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ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF.

STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
1


CURSUL I. INTEGRALA NEDEFINIT.


1. Primitive. Proprieti.
Pe parcursul cursului, I este un interval;
Definiia 1. Fie f: I R. Se spune c f admite primitive pe I dac -F : I R astfel nct
a) F este derivabil pe I;
b) F(x) =f(x), x I.
F se numete primitiva lui f. ( I poate fi i o reuniune finit disjunct de intervale).

Teorema 1.1 Fie f : I R. Dac R I
F F
: ,
2 1
sunt dou primitive ale funciei f, atunci exist o constant c
eR astfel nct + = , ) ( ) (
2 1
c x x
F F
xeI.
Demonstraie : Dac
F F 2 1
, sunt primitive atunci
F F 2 1
, sunt derivabile ) ( ) (
'
) (
2
'
1
x f x x
F
F
= = x I
0 ) (
'
) ( ) ( ) (
2
'
1
'
2 1
= = x x x
F
F F F
, x I. c x x
F F
= ) ( ) (
2 1
, c= constant
OBS 1. Fiind dat o primitiv
F0
a unei funcii atunci orice primitiv F a lui f are forma F =
0
F + c , c= constant
f admite o infinitate de primitive.
OBS 2. Teorema nu mai rmne adevrat dac I este o reuniune disjunct de intervale Expl: f: R- } {0 , f(x) =x2
F =
3
3
x
, G=

+
+
2
3
1
3
3
3
x
x
F, G sunt primitive ale lui f dar F-G nu e constant . Contradicie cu T 1.1
OBS 3. Orice funcie care admite primitive are Proprietatea lui Darboux.
Se tie c derivata oricrei funcii are P. lui Darboux , rezult c f are P lui Darboux. F =f.











OBS 4. Dac I este interval i f(I) { } I x x f def e / ) ( nu este interval atunci f nu admite primitive.
Dac presupunem c f admite primitive atunci din OBS 3 rezult c f are P lui Darboux, rezult f(I) este interval ceea ce
este o contradicie.
OBS 5. Orice funcie continu definit pe un interval admite primitive.

Definiia 2. Fie f: I R o funcie care admite primitive. Mulimea tuturor primitivelor lui f se numete integrala
nedefinit a funciei f i se noteaz prin simbolul
}
) (x f
dx. Operaia de calculare a primitivelor unei
funcii(care admite primitive ) se numete integrare.
Simbolul
}
a fost propus pentru prima dat de Leibniz, n 1675.
Fie F(I)={ } R I f : Pe aceast mulime se introduc operaiile :
F
P.D
P
C
D
Revista MateInfo.Ro ISSN 2065 - 6432 septembrie 2009
ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
2

(f+g)(x) =f(x)+g(x) ,
(f)(x)=.f(x) R x e , constant
C=={ } R f R I f e / :
}
) (x f
dx ={ } f lui a primitiv F I F F / ) ( e .
Teorema 1.2 Dac f,g:I R sunt funcii care admit primitive i e R, 0, atunci funciile f+g, f
admit de asemenea primitive i au loc relaiile:(f+g) =f +g, f=f, 0, f =f +C


2. PRIMITIVELE FUNCIILOR CONTINUE SIMPLE

1.
}
e + = R c C x c cdx , Ex
}
+ = C x dx 6 6

2. C
n
x
dx x
n
n
+
+
=
}
+
1
1
Ex. C
x
dx x + =
}
11
11
10


3. C
x
dx x +
+
=
+
}
1
1

Ex C x C
x
C
x
dx x dx x + = + = +
+
= =
+
} }
3 4
3
4
1
3
1
3
1
3
4
3
3
4
1
3
1

4.
}
+ = C
a
a
dx a
x
x
ln
Ex C dx
x
x
+ =
}
2 ln
2
2

5.
}
+ = C e dx e
x x
6. C x dx
x
+ =
}
ln
1
7.
}
+ = C ctgx dx
x
2
sin
1


8.
}
+ = C tgx dx
x
2
cos
1
9.
}
+ = C x xdx cos sin
10.
}
+ = C x xdx sin cos

11. C
a
x
arctg
a
dx
a x
+ =
+
}
1 1
2 2
Ex C
x
arctg dx
x
+ =
+
}
5 5
1
5
1
2 2


12.
}
+
+

C
a x
a x
a
dx
a x
ln
2
1 1
2 2
Ex
}
+
+

C
x
x
dx
x 5
5
ln
10
1
25
1
2


13. C x a x dx
a x
+ + + =
+
}
) ln(
1
2 2
2 2
Ex C x x dx
x
+ + + =
+
}
) 4 ln(
4
1
2 2
2 2


14.
}
+ + =

C a x x dx
a x
2 2
2 2
ln
1
Ex
}
+ + =

C x x dx
x
49 ln
49
1
2
2




ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
3

15.
}
+ =

C
a
x
dx
x a
arcsin
1
2 2
Ex
}
+ =

C
x
dx
x
4
arcsin
16
1
2


16. C x tgxdx + =
}
cos ln 17. C x ctgxdx + =
}
sin ln


18. C a x dx
a x
x
+ + =
+
}
2 2
2 2
Ex C x dx
x
x
+ + =
+
}
2 2
2
5
25


19. C a x dx
a x
x
+ =

}
2 2
2 2
Ex C x dx
x
x
+ =

}
36
36
2
2


20. C x a dx
x a
x
+ =

}
2 2
2 2
Ex C x dx
x
x
+ =

}
2
2
25
25


21. C a x x
a
a x
x
dx a x + + + + + = +
}
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
ln
2 2
Ex C x x x
x
dx x + + + + + = +
}
7 ln
2
7
7
2
7
2 2 2


