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LUCIAN BLAGA
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"Lucian Blaga" Secia de !ruut
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'iaa l%2al4 ,e'reDentaniiC ng@*ai i '&terni2iC ai a2est&i 'etr%7C 2&ta& (e2i s
2%@'r%@itC 'rin intrigi i 'rin i2i (e *el (e DA%n&ri 2al%@ni%aseC n(e%sebi 'e inginer&l
Nl&2C 'etr%list&l 2are '&rta n n&@ele ,e(eAen2i tratatiAele 2& stat&l l&Ditan4 Ca @inistr& al
,%@Nniei n a2ea ar n& aAea@ (e2t &n r%l (e %bserAat%rC (ar (e cte %ri @i s<a 2er&tC a@
interAenit n @ers&l (is2&iil%rC &ne%ri 2Biar n @%@ente B%trt%areC @ai ales 'entr& a risi'i
nen2re(ereaC 2e l&Ditanii n2e'ea& s<% arate *a (e re'reDentant&l 'etr%l&l&i r%@Nnes2C 2t 'e<
a2i s 2a( Ai2ti@ Un%r calonii (e 2ea @ai rea 2re(in4 -tia@ ns 'e (e alta 'arte 2
(i2tat%r&l L&Ditani2i inea s se e@an2i'eDe (e4 subt t&tela 'etr%l&l&i angl%<a@eri2an 4i 2 n
2%nse2ina dorea s se aj&ng la % nelegere 2& inginerul Nl&2a4 -i ast*el interAenia @ea se
'r%(&2ea ai @&lt 'entr& salAarea 'restigi&l&i 'ers%nal al (<l&i Nl&2C (in Aal<AB<lej&l
bnlFelil%r4 C%nAenia *rane%<r%@Nn%<l&Ditan s<a se@natC iar ntre'rin(erea 2e &r@a s ia
*iinC aAea sa (eAinC (&' t%ate 'reAe(erileC 2ea @ai (e sea@ ntre'rin<(ere in(&strial (in
L&Ditania4 22i a2east tar se gsea 'e atunci3 (in '&n2t (e Ae(ere in(&strialC 2& 2in2iDe2i (e
L ani c=iar 4i n &r@a ,%@Nniei n%astre4
Dire2t%r&l Nl&2 s%si4 li s'&n (es're 2e % A%rba 3 % I s2ris%are (e la )alat 2& % a'%stil a
,egel&i4 Nl&2 B%tr S *r a sta @2ar % 2li' s 2&@'neas2 3 =Da2 este (%rina
,egel&iC at&n2i (%2t%r&l ,ibeira s se 2%nsi(ere @e(i2 al ntre'rin(eriiT4 ="taiC staiC @ai 2&
n2et&lLC i Di2C =n2 ni2i n<ai n2e'&t l&2rrileT4 =N<are a *a2e4 " Aie 4 (%2t%r&l 2Biar (e
@ineC s<i ri(i2e lea*a4 Heste 2teAa l&ni Aa aAea 'r%babil i (e l&2r&T4 Nl&2 era (e2i &n %@
*%arte ex'e(itiA4
A (%&a Di @ grbii @ai @atinal s're legaieC 2a Fs 2Be@ 'e doctorul ,ibeira4 ra@
nerb(t%r s<i 2%@&ni2 %@&l&i % Aeste b&n4 Cn( a s%sitC i<a@ s'&s 2C (in 2li'a (e *a
2BiarC este @e(i2&l ntre'rin(eriiC i<l '%li ii la se(i& s're a<i ri(i2a salari&l (e la 2asierie4
D%2t%r&l a 'lii4 )&in li'sea s salte (e b&2&rie 'rin bir%&4
-i<a'%iC a(&nn(&<seC n2e'& s<i %*ere serAi2iile 2& S ret%ri2a &n&i @e(iteranean 3 =-tiiC
(%@n&le Ministr&C e& a@ legt&ri strnse la t%ate @inisterele4 -i la @inister&l
;.
