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Exceeding Truth:
Jen!"uc #ri$n%& 'turted Phen$(en
'hne #c* in+,
Abstract: Jen!"uc #ri$n i& c$nte(-$rr, French -hi+$&$-her. /h$&e
the$r, $0 &turted -hen$(en i& ttrcting incre&ing ttenti$n 0r$(
1ecu&e he -r$-$&e& tht the exe(-+r, &turted -hen$(en$n i&
di2ine re2e+ti$n3 #ri$n%& c+i(& 1$ut re2e+ti$n h2e +&$ -r$2$*ed
-hi+$&$-hic+ c$ntr$2er&,. /ith uth$r& &uch & 4$(ini5ue Jnicud
$16ecting tht #ri$n%& n+,&i& $0 re2e+ti$n c$(-r$(i&e& hi& 2$/+ tht
he i& engged in -hen$(en$+$g, rther thn the$+$g,3 Thi& rtic+e $ut+ine&
the -hi+$&$-hic+ 1c*gr$und t$ the&e de1te&. 1, de&cri1ing the /,
#ri$n%& the$r, $0 &turted -hen$(en rec$ncei2e& truth3 #ri$n $16ect&
t$ truth 1eing +i(ited t$ the 2eri71+e truth $0 the ntur+ &cience&. nd
in&i&t& $n n exce&& 1e,$nd /ht /e cn gr&- nd under&tnd3 It i& thi&
exce&& tht $-en& ne/ -$&&i1i+itie& 0$r -hi+$&$-hic+ thin*ing 1$ut
genuine+, trn&cendent re2e+ti$n3 The rtic+e 1egin& 1, de&cri1ing n
e2ent tht i& $ne $0 #ri$n%& c$ncrete ex(-+e& $0 &turted -hen$(en.
1e0$re &*etching hi& the$r, 0$r the&e -hen$(en. nd &etting $ut three
c$r$++rie& tht 0$++$/ 0r$( thi& the$r, nd c$ncern the /, /e &h$u+d
c$ncei2e 1$th -hen$(en+it, nd &u16ecti2it,3 Fin++,. it 1rie8, indicte&
nu(1er $0 re&er2ti$n& 1$ut the i(-+icti$n& $0 &$(e $0 #ri$n%& ($re
dr(tic nd &trident c+i(&3
#UC9 :F T9E TI#E. TRUT9 I' A; I''UE F:R U' in 5ue&ti$n& tht cn 1e
0r(ed in 2ie/ $0 &i(-+e n&/er $0 <,e&= $r <n$=3 <I& it true tht the
erth re2$+2e& r$und the &un>= <I& it true tht Irn i& de2e+$-ing
nuc+er /e-$n&>= <I& it true tht cr1$n e(i&&i$n& re ?ecting the
c+i(te>= <4id J$hn 9$/rd te++ u& the truth 1$ut the @chi+dren
$2er1$rd% 1e0$re the 200A e+ecti$n>= 'uch 5ue&ti$n& ri&e
i&&ue& 1$ut ccurte (e&ure(ent. the 2eri7cti$n $0 0ct&. $r
the re+i1i+it, $0 in0$r(ti$n3 The, -re&u(e tht truth i& c$ncei2ed in
ter(& $0 c$rre&-$ndence ($r t +e&t c$herence). nd &$(eti(e& tht it
cn e2en 1e deter(ined 0$ren&ic++,3
There re. $0 c$ur&e. $ther /,& $0 c$ncei2ing $0 truth3 Eue&ti$n& $0
truth cn 1e 0r(ed -hen$(en$+$gic++,. $r e2en $nt$+$gic++,. in ter(&
$0 e&&ence nd (ening. rther thn 0ct& nd 2eri7cti$n3 Thu&. #rtin
9eidegger in&i&t& tht the ($&t $rigin+ &en&e $0 truth i& the
/ith /hich 1eing& re di&c+$&ed (nd in /hich Being
it&e+0 $-en& &-ce 1, /ithdr/ing)3 9ere. Ed(und 9u&&er+%& urging t$
<g$ 1c* t$ the thing& the(&e+2e&= +ed& t$ &$(ething tht cnn$t 1e
2eri7ed $r 5unti71+, (e&ured. nd tht e+ude& n, tte(-t t$
0$r(u+te it in deter(inte ter(&3 A ($re (et-h,&ic+ &en&e $0 truth
&uch & thi& i&. $0 c$ur&e. dee-+, ingrined in re+igi$u& th$ught. nd i&
e-it$(i&ed in Je&u&% de&cri-ti$n $0 hi(&e+0 & <the /,. the truth. nd
the +i0e= (J$hn A4:F)3
Jen!"uc #ri$n (13 AG4F) &tnd& in the -hen$(en$+$gic+ trditi$n
$0 9u&&er+ nd 9eidegger. -rticu+r+, & it de2e+$-ed in Frnce
thr$ugh thin*er& &uch & E((nue+ "H2in& nd Jc5ue& 4errid3 9e i&
+&$ dee-+, in8uenced 1, the Chri&tin re+igi$u& trditi$n. & i&
e2idenced 1, hi& 0&cinti$n /ith the -$-htic the$+$g, $0 7gure& &uch
& 4i$n,&iu& the Aer$-gite3 #ri$n de2e+$-& /ht he c++&
-hen$(en$+$g, $0 gi2enne&&. /hich cu+(inte& in hi& the$r, $0
&turted -hen$(en3 Thi& the$r, c$n&titute& re&$unding re6ecti$n $0
n, tte(-t t$ e&t1+i&h 2eri71+e nd (e&ur1+e truth & the
-rdig( 0$r thin*ing 1$ut -hen$(en3 In&ted. #ri$n in&i&t&. the
-rdig( 0$r $ur thin*ing &h$u+d 1e tht /hich exceeds 2eri71+e truth.
nd cnn$t e2er 1e gr&-ed in deter(inte c$nce-t& I /ith the re&u+t
tht it +&$ exceed& &u16ect%& c-cit, t$ *n$/ it exhu&ti2e+,3 It i& thi&
exce&& /hich. in 0ct. (*e& 2eri71+e truth -$&&i1+e. nd i& it&e+0
exceeding+, true3
#ri$n%& the$r, $0 &turted -hen$(en ri&e& 0r$( c$n2icti$n
tht the -hen$(en$+$gic+ trditi$n $0 9u&&er+ nd 9eidegger i&
1, 0und(ent+ -re&u--$&iti$n& tht 1e+$ng t$ +ine $0 th$ught
running 1c* t$ I((nue+ Bnt nd RenH 4e&crte&3 In #ri$n%& 2ie/.