22. C a x x
a
a x
x
dx a x + + =
}
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
ln
2 2
Ex C x x x
x
dx x + + =
}
9 ln
2
9
9
2
9
2 2 2


23.
}
+ + = C
a
x a
x a
x
dx x a arcsin
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
Ex
}
+ + = C
a
x a
x a
x
dx x a arcsin
2 2
2
2 2 2 2


I. S se calculeze primitivele urmtoarelor funcii.

1. (3x dx x x ) 2 3 2
3 5
+ 2. x(x-1)(x-2)dx
3. dx x x x ) 1 )( 1 ( + + 4. dx
x x
x )
1
(
3
3
+
5. ( )dx x x x
}
+
5 3
4 2 6. dx
x x x
} |
|
.
|

\
|
+
2 3 5
3 5

7. x dx x
3
) 1 ( 8. dx
x x
x
}
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
3 5
2
9. ( e dx
e
x
x
)
1
+ 10. (x dx
x
) 5
5
+
11. dx
x
x
2
4 5
}
|
.
|

\
| +
12.
( )
}
+
dx
x
x
3
3
2

13. dx x 4
2
+ 14. dx x 9
2

15. dx x
2
4 16*. dx
x x 1
1
2
+

ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
4

17*. dx
x
x
}
+
+
2
3
2
2
18*. dx
x
x
}

3
2
2
2

19*. dx
x x
} 2 2
cos . sin
1
20*. dx
x x
}
cos . sin
1

21*. dx
x
x
}

+
1
1




3. PRIMITIVELE FUNCIILOR CONTINUE COMPUSE

1.
}
e + = R x C x dx x ) ( , ) ( ) ( ' Ex ( ) C x dx x + + = +
}
1 5 ' 1 5

2.
}
+ = C
x
dx x x
2
) (
) ( ' ) (
2

Ex ( )
( )
C
x
dx x +
+
= +
}
2
3 4
4 3 4
2


3.
}
+
+
=
+
C
n
x
dx x x
n
n
1
) (
) ( ' ) (
1

Ex ( )
( )
C
x
dx x +
+
= +
}
8
2 5
5 2 5
8
7


4.
}
+ = C e dx x e
x x ) ( ) (
) ( '

Ex
}
+ =
+ +
C e dx e
x x 4 2 4 2
2


5.
}
+ = C
a
a
dx x a
x
x
ln
) ( '
) (
) (

Ex C dx
x
x
+ =
}
4 ln
4
3 4
3
3


6. C x dx
x
x
+ =
}
) ( ln
) (
) ( '

Ex C x dx
x
+ + =
+
}
7 12 ln
7 12
12


7. C
x n
dx
x
x
n n
+

=
}
) (
1
1
1
) (
) ( '
1

Ex
( )
C
x
dx
x
+

} 5 6
4 2
1
5
1
) 4 2 (
2


8. C
a x
a x
a
dx
a x
x
+
+

}
) (
) (
ln
2
1
) (
) ( '
2 2


Ex C
x
x
dx
x
+
+

}
3 4
3 4
ln
6
1
9 16
4
2


9. C
a
x
arctg
a
dx
a x
x
+ =
+
}
) ( 1
) (
) ( '
2 2


Ex C
x
arctg dx
x
+ =
+
}
2
5
2
1
4 25
5
2


10.
}
+ = C x dx x x ) ( cos ) ( sin ) ( ' Ex
}
+ = C x dx x ) 5 4 cos( ) 5 4 sin( 4

11.
}
+ = C x dx x x ) ( sin ) ( cos ) ( ' Ex C x dx x x + + = +
}
) 7 3 sin( ) 7 3 cos( 6
2 2


12.
}
+ = C x dx x tg x ) ( cos ln ) ( ) ( ' Ex C x dx x tg + =
}
) 7 5 cos( ln ) 7 5 ( 5

ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
5
13.
}
+ = C x dx x ctg x ) ( sin ln ) ( ) ( ' Ex C x dx x ctg + + = +
}
) 6 8 sin( ln ) 6 8 ( 8