<@atei< ! sta& la (is'%Diie 2& %ri2e in*%r@aii ai (%ri4 `tii<< 'F<F*itr& ,egele Car%l e& @i
tr(eD i 'atriaT4 5raDa 1 era r& ti2l&itC (ar a@ D@bit4 -iC artn( s're Barta &r%'eiC 2e
atrna 'e 'eretele bir%&l&iC i Di2 3 =!e(eiC (%@n&le (%2t%rC ai2i e L&DitaniaC (in2%l%C t%2@ai
laC 2a't&l e'&sC e ,%@Nnia4 N& a@ neA%ie (e ni2i % in*%r@aie se2retF (es're ara (<A%astr4
"nle@ r%@Nni i snte@ l&sitani4 -i nii se 'are 2 @'rat&l +raianC na&l li@bii n%astreC a
*%stC i elC l&Ditan4 N<aAe@ ni@i2 (eF
.
L@'rit4 Dar 2t @ 'riAeteC iatC e& a@ Aenit ai2i
n&@ai 2a s a(@ir *r&@&seile rii (<A%astrC i s 2&n%s2 gl%ria &n&i @i2 '%'%rC 2are a *%st n
stare s 2&2ereas2 % j&@tate (e gl%b '@ntes2T4
Ct ti@' a@ r@as n L&DitaniaC (%2t%r&l ,ibeira tre2eaC 2& @ain&a l&iC n *ie2are Di 'e la
legaieC @ere& la a2eeai %rC 2& exa2titate (e anti2 2le'si(r4 -i se interesaC (a2 n<a@ Are%
(%rin4 )&nea n glas &n a22ent i &n t%nC 2& 2are A%ia 'ar2 s<i s&blinieDe 2%ntiina (e
*i(elC (ei n&@ai Airt&alC 2etean al &nei riC 'rin 2are ni2i%(at n<a &@blat i n& Aa &@bla4 O
(atC @ai trDi&C 2n( s<a nt@'lat s @ gseas2 @ai (egajat n ra'%rt 2& sit&aia @ea
(i'l%@ati2C ntrebn(&<@ 2a (e %bi2eiC (a2 n<a@ Aie% (%iinC i<a@ rs'&ns 3 =N& a@ ni2i %
(%rin4 Ba (aTC reAenii e&C =a@ t%t&i &na4 A(i2C @ai 2&rn( s%ia @eaC ar aAea % (%rin4 A
n(rgit gr%DaA i 2& &n s%i (e alean Ae2Bea *aian l&Ditan4 AAe@ % "ing&r b&2at (e K2%r(a
se2aLC i n& ti& 2&@ a@ '&tea s ne @ai 'r%2&r@ Are% 2teAaT4 =L&2r&l 2el @ai si@'l&TC
rs'&n(e (%2t%r&l4
"e s2&rse % s't@nC 2n( ntr<&n a@&rg %glin(it r%& 'e %lanele 2l(iril%rC (%2t%r&l Aeni 2&
Are% 2teAa b&2-tGP (e *aian4 N& era& =2%r(a se2aTC (ar Ae2Be i *r&@%as i a2eastaC (in
se2%l&l X!II4 A'%iC n alt Di 'e la a@iaDC el se n*iina 2& &n aer (est&l (e @isteri%s 3 ="
Aenii 2& @ineC Area& sa A art 2eAaM4
A@ &r2at n @aina l&i4 A@ l&at<% 'e<&n @are b&leAar(C la 2a't&l 2r&ia strj&ia stat&ia alb
a l&i D%n )e<(r%C rege al L&Ditaniei i @'rat al BraDiliei4 A@ %'rit intr<% sti(& lateral4
Ne<a@ (at j%s4 A@ &r2at 2& as2ens%r&l ntr<% 2l(ireC la al 2iO"ea 2iajC 2a@ aa 2&@ n Di&a
a2eea 2ani2&lar treb&ie Oa *i &r2at i argint&l Ai& n ter@%@etr&4 D%2t%r&l (tMl4iF<e % &C 2&
% 2Beie s2%as
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&
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;C
(C ne(&@eritC (in % (a& j%s (e
'lin Di4 D%2t%r&lC * F <a(&s ntr<% 2a@er
i gsea@4 Ca@era era 2't&it
zn0 (in se2%l&l al X!III<7
=! 'la2e *aiana a2e3
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=At&n2iC % '&tei aAea
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4 iC =n<a@ 2e s *a2 2& att "iT4
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lDi 7e n @'a2Betate i sigilate4 ,est&l 9 Aa *i ar&n2at la g&n
+ @ n(e@naC l&at (e DelC (%2t%r&l4
Mi<arn ales (&' ins'iraia @%@ent&l&i Are% 2il
1 (e b&2i4 5aiana n*iaC 'e *%n( gris<@atC n
. albstri&M *l%riC 'sriC 2etiC 2%rbii4 Cn( a@ i (est&l (e ne(&@erit (e AiDita 2e<% *2&r@
ntr<%
I
i stranie 'entr& antenele @eleC a@ 2er&t (%2t%r&
ili2ail 3 Un(e a@ *%st H Al 2&i era a'arta@ent&l H 2&i 2l(irea H Cine era& %a@eniiC 2are 2ir2ii
.
