea I care s1ar pr!"ce "ac$ talpa sper#!ar$ ar (# *nl$trat$&
(#gra 13.36
4H'3 H'A % a+I:J013.32
3EI-4EIa
n"e6
I-1 -!-entl "e #ner/#e al -!ntantl#?
Ia1 -!-entl "e #ner/#e al antret!aze#.
M$r#-ea (!r/e# H : HA care pr!"ce ! "eplasare I : 1& este HA : 9 A 3# reprez#nt$
r#g#"#tatea reaze-l# elast#c& calclat$ c rela/#a6
E 5
013.C29A : 3
L
4 ' + 'A% a
J
3I-4Ia
M!"ll "e elast#c#tate 9 0r#g#"#tatea l#n#ar$2 a -e"#l# elast#c +a (#6
9:
9A
:
E

1
'3+
3I-
4
'A% a
J
4Ia
5
4
L
013.82
17E
H1 K r#g#"#tatea ca"rl# crent
H4 K r#g#"#tatea ca"rl# "e cap$t
5#g. 13.3. R#g#"#tatea se-#ca"rel!r trans+ersale
13.4.4. Bara c!-pr#-at$ pe -e"# elast#c
Se c!ns#"er$ %ara "reapt$ s!l#c#t$ la c!-pres#ne centr#c$ "e (!r/ele P apl#cate la capete&
a(lat$ pe n -e"# elast#c a+,n" r#g#"#tatea l#n#ar$ 0c!e(#c#entl "e pat2 9& (#gra 13.C.
5#g. 13.C. R#g#"#tatea -e"#l# elast#c
Gp$ p#er"erea (!r-e# "e ec'#l#%r "repte& aspra %are# +a ac/#!na 3# reac/#nea -e"#l#
elast#c "e #ntens#tate 9 & n"e reprez#nt$ s$geata (#%re# -e"## "e(!r-ate.
Pentr "eter-#narea +al!r## cr#t#ce a (!r/e# "e c!-pres#ne p!ate (# (!l!s#t$ -et!"a
energet#c$.
E)pres#a general$ a a)e# "e(!r-ate a %are# art#clat$ la capete este "at$ "e ser#a
tr#g!n!-etr#c$6
:
Gac$6
L a# s#n
#:1
n
#> )
L
013.E2
MN1 energ#a p!ten/#al$ "e "e(!r-a/#e a %are#?
MO1 lcrl -ecan#c e(ectat "e (!r/a "e c!-pres#ne N&
e)#st$ r-$t!arele st$r# energet#ce ale s#ste-l#6
1 s#ste- sta%#l1 "ac$ MN B MO
1 s#ste- #nsta%#l1 "ac$ MN P MO
Oal!area sarc#n## cr#t#ce Ncr se "eter-#n$ "#n c!n"#/#a MN : MO & pentr care ec'#l#%rl
s#ste-l# "e+#ne #nsta%#l.
Energ#a p!ten/#al$ "e "e(!r-a/#e a %are# MN este6
LEIz " 4 9
MN : MN1 J MN4 : 4 ") J 4 ")
") 44
AA
L
4
Q Q
013.72
177
n"e6
MN1 1 energ#a p!ten/#al$ "e "e(!r-a/#e "#n *nc!+!#erea %are#?
MN4 1 energ#a p!ten/#al$ a "e(!r-a/##l!r reze-$r## elast#ce.
Lcrl -ecan#c e(ectat "e (!r/a "e c!-pres#ne N este6
MO : N ML :
N "
")
4 ")
A
L
4
Q
013.F2
E(ect,n" calclele -ate-at#ce se !%/#ne e)pres#a sarc#n## cr#t#ce Ncr 6
Ncr
sa
n"e6
Ncr
> 4EIz 49 LC
n J:
4
L n 4 > CEIz
R
: NE n 4 J 4
n
> 4EIz
4

013.D.a2
013.D.%2
L> EIz
#ar n este n n-$r *ntreg 3# reprez#nt$ n-$rl se-#n"el!r *n care p!ate (# *-p$r/#t$ %ara care
(la-%eaz$.
Pentr "eter-#narea n-$rl# n "e se-#n"e care (ace ca Ncr s$ (#e -#n#- se c!ns#"er$
r-$t!arele cazr#6
NE : 3# R :
9 LC
C
&
1. 9 : A1 %ara n reaze-$ pe -e"# elast#c?
n rela/##le 013.D2 se #a n:1 3# se !%/#ne sarc#na cr#t#c$ Eler a %are# art#clat K s#-pl
reze-at$ la capete.
> 4EIz
013.1A2Ncr : NE :
4
L
4. 9 B A & 9(!arte -#c K %ara reaze-$ pe n -e"# elast#c (!arte (le)#%#l?
n rela/##le 013.D2 se #a n:1& "ec# %ara (la-%eaz$ ($r$ a a+ea pnct "e #n(le)#ne.
3. 9 cre3te 3# se a.nge la s#ta/#a Nn : 4 P Nn :1 .crcr
Pentr aceast$ +al!are a r#g#"#t$/## l#n#are a -e"#l# elast#c& %ara are n pnct "e #n(le)#ne
la -#.l!c.
Oal!area -#n#-$ a r#g#"#t$/## 9 pentr care are l!c trecerea "e la n:1 la n:4 se !%/#ne "#n
c!n"#/#a6
1J
Rezlt$6
9 LC
> CEIz
9LC
: CJ
9 LC
C> CEIz
sa 1 J R : C J
R
C
:C013.112
> CEI z
Pentr cazl 9 -a# -#c "ec,t +al!area "at$ "e rela/#a 013.112 a)a "e(!r-at$ a %are#
(la-%ate n prez#nt$ n#c# n pnct "e #n(le)#ne 0n:12& #ar pentr 9 -a# -are "ec,t +al!area "at$
"e 013.112& apare n pnct "e #n(le)#ne la -#.l!cl %are# 0n:42.
C. 9 cre3te1 %ara (la-%eaz$ c n n-$r nB4 se-#n"e.
Se p!ate "eter-#na +al!area 9 pentr cazl c,n" n-$rl se-#n"el!r trece "e la n la
nJ1& pn,n" c!n"#/#a6
Nn : Nn J1crcr
R:
respect#+6
n J
4
9 LC
n > EI z
4 C
: 0n J 12 J
4
9 LC
0n J 124 > CEIz
17F
Se !%/#ne6
respect#+6
9 LC
> EI z
L4
>
4
C
: n 4 0n J 124
sa
sa
R : n 4 0n J 124
013.14.a2
013.14.%2
9: n0n J 12
EIz
R : n0n J 12
R:
L4
>4
9
.
EIz
n (#gra 13.8 se reprez#nt$ *nc$rcarea cr#t#c$ Ncr & *n (nc/#e "e
5#g. 13.8. nc$rcarea cr#t#c$ Ncr & *n (nc/#e "e
R
Pentr a !%/#ne +al!area n pentr care Ncr "e+#ne -#n#- *n rela/#a 013.D.%2 se #ntr!"ce
+ar#a%#la c!nt#n$ n *n l!c "e n 3# se pne c!n"#/#a6
4C
"Ncr
:An : R sa n : R
"n
Rezlt$6
> 4EIz
R J R : 4 R N E sa Ncr : 4 9EIzNcr :013.13.a2
4
R L
Pentr calcll pract#c al (!r/e# cr#t#ce "e p#er"ere a sta%#l#t$/## se "eter-#n$ -$r#-ea
a"#-ens#!nal$ R :
9LC
> EIz
C
3# ap!# +al!area *ntreag$ n C R .
Se !%/#ne ast(el6
R
013.13.%2Ncr : NE n 4 J 4 & n S
n
Oal!r#le n (nc/#e "e R snt cele prezentate *n
ta%ell 13.4 0a3a c- rezlt$ 3# "#n gra(#cl "#n (#gra
13.82.
Ta%ell 13.4
R
ATC
CT3E
3ET1CC
1CCTCAA
R
AT4
4TE
ET14
14T4A
n
1
4
3
C
17D
13.3. Sta%#l#tatea general$ a t$lp## c!-pr#-ate
*n c!n(!r-#tate c n!r-at#+l EN 1DD314
Geter-#narea (!r/e# cr#t#ce "e (la-%a.
n cazl *n care (!r/a "e c!-pres#ne "#n talpa sper#!ar$& NE" & este c!nstant$ pe
"esc'#"erea gr#nz##& "eter-#narea (!r/e# cr#t#ce "e p#er"ere a sta%#l#t$/##& *n c!n(!r-#tate c
n!r-at#+l EN 1DD314 se (ace t#l#z,n" te!r#a %are# c!-pr#-ate pe reaze-e elast#ce& c rela/#a6
Ncr#t : - N E &
> 4EIz
013.1C2
Cc L C
n"e6 1 NE :? c: "?? - : 4 R U 1? R :
EIzL4>
1 L 3# snt "esc'#"erea gr#nz## 3# "#stan/a "#ntre se-#ca"rele trans+ersale?
1 C " este r#g#"#tatea reaze-l# elast#c.
O leg$tr$ lateral$ a ne# t$lp# c!-pr#-ate p!ate (# c!ns#"erat$ r#g#"$ "ac$ r#g#"#tatea sa
sat#s(ace rela/#a6
CNE
013.182C" B
L
4
C!n(!r- EN 1DD31464AA8& ta%ell G.3& rez#sten/a 0r#g#"#tatea2 trans+ersal$ a n#
se-#ca"r& "e(#n#t$ ca (!r/a trans+ersal$ care apl#cat$ *n centrl "e gretate al t$lp## c!-pr#-ate *#
#-pr#-$ aceste#a ! "eplasare egal$ c n#tatea 0(#g. 13.E2& se calcleaz$ c rela/#a6
C" :
E I +
'3+
3
J
' % V I +
4 IV
care (la-%eaz$ talpa
013.172
4
013.1E2
N-$rl "e se-#n"e& n& c
c!-pr#-at$& rezlt$ "#n c!n"#/#a6
0n W 12 n X
5#g.13.E
1
>
4
c L C
X n 0n J 12
EIz
1 c L C
"e n"e6 n CU 1?
> EI z
n S
013.1F2
Ge!arece n-$rl "e se-#n"e apar/#ne -l/#-## n-erel!r *ntreg#& rezlt$ c$ 3#
c L C
-: 4 R : 4 : 4 n 4 & tre%#e s$ (#e n n-$r *ntreg.
EI z>>
4 4
n cazl gr#nz#l!r c #n#-$ pl#n$ e(ectele (en!-enl# "e (la-%a. lateral al t$lp## c!-pr#-ate
p!t (# #gn!rate *n cazl *n care este *n"epl#n#t$ na "#n c!n"#/##le6
Y LT X Y LT.A : A&C sa
4
ME"
X Y LT.A &
Mcr#t
1FA
*n care6
n"e6
Y LT :
0A e(( J A Zc [ 3 2 ( \
Ncr#t
&
1 A e(( 1 este ar#a t$lp## c!-pr#-ate?
1 A Zc 1 este ar#a z!ne# c!-pr#-ate "#n #n#-$. n cazl sec/#n#l!r
"e clas$ C& aceast$ ar#e tre%#e lat$ ca ar#e e(ect#+$.
Cazl c,n" (!r/a "e c!-pres#ne NE" n este c!nstant$
pe "esc'#"erea t$lp## c!-pr#-ate a gr#nz##6
n EN 1DD31464AA8& se pr!pne r-$t!area pr!ce"r$ "e calcl pentr talpa #n(er#!ar$
c!-pr#-at$& *n cazl gr#nz#l!r c!nt#ne c se-#ca"re trans+ersale r#g#"e s#tate la "#stan/a L6
C!e(#c#entl - se alege ca +al!are -#n#-$ !%/#nt$ "#n r-$t!arele (!r-le6
013.1D.a2- : 1 J A&CC01 J ] 2 ^ 1&8 J 03 J 4 ^ 2 R [038A W 8A ] 2
- : 1 J A&CC01 J ] 2 ^ 1&8 J <A&1D8 J 0A&A8 J ] [ 1AA 2 ^ = R A.8
*n care6
013.1D.a2
] : O4 [ O1 & (#gra 13.7
^ : 401 W M4 [ M1 2 [01 J ] 2 & pentr M4 B A .
C,n" "#agra-a "e -!-ent *nc!+!#et!r *3# sc'#-%$ se-nl se #a ac!per#t!r M4 : A .
Oer#(#carea p#er"er## sta%#l#t$/## se (ace la "#stan/a A&48 L 9 "e reaze-l c -!-entl *nc!+!#et!r
-a)#-& /#n,n" c!nt c$ +er#(#carea rez#sten/e# sec/#n## trans+ersale este ($ct$ "e ase-enea *n
sec/#nea c -!-ent *nc!+!#et!r -a)#-& n"e L 9 : L [ - .
5#g. 13.7
Pentr ele-entele c!-pr#-ate& e(ectl #-per(ec/#n#l!r #n#/#ale 3# e(ectele "e !r"#nl II& p!t (#
late *n c!ns#"erare pr#n apl#carea ne# (!r/e laterale spl#-entare& 5E" & *n "reptl c!ne)#n## t$lp##
c res!rtl& n"e6
5E"
N E"
1AA


