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OPTICA

Optica este acea ramura a fizicii care studiaz proprietile luminii i comportamentul
acesteia n interacia ei cu materia. De asemenea se ocup cu studiul instrumentelor ce
genereaz, utilizeaz i detecteaz lumina. Optica se refer la undele electromagnetice
cuprinse n domeniile infrarou, vizibil i ultraviolet. Domeniile razelor X,
microundelor i undelor radio, dei sunt tot unde electromagnetice cu proprieti
asemntoare luminii nu fac obiectul opticii.
Cele mai multe fenomene optice pot fi explicate pe legilor electromagnetismului
clasic. Astfel fenomene precum difracia, reflexia, refracia, interferena sunt explicate
pe baza conceptului de und dezvoltat n electromagnetism.
Alte fenomene precum absorbia i emisia de radiaie se pot explica numai pe baza
conceptului de dualism und-corpuscul introdus de mecanica quantic.


1. Unde elementare i formula lentilelor subiri
Ca i n cazul interferenei, pentru explicarea difraciei vom presupune c
lumina este o und electromagnetic care poate fi reprezentat ntr-un punct din spaiu
printr-o funcie scalar complex, care este amplitudinea complex cmpului electric
al undei luminoase. n acest capitol vom nota aceast funcie complex cu U i o vom
numi amplitudine complex sau simplu amplitudinea undei. De asemenea, vom
propune c lumina se propag n distana axei zz i vom considera repartiia lui U n
planele z=constant raportat la axele ortogonale ox i oy. n acest caz amplitudinea U
va fi o funcie ( ) y x U , . Cnd unda e plan i monocromatic ( ) y x U , este o constant
complex. Mrimea real care are sens fizic este:
( )
t i
Ue e R u

= (1)
unde Re nseamn partea real a funciei complexe din parantez. n ecuaia (1) nu
apare variabla z direct, dar ea este implicat n variabila timp, t. Pentru unda plan care
se propag n direcia axei zz, sau puin nclinat fa de aceasta, putem aproxima:
ct z z + =
0
(2)
Dac pentru aceast und plan monocromatic se scrie amplitudinea complex U sub
forma:

i
ae U = , din (10.50) rezult ( ) ( ) = t a t u cos (3)
Amplitudinea a
r
a oscilaiei armonice cu frecvena unghiular este amplitudinea
real. n ecuaiile lui Maxwell i n cele care deriv din aceasta ,mrimile fizice sunt
variabile instantanee reale de tipul ( ) t u . Intensitatea luminii se determin din U sau a
r
a
prin relaiile:

2 2
2
2 2 a u U I = = = (4)
Cele de mai sus se refer la unda plan monocromatic care are faza ( ) t
constant deci cu i constante. ns, n realitate avem unde quasi-monocromatice
la care amplitudinea i faza nu mai sunt constante. Relaiile (4) rmn valabile i n
acest caz.
n capitolul 6 am artat c amplitudinea complex a unei unde plane se scrie
sub forma:

r K i
e U
r
r
0
(5)
unde K
r
este vectorul de und orientat n direcia de propagare.
Dac introducem cos , cos , cos ai direciei K
r
fa de cele trei axe relaia de
mai sus devine:

( ) + +

cos cos cos


2
0
z y x
e U (6)
unde k k j k i k
u u u
r r r r r r
= = = cos , cos , cos ,
u
k
r
este versorul direciei de propagare, iar k j i
r r r
, ,
sunt versorii axelor ox, oy i respectiv oz. Se poate arta c avem relaia:
1 cos cos cos
2 2 2
= + + (7)
n practic se raporteaz direcia de propagare a lui K
r
la normala la planul xoy i
definesc parametrii p, q, s care reprezint sinusurile unghiurilor dintre K
r
i normala la
suprafa. Din (7) rezult
1
2 2 2
= + + s q p (8)
iar (6) se scrie:
( ) yq xp i
e U
+
=