1$th 9u&&er+ nd 9eidegger reduce -hen$(en /ithin +i(it& dictted
1, nd 0$r &$2ereign &u16ect (re&u+ting in. re&-ecti2e+,. c$n&tituted
$16ect&. nd 1eing& in 4&ein%& /$r+d)3 #ri$n (intin& tht n, &$rt $0
c$n&tituti$n 1, $r 0$r &u16ect i(-$&e& c$nditi$n& $n the --ering $0
-hen$(en. nd he there0$re c$nc+ude& tht 1$th 9u&&er+ nd
9eidegger 0i+ in their tte(-t& t$ de2e+$- -hen$(en$+$g, tht 0u+7+&
9u&&er+%& &tted g$+ $0 g$ing <t$ the thing& the(&e+2e&=3
#ri$n rgue& tht 9u&&er+%& $rigin+ -r$6ect cn $n+, 1e cc$(-+i&hed
1, n --r$ch tht 1egin& 0r$( the gi2enne&& $0 -hen$(en.
nd tht 0ree& thi& gi2enne&& 0r$( n, c$nditi$n& tht re extern+ t$ it3
Thi& rethin*ing $0 -hen$(en+it, cu+(inte& in #ri$n%& intr$ducti$n
$0 ne/ cteg$r, $0 <&turted= -hen$(en3 9e c+i(& tht the&e
-hen$(en gi2e &$ (uch intuiti$n tht the, exceed n, c$nce-t& $r
+i(iting h$riJ$n tht c$n&tituting &u16ect (ight tte(-t t$ i(-$&e $n
the(3 There0$re. &turted -hen$(en re gi2en &i(-+, & the(&e+2e&.
nd re -ri2i+eged in&tnce& $0 the gi2enne&& $0 -hen$(en3
#ri$n e+1$rte& the -$&&i1+e *ind& $0 &turted -hen$(en
cc$rding t$ the 0$ur di2i&i$n& in Bnt%& t1+e $0 cteg$rie&. nd then
-re&ent& 7gure & n ex(-+e $0 ech t,-e: e2ent&. -inting&. 8e&h. the
0ce3 9e +&$ inc+ude& 70th *ind. /hich enc$(-&&e& ++ 0$ur $0 the
di2i&i$n&. nd /hich i& t,-i7ed in the -hen$(en$n $0 re2e+ti$n3 #uch
$0 the ($re ni(ted di&cu&&i$n $0 &turted -hen$(en h& 0$cu&&ed
$n #ri$n%& intr$ducti$n $0 the re+igi$u& d$(in t$ -r$2ide hi&
&turted -hen$(en$n -r exce++ence3
In thi& e&&,. I 7r&t $ut+ine $ne $0 #ri$n%& ex(-+e& $0 &turted
-hen$(en. 1e0$re &*etching hi& the$r, 0$r the&e -hen$(en. nd
&etting $ut three c$r$++rie& tht 0$++$/ 0r$( thi& the$r, nd tht
c$ncern the /, /e &h$u+d c$ncei2e 1$th -hen$(en+it, nd &u16ectti2it,3
Fin++,. I 1rie8, indicte (, re&er2ti$n& 1$ut the i(-+icti$n&
$0 &$(e $0 hi& ($re dr(tic nd &trident c+i(&3
T9E 'A""E 4E' ACTE'
In the &ec$nd ch-ter $0 In Excess. #ri$n 0$cu&e& $n e2ent& & t,-e
$0 &turted -hen$(en$n3 9e &et& u- n $--$&iti$n 1et/een e2ent& nd
$16ect&. /here $16ect& re c$n&tituted 1, trn&cendent+ eg$ (IEA
K0LKM).2 nd ((i&)under&t$$d & 1eing -er(nent+, -re&ent thr$ugh
ti(e. /hi+e e2ent& re 1e,$nd $ur (e&ure. nd i(-$&e the(&e+2e& $n
u& in /, tht (*e& their h--ening irreduci1+e t$ -er(nent
-re&ence3 #ri$n rgue& tht. in $ur n$r(+ <technic+ u&ge=. /e
gener++, (i&under&tnd nd di&t$rt -hen$(en 1, <reducing= the( t$
$16ect& (IE KML42)3 In&ted $0 &eeing -hen$(en & the e2ent& /hich
the, re. /e &ee $n+, <n $16ect. -+ced t $ne%& di&-$&+ 0$r nd 1, the
th$ught tht g$2ern& it= (IE K0LKM)3 In &u--$rt $0 hi& c+i( 1$ut the
e2entne&& $0 -hen$(en. /hich /e gener++, 0i+ t$ &ee. #ri$n
A3 Jen!"uc #ri$n. In Excess: Studies of Saturated Phenomena, trn&3
R$1,n 9$rner nd
Nincent Berrud. Perspectives in Continental Philosophy, n$3 27 (;e/ Y$r*:
Uni2er&it, Pre&&. 2002)O trn&+ti$n $0 De surcrot: tudes sur les
phnomnes saturs,
Per&-ecti2e& criti5ue& (Pri&: PUF. 200A)3
23 The -ge re0erence $0 the Eng+i&h trn&+ti$n i& gi2en 7r&t. 0$++$/ed 1,
the $rigin+
-ge re0erence3
di&cu&&e& the /, in /hich nu(1er $0 e2ent& <&h$/ themselves. in&ted
$0 +etting the(&e+2e& 1e &h$/n &i(-+, & $16ect&= (IE KAPLKF)3K
#ri$n 7r&t -re&ented thi& ch-ter $0 In Excess & -u1+ic +ecture I in
the Salle des !ctes $0 the Institut Catholi"ue de Paris $n 2G Jnur, AGGG3
9e -r$-$&e& tht the r$$( in /hich the +ecture t*e& -+ce i& it&e+0 n
e2ent tht exceed& n, tte(-t t (e&ure(ent3 #ri$n d(it& tht.