N: 1
E"

NFA
1 W E" 9
N cr#t
1 pentr
1 pentr
9
X 1&4
U 1&4
013.4A2
9
*n care6 NE" 1 (!r/a "e c!-pres#ne -a)#-$ "#n talp$?
1F1
9
: >
EI
?
Ncr#t
1 este "#stan/a *ntre reaze-ele elast#ce.
13.C. Oer#(#carea t$lp## c!-pr#-ate la (la-%a.
pr#n *nc!+!#ere K r$sc#re
Rez#sten/a "e calcl 0capac#tatea p!rtant$ sa e(!rtl capa%#l2 la (la-%a. a n# ele-ent
c!-pr#-at se "eter-#n$ c rela/#a6
1
013.412N%.R" : _ 5T A ( \
R M1
A g W sec t#n# Clasa 1? 4? 3
n"e6 A :
A e(( W sec t#n# Clasa C
Pentr ele-ente c sec/#ne trans+ersal$ c!nstant$ 0ele-ente n#(!r-e2& s!l#c#tate la
c!-pres#ne a)#al$ c!nstant$& +al!area c!e(#c#entl# "e re"cere _5T se "eter-#n$ *n (nc/#e "e
c!e(#c#entl "e z+elte/e re"s Y 5T & c rela/#a6
_ 5T :
*n care6
1
`5T J `5T W Y 5T
4
4 4
?
_5T X 1
013.442
`5T : A&8 1 J a Y 5T W A&4 J Y 5T ?
Y 5T :
A ( \
Ncr
< 0 2 =
a 1 (act!r "e #-per(ec/#ne?
1 c!e(#c#entl "e z+elte/e re"s al %are#.
13.8. O%ser+a/## legate "e (la-%a.l general
Pr!%le-a (la-%a.l# general al t$lp## c!-pr#-ate la p!"r#le pe gr#nz# c z$%rele c calea .!s
"esc'#se 3# cea a (la-%a.l# lateral al t$lp## sper#!are la p!"r#le pe gr#nz# c #n#-$ pl#n$ cale .!s
snt "e!se%#t "e #-p!rtante pentr s#gran/a *n e)pl!atare a n!r ast(el "e strctr# -etal#ce&
c!nsec#n/ele legate "e p#er"erea sta%#l#t$/## (##n" "e!se%#t "e gra+e sa c'#ar catastr!(ale.
Ge1a lngl t#-pl# s1a *nreg#strat -a# -lte acc#"ente "e aceast$ natr$& "at!rate
neac!per#r## pr#n calcl a acest# (en!-en sa trat$r## l# sper(#c#ale.
P#er"erea sta%#l#t$/## generale este -lt -a# per#cl!as$ *n cazl p!"r#l!r pe gr#nz# c z$%rele
"esc'#se& "e!arece *n$l/#-ea -are a acest!ra c!n"ce la crearea n!r r#g#"#t$/# trans+ersale
re"se a se-#ca"rel!r alc$t#te "#n -!ntan/# 3# antret!aze 0reaze-e #nter-e"#are c elast#c#tate
r#"#cat$2.
n t!ate cazr#le& se-#ca"rele (#nale tre%#e s$ (#e s(#c#ent "e r#g#"e pentr a real#za (#)area
t$lp## *n sens trans+ersal& reaze-ele elast#ce (##n" "!ar se-#ca"rele #nter-e"#are.
C!-p!rtarea t$lp## c!-pr#-ate a gr#nz## pr#nc#pale este #n(len/at$ "e r#g#"#tatea
se-#ca"rel!r trans+ersale. N-$rl "e se-#n"e 0n-$rl "e pncte "e #n(le)#ne2 "ep#n"e "#rect
"e -!"ll "e elast#c#tate 0r#g#"#tatea l#n#ar$2 a -e"#l# elast#c. R#g#"#tatea se-#ca"rel!r
trans+ersale se calcleaz$ "p$ EN 1DD31464AA8& *nl!c#n" 3#rl "e reaze-e elast#ce a(late la
"#stan/a c n -e"# elast#c c!nt#n ec'#+alent.
Se !%/#ne r#g#"#tatea l#n#ar$ a -e"#l# elast#c& rap!rt,n" r#g#"#tatea se-#ca"rel!r
trans+ersale la "#stan/a"#ntre ele. C c,t r#g#"#tatea se-#ca"rel!r este -a# -are& 3# c c,t
acestea snt -a# apr!p#ate& c at,t n 0n-$rl "e se-#n"e2 este -a# -are #ar talpa c!-pr#-at$
este -a# p/#n sps$ per#c!ll# p#er"er## sta%#l#t$/## generale.
Pr!ce"ra "e calcl prezentat$ *n EN 1DD31464AA8& n re(lect$ *n t!tal#tate c!-p!rtarea
real$ a t$lp## c!-pr#-ate la gr#nz#le pr#nc#pale "e p!"r#& "e!arece n /#ne sea-a "e6
1F4
b
b
b
+ar#a/#a sec/#n## t$lp## c!-pr#-ate?
+ar#a/#a e(!rtl# "e c!-pres#ne "#n talp$?
caracter#st#c#le (#ec$r# pan!.
13.E. E)e-pl "e calcl
Se +er#(#c$ talpa c!-pr#-at$ a n# p!" -etal#c pe gr#nz# pr#nc#pale c z$%rele& cn!sc,n"
r-$t!arele "ate "e pr!#ectare6
1 e(!rtl a)#al -a)#- *n talpa c!-pr#-at$6
SIWII : SIIWIII : W 4 E41 9N
1 gr#nz#le snt real#zate "#n !/el S388ML[NL K EN 1AA48 K C64AAC?
1 sc'e-a ge!-etr#c$ a ta%l#erl#& (#gra E.1.
1 caracter#st#c#le ge!-etr#ce 3# "e rez#sten/$ care #nter+#n *n calcll "e +er#(#care a
sta%#l#t$/## snt prezentate *n (#gra E.4.
5#g. E.1
' : C8A c-
I O : I \.-!nt . : DA38 c- C
' O c 34A c-
IV : Iantr. : 3.E8 1A 8 c- C
% V c C7A c-
5#g. E.4
1F3
Oer#(#carea t$lp## c!-pr#-ate
Talpa sper#!ar$ 3# "#ag!nala (#nal$ este real#zat$ c sec/#ne alc$t#t$ s"at "e t#p c'es!n
se-#1*nc'#s& pentr a !(er# ! r#g#"#tate sp!r#t$ la c!-pres#ne& (#gra E.3.
A : 11F c-
I \ : 1.8E1 1A C c- C
Iz : 4.1FE 1A C c- C
# \ : 11.8 c-
# z : 13.E c-
5#g. E.3
Clasa sec/#n##
Plat%an"a sper#!ar$
1
1
pan!l central6
c 3AA
:: 3A P 3F d : 3A.F Clasa 4
t1A
c!ns!le plat%an"$ sper#!ar$6
c CA
:: C P D d : 7.3 Clasa 1
t 1A
C!ns!lele #n(er#!are
c DA
:: D P 1C d : 11.3C
t 1A
Clasa 3
Pere/## +ert#cal#6 Clasa 4
Clasa sec/#n## (##n" egal$ c 3& se +a !pera c ar#a %rt$.
5la-%a. *n planl gr#nz## 0a)a \1\2
n planl gr#nz## c z$%rele lng#-ea "e (la-%a. este6
L cr.\ : A.F
IW e
: A.F 8AA : CAA c-
Rezlt$6
L cr.\CAA
Y\ ::: 3C.F ?
#\11.8
Nc.R" : _
A ( \
R M1
: A.D
Y:
Y\
Y1
:
3C.F
: A.CE
7E
_ : A.D 0cr%a %2
11F 388A
1A W4 : 3C47 9N B NE" : 4E41 9N
1.1
Sta%#l#tatea general$ a t$lp##
Rez#sten/a 0r#g#"#tatea2 trans+ersal$ a n# se-#ca"r6
1FC
C" :
E I +
'3+
3
J
' % V I +
4 IV
4
:
4.1 1A E DA38
34AC8A C7A DA38
J
34 3.E8 1A 8
3 4
: 18EF "aN [ c-
c:
C"
cLC3.1 4AAA C18EF4:: 1AFA:: 3.1 "aN [ c- ? R :
EIz 4.1 1A E 4.1FE 1A C8AA
N-$rl "e se-#n"e& n& c care (la-%eaz$ talpa c!-pr#-at$6
1 c L C1
n C:
> EIz>
C
R:
1C
1AFA : 1.F4 B 1
>
Ge!arece n S n : 4 & %ara are n pnct "e #n(le)#ne la -#.l!cl "esc'#"er##.
A+,n" *n +e"ere (aptl c$ talpa sper#!ar$ a gr#nz## pr#nc#pale este (#)at$ pr#n 3 se-#ca"re
trans+ersale #nter-e"#are& rezlt$ "e(!r-ata t$lp## c!-pr#-ate prezentat$ *n (#gra E.C.
5#g. E.C. Bara "e(!r-at$
Rezlt$ (!r/a cr#t#c$ "e p#er"ere a sta%#l#t$/##6