2

(9)
unde constanta U
0
am considerat-o unitate.
Deci, unda plan care se propag paralel cu axa oz are o amplitudine complex
constant (p=q=0) i o faz care variaz liniar cu x i y. Unda plan elementar este
reprezentat schematic printr-un plan xoy prin raze i suprafee de und, ca n figura
16.
O alt und elementar este unda sferic care este generat de o surs
punctiform. Dac ea este emis de surs la 0 = t , dup un timp t perturbaia de la surs
se distribuie ntr-un mediu omogen i izotrop pe o sfer de raz ct r = , unde c este
viteza de propagare. n general, ne intereseaz unda sferic, din vecintatea unei axe
de propagare zz. La o distan r destul de mare de surs aceast poriune din suprafaa
de und sferic poate fi aproximat prin elementul de plan tangent. (figura 17).


Figura 16. Unda plan
monocromatic n planul xoz cnd
se propag n direcia oz
Figura 17. Unda sferic
divergent care pleac din O n
direcia oz suprafaa sferic poate
fi considerat plan dac r este
mare.

Figura 8.18: Razele i suprafeele de und
pentru o und sferic care converge ctre O i
apoi devine divergent


Cu alte cuvinte, n aceste condii putem aproxima faza undei sferice prin faza
undei plane t Kr . O und sferic cu faza t Kr este o und divergent deoarece
pentru a conserva faza ,la creterea lui t trebuie ca r s creasc. Faza undei sferice
convergente este ( ) t Kr . Figura 18 arat
unda sferic convergent i unda
divergent.
Deoarece energia undei se distribuie
la diverse momente pe sfere succesive cu
raze cresctoare i aceasta nu trebuie s
creasc, este necesar s considerm c
intensitatea unei astfel de unde ntr-un
punct de pe sfer variaz invers
proporional cu ptratul razei sferei adic
2
~

r I . n conformitate cu relaia (4) amplitudinea undei trebuie s varieze invers
proporional cu raza, adic
1
~

r U . Deci, amplitudinea complex a undei sferice este,
pn la o constant, de forma:

r
e
Kr
(10)
Putem verifica uor c aceast funcie este o soluie a ecuaiei de propagare a
undei |

\
|
=

+ 0 U
c
U .
O calot sferic axial (adic din direcia de propagare z) poate fi aproximat cu
un element de plan tangent (figura 17) la distane mari de surs. Adic putem s scriem
c:

2 2 2
z y x << + cu z=constant destul de mare,
z r
1 1
= i

z
y x
z
z
y x
z r
2
1
2 2
2
2
2 2
+
+ =
(

+
+ = (11)
Cu aceste aproximaii amplitudinea complex a undei sferice (8.9) n planul z=constant
se scrie:

( )
2 2
y x
z
i
e U
+

= (12)
Aceast relaie presupune c am omis o constant din faa exponenialei care depinde
de z. n (12) considerm semnul plus pentru unda divergent care pleac de la sursa O
i semnul minus pentru unda convergent care vine la O (vezi figura 18).
Dac unda sferic este centrat n punctul ( )
0 0 0
, , z y x C n loc de punctul ( ) 0 , 0 , 0 0
expresia (12) se scrie:

=
i
e U unde
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
2
0
2
0
0
y y x x
z z
+

= (13)
Din (13) se observ ca faza undei sferice are o dependen ptratic de x i y, n timp
ce relaia (9) ne spune c unda plan
are o faz care depinde liniar de x i y.
n orice experien de optic
putem spune c lumina traverseaz o
succesiune de sisteme optice (unele fiind simple zone de propagare liber) n care
fiecare sistem are un plan de intrare i un plan de ieire, ambele perpendiculare pe axa
de propagare zz. Unele sisteme, cum ar fi lentila subire, au cele dou plane foarte
apropiate i atunci se spune c sistemul este subire. Prin parcurgerea unui sistem optic
cmpul undei luminoase sufer un defazaj i o atenuare n amplitudine care se
exprim prin raportul dintre amplitudinile cmpurilor de la intrare i ieire. n acest
caz se definete transmitana sistemului optic prin numrul complex:

=
i
e t (14)
Aceast definiie ne spune c ntre amplitudinile complexe U
e
de la intrare i U
s
de la
ieirea din sistem, avem:

e s
U t U = (15)
Deoarece se definete transparena sistemului, T,ca fiind raportul dintre
intensitile de la intrare, I
e
i ieire I
s

e s
TI I = i
2
t T = . (16)
S considerm o lentil subire plasat n planul 0 = z (figura 19). Ea are rolul
de a transforma o und plan paralel cu oz, de amplitudine constant, ntr-o und
sferic centrat ntr-un punct F situat la distana f de centrul lentilei. n conformitate
cu relaiile (12) i (15) amplitudinea acestei unde este transmitana lentilei:
( )
2 2
'
y x
f
i
e t
+

= (17)
Dac n relaia (17) f este pozitiv spunem c avem o lentil convergent fiindc unda
sferic convergent are faza negativ (figura 19a). Dac 0 ' < f atunci avem o lentil
divergent (figura 19b).
S considerm o und sferic emis dintr-un punct p z = (pe axa oz). Aceast
und este divergent dac punctul surs este n spaiul obiect (obiect real 0 < p ) i
convergent dac sursa punctiform este n spaiul imagine (obiectul virtual 0 > p ). n
ambele cazuri, amplitudinea undei care pleac de la sursa punctiform este:

( )
2 2
y x
p
i
e
e U
+
=

(18)
Unda de ieire din lentil are amplitudinea:

( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
'
y x
p
i
y x
f
i
e s
e e tU U
+

= = (19)
Aceasta se mai scrie i sub forma:

( )
2 2
'
y x
p
i
s
e U
+

= (20)
unde p este dat de relaia:

'
1 1
'
1
f p p
+ = (21)
Relaia (20) reprezint amplitudinea undei sferice centrat n punctul imagine
din poziia p fa de lentile. Relaia (21) reprezint formula lentilelor subiri n care p
este distana de la obiect (surs) la lentil, p este distana de ;a lentil la imagine i f
este distana focal a lentilei. Aceste mrimi sunt pozitive sau negative n conformitate
cu cele prezentate mai sus.
Sign convention of lens radii R
1
and R
2

Main article: Radius of curvature (optics)
The signs of the lens' radii of curvature indicate whether the corresponding surfaces are
convex or concave. The sign convention used to represent this varies, but in this article ifR
1
is
positive the first surface is convex, and if R
1
is negative the surface is concave. The signs are
reversed for the back surface of the lens: if R
2
is positive the surface is concave, and if R
2
is
negative the surface is convex. If either radius is infinite, the corresponding surface is flat.
With this convention the signs are determined by the shapes of the lens surfaces, and are
independent of the direction in which light travels through the lens.
[edit]Thin lens equation
If d is small compared to R
1
and R
2
, then the thin lens approximation can be made. For a lens
in air, f is then given by
[19]

The focal length f is positive for converging lenses, and negative for diverging lenses.
The reciprocal of the focal length, 1/f, is the optical power of the lens. If the focal length
is in metres, this gives the optical power in dioptres (inverse metres).
Lenses have the same focal length when light travels from the back to the front as when
light goes from the front to the back, although other properties of the lens, such as
theaberrations are not necessarily the same in both directions.
[edit]Imaging properties
As mentioned above, a positive or converging lens in air will focus a collimated beam
travelling along the lens axis to a spot (known as thefocal point) at a distance f from the
lens. Conversely, a point source of light placed at the focal point will be converted into a
collimated beam by the lens. These two cases are examples of image formation in lenses.
In the former case, an object at an infinite distance (as represented by a collimated beam
of waves) is focused to an image at the focal point of the lens. In the latter, an object at
the focal length distance from the lens is imaged at infinity. The plane perpendicular to
the lens axis situated at a distance f from the lens is called the focal plane.