=N& A *a2ei grijiMC Dise (%2t%r&lC =a@ * instit&t (e %rbiC al 2r&i @e(i2 s&nt4 N& A<a i*2C
( ni@eni i ni@eni n& Aa Ae(ea ni2i @neC ni2i j 4
*aiana a (is'r&t (e 'e 'ereiTC
N<a& tre2&t 'atr&De2i i %'t (e %reC i @ t
3<4 2& *aiana rn(&it n Are% De2e lDi 'e @s&r4
D&' alte (%&De2i i 'atr& (e %re (%2t%r&l Aeni n%&C (e asi(at &%r alar@at 3 =-tii 2
'r%'riei3L4 a (es2%'erit 2 a@ (at j%s *aiana4 -i a2&@ 2ere bi
=Dar 2&@ se *2& 2 a a*lat HT ntreb4 Ca s &' ts'&ns I =)r%'rietar&l a re@ar2at 'e gr@a(a
(s (in 2&rte b&2ile ar&n2ate4 D<A%astr snt2i (e AiM C b&ia sa le l&ai 'e t%ate4 Dar s n& A
*a2ei griji4 M A%i aranja 2& 2&@Aa 2& 'r%'rietar&l 2l(iriiT4
N& @i<a@ '&t&t st'ni ngrij%rarea (e a *i a@este2at ntr<% 2%ntraAenie la legea
@%n&@entel%r nai%nale ntr<% ar strinC &n(e re'reDenta@ 'e s&Aeran&l rii @ele4
D&' alte Are% 2teAa Dile (%2t%i&l (es2in(e 3 i<
iCa saC la legaieC 2a s<@i s'&n 3 =M<a@ LU
iOrietar&lT4
=Dai e&rn HT
M5%arte sJi@'l&4 l<a@ s'%W C@ (%b%rt *aiana *iin(2 C<j<a %ri2&@C 'rea Ae2Be4 -i i 'r%@is s
D&giaAes2 n<2'erea ntr<% 2&l%are @%(ein44 4
!e(eiC (%a@n AnaC a2easta 2 '%Aestea lDil%rCTn 2are AlAele (in M&nii A'&seni i<a&
Arsat 2l%tile 2& '&i (e a&r4 A2estea s&nt ne're&itele 2%@%ri 2e le a(&ser@ n
r
(Aane4 9
Dar n2 n& a@ n2Beiat4 Bas@&l U#'et%iMl&i l&DitanT al Ara2i&l&i (e la instit&t&l (e %ibiC @ai
're &n s2iOrtJ (ar *%arte interesant a(a%s4 N& @ai lrDi& (e2t (%i
an
i (e la n&@ireaC 2e i se
*2&se 'e % 2ale att (e regalC la n%i s<a& 'r%(&sO're2&@ A a@intiiC 2&n%s2&tele s2Bi@bri
n 2%n(&2erea rii4 ,egele (in bas@&l n%str& a aj&ns ntre 'ietrele (e @%ara ale ist%riei4
NeA%it s ab(i2eC 2i 'lea2 n s&rgBi&nC 'e 2are (%rea s i<l 'etrea2 'e 2%H a'&sean a
'enins&lei iberi2e4 ! a@intiiC (%aa AnaC 2&@C aj&ns n "'aniaC el *& rein&t i n2Bis ntr
2astel4 General&l 5ran2% n<a a&t%riDat tre2erea @ai 4 'arte a 5egel&i4 O j&@tate (e an @al
trDi& ai 2itit (esig&r i (<A%astrC n DiareC 2 regele a eAa(at (in "'ania i 27 eAa(area i<ar *i
*%st 'regtit 2& @&lt grije (e &n @e(ie l&Ditan4 N& 2re(eiC (%a@na ,areC 2 snt n(rit&it s