+i*e n, $ther r$$(. the Salle des !ctes i& u&u++, regrded & n $16ect.
nd 5unti7ed cc$rding t$ the (e&ure $0 it& 2ri$u& -rt&: <It& /++&
de7ne it& 2$+u(e. /here& $ther n$n!&-ti+ -r(eter& Qparamtres non
tendusRSde7ne it& 1udgetr, /eight nd it& -edg$gic+ uti+it,= (IE
KML4A)3 Fr$( thi& -er&-ecti2e. the Salle i& n$thing ($re thn the
$0 it& -rt&3 #ri$n rgue& tht 0$r &uch &u((ti$n t$ 1e
-$&&i1+e. $ur under&tnding (u&t 1e 1+e t$ 1ring t$gether the /h$+e
&erie& $0 -hen$(en$n%& -rt&. /hich (u&t there0$re 1e in&cri1ed in the
&ing+e h$riJ$n $0 -rticu+r c$nce-tu+ &-ce3 Thi& &ing+e h$riJ$n
(en& tht /e re&trict -hen$(en$n t$ tht /hich cn 1e *n$/n <in
d2nce=: <Tht --er& /i++ +/,& 1e in&cri1ed in the &u( $0 /ht it&
-r(eter& ++$/ +/,& +red, t$ 1e 0$re&een3 The h++ i& 0$re&een
1e0$re e2en 1eing &een I enc+$&ed in it& 5untit,. &&igned t$ it& -rt&.
7xed. &$ t$ &-e*. 1, it& (e&ure&. /hich -recede it= (IE KMPL4A)3 In
#ri$n%& 2ie/. &uch <reducti$n $0 the r$$( t$ it& 0$re&ee1+e 5untit,
(*e& $0 it n $16ect= nd d$e& n$t gi2e n cc$unt $0 it &
#ri$n in&i&t& tht the Salle des !ctes cn $n+, 1e under&t$$d
-r$-er+, i0 it i& c$n&idered & n e&&enti++, te(-$r+ h--ening I n
e2ent I c$(-+ete /ith -&t. -re&ent nd 0uture3 Fir&t. cc$rding t$ the
-&t. /e 7nd the Salle <+/,& +red, there. 2i+1+e 0$r $ur entr, nd
$ur u&e= (IE K2LK7)3 It i& inde-endent $0 u&. nd +&$ <-ri$r t$
u&Sc$(ing 0r$( n in&crut1+e -&t= (IE K2PLK7)3 It& hi&t$r, <exceedQ&R
(e($r,=. &uch tht <it i(-$&e& it&e+0 $n (e in --ering t$ (eO I enter
it +e&& thn it h--en& t$ (e $0 it&e+0. enc$(-&&ing (e nd i(-$&ing
it&e+0 $n (e= (IE K2LKU)3 Then. cc$rding t$ the -re&ent. #ri$n
de&cri1e& the Salle in thetric+ ter(&. & the cr$/d tht h& gthered 0$r
-rticu+r -ur-$&e. nd the $cc&i$n $n /hich /$rd& re &-$*en. nd
herd. under&t$$d $r &-$i+ed3 A& &uch n e2ent it i& <1&$+ute+,
uni5ueSunre-et1+e nd. 0$r +rge -rt. un0$re&ee1+e= (IE K20LKU)3
Th$ugh it i& -re-red nd -+nned 0$r. n$ $ne *n$/&. & it ctu++,
un0$+d&. <i0 thi& /i++ 1e &ucce&& $r 0i+ure= (IE KKLKU)3 Fin++,.
cc$rding t$ the 0uture. #ri$n 1e+ie2e& tht n$ cc$unt $0 the Salle
K3 An &teri&* 0$++$/ing -ge re0erence indicte& tht the trn&+ti$n h&
($di7ed3 It+ic& u&ed /ithin 5u$te& re +/,& th$&e $0 the $rigin+ uth$r3
E(-h&i& tht
I h2e dded i& indicted 1, under+ining3
c$u+d e2er de&cri1e ++ tht h--en& in the e2ent%& c$ntinuing hi&t$r,.
1ecu&e n exhu&ti2e de&cri-ti$n /$u+d need t$ inc+ude the
1c*gr$und $0 ech -rtici-nt. their &tte $0 (ind t ech -$int $0 the
e2ening. & /e++ & <the c$n&e5uence& in the indi2idu+ nd c$++ecti2e
e2$+uti$n $0 ++ the -rtici-nt&. inc+uding the -rinci-+ $rt$r= (IE
KKLKG)3 T$ gi2e 0u++ cc$unt $0 the e2ent $0 the +ecture. < her(eneutic
/$u+d h2e t$ 1e de-+$,ed /ith$ut end nd in n inde7nite net/$r*=
#ri$n 1e+ie2e& tht the -hen$(en$n $0 the Salle. & he de&cri1e& it.