If the distances from the object to the lens and from the lens to the image
are S
1
and S
2
respectively, for a lens of negligible thickness, in air, the distances are
related by the thin lens formula
.
This can also be put into the "Newtonian" form:

[20]

where x
1
= S
1
f and x
2
= S
2
f.
What this means is that, if an object is placed at a distance S
1
along the axis in
front of a positive lens of focal length f, a screen placed at a distance S
2
behind the
lens will have a sharp image of the object projected onto it, as long as S
1
> f (if the
lens-to-screen distance S
2
is varied slightly, the image will become less sharp).
This is the principle behind photography and the human eye. The image in this
case is known as a real image.

Note that if S
1
< f, S
2
becomes negative, the image is apparently positioned on the
same side of the lens as the object. Although this kind of image, known as
a virtual image, cannot be projected on a screen, an observer looking through the
lens will see the image in its apparent calculated position. A magnifying
glass creates this kind of image.
The magnification of the lens is given by:
,
where M is the magnification factor; if |M|>1, the image is larger than the
object. Notice the sign convention here shows that, if M is negative, as it is for
real images, the image is upside-down with respect to the object. For virtual
images, M is positive and the image is upright.
In the special case that S
1
= , then S
2
= f and M = f / = 0. This
corresponds to a collimated beam being focused to a single spot at the focal
point. The size of the image in this case is not actually zero,
since diffraction effects place a lower limit on the size of the image
(see Rayleigh criterion).

Aberrations
Lenses do not form perfect images, and there is always some degree of distortion
or aberration introduced by the lens which causes the image to be an imperfect replica of the
object. Careful design of the lens system for a particular application ensures that the
aberration is minimized. There are several different types of aberration which can affect
image quality.
[edit]Spherical aberration
Spherical aberration occurs because spherical surfaces are not the ideal shape with which to
make a lens, but they are by far the simplest shape to which glass can be ground and
polished and so are often used. Spherical aberration causes beams parallel to, but distant from,
the lens axis to be focused in a slightly different place than beams close to the axis. This
manifests itself as a blurring of the image. Lenses in which closer-to-ideal, non-spherical
surfaces are used are called aspheric lenses. These were formerly complex to make and often
extremely expensive, but advances in technology have greatly reduced the manufacturing cost
for such lenses. Spherical aberration can be minimised by careful choice of the curvature of
the surfaces for a particular application: for instance, a plano-convex lens which is used to
focus a collimated beam produces a sharper focal spot when used with the convex side
towards the beam source.

[edit]Coma
Another type of aberration is coma, which derives its name from the comet-like appearance of
the aberrated image. Coma occurs when an object off the optical axis of the lens is imaged,
where rays pass through the lens at an angle to the axis . Rays which pass through the centre
of the lens of focal length f are focused at a point with distance f tan from the axis. Rays
passing through the outer margins of the lens are focused at different points, either further
from the axis (positive coma) or closer to the axis (negative coma). In general, a bundle of
parallel rays passing through the lens at a fixed distance from the centre of the lens are
focused to a ring-shaped image in the focal plane, known as a comatic circle. The sum of all
these circles results in a V-shaped or comet-like flare. As with spherical aberration, coma can
be minimised (and in some cases eliminated) by choosing the curvature of the two lens
surfaces to match the application. Lenses in which both spherical aberration and coma are
minimised are called bestform lenses.

[edit]Chromatic aberration
Chromatic aberration is caused by the dispersion of the lens materialthe variation of
its refractive index, n, with the wavelength of light. Since, from the formulae above, f is
dependent upon n, it follows that different wavelengths of light will be focused to different
positions. Chromatic aberration of a lens is seen as fringes of colour around the image. It can
be minimised by using an achromatic doublet (or achromat) in which two materials with
differing dispersion are bonded together to form a single lens. This reduces the amount of
chromatic aberration over a certain range of wavelengths, though it does not produce perfect
correction. The use of achromats was an important step in the development of the optical
microscope. An apochromat is a lens or lens system which has even better correction of
chromatic aberration, combined with improved correction of spherical aberration.
Apochromats are much more expensive than achromats.
Different lens materials may also be used to minimise chromatic aberration, such as
specialised coatings or lenses made from the crystal fluorite. This naturally occurring
substance has the highest known Abbe number, indicating that the material has low
dispersion.