14. C x tg dx
x
x
+ =
}
) (
) ( cos
) ( '
2

Ex C x tg dx
x
+ =
}
6
6 cos
6
2


15. C x ctg dx
x
x
+ =
}
) (
) ( sin
) ( '
2

Ex C x ctg dx
x
+ =

}
) 9 5 (
) 9 5 ( sin
5
2


16. C a x dx
a x
x x
+ =

}
2 2
2 2
) (
) (
) ( ' ) (


Ex C x dx
x
x
+ =

}
4 9
4 9
3 3
2
2




17. C a x dx
a x
x x
+ + =
+
}
2 2
2 2
) (
) (
) ( ' ) (


Ex C x dx
x
x
+ + =
+

}
25 16
25 16
4 4
2
2


18. C x a dx
x a
x x
+ =

}
) (
) (
) ( ' ) (
2 2
2 2


Ex C x dx
x
x
+ =

}
2
2
4 9
4 9
2 2


19. C a x x dx
a x
x
+ + + =
+
}
) ) ( ) ( ln(
) (
) ( '
2 2
2 2

Ex C x x dx
x
+ + + =
+
}
) 7 25 5 ln(
7 25
5
2 2
2 2


20. C a x x dx
a x
x
+ + =

}
2 2
2 2
) ( ) ( ln
) (
) ( '

Ex C x x dx
x
+ + =

}
2 2
2 2
4 9 3 ln
4 9
3


21. C
a
x
dx
x a
x
+ =

}
) (
arcsin
) (
) ( '
2 2

Ex C
x
dx
x
+ =

}
5
2
arcsin
4 5
2
2 2


22. C a x x
a
a x
x
dx a x + + + + + = +
}
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ln
2
) (
2
) (
) (



23. C a x x
a
a x
x
dx a x + + =
}
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ln
2
) (
2
) (
) (



24.
}
+ + = C
a
x a
x a
x
dx x a
) (
arcsin
2
) (
2
) (
) (
2
2 2 2 2




II.S se calculeze primitivele urmtoarelor funcii compuse.

1.
}
dx
x 5
2 5 2.
}
dx
x 4
3 3.
}
xdx 4 sin 4 4.
}
xdx 3 cos 3
5.
}
+
dx
x 3 5
1
6. dx
x
}
+ 9 4
1
2
7. dx
x
}
16 4
1
2
8. dx
x
}

2
9 25
1

ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
6

9. dx
x
}
3 cos
1
2
10.
}
dx
x 5 sin
1
2
11.
}
xdx tg4 12.
}
xdx ctg2 2
13. dx
x
}
+
2 2
4 16
1
14. dx
x
}

2
16 9
1



III. S se arate c urmtoarele funcii nu admit primitive.
1. f: R R, f(x) =

>
(
0 , 1
0 , 1
x
x
2. f: R R , f(x) = [x] ( partea ntreag din x)
3. f: R R, f(x) =

)
=
(
0 , 1
0 , 0
0 , 1
x
x
x
4. f: R R , f(x) =[X] +X
5. . f: R R f(x) =

+ e +
e
) , 0 ( , 1
] 0 , ( , 1
x x
x
6. f: R R , f(x) =

=
=
0 , 2
0 , sin
x
x x



IV. S se determine a,b numere reale astfel nct F s fie primitiva unei funcii f.

1*. F(x) =
( )

s
+
+
) +
1 ,
1
1
1 , ln
2
x
x
x
x b ax
2*. F(x) =

e +
e +
] , [ , ) 3 2 (
) , 1 [ , ln 1
2 2
2
e e x b x a
e x x

3*. F(x) =

) +
s +
0 , 1 4 2
0 , 2
2
3
x x x
x b e a
x
4*. F(x) =

) +
s
+
+
0 , 9 6
0 ,
1
2
2
x x x
x
x
b ax

5*. F(x) =

)
+
+
s + +
0 ,
2
3
0 , 1 2
2
2
x
x
a x
x bx e a
x
6*. F(x) =

s +
) + +
0 , cos 3 sin
0 ,
2
x x x
x b ax x




V. S se verifice dac urmtoarele funcii admit primitive i n caz afirmativ s se determine o primitiv.

1. f: R R, f(x) =

> +
( +
0 , 2
0 , 3
2
x e
x x
x
2. f: R R, f (x) =

)
s
+
0 ,
4
1
0 ,
4
1
2
x x
x
x

3*.f:[0,)R, f(x) =

> +
e +
1 ,
1 1
) 1 , 0 [ ,
3
3
x
x x
x x x
4*. f:[-2,)R, f(x) =

>
+
) 0 , 2 [ ,
9
1
0 ,
3
2
2
3
x
x
x
x
x




ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
7



DERIVATE






Nr FUNCTIA DERIVATA MULTIMEA PE CARE
FUNCTIA ESTE DERIVABIL
FUNCTIA COMPUS DERIVATA
1. C 0 R
2. x 1 R u u

3. x
n
nx
n-1
R u
n
n.u
n-1
.u

4. x
a
ax
a-1
[0,] u
a
au
a-1
.u

5.
x
1

-
2
1
x

R
*
u
1
- u
u
.
1
2


6.
n
x
1
-
1 + n
x
n

R
*

n
u
1


-n/u
n+1
u
7.
x
x 2
1

R
*
+
u
u 2
1
u
8. n
x
n n
x n
1
1


R
*
+,n par
R
*
,nimpar
n
u
n n
u n
1
1

u
9. sin x cosx R sin u ucos u
10. cos x -sinx R cos u -usin u
11. tg x
x
2
cos
1
R\{(2k+1)
2