R : 4 n 4 : F
>4
Ncr#t : - N E : DA8E 9N
4> EI z
NE :: 1134 9N

L4
-:
4
Oer#(#carea t$lp## c!-pr#-ate la (la-%a. *n plan !r#z!ntal
Y 5T :
A ( \
Ncr#t
:
11F 388A
: A&EF _ 5T : A&F
DA8 EAA
Se !%/#ne6
N%.R" : _ 5T A ( \ [ R M1 : 0A.F 11F 388A [ 1.12 1A W4 : 3 AC7 9N B NE" : 4 E41 9N
1F8
1C. ELEMENTE REALISATE GIN PRO5ILE
TNBNLARE NMPLNTE CN BETON
1C.1. Intr!"cere
C!-%#narea !/ell# 3# a %et!nl# *ntr1n s#ste- strctral n#tar s% (!r-$ c!nstrct#+$ "e
ele-ente c sec/#ne -#)t$ real#zate "#n pr!(#le -etal#ce t%lare -plte c %et!n& are ! larg$
apl#care actal$ *n "!-en#l c!nstrc/##l!r c#+#le& #n"str#ale 3# *n cel al p!"r#l!r "e cale (erat$ 3# "e
3!sea.
Ele-entele c sec/#ne -#)t$ !/el1%et!n& s!l#c#tate prep!n"erent la c!-pres#ne& se p!t
real#za *n r-$t!arele +ar#ante c!nstrct#+e& (#gra 1C.16
b Ele-ente "#n pr!(#le -etal#ce *ngl!%ate #ntegral *n %et!n 0(#g.1C.16 a& %& c2?
b Ele-ente "#n pr!(#le -etal#ce *ngl!%ate par/#al *n %et!n 0(#g. 1C.16 "& e2 ?
b Ele-ente "#n pr!(#le -etal#ce t%lare -plte c %et!n 0(#g.1C.16 (& g& '& #2.
5#g.1C.1
Ele-entele real#zate "#n pr!(#le -etal#ce t%lare& rectanglare sa c#rclare& -plte c
%et!n& se p!t t#l#za atnc# c,n" tre%#e s$ pre#a sarc#n# "e!se%#t "e #-p!rtante& c- ar (# *n
r-$t!arele cazr#6
1 p#l!n# pentr p!"r# '!%anate 3# sspen"ate& (#gra 1C.4?
5#g.1C.4
1FE
1 arce c "esc'#"ere -are& (#gra 1C.3?
5#g.1C.3. Arce c sec/#ne c!-ps$
1 p#l!/# "e (n"a/##& (#gra 1C.C?
%2
A 1 ra"#er? B 1 ar-$tr$?
C 1 %are s"ate? G 1 c!nect!r#
5#g. 1C.C. a2 (n"a/#e p!" pe p#l!/#?
%2? c2 ra"#ere pe p#l!/#
A+anta.ele ele-entel!r c sec/#ne c!-ps$
Pr#nc#palele a+anta.e as!c#ate t#l#z$r## ele-entel!r c sec/#ne c!-ps$ !/el1%et!n snt
r-$t!arele6
1 capac#tate p!rtant$ r#"#cat$ !%/#nt$ c ! sec/#ne trans+ersal$ re"s$&
c c!nsec#n/e ec!n!-#ce (a+!ra%#le pr#+#n" c!ns-l "e -ater#ale?
1 *-%#n$r# s#-ple c alte ele-ente& "e t#pl cel!r t#l#zate la strctr#le #ntegral -etal#ce?
1 p!s#%#l#tatea "ez+!lt$r## n!r "e(!r-a/## plast#ce& respect#+ c!-p!rtarea "ct#l$ a
strctr##?
1 re"cerea r#scl# "e p#er"ere a sta%#l#t$/## l!cale 0+!alare2 a pere/#l!r -etal#c#?
1 (a%r#care s#-pl$ 3# "rat$ re"s$ "e e)ec/#e.
1F7
n cazl ele-entel!r real#zate "#n pr!(#le -etal#ce t%lare -plte c %et!n& se a"ag$
c,te+a a+anta.e spl#-entare (a/$ "e cele -en/#!nate 3# an-e6
1 !/ell este a-plasat *n sec/#ne *n z!nele (a+!ra%#le "#n pnct "e +e"ere a c!-p!rt$r##
-ecan#ce a ele-entl#& respect#+ spre e)ter#!rl sec/#n##& ac!l! n"e 3# e(!rtr#le
n#tare snt -a)#-e?
1 %et!nl lcreaz$ c rez#sten/$ sp!r#t$ "at!r#t$ e(ectl# "e (retare 0c!n(#nare2 !(er#t "e
strctra t%lar$ "e !/el?
1 t%l "e !/el *n"epl#ne3te (nc/#nea "e c!(ra. la trnarea %et!nl#?
1 !/ell n c!r!"eaz$ *n #nter#!rl t%l#& (##n" pr!te.at "e %et!n?
1 *n cazl p#l!n#l!r "e p!"r#& %et!nl "#n #nter#!rl t%l# -etal#c -$re3te r#g#"#tatea
acest#a la ac/#nea plt#t!r#l!r sa la l!+#rea acc#"ental$ "e c$tre +e'#cle.
1C.4. Calcll ele-entel!r "#n pr!(#le
-etal#ce -plte c %et!n
Aspecte generale. Ip!teze "e calcl
In cazl ele-entel!r c!-pse 0c!-p!z#te2 c!-pr#-ate se +er#(#c$ *n (#ecare sec/#ne
capac#t$/#le "e6
b rez#sten/a ele-entl#?
b rez#sten/a la (la-%a. l!cal 0+!alare2?
b trans(erl *nc$rc$r#l!r?
b rez#sten/a la lnecare *ntre c!-p!nentele "e !/el 3# %et!n.
Calcll prezentat *n EC C se apl#c$ ele-entel!r c!-p!z#te c!-pr#-ate "#n !/el "e -arc$
S 438 p,n$ la S C4A 3# %et!n "e "ens#tate n!r-al$ 3# clas$ "e rez#sten/$ C 4A[48 p,n$ la C 8A[EA.
Er!c!"e C pr!pne "!$ -et!"e "e "#-ens#!nare a ele-entel!r c sec/#ne c!-ps$
!/el K %et!n s!l#c#tate la c!-pres#ne6
Met!"a general$& care prespne #ncl"erea *n calcle a e(ectel!r "e !r"#nl II& a
#-per(ec/#n#l!r ge!-etr#ce& a tens#n#l!r rez#"ale& a c!-p!rta-entl# nel#n#ar al -ater#alel!r 3# a
"#-#n$r## r#g#"#t$/## "at!r#t$ z!nel!r plast#(#ate 3# (#srate.
Met!"a general$ #ncl"e "!-en#l ele-entel!r c sec/#n# nes#-etr#ce 3# nen#(!r-e pe
lng#-ea st,lpl#.
Aceast$ -et!"$ n are apl#ca%#l#tate crent$ *n pract#ca "e pr!#ectare 3# n este "ez+!ltat$
n#c# *n EC C.
Met!"a s#-pl#(#cat$& "etal#at$ *n EC C& care per-#te ! "#-ens#!nare relat#+ rap#"$ a
ele-entel!r c sec/#ne c!-ps$& 3# se apl#c$ l,n" *n c!ns#"erare cr%ele "e (la-%a. pentr
st,lp## -etal#c#& cpr#nse *n EC 3.
Met!"a s#-pl#(#cat$ se apl#c$ la ele-entele a+,n" sec/#nea trans+ersal$ "%l s#-etr#c$ 3#
c!nstant$ pe lng#-ea ele-entl#& c c!-p!nenta -etal#c$ real#zat$ "#n pr!(#le la-#nate sa
sec/#n# real#zate pr#n asa-%lare s"at$.
Met!"a s#-pl#(#cat$ n se apl#c$ "ac$ ele-entl "e !/el este real#zat "#n "!$ sa -a#
-lte sec/#n# nec!nectate.
n acest -!"l "e calcl se prez#nt$ -et!"a s#-pl#(#cat$ "e calcl a ele-entel!r c
sec/#ne c!-ps$ real#zate "#n pr!(#le t%lare -plte c %et!n& s!l#c#tate la c!-pres#ne a)#al$
3# la c!-pres#ne e)centr#c$ 0 c!-pres#ne c *nc!+!#ere -!n!a)#al$ 2.
Calcll ele-entel!r real#zate "#n pr!(#le -etal#ce t%lare -plte c %et!n 3# a cel!r c
sec/#ne casetat$ c!-ps$ !/el1%et!n& *n c!n(!r-#tate c n!r-at#+l EC C are la %az$ r-$t!arele
#p!tezele "e calcl6
1 e)#st$ ! #nterac/#ne c!-plet$ *ntre !/el 3# %et!n?
1 snt late *n c!ns#"erare #-per(ec/#n#le ge!-etr#ce 3# strctrale?
1 sec/#n#le plane r$-,n plane 3# "p$ "e(!r-are?
1 rela/##le tens#n#1"e(!r-a/## ale cel!r "!$ -ater#ale tre%#e c!ns#"erate cele
c!respnz$t!are anal#ze# e(ectate.
1FF
Ge ase-enea tre%#e *n"epl#n#te c!n"#/##le pentr a n se pr!"ce +!alarea l!cal$ a
pere/#l!r -etal#c# 3# tre%#e as#grat$ c!nlcrarea *ntre !/el 3# %et!n.
n (#gra 1C.8 se prez#nt$ s#ste-l "e a)e 3# pr#nc#palele caracter#st#c# ge!-etr#ce ale
sec/#n#l!r trans+ersale& pentr ele-entele real#zate "#n t%r# -etal#ce -plte c %et!n.
5#g. 1C.8
Calcll ele-entel!r c sec/#ne c!-ps$ t%lar$
C!-pres#ne a)#al$
Capac#tatea p!rtant$ a ele-entel!r s!l#c#tate la c!-pres#ne a)#al$ se +er#(#c$ c rela/#a6
01C.12NE" X _ N pl.R"
n"e6 Npl.R" K rez#sten/a plast#c$ la c!-pres#ne a sec/#n## -#)te6
Npl.R" : A a ( \" J A c (c" J A s ( s"
sa6
c6
1
1
1
1
01C.4.a2
01C.4.%2
Npl.R" : A a
(\
Ra
J Ac
(c9(
J A s s9
RcRs
Aa? Ac? As K ar##le sec/#n#l!r trans+ersale ale !/ell#& %et!nl# 3# ar-$tr##?
(\"? (c"? (s" K rez#sten/ele "e calcl ale !/ell#& %et!nl# 3# ar-$tr##
(\? (c9? (s9 K rez#sten/ele caracter#st#ce ale !/ell#& %et!nl# 3# ar-$tr##?
Ra ? Rc ? Rs K c!e(#c#en/## par/#al# "e s#gran/$ *n -et!"a st$r#l!r l#-#t$.
C!e(#c#entl "e re"cere 0(la-%a.2& _ & se "eter-#n$ *n (nc/#e "e c!e(#c#entl "e z+elte/e
a"#-ens#!nal Y 3# "e cr%a "e (la-%a. c!respnz$t!are.
R#g#"#tatea elast#c$ a sec/#n## -#)te6
0EI2e : E aIa J A.E E c-Ic J E sIs
Ia ? Ic ? Is K -!-entele "e #ner/#e pentr planl "e *nc!+!#ere
c!ns#"erat al !/ell#& %et!nl# 3# ar-$tr##.
Ea ? Es K -!"lele "e elast#c#tate pentr !/el 3# ar-$tr$?
Ec- K -!"ll "e elast#c#tate secant al %et!nl#.
S+elte/ea a"#-ens#!nal$ se "eter-#n$ c rela/#a6
WNpl.R9
Y:
Ncr
n"e6 Npl.R9 : Npl.R" 1 calclat pentr R a : R c : R s : 1 6
l
n cazl pr!(#lel!r -etal#ce c#rclare 0/e+#2 -plte c %et!n& "ac$ snt *n"epl#n#te c!n"#/##le6
fM"
Y P A.8 sa e P? e : E".-a)01C.E2
1ANE"
Npl.R9 : A a ( \ J A c (c9 J A s (s9 ?
W
01C.32
01C.C2
Ncr :
> 4 0EI2e
4
01C.8.a& %2
1FD
capac#tatea p!rtant$ plast#c$ la c!-pres#ne se e+aleaz$& /#n,n" c!nt "e e(ectl "e c!n(#nare a
%et!nl# "at!r#t$ t%l# -etal#c& c rela/#a6
( 1t ( \
J A s ( s9 1
01C.72
J A c c9 1 J g cNpl.R" : ga A a ( \
RaRc " ( c9 R s
n"e6
f
01 W ga! 2 1A e c6 ga! : A.48 3 J 4 Y X 101C.F.a2 ga : ga! J