exceed& n, -$&&i1+e &,nthe&i& $0 5unti71+e -rt&: & <n 1&$+ute+,
uni5ue. unre-et1+e nd. t$ +rge extent. un0$re&ee1+e e2entS3 Qthe
SalleR e&c-e& ++ c$n&tituti$n:S it &h$/& itself 0r$( it&e+0. $n the 1&i& $0
it&e+0# (IE K20PLKU)3 The Salle cnn$t 1e 0$re&een. ntici-ted $r
c$n&tituted I it i& n$t (e&ur1+e $16ect3 The Salle%& --ering <d$e&
n$t -r$ceed QprovientR 0r$( $ur inititi2e= (IE K4L40) I /ith /hich /e
/$u+d 1ring c$(-$nent -rt& t$gether int$ &erie& tht /e c$u+d
&,nthe&i&e int$ t$t+it,3 :n the c$ntrr,. the Salle i(-$&e& it&e+0 on us in
it& --ering34 The Salle h& (u+ti-+e h$riJ$n&. /hich -re2ent it 1eing
&een & t$t+it,3
9$/e2er. de&-ite the Salle%& (u+ti-+e h$riJ$n&. 0$r the ($&t -rt it i&
gr&-ed & +i(ited nd (e&ur1+e $16ect. thu& exc+uding -reci&e+, the
exce&& in it tht #ri$n i& t -in& t$ de($n&trte3 In thi& re&-ect. the
Salle des !ctes +&$ 0uncti$n& 0$r #ri$n & n ex(-+e $0 the /, in
/hich <the e&&enti++, nd $rigin++, e2ent+ chrcter $0 the
-hen$(en$nSQi&R du++ed. ttenuted. nd di&--erQ&R. t$ the -$int tht
it --er& t$ u& & n$ ($re thn n $16ect= (IE K4PL40)3 9e 1e+ie2e& tht
<in the $rder $0 n$r(+ technic+ u&ge= /e <reduce= -hen$(en &uch
& the Salle <t$ the rn* $0 &ec$nd $rder. c$(($n!+/ -hen$(en= (IE
KMPL42)3 Thi& (en& tht. rther thn &eeing the( & the, re. in their
<0u++ --ering Qapparatre plnierR= & <0u++, -hen$(en$n Qphnomne
plnierR.=M /e +i(it $ur&e+2e& t$ fore&eeing in /hich -hen$(en
<--er t$ u& trn&-rent+,. in the neutr+ +ight $0 $16ecti2it,= (IE
KM0PL42)3 'uch -hen$(en$n i& <0$re&een nd n$t &een=O it i& n $16ect.
/hich <--er& & the &hd$/ $0 the e2ent tht /e den, in it= (IE
43 <It. $n the inititi2e $0 it& self. -ut& u& $n &tge 1, $ivin$ itself to us= (IE
M3 <Plnier= h& the &en&e $0 <0u++,< rther thn $0 <7++ed!u-<3 There0$re.
plnier= &h$u+d 1e under&t$$d & <fully -hen$(en$n< rther thn & <
-hen$(en$n<3 A di?erent French /$rd /$u+d 1e needed (0$r ex(-+e.
rempli, complet) i0
$ne /nted t$ re0er t$ 9u&&er+in de5uti$n. in /hich intuiti$n <7++&=
intenti$n. nd
/hich i& regrded 1, #ri$n & chrcteri&tic $0 <c$(($n!+/
-hen$(en=3 In c$ntr&t t$
&uch de5uti$n. <phnomne plnier= &tr$ng+, &ugge&t& the 7n+
cteg$r, $0 #ri$n%&
t$-$+$g, $0 -hen$(en I &turted -hen$(en I /hich re the 0u++
in&tnce $0
A& n exce&&i2e nd ungr&-1+e e2ent. the Salle des !ctes i& n
in&tnce $0 #ri$n%& ne/ cteg$r, $0 &turted -hen$(en3 In hi&
the$retic+ cc$unt $0 the&e -hen$(en. he &et& $ut the di?erence
1et/een $16ect& (/hich re n in&tnce $0 $rdinr, -hen$(en) nd
e2ent& (/hich re n in&tnce $0 &turted -hen$(en) in ter(& $0
9u&&er+in -hen$(en$+$g, I in -rticu+r. 9u&&er+%& the$r, $0
9u&&er+ intr$duce& the ide $0 de5uti$n in hi& &ixth &o$ical
Investi$ation ("I)F t$ indicte the degree t$ /hich n intuiti2e ct $?er&
0u+7+(ent (Erf'llun$) t$ n ct $0 &igni7cti$n3 Then the intended $16ect
direct+, -re&ent& it&e+0 in -erce-tu+ intuiti$n. n$ -rt $0 the ct $0
&igni7cti$n re(in& e(-t,O tht i&. e2er, e+e(ent $0 the intended
&igni7cti$n h& c$rre&-$nding intuiti$n3 9u&&er+ c++& thi& the <ideal
limit= $0 de5uti$n 1et/een intuiti$n+ c$ntent nd &igni7cti2e
intenti$n. nd de&cri1e& it & <the g$+ $0 1&$+ute *n$/+edge= ("I NI
VAF. 2:227L2:MGU)3 It i& n ex-erience $0 &e+0!e2idence in /hich <the
$16ecti2it, (ent i& in the &trict &en&e $iven in intuiti$n. nd gi2en 6u&t &
it i& th$ught nd n(ed= ("I NI VK7. 2:2FAPL2:F4U)3
#ri$n trce& 9u&&er+%& +nguge $0 de5uti$n 1c* t$ Bnt%& the$r,
$0 c$gniti$n (BD7 AG20L2700)3 F$r Bnt. intuiti$n nd c$nce-t&
<c$n&titute the e+e(ent& $0 ++ $ur c$gniti$n=3 The&e e+e(ent& re
-r$duced 1, the 0cu+tie& $0 &en&i1i+it, nd under&tnding re&-ecti2e+,.
/hich re the <0und(ent+ &$urce&= $0 c$gniti$n (CPRU A M0 L B 74)3
'en&i1i+it, <gi2e&= $16ect& t$ u& in intuiti$n. /hi+e the under&tnding
<thin*&= the&e $16ect& 1, (en& $0 c$nce-t3 There0$re. c$gniti$n
de-end& $n the uni7cti$n $0 the&e t/$ e+e(ent& (CPR AMA L B7M0)3
Thu&. #ri$n &u((ri&e&. there i& de5uti$n /hen intenti$n i&
e5ui2+ent t$ intuiti$n. $r. in $ther ter(&. /hen &igni7cti$n i&
e5ui2+ent t$ 0u+7+(ent. $r n$e&i& i& e5ui2+ent t$ n$e(3 Thi& i& the
F3 Ed(und 9u&&er+. &o$ical Investi$ations. ed3 4er($t #$rn. trn&3 J3 ;3
Find+,. 2
2$+&3. Internti$n+ "i1rr, $0 Phi+$&$-h, ("$nd$n: R$ut+edge. 200A)O
trn&+ti$n $0 &o$ische
(ntersuchun$en, ed3 E3 9$+en&tein (2$+3 A: 9u CNIII) nd Ur&u+ PnJer
(2$+3 2: 9u CIC).