bn&ies2 2 a2el @e(i2 l&Ditan era (%2t%r&l 2areC 'entr& regele ,%@NnieiC se (e2lara gata a<i
ti(a i 'atria HL
x2&iba 'n n C@'&i 5r&@%asei n2e'&t (e L(i@ineaC 'e j%sC % *2&r@C e& i 2&
(%a@na Ana ,areC @ai trDi&C n b&n 'arte 2& &n a&t%b&D (%l(%ra (e ex2&rsi%niti4 !eBi2%l&l
s*%rit%r %'rise s ne ia i 'e n%iC 2eU # 2e ne re(&se (in %stenealC (ar n a2elai ti@' i (in
'l2ereaC 2& ni@i2 (e ase@&itC a 2&treierat&l&iC 'e j%sC 'e ln= a'C i iaiHi 'e >ng a'C 2are
rN@nea @erea a2eeai a'4
*
Le
In C@'&i 5r&@%asei ne 'ri@iC n 2&rtea 2asei 'rintetiC Le%nteC 2& ex'resia l&i (e bln(ee
(etaat (e 2ec<Are@elni2e4 D%a@na Ana i s'&se 2Biar (in 'ri@&l @%@ent 2 'e (r&@ a *%st
ntrein&t (in 'a!teR@i 2& bas@e (in 2ea @ai re2ent ist%rie a rii4 ntrebarea 2& 2are
*il%D%*&l % 'ri@i 'e (%a@na Ana *&sese 3 4CCe @ai *a2iC *ii2 a l&i )araeels HL A*la@ 'e a2east
2ale 2 Le%nte
/0
i a2%r(a e'itet&l 2a &n Ae@nt 2e<i Aenea bine 'enii<aer&l eiC (ar i 'entr& 're%2&'rileC 2e<%
l%2aliDa& n alt ti@'C 'e la s*rit (e eA @e(i&4 Cl&Dit (e 'rin2i'ii i 'ara2elsian 2 'entr&
%ri2e b%al s<ar gsi &n lea2 se2n n nat&rC (%a@na Ana ,are se s'e2ialiDaseC @ai nainl%
2& Are% 2iAa aniC la % &niAersitate (in Ger@aniaC n st&(i&l 'lantel%r @e(i2inale4 a se2&n(a
ast*elC 2& % 'asi&ne *e@ininC 2er2etrile @ai a@'le ale s%&l&i t iC nat&ralist&l4
Le%nte ne<a 2%n(&s 'rin 2asa n 2are s<a ns2&t i &n(e N 2%'ilrit4 D&' &n '%'as %(iBnit%r
'rin r2%area n2'eril%rC a@ 2%b%rt iari n 2&rte4 D%rea@ s A( suria5 Intrn( n &rC
@ iDbi nt%2@ai 2a alt(at @ireI (tJ tri/oi &s2atC (e &nelteC (e *nC (e (&B%tC (% 'aieC rt
graj(4 DaC la *el 2a %(ini%arC 'rin anii (e (e@&lt4 I 2%'ilrie ne j&2a@ a(esea 'e st%g&l (e
sn%'i (e gr&4 'strat a2i s se &s&2e n rsti@'&l (e la se2eri 7 treierat4 CC"nte@ n
.0EEC (ar @ir%s&l a2esta e (in .01 2n( a@ 2l2at &lti@a (at 'este 'rag&l &riiLC re@ar2 e A@
tre2&t n gr(in4 n @ijl%2&l ei @ s&r'rin(C 2%r%an &ria (e Aer(eaC &n n&2 @reC
2are 2&'rin( 4 2& &@bra l&i t%at li@ea gr(inii4 +r&n2Bi&l e gr% C n& '%ate *i 2&'rins 2&
braele4
K"tai '&inC Le%nteC s ne gn(i@ % leac5 D&' 2 @i a@intes2C A%i n<aAeai n gr(in ni2i
&n n&2 7L