Compound lenses
Simple lenses are subject to the optical aberrations discussed above. In many cases these
aberrations can be compensated for to a great extent by using a combination of simple lenses
with complementary aberrations. A compound lens is a collection of simple lenses of different
shapes and made of materials of different refractive indices, arranged one after the other with
a common axis.
The simplest case is where lenses are placed in contact: if the lenses of focal
lengths f
1
and f
2
are "thin", the combined focal length f of the lenses is given by

Since 1/f is the power of a lens, it can be seen that the powers of thin lenses in contact are
additive.
If two thin lenses are separated in air by some distance d (where d is smaller than the
focal length of the first lens), the focal length for the combined system is given by

The distance from the second lens to the focal point of the combined lenses is called
the back focal length (BFL).

As d tends to zero, the value of the BFL tends to the value of f given for thin
lenses in contact.
If the separation distance is equal to the sum of the focal lengths (d = f
1
+f
2
), the
combined focal length and BFL are infinite. This corresponds to a pair of lenses
that transform a parallel (collimated) beam into another collimated beam. This
type of system is called an afocal system, since it produces no net convergence or
divergence of the beam. Two lenses at this separation form the simplest type
of optical telescope. Although the system does not alter the divergence of a
collimated beam, it does alter the width of the beam. The magnification of such a
telescope is given by

which is the ratio of the input beam width to the output beam width. Note the
sign convention: a telescope with two convex lenses (f
1
> 0, f
2
> 0) produces a
negative magnification, indicating an inverted image. A convex plus a
concave lens (f
1
> 0 > f
2
) produces a positive magnification and the image is
upright.


Instrumente optice
Optical telescope
An optical telescope is a telescope which is used to gather and focus light mainly from the visible part of
the electromagnetic spectrumfor directly viewing a magnified image for making a photograph, or collecting
data through electronic image sensors.
There are three primary types of optical telescope: Refractors which use lenses (dioptrics), reflectors which
use mirrors (catoptrics), andcatadioptric telescopes which use both lenses and mirrors in combination.
A telescope's light gathering power and ability to resolve small detail is directly related to the diameter (or
aperture) of its objective (the primary lens or mirror that collects and focuses the light). The larger the
objective, the more light the telescope can collect and the finer detail it can resolv




The basic scheme is that the primary light-gathering element the objective (1) (the convex
lens or concave mirror used to gather the incoming light), focuses that light from the distant
object (4) to a focal plane where it forms a real image (5). This image may be recorded or
viewed through an eyepiece (2) which acts like a magnifying glass. The eye (3) then sees an
inverted magnified virtual image (6) of the object.

Angular resolution
Ignoring blurring of the image by turbulence in the atmosphere (atmospheric seeing) and
optical imperfections of the telescope, the angular resolution of an optical telescope is
determined by the diameter of the primary mirror or lens gathering the light (also termed its
"aperture")
The Rayleigh criterion for the resolution limit
R
(in radians) is given by

where is the wavelength and D is the aperture. For visible light ( = 550 nm) in
the small-angle approximation, this equation can be rewritten:

Here,
R
denotes the resolution limit in arcseconds and D is in millimeters. In the
ideal case, the two components of a double star system can be discerned even if
separated by slightly less than
R
. This is taken into account by the Dawes limit