2 2$+&3. )esammelte *er+e. 9u&&er+in CNIII nd CIC (The 9gue:
#rtinu& ;i6h$?. AG7M
Q2$+3 AR. AGU4 Q2$+3 2R)3
73 Jen!"uc #ri$n. ,ein$ )iven: -o.ard a Phenomenolo$y of )ivenness,
trn&3 Je?re, "3
B$&*,. Cu+tur+ #e($r, in the Pre&ent ('tn0$rd. CA: 'tn0$rd Uni2er&it,
Pre&&. 2002)O
trn&+ti$n $0 tant donn: Essai d/une phnomnolo$ie de la donation,
2nd ed3. c$rrected.
W-i(HthHe: e&&i& -hi+$&$-hi5ue& (Pri&: PUF. AGGU QA&t ed3. AGG7R)3
U3 I((nue+ Bnt. Criti"ue of Pure 0eason, trn&3 Pu+ Du,er nd A++en T3
T$$d. The
C(1ridge Editi$n $0 the T$r*& $0 I((nue+ Bnt (C(1ridge: C(1ridge
Pre&&. AGGU)O trn&+ti$n $0 1riti+ der reinen 2ernunft (A7UA. A7U7)3
ide+ +i(it in /hich $16ecti2e truth i& cc$(-+i&hed &u16ecti2e+, 1, the
&e+0!e2ident ex-erience $0 de5uti$n (BD AG0L2FF)3
#ri$n (*e& t/$ critici&(& $0 9u&&er+%& the$r, $0 de5uti$n3 Fir&t.
he &&ert& tht 9u&&er+ re&trict& de5uti$n t$ 1eing n ide+ <tht i&
ne2er re+i&ed. $r t +e&t $n+, rre+,=. /ith the c$n&e5uence tht <truth
/$u+d +&$ 1e (de &crce. $r 1ec$(e incce&&i1+e= (BD AGAPL2F7)3 Thi&
+i(it $n de5uti$n i& 1ecu&e $0 the 7nite nture $0 &en&i1+e intuiti$n.
/hich 9u&&er+ d$-t& & n exe(-+r. nd /hich cn ne2er gi2e the
/h$+e $16ect in $ne &ing+e intuiti$n3 It i& n$t -$&&i1+e 0$r ++ the &-ect&
$0 -h,&ic+ $16ect t$ 1e -re&ented &i(u+tne$u&+,3 There0$re.
c$(-+ete -erce-ti$n $0 n $16ect cn 1e 1ui+t u- $n+, 1, &,nthe&i&ing
&erie& $0 --erce-ti$n&3 But. & 9u&&er+ d(it&. <the ++!&ided
i& n$t chie2ed in &uch &,nthetic (ni0$+d in the &ing+e 8&h
/hich the ide+ $0 de5uti$n re5uire&. & -ure &e+0!-re&entti$n
/ith$ut dded n+$gi&ing $r &,(1$+i&ti$n: it i& chie2ed -iece(e+
nd +/,& 1+urred 1, &uch dditi$n&= ("I NI VAF. 2:22UL2:MGG)3 9u&&er+
de&cri1e& the c$(-+ex intuiti$n $0 thi& &ituti$n & c$(-+ete 1ut i(-ure.
1ecu&e t ech ($(ent. &$(e &-ect& $0 the $16ect re n$t ctu++,
gi2en in intuiti$n ("I NI V2G. 2:24F?L2:F27?)3 A& #ri$n c$rrect+, -$int&
$ut. cc$rding t$ 9u&&er+%& the$r, the $n+, $16ect& /hich cn 1e gi2en in
c$(-+ete. -ure intuiti$n re 0$r(+ $r cteg$ri+ $16ect&O tht i&. $16ect&
/here intuiti$n i& cteg$ri+ rther thn &en&i1+e3 It i& there0$re $n+,
the&e n$n!&en&i1+e $16ect& /hich cn 1e gi2en de5ute+,3 Becu&e $0 the
+c* $0 &en&i1+e intuiti$n in the&e c&e&. #ri$n du1& the( <-$$r
-hen$(en=. 1, c$ntr&t /ith the <0u++ -hen$(en Qphnomnes
plniersR=. /hich re <the --ernce $0 the @thing& the(&e+2e&% 0u++,
gi2en 1, intuiti$n= (BD AG2PL2FG)3
#ri$n%& &ec$nd critici&( i& tht 9u&&er+ &cri1e& <&trnge
($de&t,= t$ e2idence. ne2er c+i(ing n,thing ($re 0$r it thn the
<(ere e5u+it,= $0 de5uti$n3G F$r 9u&&er+. intuiti$n cn 0++ &h$rt $0
&igni7cti$n. $r in rre c&e&. 1e de5ute t$ it3 Th,. &*& #ri$n. i& it
n$t +&$ -$&&i1+e tht intuiti$n (ight exceed &igni7cti$n. gi2ing <more,
indeed immeasura3ly more, thn the intenti$n /$u+d e2er h2e i(ed t
0$re&een>= (BD AG7L277)3 In&ted $0 1eing chrcteri&ed & -$$r $r
+c*ing in intuiti$n. & i& ($&t $0ten the c&e. &uch -hen$(en /$u+d 1e
chrcteri&ed & saturated /ith intuiti$n3
In #ri$n%& 2ie/. c$n&idering the -$&&i1i+it, $0 &uch &turted
-hen$(en i& ine2it1+e i0 Bnt%& cc$unt $0 intuiti$n i& t*en t$ it&
+$gic+ c$nc+u&i$n3 A& #ri$n -$int& $ut. Bnt re-eted+, (*e& it c+er
G3 <;$/ thi& ide+ $0 e2idence. &u--$&ed+, de&ignting the (xi(u( nd
(1iti$n 0$r the truth. ne2erthe+e&& c+i(&. /ith &trnge ($de&t,. $n+, n
(ere e5u+it,3= (BD AG0L2FF)
tht it i& intuiti$n +$ne /hich gi2e& $16ect& t$ th$ught (BD AGKL27A)3
Thi& i& the 1&i& 0$r Bnt%& 0($u& dictu(: <Th$ught& /ith$ut c$ntent
re e(-t,. intuiti$n& /ith$ut c$nce-t& re 1+ind= (CPR A MA L B 7M)3