"
1A e
gc : g c! 1 W
"
f
c6
gc! : C.D W 1F.8 Y J 17 Y U A
f
f4
01C.F.%2
Gac$ Y B A.8 sa e B " [ 1A & +al!r#le ga ? gc se #a 1& respect#+ A.
In(len/a *nc$rc$r## "e lng$ "rat$ 0c!ntrac/#a 3# crgerea lent$ a %et!nl#2 aspra
capac#t$/## p!rtante se #a *n c!ns#"erare re"c,n" +al!area -!"ll# "e elast#c#tate al %et!nl#
Ec- la Ec &e+alat c rela/#a6
1
01C.D2E c : E c-
1 J 0NG.E" [ NE" 2 t
NG.E" 1 (rac/#nea per-anent$ "#n *nc$rcare t!tal$ NE"
M!EVp
t 1 c!e(#c#entl "e crgere lent$ 0c!n(!r- EC 426 t : 0h&t A 2
MAE"
1 MAEVp K -!-entl "e !r"#nl I "#n *nc$rcarea c+as#1per-anent$?
1 MAE" 1 -!-entl "e !r"#nl I "e calcl.
A a ( \ [ R a A a ( \"
:I:1 #n"#cele "e c!ntr#%/#e a !/ell#01C.1A2
Npl.R"Npl.R"
C!-pres#ne c *nc!+!#ere 0c!-pres#ne e)centr#c$2
Anal!g ele-entel!r #ntegral -etal#ce& se "e(#ne3te ! rela/#e "e #nterac/#ne M1N 3# *n cazl
ele-entel!r c sec/#ne c!-ps$.
Cr%a "e #nterac/#ne& (#gra 1C.E& se "eter-#n$ c!ns#"er,n" "#(er#te p!z#/## ale a)e# netre
*n sec/#nea trans+ersal$ 3# calcl,n" e(ectele e(!rtr#l!r #nterne& c!n(!r- (#gr## 1C.7.
Pnctele caracter#st#ce ale cr%e# "e #nterac/#ne& M1N a c!!r"!natele *n (nc/#e "e (!r/ele
a)#ale 3# -!-entele *nc!+!#et!are Npl.R" ? Np-.R" ? Mpl.R" ? M-a).R".
N A : Npl.R"
A6
M A : A
N B : A
B6
M B : Mpl.R"

( c9
N C : Np-.R" : A c R
C6c
M : M pl.R" c
N G : A.8 N p-.R"
G6
M G : M-a) .R"
5#g. 1C.E
1DA
5#g.1C.7
Pentr calcll c!!r"!natel!r pnctel!r A& B& C& G se (!l!sesc rela/##le6
M-a) .R" : ipa
Mpl.R"
(\
Ra
: M-a) .R" W Mn.R"
(\
Ra
J ipc
(1 (c9
J ips s9
4 RcRs
(1 (c9
J ips.n s9
4 RcRs
01C.11.a2
01C.11.%2
01C.11.c2
Mn.R" : ipa.n
n"e6
J ipc.n
ipa ? ipc ? ips K -!"lele "e rez#sten/$ ale !/ell#& %et!nl# 3# ar-$tr## "#n *ntreaga
sec/#ne trans+ersal$ a ele-entl#?
ipa.n ? ipc.n ? ips.n K -!"lele "e rez#sten/$ ale !/ell#& %et!nl# 3# ar-$tr## "#n
p!r/#nea "e *n$l/#-e 4 'n a sec/#n## trans+ersale a ele-entl#.
1D1
Prezen/a (!r/e# t$#et!are OE" p!ate -!"#(#ca capac#tatea p!rtant$ la *nc!+!#ere a sec/#n##&
atnc# c,n" OE" B A.8 Opl.a.R" .
P!z#/#a a)e# netre se p!ate "eter-#na "#n (#gra 1C.F& ($c,n" "#(eren/a "#agra-el!r C1B
"#n (#gra 1C.7& c rela/##le6
sec/#n# rectanglare6
Np-.R"
'n :
4 %(c" J Ct 04( \" W (c" 2
sec/#n# c#rclare6
Np-.R"
'n :
4 "(c" J Ct 0 4( \" W (c" 2
5#g. 1C.F
01C.14.a2
01C.14.%2
n cazl /e+#l!r c#rclare -plte c %et!n& "ac$ snt *n"epl#n#te c!n"#/##le "e c!n(#nare6
Y P A.8 sa e P
f
"
1A
(c9
& se *nl!c#e3te c
Rc
*n rela/##le 01C.11.a&%&c2 3# Np-.R"& rez#sten/a "e calcl a %et!nl# (c" :
+al!area -a.!rat$ pr#n e(ectl "e c!n(#nare6
( ( c9
1 J g c t \
01C.132
" (c9 R c
E(ectele "e !r"#nl II aspra n# ele-ent #z!lat p!t (# late *n c!ns#"erare apl#c,n" n
c!e(#c#ent "e c!rec/#e 9 cel# -a# -are -!-ent "e calcl& "eter-#nat pr#n calcl "e !r"#nl I& n"e6
j
9:01C.1C2
NE"
1W
Ncr.e((
#n care& ta%ell 1C.16
j : A.EEJA.CC r U A.CC
j : 1 K "ac$ e)#st$ *nc$rc$r# trans+ersale pe lng#-ea ele-entl#?
r K rap!rtl -!-entel!r "e la e)tre-#t$/#le st,lpl#.
Ta%ell 1C.1
G#agra-a "e -!-ent 5act!rl "e -!-ent O%ser+a/##
M!-ente *nc!+!#et!are "e
!r"#nl I "#n #-per(ec/#n# sa
"#n *nc$rc$r# laterale
j : 1.A
ME" este -!-entl *nc!+!#et!r
-a)#- pe lng#-ea
ele-entl#& #gn!r,n" e(ectele
"e !r"#nl II
M!-ente "e cap$t6
j : A.EE J A.CCr &
j U A.CC
ME" 3# r M E" snt -!-entele la
capete "#n anal#za gl!%al$ "e
!r"#nl I sa II
Pentr "eter-#narea e(!rtr#l!r *n calcll "e !r"#nl II& r#g#"#tatea la *nc!+!#ere a st,lpl#
se +a e+ala c rela/#a6
1D4
0EI2e((.II : A.D 0E aIa J A.8 Ec-Ic J E sIs 2
Capac#tatea p!rtant$ la c!-pres#ne e)centr#c$
01C.182
Pentr "eter-#narea capac#t$/## p!rtante la c!-pres#ne c *nc!+!#ere se t#l#zeaz$
*nc$rcarea "e (la-%a. 3# se traseaz$ cr%a "e #nterac/#ne ] W _ & a sec/#n## trans+ersale& (#gra
1C.D.
Pentr trasarea cr%e# "e #nterac/#ne
#nter+#n r-$t!r## para-etr#6
b
W
_ : _ Y 1 c!e(#c#entl "e (la-%a.


pentr cazl "e c!-pres#ne
centr#c$?
Pentrele-entecsec/#ne
trans+ersal$ c!nstant$ 0ele-ente n#(!r-e2&
s!l#c#tate la c!-pres#ne a)#al$ c!nstant$&
+al!area c!e(#c#entl# "e re"cere _ se
"eter-#n$ *n (nc/#e "e c!e(#c#entl "e
z+elte/e re"s Y & 0*n c!n(!r-#tate c
n!r-at#+l EC 32& c rela/#a6
1
_:?_ X101C.1E2
4
` J `4 W Y
5#g. 1C.D
4*n care6 ` : A&8 1 J a Y W A&4 J Y ? a 1 (act!r "e #-per(ec/#ne& ta%ell 1C.4.