| keZ}
tg u
'
cos
1
2
u
u

12. ctg x
-
x
2
sin
1

R\{k | keZ} ctg u
- '
sin
1
2
u
u

13. arcsin x
2
1
1
x

(-1,1) arcsin u
'
1
1
2
u
u

14. arccos x
-
2
1
1
x

(-1,1) arccos u
- '
1
1
2
u
u

15. arctg x
2
1
1
x +

R arctg u
'
1
1
2
u
u +

16. arcctg x
-
2
1
1
x +

R arcctg u
- '
1
1
2
u
u +

17. a
x
a
x
lna
R a
u
a
u
.lna.u
18. e
x
e
x

R e
u
e
u
.u
19. lnx
x
1

R
*
+
lnu
' .
1
u
u

20.
log
a
x
a xln
1

R
*
+
log
a
u
'
ln
1
u
a u

21. u
v
(u
v
)
=
v. u
v-1
.u

+u
v
.v

.lnu
ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
8
LIMITE DE FUNCTII
P(X)=a
0
x
n
+ a
1
x
n-1
+ ..+a
n
,a
0
= 0 Q(X)=b
0
x
m
+ b
1
x
m-1
+ ..+b
n
,b
0
= 0

lim
x
n
a x P ) ( ) (
0
=






a>1 =

x
x
a
lim
0
lim
=

x
x
a =

x
a
x
log
lim
=

x
a
x
log
lim
0

a ) 1 , 0 ( e =

x
a
x
log
lim
=

x
a
x
log
lim
0

a ) 1 , 0 ( e 0
lim
=

x
x
a =

x
x
a
lim









) (
) (
lim
X Q
X P
x

=

0 n<m

0
0
b
a

n=m
x

|
|
.
|

\
|
0
0
b
a

, n>m,
0
0
0
>
b
a

, n>m,
0
0
0
<
b
a

x
) (
0
0

|
|
.
|

\
|
b
a
n-m

|
|
.
|

\
|
0
0
b
a

n>m, n-m par
) (
0
0

|
|
.
|

\
|
b
a

n>m, n-m impar
=

tgx
x
lim
2


x>
2


+ =

tgx
x
lim
2


X<
2


0, dac
q ( ) 1 , 1 e
lim
x
q
x
=
1, dac q=1
, dac q>1
nu exist, dac
q 1 s
lim
0 x
1
sin
=
x
x

lim
0 x
1 =
x
tgx

( )
( )
( )
1
sin
lim
0
=

x u
x u
x u

( )
( )
( )
1
lim
0
=

x u
x tgu
x u

lim
0 x
1
arcsin
=
x
x

lim
0 x
1 =
x
arctgx

( )
( )
( )
1
arcsin
lim
0
=

x u
x u
x u

( )
( )
( )
1
lim
0
=

x u
x arctgu
x u

lim
0 x
( ) e x x = +
1
1
e
x
x
x
= |
.
|

\
|
+

1
1
lim

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) e x u x u
x u
= +

1
0
1
lim

( )
( )
( )
0
1
1
lim
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

x u
x u
x u


lim
0 x
( )
1
1 ln
=
+
x
x

lim
0 x
a
x
a
x
ln
1
=


( )
( ) ( )
( )
1
1 ln
lim
0
=
+

x u
x u
x u

( )
( )
( )
a
x u
a
x
u
x u
ln
1
lim
0
=



lim
0 x
( )
r
x
x
r
=
+ 1 1
0
lim
=

x
k
x
a
x

( )
( ) ( )
( )
r
x u
x u
r
x u
=
+

1 1
lim
0

( )
( )
( )
0
lim
=

x u
k
x u
a
x u

lim
x
0
ln
=
k
x
x


( )
( )
( )
0
ln
lim
=

k
x u x u
x u


ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
9


CURSUL II. METODE DE CALCUL AL INTEGRALELOR.

1. Formula de integrare prin pri.

Teorema 1.1 Dac f,g:RR sunt funcii derivabile cu derivatele continue, atunci funciile fg,
fg, fg admit primitive i are loc relaia:
}
f(x)g(x)dx =f(x)g(x)-
}
f(x)g(x)dx

Demonstraie: f,g derivabile f,g continue fg,fg,fg continue i deci admit primitive.
Cum (fg)=fg+gf rezult prin integrare ceea ce trebuia de demonstrat.