The equation shows that, all else being equal, the larger the aperture, the better the
angular resolution. The resolution is not given by the maximum magnification (or
"power") of a telescope. Telescopes marketed by giving high values of the
maximum power often deliver poor images.
For large ground-based telescopes, the resolution is limited by atmospheric
seeing. This limit can be overcome by placing the telescopes above the
atmosphere, e.g., on the summits of high mountains, on balloon and high-flying
airplanes, or in space. Resolution limits can also be overcome by adaptive
optics, speckle imaging or lucky imaging for ground-based telescopes.
Recently, it has become practical to perform aperture synthesis with arrays of
optical telescopes. Very high resolution images can be obtained with groups of
widely-spaced smaller telescopes, linked together by carefully controlled optical
paths, but these interferometers can only be used for imaging bright objects such
as stars or measuring the bright cores of active galaxies. Example images of
starspots on Betelgeuse can be seen here.
[edit]Focal length and f-ratio
The focal length determines how wide an angle the telescope can view with a
given eyepiece or size of a CCD detector or photographic plate. The f-ratio (or
focal ratio, or f-number) of a telescope is the ratio between the focal length and
the diameter (i.e., aperture) of the objective. Thus, for a given objective diameter,
low f-ratios indicate wide fields of view. Wide-field telescopes (such
as astrographs) are used to track satellites and asteroids, for cosmic-ray research,
and for astronomical surveys of the sky. It is more difficult to reduce optical
aberrations in telescopes with low f-ratio than in telescopes with larger f-ratio.
[edit]Light-gathering power
The light-gathering power (or light grasp) of an optical telescope is directly
related to the square of the diameter (or aperture) of the objective lens or mirror.
Note that the area of a circle is proportional to the square of the radius. A
telescope with a lens which has a diameter three times that of another will have
nine times the light-gathering power. Larger objectives gather more light, and
more sensitive imaging equipment can produce better images from less light.
A bigger telescope can have an advantage over a smaller one, because their
sensitivity increases as the square of the entrance aperture.
[20]
For example, a 7
meter telescope would be about ten times more sensitive then a 2.4 meter
telescope.
[20]

For a survey of a given area, the field of view is just as important as raw light
gathering power. Survey telescopes such as Large Synoptic Survey
Telescope therefore try to maximize the product of mirror area and field of view
(or etendue) rather than raw light gathering ability alone.

Microscope
A microscope (from the Greek: , mikrs, "small" and , skopen, "to look" or "see") is
an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye. The science of investigating small
objects using such an instrument is calledmicroscopy. Microscopic means invisible to the eye unless aided by
a microscope.
There are many types of microscopes, the most common and first to be invented is the optical
microscope which uses light to image the sample. Other major types of microscopes are
the electron microscope (both the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope) and
the various types of scanning probe microscope.

Microscopul optic este un instrument care utilizeaz lumina vizibil pentru a evidenia
detaliile unui obiect. Acesta trebuie s ndeplineasc trei funcii importante: 1) s produc o
imagine mrit a obiectului (mrire); 2) s separe detaliile din imagine (rezoluie); 3) s
permit vizualizarea imaginii cu ajutorul ochiului sau a unui dispozitiv de luat vederi
(contrast).

1. Prile componente ale unui microscop
In general, un microscop optic este format dintr-o luminator (surs de lumin i lentilele
colectoare de lumin), un condensor de lumin, pob, obiectivul, ocularul i detectorul care
poate fi ochiul uman sau camer de luat vederi adaptat montrii pe microscop. Acestea sunt
prezentate n tabelul 1 mpreun cu principalele lor caracteristici.
Tabelul 1:
Componenta
microscopului
Caracteristici
luminator Sursa de lumin, lentile colectoare, diafragm, filtre, difuzor de
lumin
Condensor de
lumin
Apertur numeric, distan focal, corecie de aberaii,
transmisie, mediu de imersie, distana de lucru
proba Grosime, grosimea sticlei suport, mediul de imersie, absorbia,
transmisia, difracia fluorescena, birefringena
obiectiv Mrire, apertur numeric, distan focal, mediu de imersie,
corecie de aberaii, transmisia, funcia de transfer optic,
distan de lucru
ocular Mrire, corecie de aberaii, dimensiunea cmpului de vedere
detector Ochi uman, plac fotografic, photomultiplicator, matrice de
fotodiode, camer video