0 2
Ta%ell 1C.4
Cr%a "e (la-%a.
5act!r "e #-per(ec/#ne
a
A&41
%
A&3C
c
A&CD
nca"rarea sec/#n## *n cr%a "e (la-%a. c!respnz$t!are este prezentat$ *n ta%ell 1C.3.
Ta%ell 1C.3
Sec/#ne A)a "e (la-%a. Cr%a "e (la-%a.
I-per(ec/#ne
ge!-etr#c$
Or#care
a
k s X 3l
%
3l P k s X El
L[3AA
Or#care L[4AA
\1\?
z1z
% L[4AA
1D3
b _" :
NE"
?
Npl.R"
_ p- :
Np-.R"
Npl.R"
?
]" :
1W _"
1 W _ p-
01C.17.a?%?c2
O%ser+a/#e6 Pentr _ " P _ p- & se +a la ] " : 1
Rela/#a "e +er#(#care la *nc!+!#ere a ele-entl# c sec/#ne c!-ps$ este6
ME"ME"
01C.1F2:X aM
Mpl.N.R" ] "Mpl.R"
*n care6
b ME" K +al!area -a)#-$ a -!-entel!r "e la e)tre-#t$/# 3# "e pe lng#-ea ele-entl#&
#nclz,n" "ac$ este cazl #-per(ec/#n#le 3# e(ectele "e !r"#nl II?
A.D W !tel S 438? S 388
b aM :
A.F W !tel S C4A? S CEA
n (#nal c!n"#/##le "e +er#(#care la c!-pres#ne e)centr#c$ a ele-entl# snt6
ME"NE"
01C.1D.a&%2P 1?X aM
_ N pl.R"] "Mpl.R"
L#-#tele apl#c$r## -et!"e# s#-pl#(#cate
b
b
b
b
"
X DA d 4 ?
t
sec/#nea trans+ersal$ s$ (#e n#(!r-$ 3# s$ prez#nte "%l$ s#-etr#e?
A a ( \ [ R a
A. 4 X I :X A. D
Npl.R"
YX4
I s : A s [ A c P El
d:
438
(\
f
01C.4A.a2
01C.4A.%2
01C.4A.c2
Pentr a n se pr!"ce +!alarea peretel# -etal#c& tre%#e *n"epl#n#te c!n"#/##le6
1 /e+# c#rclare
1 t%r# rectanglare
01C.4A."2
01C.4A.e2
'
X 84 d ?
t
d:
438
(\
1C.3. Ac/#nea (!r/e# t$#et!are
Se a"-#te& *n -!"l s#-pl#(#cat "e calcl& c$ (!r/a t$#et!are "e calcl OE"& este prelat$
n-a# "e partea -etal#c$ a sec/#n## ele-entl#& "ac$ n este "ep$3#t$ capac#tatea "e rez#sten/$
a aceste#a.
Rez#sten/a la (!r(ecare a sec/#n## -etal#ce a ele-entl# se calcleaz$ c rela/#a6
01C.412Opl.R" : A + ( \" [ 3
A+ K ar#a "e (!r(ecare a !/ell# strctral& "eter-#nat$ ast(el6
b
pr!(#le rectanglare6
b
pr!(#le c#rclare6
'
A a % J ' W O paralel c '
A+ :
%
AW O paralel c % a
%J'
4 A a
A+ :
>
1DC
4 t 1' W O paralel c '
sec/#n# alc$t#te s"at6 A + :
4t 4% W O paralel c %
In(len/a (!r/e# t$#et!are aspra capac#t$/## "e rez#sten/$ la *nc!+!#ere c (!r/$ a)#al$ a
st,lpl# se #a *n c!ns#"erare "ac$ este *n"epl#n#t$ c!n"#/#a6
01C.442OE" B A.8 O pl.a.R"
b
n acest caz e(!rtl "e calcl pe z!na ar#e# "e (!r(ecare se +a re"ce la +al!area6
r( \" : 01 W k2( \"
4
01C.432
4O E"

n"e6k:W 1
O pl.R"

G#agra-ele "#n (#gra 1C.7 B 3# C& respect#+ "#n (#g. 1C.F& "e+#n cele prezentate *n (#g. 1C.1A.
G#n eca/#a "e pr!#ec/#e pe !r#z!ntal$ rezlt$ -$r#-ea z!ne# netre& "at$ "e +al!r#le6
Np-.R"
'r n :1 sec/#n# rectanglare01C.4C.a2
4 %(c" J Ct 04( r \" W (c" 2
1 sec/#n# c#rclare01C.4C.%2
4 "(c" J Ct 04( r \" W (c" 2
Aceste +al!r# snt -a# -ar# "ec,t +al!r#le !%/#nte "#n rela/##le 01C.14.a&%2& pr#n r-are (!r/a
t$#et!are sp!re3te z!na #nact#+$ a sec/#n## c +al!area6
MA : 4% 0' n W ' r 201C.482n
M!-entl plast#c rez#stent se +a re"ce la +al!area6
Mr .R" : M-a) .R" W Mr .R" P Mpl.R"pln
'r n :
Np-.R"
01C.4E2
5#g. 1C.1A
1C.C. E)e-pl n-er#c
Se +er#(#c$& *n c!n(!r-#tate c EC C& ele-entl c sec/#ne c!-ps$ !/el1%et!n& real#zat *n
+ar#anta c!nstrct#+$ "e /ea+$ c#rclar$ -plt$ c %et!n.
Gate "e pr!#ectare
1D8
Sec/#nea ele-entl# 3# s!l#c#t$r#le "e calcl6
5#g. E.1
Caracter#st#c#le c!-p!nentel!r sec/#n##
Pr!(#l -etal#c6 mea+$ c#rclar$ 348 n F -- 1 !/el S 388
1 (\:388 N[--41 Aa:7D.7 c-4
1 Ea: 41A AAA N[--41 Ia:1A A1C c-C
1 Ra:1.11 ipa. :FAC.AF c-3
Bet!n6 Clasa C 48[3A6
1 (c9 : 48 N[--4
1 Ec- : 3A 8AA N[--4
1 Rc :1.8
1 A c : 78A c- 4
C>" c> 3A.D C
Ic :W IS :W 1 EAE : C3 1C8 c- C
ECEC
3
"c3A.D 3
ipc :W ips :W 171 : C 7CE c- 3
EE
Ar-$tra6 Otel S 8AA 0 PC 84 2
1 F ` 4A6 As:48.14 c-4
1 Es:41A AAA N[--4
1 Rs:1.18
4Is : 40 A s1 e 41 J 4A s1 e s4 2 : 1 EAE
c-Cs
ips : 40 A s1 e s1 J 4A s1 e s4 2 : 171 c-3
Oer#(#carea c!n"#/##l!r "e apl#care a -et!"e# "e calcl
Se calcleaz$ Npl.R" 6
8AAA388A48A
Npl.R" : 7D.7J 78AJ 48.14: CD1 EEC "aN
1.11 .81.18
Aa(\ [ Ra:7D.7 388A [ 1.1: 487 41C "aN
b A.4PI:4874[CD1E:A.84PA.D
b
b
b
Y : A.D87 P 4
As : 48.14 P A.AE A c:C8
" [ t : 348[F : CA.E48P -a)0"[t2: DA 0438[3882:8D.E
f
Oer#(#carea ele-entl#
R#g#"#tatea elast#c$ a ele-entl#6
0EI2e : 0EI2\ : 4.1 1A A1C 1A E J A.E A.3A8 C3 1C8 1A E J 4.1 1EAE 1A E :
: 34 4DF 1A E "aN c- 4
Se calcleaz$ Npl.R9 6
1DE
N pl.R9 : 7D.7 388A J 78A 48A J 48.14 8AAA : 8DE A38 "aN
5!r/a cr#t#c$ "e ce"are 6
> 4 34 4DF 1A E
N cr :: E8A 8CF "aN
4
0A.7 1AAA 2
S+elte/ea a"#-ens#!nal$ Y 6
Y:
f
f
48DE A38: A.D87 P 4 ? ` : A&8 1 J a Y W A&4 J Y :1.A3? a :A.41 1 cr%a a