#ri$n rgue& tht 1ecu&e $n+, intuiti$n cn gi2e &$(ething t$ 1e
&een. th$ught /ith$ut intuiti$n i& <inc-1+e $0 &eeing n,thing t ++=3
:n the $ther hnd. intuiti$n /ith$ut c$nce-t& c$ntinue& t$ gi2e. e2en
th$ugh it i& 1+ind3 #ri$n 6udge& tht <1+indne&& c$unt& ($re here thn
2cuit,= (BD AGKL270)3 Thu&. he c$nc+ude&: <In the *ingd$( $0 the
-hen$(en$n. the c$nce-t i& n$t *ing. 1ut rther intuiti$n. /hich +$ne
h& the -ri2i+ege $0 gi2ing= (BD AGKPL27A)3
Thi+e Bnt d$e& n$t ex-+icit+, cc$rd n, -ri$rit, t$ intuiti$n.A0
#ri$n -$int& t$ Bnt%& n+,&i& $0 e&thetic ide& I nd the &u1+i(e in
-rticu+r I & n ex(-+e $0 the re&u+t& /hen intuiti$n%& -re!e(inence
i& t*en &eri$u&+,3 Thi+e e&thetic ide& cnn$t 1ec$(e c$gniti$n. thi&
i& n$t 1ecu&e intuiti$n +e2e& c$nce-t e(-t,. 1ut rther <1ecu&e it
Qthe e&thetic ideR i& n intuition ($0 the i(ginti$n) 0$r /hich
c$nce-t cn ne2er 1e 0$und de5ute=3AA #ri$n e(-h&i&e& Bnt%&
de&cri-ti$n $0 &uch n ide & n <inexponi3le re-re&entti$n $0 the
i(ginti$n= I $ne tht cnn$t 1e ex-$unded 1, 1eing 1r$ught t$
c$nce-t&3A2 F$r #ri$n. inc-cit, $0 the under&tnding t$ gr&- &uch
n ide i& re&u+t $0 the ide%& <&u-er1undnce= $0 intuiti$n. /hich
<&u1(erge&= c$nce-t& &$ & t$ &turte the( nd <$2erex-$&e= the(3
The re&u+ting -hen$(en$n i& thu& n$t rec$gni&1+e & <de7nite $16ect=
I it i& <in2i&i1+e=. n$t 1ecu&e $0 +c* $0 i++u(inti$n. <1ut indeed 1,
n exce&& $0 +ight= (BD AGUL27G)3 Thi& i& #ri$n%& &turted -hen$(en$n.
n$t c$n&trined 1, the n$r(& $0 $16ecti2it, nd de7n1i+it,. nd
there0$re 1+e t$ $-en gi2enne&& <in ++ it& &c$-e QporteR= (BD AGGL27G)3
There re three (in c$n&e5uence& $0 #ri$n%& the$r, $0 &turted
-hen$(en3 Fir&t. #ri$n -+ce& t the centre $0 hi& the$r, gr$u- $0
-hen$(en tht re $0ten c+&&i7ed & exce-ti$n+ $r (rgin+. nd thu&
di&regrded. nd then u&e& hi& cc$unt& $0 the&e 2ri$u& &turted
-hen$(en t$ rgue -er&u&i2e+, tht their richne&& nd c$(-+exit,
A03 In 0ct. Bnt di&c$urge& n, 6udge(ent 1$ut -ri$rit,: <;either $0
the&e -r$-ertie&
i& t$ 1e -re0erred t$ the $ther= (CPR A MA L B 7M)3
AA3 I((nue+ Bnt. Criti"ue of the of 4ud$ement. trn&3 Pu+ Du,er
nd Eric
#tthe/&. -he Cam3rid$e Edition of the *or+s of Immanuel 1ant
(C(1ridge: C(1ridge
Uni2er&it, Pre&&. 2000). VM7. re(r* AO trn&+ti$n $0 1riti+ der (rteils+raft.
ed3 9einer F3
B+e((e. Phi+$&$-hi&che Bi1+i$the*. 2$+3 M07 (9(1urg: Fe+ix #einer
Ner+g. 200A).
A*de(ie Au8ge. M:K423
A23 Bnt. Criti"ue of the of 4ud$ement. VM7. re(r* A. A*de(ie
Au8ge. M:K4K3
$?er 0r 1etter -rdig( 0$r under&tnding -hen$(en+it, thn d$
e2er,d, -hen$(en &uch & $16ect&3
Indeed. #ri$n%& c+i( 1$ut the -rdig(tic &ttu& $0 &turted
-hen$(en i& &$ -er&u&i2e tht it ri&e& the 5ue&ti$n $0 /hether ++
-hen$(en (ight n$t ctu++, 1e &turted3 I 1e+ie2e tht the ($&t
c$n&i&tent reding $0 #ri$n%& text& i(-+ie& tht &turti$n &h$u+d in
0ct 1e regrded & the n$r(+ /, in /hich all -hen$(en --er3 In
thi& c&e. &turti$n &h$u+d n$ +$nger 1e under&t$$d & rre exce-ti$n
t$ <$rdinr,= -hen$(en+it,O in&ted. <-$$r= nd <c$(($n!+/=
-hen$(en (&uch & $16ect&) &h$u+d 1e &een & unu&u+ exce-ti$n& t$
&turted -hen$(en3 The -re2+ence $0 &uch --rent+, un&turted
-hen$(en &h$u+d in turn 1e regrded & c$n&e5uence $0 e2er,d,
-hen$(en 1eing di&t$rted 1, the $16ecti0,ing /, in /hich /e
--r$ch the(3 Thu&. the&e e2er,d, -hen$(en re n$t de7cient
re8ecti$n& $0 n exce-ti$n+ -rdig(. 1ut rther c$2ered!$2er
In $ther /$rd&. 6u&t & ;e/t$nin -h,&ic& cn 1e regrded &
+i(ited c&e $0 &-eci+ re+ti2it, nd 5untu( (echnic&. &$ $ur
e2er,d, --r$ch t$ -hen$(en & deter(inte nd exhu&ti2e+,
*n$/1+e $16ect& i& +i(ited c&e $0 n --r$ch &uch & #ri$n%&.