Unele din aceste componente ale microscopului particip la formarea imaginii (lentilele
colectoare, condensrul, obiectivul, ocularul, lentilele camerei), n timp ce altele modific
iluminarea probei funcie de caracteristicile acesteia i tehnica de investigare aplicat.
Microscoapele de cercetare conin pe lng aceste componente principale i altele cum ar fi
dispozitivul de formare a luminii (light conditioning device), introdus ntre luminator i
condensor, i componente de filtrare sau detectori complementari introdui ntre obiectiv i
ocular. Dispozitivul de formare a luminii mpreun cu detectorul permit modificarea
contrastului imaginii funcie de frecvena spaial, faz, polarizare, absorbie, fluorescen,
tehnica de iluminare sau caracteristicile proprii probei.

a
b
Figura 1: a) Mersul razelor prin microscopul Nikon Eclipse E600; b) poziia planelor focale
conjugate i respectiv a planelor aperturilor

OBIECTIVUL este componenta cea mai important
dintr-un microscop i are rolul de a colecta lumina
difractat de prob i de a produce o imagine
inversat a probei n interiorul microscopului. La
nivelul obiectivului se adaug dispozitive speciale
cum ar fi cele de corecie a aberaiilor sau placue de
faz pentru microscopia cu contrast de faz. Pentru
obinerea unei imagini ct mai bune, obiectivul
trebuie construit astfel nct s poat fi focalizat ct
mai aproape de prob. Din acest motiv, trebuie luate
msuri speciale de protecie a lentilelor din fa.
Un parametru important ce caracterizeaz
obiectivul este apertura numeric (NA). Aceasta
exprim abilitatea obiectivului de a culege lumina
i de a separa detaliile din prob la o distan dat.
Expresia matematic a aperturii numerice este:
NA = n sin (o) (1)
n care n reprezint indicele de refracie al mediului
dintre lentila din fa a obiectivului i suprafaa
probei, iar 2o reprezint unghiul de deschidere al
conului de lumin capturat de obiectiv (vezi figura
3).

OCULARUL este a doua component foarte important a microscopului. Acesta are rolul de
a vedea imaginea proiectat de obiectiv (mrit i focalizat) i de a o mri a doua oar
crend o imagine ce poate fi nregistrat de ctre dispozitivele de vizualizare. Unul din
parametrii importani care caracterizeaz ocularul este numrul cmpului de vedere (field of
view number or field number (FN)) cu ajutorul cruia se poate calcula diametrul cmpului de
vedere (D
fov
):
D
Juu
=
FN
M
u
M
T
(2)
Figura 2 Mersul razelor prin obiectivul
de microscop
Figura 3: Exemplificarea geometriei
aperturii numerice
Unde FN este numrul cmpului de vedere exprimat n mm, M
O
este mrirea obiectivului, iar
M
T
este factorul de mrire al tubului de lentile.

CONDENSORUL adun lumina venit de la surs i o transform ntr-un fascicul paralel ce l
proiecteaz pe prob. Pentru o bun funcionare, lumina provenit de la luminator este
focalizat pe diafragma condensorului. n domeniul cercetrii se folosesc condensori cu
corecia de aberaii inclus. Condensoare speciale se realizeaz prin adugarea n structura
acestuia a unor accesorii specifice pentru microscopia cu contrast de faz, DIC sau de cmp
ntunecat. La fel ca la obiectiv, pentru condensor se definete o apertur numeric
caracteristic acestuia dup o formul de tipul (1).
Apertura numeric a ntregului microscop depinde de aperturile numerice ale
obiectivului i respectiv condensorului alese s lucreze mpreun n sistem. Astfel
NA =
NA
cbiccti
+NA
ccndcnscr
2
(3)
Ecuaia (3) arat c pentru a utiliza n ntregime apertura numeric a obiectivului, trebuie ca
apertura numeric a condensorului s fie aproximativ egal cu cea a obiectivului. n practic,
nchiderea parial a aperturii diafragmei condensorului reduce apertura sistemului, consecina
fiind reducerea rezoluiei sistemului, dar creterea contrastului (vizibilitii).