E8A 8CF
0 2
_:
f
1
` J `4 W Y
4
:A.7AF
Ge!arece Y B A.8 n se /#ne c!nt "e e(ectl "e c!n(#nare a %et!nl#.
Oer#(#carea la c!-pres#ne centr#c$
NE"4 8AA
:: A.74 P 1
_ N pl.R" A.7AF C D17
C!-pres#ne c *nc!+!#ere
Ge!arece Y : A.D87 P A.F [01 W I2 : 1.EF se p!ate negl#.a #n(len/a *nc$rc$r## "e lng$
"rat$.
Pentr +er#(#carea e(ectel!r "e !r"#nl II se calcleaz$ (act!rl "e a-pl#(#care a -!-entl#
*nc!+!#et!r "e !r"#nl I6
r : A? j : A.EE J A.CCr : A.EE
> 4 EI e(( .II > 4 47FF3 1A EjA.EE
9:::: 8E1EAA "aN: 1.1D ? Ncr.e(( :
44NE"48AA
l7AA
1W1W
8E1ENcr.e((
EI e(( .II : A.D04.1 1AA1C J A.8 A.3A8 C31C8 J 4.1 1EAE 2 1A E : 47FF3 1A E "aN c- 4
ME" : 9 M E" : 1.1D 1AA : 11D 9N -
f
Cr%a "e #nterac/#ne
Capac#tatea p!rtant$ a %et!nl#6
(48A
Np-.R" : A c c9 : 78A : 148 AAA "aN
Rc1.8
P!z#/#a a)e# netre 0negl#.,n" c!ntr#%/#a ar-$tr## "#n a)a netr$2 6
Np-.R"148 AAA
'n ::: C.AC c-
4 "(c" J Ct 04( \" W (c" 2 4 34.8 1E7 J C A.F04 3447 W 1E72
M!"lele "e rez#sten/$ plast#ce pentr p!r/#nea "e *n$l/#-e 4 'n "#n sec/#ne6
1 !/el6
4i pa.n : 4 t ' n : 4 A.F C.AC 4 : 4E.1 c- 3
1 %et!n6
4ipc.n : " c ' n : 3A.D C.AC 4 : 8AC .3 c- 3
1 ar-$tr$6 ips.n:A 1 n e)#st$ ar-$tr$ pe z!na 4 'n.
M!-entele capa%#le caracter#st#ce 6
1D7
388A48A8AAA
J A.8 C7CEJ 17121A W C : 373.C3 9N-
1.11.81.18
388A48A
Mn.R" : 04E.1J A.8 8AC.321A W C : 14.E 9N-
1.11 .8
Mpl.R" : 373.C3 W 14.E3 : 3EA.F 9N -
M-a) .R" : 0FAC
C!!r"!natele pnctel!r cr%e# "e
#nterac/#ne& *n N <9N= 3# M <9N -= snt
r-$t!arele6
A 0 C D17? A 2?
B 0A? 3EA.F2?
C 01484.8? 3EA.F 2?
G 0E4E.48? 373.C3 2.
Cr%a "e #nterac/#ne este trasat$ *n
gra(#cl "#n (#gra E.4.
5#g. E.4
Pentr a e(ecta +er#(#carea la c!-pres#ne e)centr#c$ se calcleaz$ c!e(#c#en/##
a"#-ens#!nal#6
N S"4 8AA
:: A.8AF ?
Npl.R" C D17
_" :
_ p- :
]" :
Np-.R"
Npl.R"
:
1484.8
: A.488 ?
CD17
1W _"1 W A.8AF
:: A.EE
1 W _ p- 1 W A.488
G#agra-a ] W _ este prezentat$ *n (#gra E.3.
5#g. E.3
Oal!area -!-entl# capa%#l al ele-entl# este6
M cap : a M ] " M pl.R" : A.D A.EE 3EA.F : 41C.3 9N - B M E" : 9 M E" : 11D 9N -
Pr#n r-are snt +er#(#cate c!n"#/##le6
NE"ME"
: A.8A P a M : A.D: A.74 P 1?
_ N pl.R"] " M pl.R"
1DF
18. CONSOLIGAREA ELEMENTELOR
COMPRIMATE
18.1 Aspecte generale
n cazl %arel!r s!l#c#tate la c!-pres#ne a)#al$& lcr$r#le "e c!ns!l#"are p!t a+ea ca sc!p
pr#nc#pal r-$t!arele6
1 -$r#rea capac#t$/## p!rtante a %are#?
1 re"cerea n#+ell# "e s!l#c#tare 0-#c3!rarea e(!rtr#l!r n#tare n!r-ale2?
1 -$r#rea r#g#"#t$/## %are# 0re"cerea c!e(#c#en/#l!r "e z+elte/e a %are#2?
1 *-p#e"#carea +!al$r## ta%lel!r care #ntr$ *n alc$t#rea sec/#n## trans+ersale a %are#.
Re"cerea e(!rtr#l!r n#tare n!r-ale este *n #nter"epen"en/$ c -$r#rea r#g#"#t$/## %are#&
"e!arece pr#n -#c3!rarea c!e(#c#en/#l!r "e z+elte/e a %are#& cre3te c!e(#c#entl "e re"cere
0(la-%a.2 3# cre3te #-pl#c#t capac#tatea p!rtant$ a %are#.
La real#zarea c!ns!l#"$r## tre%#e a+te *n +e"ere 3# aspectele c!nstrct#+e& respect#+
p!s#%#l#t$/#le reale "e real#zare a c!ns!l#"$r##& s$ n (#e (a+!r#zat$ "epnerea "e pra( 3# sta/#!narea
ape#& p!s#%#l#t$/#le "e *ntre/#nere 0cr$/#re& +!ps#re2 etc. n (#gra 18.1 snt prezentate c!n"#/## pentr
real#zarea *ntre/#ner##.
5#g. 18.1. C!n"#/## pentr
real#zarea *ntre/#ner##
n (#gra 18.4 snt prezentate c,te+a p!s#%#l#t$/# "e c!ns!l#"are& pr#n sp!r#rea sec/#n#l!r&
pentr %arele gr#nz#l!r c z$%rele& real#zate *n s!l/#e "e asa-%lare n#t#t$.
n cazl %arel!r c sec/#ne alc$t#t$ "#n ele-ente -lt "ep$rtate s!l#"ar#zate c pl$c/e
sa c z$%rel/e& sp!r#rea capac#t$/## p!rtante a %are# se p!ate real#za 3# pr#n -!"#(#c$r# a"se
ele-entel!r "e s!l#"ar#zare& c- ar (#6
1 -$r#rea n-$rl# "e pl$c/e?
1 -$r#rea r#g#"#t$/## pl$c/el!r?
1 #ntr!"cerea n!r z$%rel/e "e s!l#"ar#zare spl#-entare 0sc'#-%area sc'e-e# "e
s!l#"ar#zare2.
Pr#n aceste -!"#(#c$r# se p!ate -#c3!ra c!e(#c#entl "e z+elte/e al %are# *n rap!rt c a)a
#-ater#al$.
1DD
a2 talpa sper#!ar$?
%2 talpa #n(er#!ar$?
c2 z$%rele?
"2 c!ntra+,nt#r#
5#g. 18.4. C!ns!l#"area %arel!r gr#nz#l!r c z$%rele pr#n sp!r#rea sec/#n#l!r
Pentr %arele c!-pr#-ate ale gr#nz#l!r c z$%rele pr#nc#pale se (!l!sesc *n spec#al sec/#n#
c'es!n& "esc'#s sa *nc'#s. n acest caz tre%#e ac!r"at$ ! aten/#e "e!se%#t$ s!l#"ar#z$r#l!r
0"#a(rag-el!r2 care leag$ pere/## c'es!nl#& acestea *n"epl#n#n" r-$t!arele (nc/#n#6
1 leag$ pere/## c'es!nl#& !%l#g,n" c!nlcrarea l!r?
1 sta%#l#zeaz$ pere/## *-p!tr#+a +!al$r## 0a+,n" "ec# r!ll "e r#g#"#z$r#2?
1 *-p#e"#c$ "e(!r-area pere/#l!r *n cazl n!r ac/#n# l!cale.
S!l#"ar#z$r#le se a-plaseaz$& *n pr#nc#p#& *n t!ate n!"r#le strctr##& *n "reptl reaze-el!r&
a antret!azel!r 3# *n pnctele "e "esc$rcare a n!r sarc#n# l!cale.
S!l#"ar#z$r#le se real#zeaz$ "#n "#a(rag-e trans+ersale (#)ate pe pere/#& (#e c c!rn#ere K *n
cazl alc$t#r## sec/#n#l!r pr#n n#t#re& (#gra 18.3& (#e pr#n s"are K *n cazl sec/#n#l!r alc$t#te
s"at& (#gra 18.C.
G#a(rag-ele n se s"eaz$ "#rect "e pere/## c'es!anel!r& c# pr#n #nter-e"#l n!r pl$c/e
#nter-e"#are? *n acest -!" se e+#t$ e)ectarea c!r"!anel!r trans+ersale e(!rtl# pr#nc#pal *n
lngl %are#.
5#g. 18.3. G#a(rag-e la %are
alc$t#te n#t#t
4AA
5#g. 18.C. G#a(rag-e la %are
alc$t#te s"at
18.4. Baza "e calcl pentr c!ns!l#"area
%are# c!-pr#-ate pr#n sp!r#rea sec/#n##
C!ns!l#"$r#le care se real#zeaz$ pr#n sp!r#rea sec/#n## #n#/#ale a ele-entel!r snt "es
t#l#zate atnc# c,n" se r-$re3te cre3terea capac#t$/## p!rtante a ele-entel!r sa a strctr## "e
rez#sten/$ *n ansa-%l& sa p!t (# apl#cate *n r-a n!r zr# (#z#ce #-p!rtante 0c!r!z#ne& l!+#tr#
etc.2. P#esele n!# care se a"ag$ pentr a -$r# caracter#st#c#le "e rez#sten/$ ale sec/#n## se +!r
a-plasa *n (nc/#e "e sec/#nea "e %az$ a ele-entl# care r-eaz$ s$ (#e c!ns!l#"at.
n cazl %arel!r s!l#c#tate la e(!rtr# a)#ale -ater#all "e a"a!s se a-plaseaz$ & pe c,t
p!s#%#l& s#-etr#c (a/$ "e a)e pentr a n se -!"#(#ca a)a #n#/#al$ a %are# pr#n #ntr!"cerea n!r
e)centr#c#t$/# *n n!"r# 0*n cazl gr#nz#l!r c z$%rele2 sa -!"#(#carea a)e# netre.
Pentr pr!#ectarea c!ns!l#"$r## ne# %are c!-pr#-ate pr#n sp!r#rea sec/#n##& se p!rne3te "e
la rela/#a "e +er#(#care la sta%#l#tate a %are# c!-pr#-ate centr#c6
NE"
018.12X 1. A
N%.R"
Rez#sten/a "e calcl 0capac#tatea p!rtant$ sa e(!rtl capa%#l2 la (la-%a. a n# ele-ent
c!-pr#-at este "at$ "e rela/#a6
_ -#n A ( \
W sec t#n# Clasa 1& 4 sa 3

R M1
N%.R" : 018.42
_-#n A e(( ( \
W sec t#n# Clasa C

R M1
Rela/#a "e +er#(#care a %are# c!ns!l#"ate& pr#n a"$garea n!r p#ese c ar#a Ac & *n s#ta/#a *n
care& *n -!-entl c!ns!l#"$r## %are#& strctra este *nc$rcat$ n-a# c sarc#n#le per-anente +a (#6
NE".g NE".P
J cX1018.32
Nn.R" N%.R"%
*n care6
1 NE".g 1 e(!rtl a)#al *n %ar$& *na#nte "e e(ectarea c!ns!l#"$r## 0*n general "#n ac/#n#le
per-anente2?
4A1
1 NE".P 1 e(!rtl a)#al care se a"ag$ *n %ar$ "p$ e(ectarea c!ns!l#"$r## 0"#n ac/#n#le
t#le2& a(ectate& "ac$ este cazl& "e c!e(#c#entl "#na-#c?
n
1 N%.R" 1 rez#sten/a "e calcl la (la-%a. 0capac#tatea p!rtant$2 a %are# a+,n" sec/#nea
#n#/#al$& nec!ns!l#"at$?
c
1 N%.R" 1 rez#sten/a "e calcl 0capac#tatea p!rtant$2 la (la-%a. a %are# a+,n" sec/#nea
c!ns!l#"at$ c ele-ente "e a"a!s.
Pr#n a"$garea n!r ele-ente la sec/#nea #n#/#al$& *n general se -#c3!reaz$ clasa sec/#n##
%are# 3# se -!"#(#c$ *n sens (a+!ra%#l caracter#st#c#le "e rez#sten/$ ale sec/#n## %are#.
Rez#sten/ele "e calcl ale %are# se e+aleaz$ c rela/##le6
Bara #n#/#al$ c ar#a sec/#n## A ! 6
_ n A ! ( \-#n W sec t#ne Clasa 1& 4 sa 3
R M1
Nn.R" : %
n.e(( _ -#n A !.e(( ( \
W sec t#ne Clasa C

R M1
Bara c!ns!l#"at$ c ele-entele "e a"a!s "e ar#e A c 6
c _ -#n 0 A ! J A c 2 ( \
W sec t#ne Clasa 1& 4 sa 3
R M1
:
c.e(( _ -#n 0 A !. J A c 2e(( ( \
W sec t#ne Clasa C

R M1
018.C2
c
N%.R"
018.82
C!e(#c#entl "e re"cere _ se "eter-#n$ *n (nc/#e "e c!e(#c#entl "e z+elte/e re"s Y &
c!respnz$t!r cr%e# "e (la-%a. a sec/#n##& pentr -!"l "e p#er"ere a sta%#l#t$/## c!ns#"erat.
Pr#n r-are se p!ate scr#e rela/#a general$ "e e+alare a c!e(#c#entl# "e re"cere6


W Y : A( \ j A _ : _
Ncr


W cr%a "e (la-%a.