/hich rec$gni&e& the exce&& $0 intuiti$n /ith /hich -hen$(en in 0ct
gi2e the(&e+2e& 1e,$nd n, -$&&i1i+it, $0 1eing gr&-ed 1, $ur
'ec$nd+,. 1ecu&e &turted -hen$(en 0uncti$n & -rdig(&. nd
&$ de7ne the e&&enti+ chrcteri&tic& $0 ++ -hen$(en. their exce&&
1e,$nd the gr&- $0 *n$/ing &u16ect ++$/& #ri$n t$ e&t1+i&h the
-ri(c, $0 gi2enne&& (donation) in -hen$(en$+$g,3 9e in&i&t& tht
-hen$(en $n+, --er & the(&e+2e& /hen the, re reduced t$ <-ure
gi2en&=3 Tht i& t$ &,. -hen$(en (u&t 1e reduced t$ tht & /hich
the, gi2e the(&e+2e&. /ith$ut n, ($di7cti$n 1, c$n&tituting eg$. $r
4&ein tht -r$6ect& /$r+d3 'uch reducti$n <1rc*et& ++ in thi&
-hen$(en$n tht d$e& n$t &te( 0r$( Qressortit 5R -ure -hen$(en+it,:
Qn(e+,R $16ectne&& nd 1eingne&&= (BD M2PL77)3 The re&u+t $0
under&tnding -hen$(en$n -ure+, in it&e+0 i& tht it i& deter(ined
$n+, 1, gi2enne&&. nd cc$rding+, --er& $n+, & gi2en. /ith$ut n,
re&idue $r re(inder3AK #ri$n c$nc+ude& tht. 1, exc+uding ++ tht
d$e& n$t 1e+$ng t$ gi2enne&&. hi& 0$r( $0 the -hen$(en$+$gic+
reducti$n g$e& <1e,$nd Q9u&&er+%&R $16ectne&& nd Q9eidegger%&R
1eingne&&= (BD AUL27)O hi& -hen$(en$+$gic+ reducti$n reduce&
AK3 <Q;R$thing $ther thn gi2enne&& deter(ine& it nd. & re&u+t. it
--er& $n+, &
gi2en I /ith$ut n, n$ngi2en re&idue3S QIt i&R -ure+, nd &trict+, gi2en
/ith$ut re(inder nd $/ing ++ it& -hen$(en+it, t$ gi2enne&&= (BD
-hen$(en+it, t$ <-ure gi2enne&&= (BD AUL27). nd -hen$(en t$
<-ure gi2enQ&RSQthtR --er 1&$+ute+,= (BD M20L7U)3 In thi& re&-ect. he
1e+ie2e& tht he (*e& &igni7cnt d2nce& $2er 1$th 9u&&er+ nd
9eidegger in g$ing <t$ the thing& the(&e+2e&=3
Third+,. the&e c+i(& 1$ut -hen$(en & unc$nditi$ned <-ure
gi2en&= enti+ c$rre+ting &et $0 c+i(& 1$ut the &u16ect & reci-ient
tht h& n$ inititing $r c$n&tituting r$+e3 'uch &u16ect i& de7ned
-ure+, in ter(& $0 rece-ti2it,. nd i& n(ed 1, #ri$n & n <adonn= I
$ne /h$ i& gi2en +$ng /ith the &e+0!gi2ing $0 -hen$(en3 I(-$rtnt+,.
e2en th$ugh #ri$n -r$-$&e& 2er, di?erent under&tnding $0 the r$+e
$0 the &u16ect. he c$ntinue& t$ &itute thi& r$+e t the centre $0
-hen$(en+it, (BD K22L442)3 Indeed. he de&cri1e& the &u16ect & (*ing
cruci+ c$ntri1uti$n t$ the --ering $0 -hen$(en3 Thu&. the
ch++enge #ri$n 0ce& i& t$ re($2e the &u16ect 0r$( the -ure+, cti2e
r$+e $0 c$n&tituti$n. /ith$ut (*ing it -ure+, -&&i2e reci-ient3 The
adonn i& &u16ect /h$ i& 0reed 0r$( &u16ecti2it,3
#ri$n 1e+ie2e& tht the 1&$+ute -ri$rit, $0 gi2enne&& (en& tht
<&u16ect= n$t $n+, recei2e& -hen$(en$n 0r$( the -hen$(en$n%& $/n
gi2ing $0 it&e+0. 1ut +&$ recei2e& it& $/n &e+0 (& &u16ect /ith$ut
&u16ecti2it,) in thi& gi2ing3 A <&u16ect= thu& n$t $n+, recei2e& that .hich
is $iven (the donn). 1ut i& it&e+0 the one .ho is $iven (the adonn)3 The
adonn i& n$t -rec$n&tituted recei2er tht -recede& nd c$nditi$n& the
gi2ing $0 the -hen$(en$n. 1ut i& rther it&e+0 c$n&tituted as receiver in
the 2er, recei2ing $0 the -hen$(en$n it&e+0: <The adonnSrecei2eQ&R
hi(&e+0 1, recei2ing the gi2en un0$+ded 1, hi( cc$rding t$ gi2enne&&=
(BD 2U2LKG0)3 #ri$n 1e+ie2e& tht the n$(inti2e c&e cn n$ +$nger 1e
c+i(ed 0$r 7gure &uch & thi&3 In di&cu&&ing the /, re&-$n&e
+/,& de-end& $n -ri$r c++. he c$((ent&: <I recei2e my self 0r$( the
c++ tht gi2e& (e t$ (,&e+0 1e0$re gi2ing (e n,thing /ht&$e2er= (BD
2FGLK7A)3 The adonn --er& in the dti2e c&e. /hich #ri$n &ugge&t&
(, -erh-& 1e indi&tingui&h1+e 0r$( the 1+ti2e. <&ince the myself6me
(*e& -$&&i1+eSthe $-ening 0$r the gi2enne&&e& $0 ++ $ther -rticu+r
gi2en&= (BD 2FGLK7A)3 The adonn recei2e& it&e+0 & *ind $0 <-+ce=.