LUMINATORUL este format din sursa propiu-zis de lumin i lentilele colectoare. Acestea
se plaseaz n faa sursei de lumin i au rolul de a proiecta imaginea sursei n planul
diafragmei condensorului.

2. Formarea imaginii n microscop
Avnd n vedere c microscopul este format dintr-un
sistem de lentile, formarea imaginii este descris de
optica geometric. Imaginile n sistemul optic pot fi
virtuale sau reale. Imaginea virtual este aceea care pare
a se gsi ntr-un punct din spaiu, dar care nu apare pe un
ecran poziionat n acel punct. Spre exemplu, obiectivul
formeaz o imagine mrit real, n planul intermediar al
imaginii, lng ocular. Ocularul mpreun cu corneea
ochiului formeaz o a doua imagine real pe retin.
Aceast imgine este perceput de creier ca o imagine
virtual mrit.
n general, ntr-un microscop, focalizarea imaginii se
face prin deplasarea pe vertical a msuei pe care se
gsete proba. Exist totui i o versiune n care msua
este fix, iar focalizarea se realizeaz prin deplasarea obiectivului. Acest tip de microscoape
se numesc inversate i sunt deosebit de utile n investigarea culturilor de celule vii.

Figura 4: Schema mersului razelor i
formrii imaginii ntr-un microscop
Rezoluia spaial a imaginii microscopului este
determinat de fenomenul de difracie a luminii.
Fenomenul de difracie face ca fiecrui punct
surs s i corespund n imagine un spot central
de lumin de intensitate maxim nconjurat de o
serie de inele concentrice luminoase i
ntunecoase cunoscute sub denumirea de discul
lui Airy.
n cazul microscopului, raza d a spotului de
difracie creat de un punct luminos n planul
imagine se calculeaz cu relaia:
J = 1,22
x
2NA
(4)
unde este lungimea de und a radiaiei cu care
se ilumineaz proba, iar NA apertura numeric a
sistemului.
n conformitate cu relaia (4), dimensiunea spotului de difracie scade cu creterea aperturii
numerice a sistemului, i este cu att mai mic cu ct lungimea de und a radiaiei folosite este
mai mic.
Dimensiunea spotului de difracie influeneaz rezoluia spaial a microscopului.
Aceasta este definit ca distana cea mai mic dintre 2 puncte de pe prob care mai pot fi nc
separate de observator sau video camer. tiind c fiecrui punct de lumin provenit din proba
iluminat apare ca un disc Airy n planul imagine intermediar al microscopului, se definete
limita de rezoluie a obiectivului microscopului funcie de capacitatea acestuia de a separa 2
discuri Airy apropiate spaial n figura de difracie (vezi figura 5). Conform criteriului lui
Rayleigh, se consider c limita de separare a 2 discuri Airy se obine atunci cnd maximul
central de difracie al primului spot coincide cu primul minim de difracie corespunztor celui
de al doilea spot (vezi figura 5b).
Deci rezoluia microscopului este:
r = 1,22
x
2(NA
cbiccti
+NA
ccndcnscr
)
(5)
Tot ca o consecin a difraciei poat fi privit i adncimea cmpului vizual. Aceast
mrime apare n planul obiect i se datoreaz grosimii seciunii optice n lungul axei z pentru
care obiectele din pob se afl n focar. Din limita de difracie, reult c adncimea cmpului
vizual (Z) este dat de relaia:
Z =
nx
NA
2
(6)
n care n este indicele de refracie al mediului dintre lentile i obiect. Cu ct apertura numeric
a sistemului este mai mare, cu att adncimea cmpului vizual este mai mic.

Figura 5:Exemplificarea criteriului Rayleigh
pentru rezoluie spaial: a) structur de difracie
simpl; b)2 discuri separate ndeplinind la limit
criteriul Rayleigh; c) 2 discuri separate
Funcie de caracteristicile optice ale probei de analizat, exist diverse tehnici de investigare
microscopic. n continuare vom prezenta pe scurt cteva din ele.