018.E2
W Clase 1& 4& 3 1
n"e6 j A : ? N cr 1 a se +e"ea ta%ell 8.7.
A e(( [ A W Clasa C
Se !%ser+$ (aptl c$& *n cazl sec/#n#l!r Clasa C& ar#a e(ect#+$ 0e(#cace2 #nter+#ne *n
+al!area Y 0pr#n j A 2 3# #-pl#c#t *n +al!area c!e(#c#entl# "e re"cere _ & #ar *n al "!#lea r,n" *n
calcll N%.R" n"e se !pereaz$ c A e(( .
Pentr e+alarea (!r/e# cr#t#ce "e (la-%a. Ncr se !pereaz$ c caracter#st#c#le sec/#n## %rte.
n cazl %arel!r s!l#c#tate la c!-pres#ne& e(#c#en/a c!ns!l#"$r## "ep#n"e e+#"ent "e -!"l *n
care este "#str#%#t -ater#all "e a"a!s *n rap!rt c sec/#nea #n#/#al$ a %are#. Ast(el& e(#c#en/a
-ater#all# a"$gat 0"e ar#e Ac2 este c at,t -a# -are& c c,t se !%/#ne n c!e(#c#ent "e re"cere
_ -a# -are. Aceasta *nsea-n$ ca *n r-a c!ns!l#"$r## s$ rezlte raze "e g#ra/#e ale sec/#n##
s!l#"ar#zate c,t -a# -ar#& care s$ c!n"c$ la re"cerea z+elte/#l!r *n rap!rt c a)ele pr#nc#pale ale
sec/#n##.
4A4
18.3. E)e-pl "e calcl
S$ se anal#zeze s!l/#a "e c!ns!l#"are a ne# %are -etal#ce c!-pr#-ate a)#al& pr#n sp!rl
"e *nc$rcare t#l$ care p!ate (# prelat "e %ar$ *n r-a c!ns!l#"$r## aceste#a pr#n -$r#rea sec/#n##
#n#/#ale c ele-ente "e a"a!s s"ate.
Se cn!sc r-$t!arele "ate "e pr!#ectare6
b
b
-ater#al6 !/el S 3886 ( \ : 388 N [ -- 4 ? d : A.F1 ?
sec/#nea trans+ersal$ a %are#& lng#-# "e (la-%a. 0cr#t#ce2& s!l#c#t$r# "e calcl& (#gra E.1?
Lng#-# "e (la-%a.6
L: F.AA -
] \ : 1 ? ] z : ] o : A.8
L cr.\ : ] \ L : F.A -
L cr .z : L cr .o : ] z 0] o 2 L : C.A -
S!l#c#t$r# "e calcl6
NE" : 8AAA 9N
"#n care6
W NE".g : FAA 9N
W NE".P : C4AA 9N
5#g. E.1
b %ara se +a c!ns!l#"a pr#n a"$garea n!r ele-ente s"ate la sec/#nea #n#/#al$& rezlt,n" !
sec/#ne "e t#p crce& c "!$ a)e "e s#-etr#e& a+,n" "#-ens#n#le ge!-etr#ce 3#
caracter#st#c#le "e rez#sten/$ prezentate *n (#gra E.4.
5#g. E.4
4A3
Apl#care n-er#c$
Bara nec!ns!l#"at$
Clasa sec/#n##. Sec/#nea e(ect#+$
T$lp#le6
T$lp#le snt alc$t#te "#n c,te "!$ pl$c# *n c!ns!l$& s!l#c#tate la c!-pres#ne n#(!r-$&
p : 1 ? 9 q : A.C3 .
c 03AA W 1A 2 [ 4
:: 7.48 P Dd : 7.4D Clasa 1
t(4A
In#-a6
In#-a este ! plac$ reze-at$ pe "!$ latr#& s!l#c#tat$ la c!-pres#ne n#(!r-$& (#gra E.3.
p : 1? 9 q : C
c8AA
:: 8A B C4 d : 3C.A4 Clasa C
tZ1A
Sec/#nea trans+ersal$ a %are# este Clasa C.
5#g. E.3
Rezlt$6
Yp :
k:
%p [ t
4F.C d 9 q
4
Yp
:
8AA [ 1A
4F.C A.F1 C
: 1.AFE B A.E73
Y p W A.44
: A.73C % e(( : k % p : A.73C 8AA : 3E7 --
% e : % e(( [ 4 : 1FC --
Sec/#nea e(ect#+$ a %are#& pentr s!l#c#tarea "e c!-pres#ne&
este prezentat$ *n (#gra E.C.
A e(( : 18E.FA c-4
5#g. E.C
Rez#sten/a la (la-%a.
Bara c!-pr#-at$ are sec/#ne "%l s#-etr#c$& #ar (la-%a.l aceste#a se p!ate pr!"ce pr#n
*nc!+!#ere sa pr#n r$sc#re& (!r/ele cr#t#ce "e (la-%a. (##n" r-$t!arele6
4AC
> 4EI\ > 4 4.1 1A E D.18F 1A C W 4
N cr.\ : 4:1A : 4D E4F 9N
4
L cr.\FAA

> 4EIz > 4 4.1 1A E DAAC W 4
1A : 11 E84 9N: N cr.z : 44
L cr.zCAA
Ncr :
1 > 4EIo
J GI t :
N cr.T : No : 4 4
#! L cr.o
EE 4 : 1 > 4.1 1A E.AF4 1A J A.FA7 1A E 177 1A W 4 : 18 7AF 9N
8D4 CAA 4

I\ J Iz 0D.18F J A.DAAC 21A C14:: 8D4 c-4 ? It : 8A 1 3 J 4 3A 4 3 : 177 c-Cn"e6 #! :
3A!17A
A+,n" *n +e"ere +al!r#le !%/#nte pentr (!r/ele cr#t#ce& rezlt$ c$ p#er"erea sta%#l#t$/## %are#
se p!ate pr!"ce (#e pr#n *nc!+!#ere *n rap!rt c a)a z& (#e pr#n r$sc#re.
n c!nt#nare& l,n" *n c!ns#"erare (aptl c$& at,t pentr (la-%a. *n rap!rt c a)a z& c,t 3# la
(la-%a. pr#n r$sc#re& sec/#nea se *nca"reaz$ *n cr%a c& rezlt$ c$ (la-%a.l se pr!"ce pr#n
*nc!+!#ere *n rap!rt c a)a z 0"e!arece Ncr .z P Ncr .T : No 2.
Se calcleaz$ *n c!nt#nare c!e(#c#entl "e z+elte/e re"s 0c na "#n cele 3 rela/##2& *n
n.e(((nc/#e "e care rezlt$ c!e(#c#entl "e re"cere _ : _ -#n 6
0 2
Yz :
A ! (\
Ncr.z
jA :
A !.e(( ( \
Ncr.z
:
L cr.z
#z
A !.e((
A!
Y1
18E.F
CAA 17A
:: A.ED
7.3 7E.AE
_ : A.73 0cr%a c2
n"e6 Y1 : D3.D d : 7E.AE
Rez#sten/a %are# la c!-pres#ne c (la-%a. 0capac#tatea p!rtant$2 +a (#6
A !.e(( ( \18E.F 388A W 4nN%.R" : _: A.731A : 3EDC 9N
R M11.1
Ge!arece6
NE"8AAA
:: 1.38 B 1 & %ara n +er#(#c$ c!n"#/#a "e rez#sten/$ 0c!-pres#ne c (la-%a.2.
Nn.R" 3EDC%
E(!rtl a)#al pe care *l p!ate prela %ara nec!ns!l#"at$& rezltat n-a# "#n ac/#n# t#le& are
+al!area6
cap.NE".Pn : Nn.r" W NE".g : 3 EDC W FAA : 4 FDC 9N B NE".P : C 4AA 9N%
Bara c!ns!l#"at$
Clasa sec/#n##
In#-a6
In#-a este "#+#zat$ pr#n c!ns!l#"are *n "!$ s%pan!r# s!l#c#tate la c!-pres#ne n#(!r-$.
c r 4C8
:: 4C.8 P 33 d : 4E.73 Clasa 1
tZ1A
Pr#n r-are sec/#nea c!ns!l#"at$ este Clasa 1 3# se +a !pera c ar#a %rt$.
Rez#sten/a la (la-%a.
Bara c!-pr#-at$ c!ns!l#"at$ are sec/#ne "%l s#-etr#c$& (la-%a.l aceste#a se p!ate
pr!"ce pr#n *nc!+!#ere sa pr#n r$sc#re& (!r/ele cr#t#ce "e (la-%a. (##n" r-$t!arele6
4A8
> 4EIc > 4 4.1 1A E D.C48 1A C W 4\c N cr.\ : 41A : 3A CD4 9N:
L cr.\FAA 4