S se calculeze integralele:
1.
}
xdx ln 2.
}
xdx x ln 3.
}
xdx x ln
2
4.
}
xdx
x
ln
1

5.
}
xdx
x
ln
1
2
6.
}
dx
x
x) ln(ln
7.
}
xdx
2
ln 8.
}
+ dx
x
)
2
1 ln(
9*. dx
x
x
2
3
ln
}
10. dx
x
x
2
2
ln
}
11.
}
dx x) cos(ln 12.
}
dx x) sin(ln
13.
}
+ xdx x x ln ) 3 2 (
2
14.
}
dx x x ) 1 ln( 15. dx x
x
x
) 1 1 ln(
1
2
2
+ +
+
}

16*. dx
x
x
x
}
+

1
1
ln 17. ( ) dx e x
x
+
}
1
2
18. dx e x
x

}

19. ( ) dx e x x
x 3 2
2 +
}
20. dx e x
x

}
2
21. dx e x
x 2 2

}

22*. dx e x x
x 2 2 3
) 2 5 ( +
}
23. dx e x
x

}
2
24*.
}
+
dx
e
x
x x
2
2 2 3

25.
}
xdx e
x
sin 26.
}
xdx e
x
cos 27.
}
xdx e
x
2 sin
28.
}
xdx e
x
2 cos 29.
}
xdx x sin 30.
}
xdx x cos
31.
}
xdx x sin
2
32.
}
xdx x cos
2
33*.
}
xdx x 2 sin
2

34*.
}
xdx x 2 cos
2
35.
}
xdx x
2
sin 36.
}
xdx x
2
cos
37.
}
dx
x
x
2
cos
38.
}
dx
x
x
2
sin
39.
}

dx
x
x x
2
1
arcsin

40.
}
dx
x
x
2
arcsin
41*.
}

xdx e
x 2
sin 42*. dx x) (ln cos
2
}

43*.
}
dx x x 9
2
44*.
}
+ dx x x 16
2
45*.
}
dx x x
2
4
46.
}
xdx x ln 47*.
}
+
dx
e
x x
x
5 2
2






ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
10


Rezolvri:

1.
} } } }
+ = = = = C x x x dx x x dx
x
x x x xdx x xdx ln ln
1
ln ln ' ln

2.
} } } }
+ = = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= C x x
x
xdx x
x
dx
x
x
x
x
xdx
x
xdx x
2
2 2 2 2
'
2
4
1
ln
2 2
1
ln
2
1
2
ln
2
ln
2
ln

4.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
} } } } }
+ = = = = C x xdx
x
x dx
x
x dx
x
x x xdx x xdx
x
2 2 2
ln
2
1
ln
1
ln
1
ln 2
1
ln ln ln ' ln ln
1



Observaie: La integralele care conin funcia logaritmic nu se umbl la ea ci se scriu celelalte funcii ca f

20.
( ) ( )
( ) C x x e C e e x e x
dx e e x e x dx e x e x dx e x e x dx e x dx e x
x x x x
x x x x x x x x x
+ + = + + =
= = = = =
} } } } }
2 2 2 2
] [ 2 2 2
2 2
2
'
2 2
'
2 2


25. ( )
} } } }
= = = ] ) sin ( cos [ sin cos sin sin sin
'
dx x e x e x e xdx e x e xdx e xdx e
x x x x x x x


Notnd cu I integrala
}
xdx e
x
sin rezult: C x x e I I x e x e I
x x x
+ = = ) cos (sin
2
1
cos sin
Observaie: La integralele unde apare funcia exponenial , se va scrie aceasta ca f

29. ( )
} } }
+ + = + = = C x x x xdx x x dx x x xdx x sin cos cos cos cos sin
'


32. ( ) 29 , ) sin cos ( 2 sin sin 2 sin sin cos
2 2 ' 2 2
vezi C x x x x x xdx x x x dx x x xdx x + + = = =
} } }


37. ( ) C x tgx x x tgx x tgxdx tgx x xdx tgx dx
x
x
+ + = = = =
} } }
cos ln ) cos ln (
cos
'
2


Observaie: La integralele care conin funcii polinomiale i funcii trigonometrice nu se va umbla la funciile polinomiale
ci doar la funciile trigonometrice care se vor scrie ca f











ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
11



41*. Se tie c:

= =
2
2 cos 1
sin sin 2 1 2 cos
2 2
x
x x x
( )
C
x e
x e I I
x e
x e I
xdx e
x e
x e dx
x
e x e
xdx e x e dx
x
e x e dx
x
e xdx e I
I
e
xdx e dx e dx
x
e xdx e
x
x
x
x
x
x
x x x
x x x x x x
x
x x x x
+ = + =
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ =
= + = = |
.
|

\
|
= =

= = |
.
|

\
|
=


} }
} } } }
} } } }
)
4
2 cos
2 sin
2
1
(
3
4
4
1
4
2 cos
2 sin
2
1
2 cos
4
1
4
2 cos
2 sin
2
1
2
2 cos
2
1
2 sin
2
1
2 sin
2
1
2 sin
2
1
2
2 sin
2 sin
2
1
2
2 sin
2 cos
2
1
2
2 cos
2
1
2
1
2
2 cos 1
sin
'
'
2


































ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
12


CURSUL III. METODE DE CALCUL AL INTEGRALELOR

2. FORMULA SCHIMBRII DE VARIABIL (SAU METODA SUBSTITUIEI).

Teorem: Fie I,J intervale din R i : , : , : ile proprietat cu functii R J f J I
1) este derivabil pe I;
2) f admite primitive. (Fie F o primitiv a sa.)
Atunci funcia (f o ) admite primitive, iar funcia F o este o primitiv a lui (f o ) adic:
( ) ( ) ( ) C Fo dt t t f + =
}