</here /ht gi2e& it&e+0 &h$/& it&e+0 Qo7 se montre ce "ui se donneR= (BD
#ri$n%& cc$unt $0 &turted -hen$(en i& 2er, &igni7cnt c$ntri1uti$n
t$ -hen$(en$+$g,. nd $?er& rich -$&&i1i+itie& 0$r re!thin*ing
$ur -rdig(& 1$ut truth. -rticu+r+, /ith re&-ect t$ 0und(ent+
di(en&i$n& $0 $ur hu(n re+it,. nd +&$ $0 tht /hich rdic++,
trn&cend& u&3 9$/e2er. I h2e nu(1er $0 re&er2ti$n& 1$ut hi&
the$r, I -rticu+r+, in &$(e $0 it& ($re dr(tic c+i(& I nd c$nc+ude
thi& rtic+e 1, 1rie8, indicting t/$ $0 the(3
Fir&t. +th$ugh #ri$n /nt& t$ di&tnce hi& n+,&i& 0r$( the
&tructure& $0 Crte&in nd Bntin &u16ecti2it,. he retin& it& e&&enti++,
d2er&ri+ chrcteri&ti$n $0 the &u16ect!$16ect re+ti$n. 1ut &i(-+,
in2ert& it3 Thu&. he &cri1e& 5u&i &e+0h$$d t$ -hen$(en. nd
re+egte& the adonn t$ n e&&enti++, -&&i2e r$+e3 #ri$n re-eted+,
&-e*& $0 -hen$(en <i(-$&ing= the(&e+2e& $n reci-ient. nd e2en
de&cri1e& thi& & +i*e <cr&hing= $nt$ &creen (BD 2FMLKFMO c03. FGLA0A.
A4FL207. A7MPL24F. K04L4AG)3 #ri$n%& cc$unt certin+, &ucceed& in
di&-+cing the &u16ect 0r$( d$(innt. c$n&tituting r$+e nd re($2e&
n, 2e&tige& $0 Crte&in $r Bntin &$2ereignt,3 9$/e2er. in (n,
in&tnce& thi& dethr$ning &ee(& t$ 1e cc$(-+i&hed &i(-+, 1,
enthr$ning ne/ &$2ereign. rther thn 1, $2erturning the d$(ini$n $0
&$2ereignt, & &uch3
'ec$nd+,. c$n&i&tent /ith the 0und(ent++, -&&i2e r$+e he &&ign&
t$ the adonn. #ri$n re&trict& n, her(eneutic e+e(ent in hi&
-hen$(en$+$g, t$ &erie& $0 e-i&te(ic ct& tht inter-ret the (ening
$0 -hen$(en$n after it has already appeared3 The ctu+ --ering $0
-hen$(en$n i& 0u++, cc$(-+i&hed inde-endent+, $0 n, &uch
inter-retti$n& $0 it& (ening3 Tht i& exc+uded here i& the $nt$+$gic+
($r exi&tenti+) &en&e $0 her(eneutic& e&t1+i&hed 1, 9eidegger3 In
9eidegger%& --r$ch. her(eneutic& in the &en&e $0 e-i&te(ic ct& $0
inter-retti$n i& deri2ed 0r$( ($re 0und(ent+ $nt$+$gic+ ($r
exi&tenti+) &en&e. in /hich her(eneutic& i& &tructur+ di(en&i$n $0
4&ein%& 1eing3 In thi& ($re 0und(ent+ &en&e $0 her(eneutic&. hu(n
exi&tence i& c$n&tituted 1, under&tnding3 There0$re. rther thn
her(eneutic& 1eing re&tricted t$ the inter-retti$n& $0 exi&tence tht
ri&e /hen it i& &u1&e5uent+, rec$unted. hu(n exi&tence i& it&e+0
c$n&idered t$ 1e her(eneutic in the very structure of its happenin$3
C$n&e5uent+,. -hen$(en re n$t $n+, inter-reted after the, h2e
--ered. 1ut re al.ays already inter-reted in their 2er, --ering3
I 1e+ie2e tht her(eneutic e+e(ent in the 9eideggerin &en&e i&
i(-+icit in ech $0 #ri$n%& cc$unt& $0 &turted -hen$(en3 The
--ering $0 &uch -hen$(en de-end& $n the interre+ti$n&hi- 1et/een
the reci-ient nd the /$r+d. nd $n the inter-reti2e 0eture& $0 tht
re+ti$n&hi-3 In (n, in&tnce& (0$r ex(-+e. n($r-h$&e&. id$+&.
ic$n&. the 0ce $0 the $ther -er&$n). #ri$n hi(&e+0 de&cri1e& the
--ering $0 the -hen$(en$n & de-endent $n the reci-ient
--r$ching it in the --r$-rite /, (0$r ex(-+e. /ith re2erence 0$r
the ic$n. $r 1, en2i&ging 0ce rther thn $16ecti0,ing it)3 In $ther
/$rd&. the &-ce needed 0$r the&e -hen$(en t$ --er (& the(&e+2e&)
i& $n+, $-ened 1, n cti2e nd inter-reti2e rece-ti$n3 'uch n cti2e
rece-ti$n i& n$t c$(-ti1+e /ith the -&&i2it, $0 #ri$n%& adonn. n$r
/ith hi& c+i(& tht -hen$(en gi2e the(&e+2e& &$+e+, $n the 1&i& $0
Thu&. /hi+e #ri$n%& &turted -hen$(en $?er -rdig( tht
exceed& 1$th 2eri71+e truth nd n, c$nditi$n& i(-$&ed 1, c$n&tituting
&u16ect. the, re(in nece&&ri+, her(eneutic. 1ecu&e
rece-ti$n tht cti2e+, inter-ret& i& -rt $0 the 2er, &tructure $0 the
--ering $0 -hen$(en3