c> 4EIc > 4 4.1 1A E 8.178 1A C W 4z1A : EE DEF 9N: N cr.z : 4
L cr.z
CAA 4

Nc : cr
1 > 4EIc ccNcr.T : No : 4 4 o J GIc : t

#!.c L cr.o
EE 4 : 1 > 4.1 1A 7.313 1A J A.FA7 1A E 4D7 1A W 4 : 43 8EA 9N
8A3.C CAA 4

n"e6
Ic J Ic0D.C48 J 8.178 21A C : 8A3.C c-4 ?
\z4#! ::
A! J Ac4DA
1
8A 1 3 J 4 3A 4 3 J 4 4A 1 3 J 4 4A 4 3 : 4D7 c-C
3
A+,n" *n +e"ere +al!r#le !%/#nte pentr (!r/ele cr#t#ce& rezlt$ c$ p#er"erea sta%#l#t$/## %are#
se +a pr!"ce pr#n r$sc#rea sec/#n## %are#.
Se calcleaz$ *n c!nt#nare c!e(#c#entl "e z+elte/e re"s& *n (nc/#e "e care rezlt$
cc!e(#c#entl "e re"cere _ T : _-#n 6
Ic :t
43 8EA 1A
Rez#sten/a %are# la c!-pres#ne c (la-%a. pr#n r$sc#re0capac#tatea p!rtant$2 +a (#6
0 A !. J A c 2 ( \4DA 388A W 4cN%.R" : _: A.E71A : E471 9N
R M11.1
YT :
0 A ! J A c 2( \
Ncr.T
:
4DA 388A
4
0 2
: A.EE _ T : A.E7 0cr%a "2
Calcll rezer+e# "e capac#tate p!rtant$ a %are#
A+,n" *n +e"ere rela/#a "e +er#(#care a %are# c!ns!l#"ate6
NE".g NE".P
J cX1
n
N%.R" N%.R"
Se !%/#ne e(!rtl a)#al -a)#- pe care *l p!ate prela %ara c!ns!l#"at$& pr!"s "e ac/#n#le
t#le& aceasta a+,n" n e(!rt #n#/#al "e c!-pres#ne pr!"s "e ac/#n#le per-anente6
N E".g FAA ccNE".P : N%.R" 1 W n : E471 1 W
: C D13 9N
N
3EDC
%.R"
G#n pnct "e +e"ere pract#c& %ara p!ate prela n e(!rt a)#al spl#-entar "#n ac/#n# t#le&
(a/$ "e e(!rtl a)#al #n#/#al 0pentr care %ara era s%"#-ens#!nat$2& a+,n" +al!area6
spc!NE".Pl. : NE".P W NE".P : CD13 W C4AA : 713 9N
Gac$ anal#z$- capac#tatea p!rtant$ *n rap!rt c sec/#nea nec!ns!l#"at$& c re(er#re la
e(!rtl "e c!-pres#ne pr!"s "e ac/#n#le t#le& a+e- s#ta/#a6
sp lc!.capNE".P..r : NE".P W NE".P : CD13 W 4FDC : 4 A1D 9N
4AE
BIBLIOGRA5IE
1.
4.
3.
C.
8.
E.
7.
F.
D.
1A.
11.
14.
13.
1C.
18.
1E.
17.
1F.
1D.
4A.
41.
44.
43.
4C.
48.
4E.
47.
4F.
4D.
3A.
31.
34.
33.
BIA& C.& ILLE& O.& SOARE& M. O.6 Rez#sten/a -ater#alel!r 3# te!r#a elast#c#t$/##. E.G.P.
Bcre3t#. 1DF3
BONGARINC& O.& BNCIL& R.& BOLGNs& G.6 P!"r# -etal#ce. O!l. I& II& Nn#+ers#tatea P!l#te'n#ca
T#-#3!ara. 1DD7
BetRN u;ESSON6 Plate Bc9l#ng #n Br#"ges an" !t'er Strctres. Ta\l!r v 5ranc#s.
L!n"!n. 4AA7
BNC I.& OPRAN O.& MNHLBACHER& R.& POPA& N.6 P!"r# -etal#ce. E)e-ple "e pr!#ectare.
E.G.P. Bcre3t#. 1DF1
GNmIN& st& MOGA& C.6 Strctr# c!-pse !/el %et!n. Bazele pr!#ect$r## 3# e)e-ple "e calcl.
NT PRESS. 4A11
HANGAN& S.& IORGNESCN& M.& GHERMNESCN 1 ;NNST& M.6 Mecan#ca C!nstrc/##l!r.
E.G.P.& Bcre3t#. 1DD8
eANTEA& C.& OARLAM& 5.6 P!"r# -etal#ce. Alc$t#re 3# calcl. Casa E"#t!r#al$ wGe-#rgx& Ia3#. 1DDE
eANTEA& C.& OARLAM& 5.& COMISN& C.6 P!"r# -etal#ce. Sprastrctr# c platela. !rt!tr!p.
E)e-pl "e calcl. Casa "e E"#tr$ Oens. Ia3#. 4AAA
eOHANSSON& B.& MAyNOI&R.& SEGLACE;&G.& MzLLER&C.& BEG&G.6 C!--entar\ an" Z!r9e"
e)a-ples t! EN 1DD31118 {Plate" strctral ele-entsx 0pr!gra--e !( CEN[TC 48A2. 4AA7
MATEESCN& G.& CARABA& I.6 C!nstrc/## -etal#ce. Calcll 3# pr!#ectarea ele-entel!r "#n !/el.
EG. Te'n#c$. 1DFA
MASILN& P.& mOPA& N.& IEREMIA& M.6 Te!r#a 3# calcll pl$c#l!r !rt!tr!pe. E.T. Bcre3t#. 1DF3
MOGA& P.& PCNRAR&O.&GNmIN& st.&MOGA& C.6 P!"r# -etal#ce. Sprastrctr$ p!" "e cale
(erat$. N.T.PRESS. 4AA7
MOGA&P.& PCNRAR&O.& GNmIN&sT.& MOGA&C.6 Calcll ele-entel!r -etal#ce.
N!r-e r!-,ne 1 Er!c!"e 3. N.T.PRESS. 4AAE
MOGA&P.&PCNRAR&O.&GNmIN&sT.&MOGA&C.6 C!nstrc/## 3# p!"r# -etal#ce. Apl#care
er!n!r-e. N.T.PRESS. 4AA7
MOGA& P. GNmIN st.& MOGA.C.6 Bazele pr!#ect$r## ele-entel!r "#n !/el. Apl#care er!n!r-e.
N.T.PRESS. 4A11
MOGA& P.& PCNRAR&O.&GNmIN& st.&MOGA& C.6 Ele-ente -etal#ce. E)e-ple "e calcl.
N.T.PRESS. 4AAF
MOGA& P.6 P!"r#. Sprastrctr# -etal#ce 3# c!-pse !/el1%et!n. N.T.PRESS. 4A11
MOGA& P.& GNmIN& st..6 P!"r# -etal#ce. G'#" "e pr!#ectare. NT PRES. 4A1A
MOGA& P.& GNmIN st.6 P!"r# -etal#ce. ntre/#nere 3# rea%#l#tare. N.T.PRESS. 4A1A
TRAHAIR&NS.& BRAG5ORG& MA.& GARGNER&L.6 T'e %e'a+#!r an" "es#gn !( steel strctres t!
EC3. Ta\l!r v 5ranc#s. L!n"!n. 5!rt' e"#t#!n. 4AAF
rrr SR 1D111DF. P!"r# -etal#ce "e cale (erat$. Prescr#p/## "e pr!#ectare
rrr Steel B!) G#r"er Br#"ges. AASHTO& O!l. D7. 1D7C
rrr InV#r\ #nt! t'e Bas#s !( Ges#gn an" Met'!" !( Erect#!n !( Steel B!) G#r"er Br#"ges. Part I& II&
III& IO. L!n"!n. 1D7C
rrr ENROCOGE 1. Act#!ns !n strctres. EN 1DD1
rrr ENROCOGE 3. Part 1. Ges#gn !( Steel Strctres. EN 1DD36 4AA3
rrr ENROCOGE 3. Part 4. Steel Br#"ges. EN 1DD3146 4AA8
rrr SR EN 1DD31111[4AAE. Er!c!" 36 Pr!#ectarea strctr#l!r "e !/el.
Partea 1116 Regl# generale 3# regl# pentr cl$"#r#
rrr SR EN 1DD31118[4AAE. Er!c!" 36 Pr!#ectarea strctr#l!r "e !/el.
Partea 1186 Ele-ente "#n pl$c# plane s!l#c#tate *n planl l!r
rrr SR EN 1DD3111D[4AAE. Er!c!" 36 Pr!#ectarea strctr#l!r "e !/el.
Partea 11D6 O%!seala
rrr SR EN 1DD314[4AA7. Er!c!" 36 Pr!#ectarea strctr#l!r "e !/el.
Partea 46 P!"r# "e !/el
rrr SR EN 1DDC14[4AAE. Er!c!" C 6 Pr!#ectarea strctr#l!r c!-p!z#te "e !/el 3# %et!n. Partea
4 6 Regl# generale 3# regl# pentr p!"r#
rrr SR EN 1DDC111 1[4AAE. Er!c!" C 6 Partea 111 6 Regl# generale 3# regl# pentr cl$"#r#
rrr Se-#nar !n ENROCOGE 3. Ges#gn !( Steel Strctres. Te-ps C8A41D4. T#-#3!ara. 1DD3
4A7
3C.
38.
3E.
37.
3F.
3D.
CA.
C1.
C4.
rrr Se-#nar !n ENROCOGE 3. Part 1.3. C!l" (!r-e" gage -e-%ers an" s'eet#ng.
Te-ps C8A41DC. T#-#3!ara. 1DD8
rrr ENROCOGE 3. E)e-ple "e calcl. Te-ps P'are Pr!.ect A11DF. 1DD7
rrr Er!pen Steel Ges#gn E"cat#!n Pr!gra--e. ESGEP. C!rse iG1TiG1F
rrr SSEGTA6 Strctral SteelZ!r9 Er!c!"es Ge+el!p-ent !( A Trans1nat#!nal Appr!ac'
rrr Le!nar"! "a O#nc# P#l!t Pr!.ect CS[A4[B[5[PP113CAA7& Ge+el!p-ent !( s9#lls (ac#l#tat#ng
#-ple-entat#!n !( Er!c!"es. HANGBOO; 1. Bas#s !( Strctral Ges#gn
rrr Oer#(#carea la sta%#l#tate a ele-entel!r "#n !/el *n c!n(!r-#tate c SR EN 1DD311.1.
Rec!-an"$r# "e calcl& c!-entar## s# e)e-ple "e apl#care. C!ntr. nr. C4C[AF.14.4AAD. T#-#3!ara. 4A1A
SNAA3a1EN1EN K NCCI6 Elast#c cr#t#cal -!-ent (!r lateral t!rs#!nal %c9l#ng.
ZZZ.access1steel.c!-
rrrACCESS STEEL. NCCI6 M!n!1s\--etr#cal n#(!r- -e-%ers n"er %en"#ng an" a)#al
c!-press#!n. SNO3Aa1EN1EN. 4AAE
Pr!#ecte real#zate "e |C. PROeECT. Cl. 1 Nap!ca
SITE 1 r# iEB
'ttp6[[ZZZ.ctre.#astate.e"
'ttp6[[ZZZ.sect#!ns.arcel!r.c!-
'ttp6[[ZZZ.setra.eV#pe-ent.g!+.(r
'ttp6[[#ntra.setra.#4
'ttp6[[ZZZ.9cares.c!-
'ttp6[[ZZZ.nels!n1er!pe."e
'ttp6[[ZZZ.er!pr!(#l.l
'ttp6[[ZZZ.r#-ta9a1#ncl#ne1ra#lZa\.!rg.nz
'ttp6[[ZZZ.%ang!r.ac.9
'ttp6[[ZZZ.9le+en.%e
'ttp6[[ZZZ.es"ep.!rg
'ttp6[[en.strctrae."e[strctres
'ttp6[[ZZZ.steel%#z.!rg
'ttp6[[ZZZ.#strcte.!rg
'ttp6[[ZZZ.tec'n#Ves1#ngen#er.(r
'ttp6[[!cZ.-#t.e"
'ttp6[[ZZZ.a#sc.!rg
'ttp6[[ZZZ.access1steel.c!-
4AF