'


S se calculeze integralele:

1. ( )
}
+ dx b ax
n
2. ( )
}
dx x
9
1 2 3. ( )
}
dx x x
9
1 2
4. ( )
}
dx x x
7
2
3 5 5. ( )
}
+ dx x x
6
3 2
1 6. ( )
}
+
+
dx x x
n
k k
1
1

7. dx x
x
}

2
7 8. dx
e
e
x
x
}
+1
9. dx
e
e
x
x
}
+1
2

10.
}
dx e
x
11.
}
dx
x
e
x
12. dx
e
e
x
x
}
1
2

13. dx
e
e
x
x
}
1
2
3
14.
}
dx x x 1 15.
}
+ dx x 5 2
16.
}
+ dx x x
2
1 17.
}
dx x x
4 3
1 18. dx x x
}
+
5 3 2
2
19. dx x
3
5 2 + 20.
}
dx x x 7 6
2
21.
}
+ dx x x 2
2

22. dx
x
x
}
ln
23. dx
x
x
}
ln
24.
}
xdx x ln
25. dx
x
x x
}

3
2
26.
( )
}

dx
x x
x
2
1
27.
}
+
dx
x x 3 2 4
1
2

28.
}
+ +
dx
x x 4 3
1
2
29. dx
x
x
}
+
4
1
30.
}
+
dx
x
x
1
2

31.
( )
}
+
dx
x x
4
ln 1
1
32.
( )
dx
x x
}
+ 8 ln
1
2
33.
}

dx
x x
2
ln 3
1

34.
}
dx
x x ln
1
35. dx
x
x
}
+
3
ln 1
36 . dx x x 2
2 3
+
}

37. dx
x x
}
+
2006
) ln 2005 (
1
38.
}

dx
x x 1
1
2





ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
13


Rezolvri:

1. ( ) C
n a
b ax
C
n
t
a a
dt
t dx b ax
n n
n n
+
+
+
= +
+
= = +
+ +
} }
) 1 (
) (
1
1
1 1
unde ax+b=t adx=dt dx=
a
dt

2. ( ) C
x
C
t dt
t dx x +

= + = =
} }
20
) 1 2 (
20 2
1 2
10
10
9 9
unde 2x-1=t 2dx=dt
3. ( ) C
x x
C
t t
dt t t dt t
t
dx x x +

= + + = + =
+
=
} } }
20
) 1 2 (
22
) 1 2 (
20 22
) (
2
1
2
1
1 2
10 11 10 11
9 10 9 9

4. ( ) dt xdx t x unde C
x
C
t dt
t dx x x = = +

= + = =
} }
10 3 5 ,
80
) 3 5 (
8 10
1
10
3 5
2
8 2 8
7
7
2

7. dt xdx t x unde C C
dt
dx x
x t
t x
= = + = + = =
} }
2 , ,
7 ln
7
2
1
7 ln
7
2
1
2
7 7
2
2
2

8. dx
e
e
x
x
}
+1
Notm: = = + dt dx e t e
x x
1
} }
+ + = + = =
+
C e C t dt
t
dx
e
e
x
x
x
) 1 ln( ln
1
1


15.
}
+ dx x 5 2 Notm: tdt dx tdt dx t x sau t x = = = + = + 2 2 5 2 5 2
2

C
x
C
t
tdt t dx x +
+
= + = = +
} }
3
5 2
3
5 2
3
3

20. ( ) C x x x x x
x
x dx x x + +

= |
.
|

\
|
=
}
7 6 3 ln
2
16
7 6
2
3
2
8
3 7 6
2 2
2
2 2

deoarece:
| |
| | 0
2 2
0
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
( A
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ = + +
) A
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + +
daca
a a
b
x a c bx ax
sau daca
a a
b
x a c bx ax


23. = = = = = = =
} } } }
dz dt
t
z t tdt dx t x deoarece zdz dt
t
t
tdt
t
t
dx
x
x 1
ln , 2 2
ln
2 2
ln ln 2
2

( ) ( ) C x t
z
dx
x
x
+ = = =
}
2
2
2
ln ln
2
2
ln

28
t cu
x
nota puteam C
x
C
x
dx
x
dx
x x
2
3 2
,
5
3 2
arcsin
2
5
2
3 2
arcsin
2
3
2
5
1
4 3
1
2 2 2

= +

=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ +
} }




ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
14


INTEGRAREA FUNCIILOR TRIGONOMETRICE

Calculul integralelor trigonometrice se poate face fie folosind formula integrrii prin pri, fie
metoda substituiei. n acest caz se pot face substituiile:
1. Dac funcia este impar n sin x, R(-sin x,cos x)=-R(sin x,cos x) atunci cos x=t.
2. Dac funcia este impar n cos x, R(sin x,-cos x)=-R(sin x,cos x) atunci sin x=t.
3. Dac funcia este par n raport cu ambele variabile R(-sin x,-cos x) atunci tg x=t.
4. Dac o funcie nu se ncadreaz n cazurile 1,2,3,atunci se utilizeaz substituiile universale:

2 1
1
cos ,
1
2
sin
2
2
2
x
tg t unde
t
t
x
t
t
x =
+

=
+
=
5. Se mai pot folosi i alte formule trigonometrice:
sin 2x=2sin x .cos x,
2
2 cos 1
cos
2
2 cos 1
sin
2 2
x
x
x
x
+
=

=

S se calculeze:

1.
}
xdx x cos sin
3
2.
}
xdx x 2 sin cos
3
3.
}
+ dx x ) 5 2 sin(
4.
}
xdx x
2 3
cos sin 5. ( )
}
+ dx x tg tgx
3
6.
}
+
dx
x
x
2
sin 1
cos

7.
}
dx
x
x
cos
sin
3
8.
}
dx x
x
cos
1
9.
}

dx
x
x
cos 1

10.
}
xdx
3
sin 11.
}
xdx
3
cos 12.
}

dx
x
x
2
1
arcsin

13. dx
x
x
}
4 cos
sin
2
14.
( )
dx
x
x
}

2
2
cos 1
2 sin
15. dx
x x
}

2 2
arcsin 1
1

16.
}
dx
x sin
1
17.
}
dx
x cos
1
18.
}
xdx x
3 10
cos sin
19. dx
x x
}
+
2006 2
) arcsin 2005 ( 1
1
20.
( )
dx
x
arctgx
}
+
2
2006
1

Rezolvri:
1. Notm sin x=t cosx dx=dt C
x
C
t
dt t xdx x + = + = =
} }
4
cos
4
cos sin
4 4
3 3

2. Notm cos x=t -sin x dx=dt
C x C
t
dt t xdx x xdx x x xdx x + = + = = = =
} } } }
5
5
4 4 3 3
cos
5
2
5
2 2 sin cos 2 cos sin 2 cos 2 sin cos
10. C
x
x C
t
t dt t dx x x xdx x xdx + + = + + = = = =
} } } }
3
cos
cos
3
) 1 ( ) cos 1 ( sin sin sin sin
3 3
2 2 2 3

12.
}

dx
x
x
2
1
arcsin
Notm cu t pe arcsin x ( ) =

= dt dx
x x
x
2 2
1
1
1
1
' arcsin
( )
} }
+ = + = =

C
x
C
t
tdt dx
x
x
2
arcsin
2
1
arcsin
2 2
2

ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
15

CURSUL IV. INTEGRAREA FUNCIILOR RAIONALE

Definiie: O funcie f:IR , I interval, se numete raional dac R(x)=
, , 0 ) ( ,
) (
) (
I x x g
x g
x f
e = unde f,g sunt funcii polinomiale.
Dac grad f >grad g, atunci se efectueaz mprirea lui f la g f=gq+r, 0 sgrad r<grad g i
deci
. ) ( .
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) ( simple rationale functii de sum ca scrierea face se x R Pentru
x g
x r
x q
x g
x f
x R + = =


1. C b ax
a
dx
b ax
+ + =
+
}
ln
1 1
Ex. C x dx
x
+ =

}
7 2 ln
2
1
7 2
1


2. C
a b ax n
dx
b ax
n n
+
+
=
+
}
1
) )( 1 (
1
) (
1
1
Ex C
x
dx
x
+
+
=
+
}
3
1
) 8 3 ( 6
1
) 8 3 (
1
6 7


3. C
a
x
arctg
a
dx
a x
+ =
+
}
1 1
2 2
Ex C
x
arctg dx
x
+ =
+
}
5 5
1
5
1
2 2


4.
}
+
+

C
a x
a x
a
dx
a x
ln
2
1 1
2 2
Ex
}
+
+

C
x
x
dx
x 5
5
ln
10
1
25
1
2


5*
( )
( )
dx
a x
x
a
dx
a x a
C
a x
x a x
a
dx
a x
} } } } |
|
.
|

\
|
+


+
= +
+
+
=
+
'
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2
1 1 1 1 1
) (
1


Ex.
( )
( )
]
) 4 ( 2
1
32 2
[
16
1
4 4
1
16
1
16 2
1
16
1
16
1
16
1
16
16
) 16 (
1
2 2 2
'
2 2 2
2
2 2
2 2
}
} } } }
+
+
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
+


+
= +
+
+
=
+
x x
x x
arctg
dx
x
x dx
x
C
x
x x
dx
x


6.
}
}
}

( A
A
+ +
) A
A
+
=
+ +
0 ,
] )
2
( )
2
[(
1
0 ,
] )
2
( )
2
[(
1
1
2 2
2 2
2
dx
a a
b
x a
dx
a a
b
x a
dx
c bx ax

Ex. C
x
x
C
x
x
dx
x
dx
x x
+

= +
+

=
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
} }
2 8
8 8
ln
3
1
8
3
8
5
8
3
8
5
ln
8
3
2
1
4
1
8
3
8
5
4
1
1 5 4
1
2 2 2

ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
16


Ex.
( )
( ) C x arctg dx
x
dx
x x
+ + =
+ +
=
+ +
} }
1
1 2
1
5 4
1
2 2


7. C c bx ax dx
c bx ax
b ax
+ + + =
+ +
+
}
2
2
ln
2
Ex. C x x dx
x x
x
+ + =
+

}
7 6 4 ln
7 6 4
6 8
2
2


8*.
} } }
+ +
+ + + =
+ +
+ +
=
+ +
+
dx
c bx ax
n c bx ax m dx
c bx ax
n b ax m
dx
c bx ax
B Ax
2
2
2 2
1
ln
) 2 (



Ex.
( )
C
x
x
x x dx
x
x x
dx
x x
x x dx
x x
x
dx
x x
x
+
+ +
+

+ + =
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
=
+
+ + =
+
+ +
=
+
+
}
} } }
57 5 4
57 5 4
ln
4
57
2
1
2
1
4 5 2 ln
4
3
4
57
4
5
2
1
4
1
4 5 2 ln
4
3
4 5 2
1
4
1
4 5 2 ln
4
3
4 5 2
4
15
4 5 4
4
3
4 5 2
4 3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2


S se calculeze:

1.
}
+
dx
x 5 3
1
2.
}
+
+
dx
x
x
1 2
3 2
3.
}
+
dx
x
x
4
4.
}
+

dx
x
x
3 2
3 1


5.
( )
}
+
dx
x
2005
3 2
1
6.
}

dx
x 9
1
2
7.
}
+
dx
x 4
1
2
8.
}

dx
x
x
2
2
2


9.
}
+
dx
x
x
1
2
2
10.
}
+
dx
x 5 3
1
2
11.
( )( )
}

dx
x x 2 1
1
12.
( )( )
}
+ +
dx
x x 2 1
1


13.
( )
}
+
dx
x x 2
1
14.
}
+
dx
x x 2 3
1
2
15.
}

dx
x x 3 2
1
2
16.
}
+ +
dx
x x 1 3
1
2


17.
}
+
dx
x x 5 2
1
2
18.
}
+

dx
x x
x
1 3 2
3 4
2
19.
}
+

dx
x x
x
5 2 3
2 6
2
20.
}
+

dx
x x
x
6 5
2 3
2


21.
}
+

dx
x
x
4
2 5
2
22.
}
+ +
+
dx
x x
x
10 2
1
2
23.
}

dx
x
x
3
6
2
24.
}
+
dx
x
x
4
1
4

25.
}
+
dx
x
x
4
1
2
26.
}
+
dx
x
x
8
3
1
27.
( )
}

dx
x
x
12
3
1
28.
( )
}

dx
x
x
10
1

ANALIZA MATEMATIC CLASA A XII-A PROF. STAN ADRIAN
CURS RAPID DE APROFUNDARE LA MATEMATIC
17
29.
}
+
dx
x
x
4
6
2


Rezolvri.

23. Notm
3
x cu t dt dx x =
2
3
C
x
x
C
t
t dt
t
dx
x
x
+
+

= +
+

} }
3
3
ln
3 6
1
3
3
ln
3 2
1
3
1
3 3
1
3
3
3
2 6
2


26. Notm pe
4
x cu t 4
3
x dx=dt
C x arctg C t arctg
dt
t
dx
x
x
+ = + =
+
=
+
} }
4
2 8
3
4
1
4
1
4 1
1
1


27. Notm pe x-1 cu t x=t+1 dx=dt

( )
( )
C
t t t t
dt t t t t dt
t
t t t
dt
t
t
dx
x
x
+

= + + + =
+ + +
=
+
=



} } } }
11 10
3
9
3
8
) 3 3 (
1 3 3 1
1
11 10 9 8
12 11 10 9
12
2 3
12
3
12
3



= C
x x x x
+

11 10 9 8
) 1 ( 11
1
) 1 ( 10
3
) 1 ( 3
1
) 1 ( 8
1


28. Notm pe x-1cu t

( )
C
x x
C
t t
dt t dt t dt
t
t
dx
x
x
+

= +

= + =
+
=



} } } } 9 8
9 8
10 9
10 10
) 1 ( 9
1
) 1 ( 8
1
9 8
1
1


S se calculeze integralele folosind descompunerea n fracii raionale simple.

30.
( ) ( )
dx
x x
x
}


3 2
4
31.
( ) ( )
dx
x x
}
+ + 5 2
1
32. dx
x
x x
}
+
+ +
3
7 5
2
33.
( )
dx
x x
x
}

+
2
3
1


34. dx
x
x
}
2
3
34. dx
x
x
}

+
1
1
2
35. dx
x
x x
}

+ +
1
1
4
36. dx
x x
}
2
1
2


37. dx
x x
}
+ 4
1
2
38. dx
x x
x
}
+ 5 6
2
39. dx
x x x
}
3 7 6
1
2 3
40.
( )( )
dx
x x x
}
+ + 2 1
1


41.
( )( )
dx
x x
x x
}
+ +
+ +
1 1
2
2
2
42. dx
x x x
x x
}
+ +
+
2 3
2
2
2 3
43.
( )
dx
x x
x x
}

+
2 2
2 3
2
4 2
44. dx
x x
}

2 4
1

45.
( )( )( )
dx
x x x
x
}
+ + + 5 3 1