44ntr<a(eArC 2n( a@ 'le2at n .01;4 (in sat3 n&2
3
n& eraLC ntrete Le%nte44444a 2res2&t sing&rC (in vrv
n&2 s2'at (e 2i%arC 2&@ s'&ne lelea "a*ta4 sta'iA4 (e astDi a gr(iniiL4
N& ne '&tea@ @ira n(eaj&ns (e a2east 'riAelite N&2&l &riaC 2& Aer(ele s& (ensC 2& ar%@a
l&i anr&ieC n2eta s *ie n&2C el (eAenea ti@'C ti@' 'al'abil4 ntr&'at n *aa n%astr4 -i<&n
a2elai 2&tre@&r ne Dg&(&i 'e t&streiC &n 2&tre@&r @eta*iDi2 al s&*let&l&i '&s 'e neate'tate n
*aa ti@'&l&i ntr&'at4
'ntorcndu-ne3 a*unser (in n%&C tre2n( 'rin &r4 n %gra(C &n(e n 2%lU&l 2asei se nla
odinioar un 2astan &riaC 2are a2&@ n& @ai era4 Iat iari 9 ti!ul3 /cut n2 % (at
'al'abilC (e ast dat 'rinlr<% li!s5
C&ta@ s n(r&@ 2%nAersaia ntr-alt !arte5 !%rbi@ (es're a2eti ani (e re*&gi&C (es're
ciuntirea B%tarel%rC (es're gr%aDa 2%tr%'iril%r (in a/ar5
21
Ni se @a2in s&*leteleC Di 2& Di4 i n%a'te 2& n%a'te LntrFe 'ietrele (e @%ar ale
i@'erialis@el%rLC Di2C K(ar n2er2@ s &it@4 Da2 @i<ar *i s'&s 2ineAa @ai (e @&lt 'rin
2
O
e
n2er2ri A%@ tre2e 2& t%iiC a *i 2reD&t 2N ase@enea s&*erini ni2i n& '%t *i n(&rate la niAel&l
2%ntiinei treDe4 <-i t%t&i le n(&r@4 -i 'rintre 'i2t&ri
ne
@ai n2ear2 &ne%ri 2Biar i 2te &n
s&rsC i 'rintre s/4ieri 2te<% b&2&rie4 C&@ se *a2e 2<n !re*urri 2a
s
i<n sit&aii 2a
a2esteaC 2n( ar treb&i s '&ne@ 2a'&l ia 'N@nt sa& s ne &rl@ n 'atr& Ant&ri a@r2i&nileC
se 'r%(&2e t%t&i 'entr& 2te<% 2li'LC @ira2%l&l &itrii HL
KMira2%l&l &itriiLC 2%@'leteaD Le%nteC Kse 'r%(&2e la *el i *a (e<% sit&aie @&lt @ai graA
i 'er@anentC n *aa @%riiL4
H%trir@ s ne 'li@b@ '&in 'rin sat4 Arta@ (%a@nei Ana ,are altea (in l%2&rile (e
j%a2 ale Kge@enil%rL4 A2%l% e @%ara 2& b&lb%anaC n 2are se ne2a& &ne%riC a'&2ai (e
Artej&riC 2%'ii (e a2eeai Arst 2& n%i4 C%l% e 2%ala 2%@&nal4 Lng ea 2asa @ea natalC (in
care @i<a@ l&at (r&@&l n l&@in4 )rin *aa 2asel%rC (e % 'arte i (e alta a &lieiC se grbes2
2li'%2in(C (%& 'rai2C (In 2are a(ie % agreabil r2%areC 2e @ inAit 'ar2 s @N (eDbra2
'n la 'iele4 Mir%s&l a2estei a'eC 2%<i are obr4ia n r&C treDete n @ine a@intirea &nei
ntregi e'%2iC 2are s<a (&sC s<a (&s4
KCn(C 2%'ilC &@bla@ (es2&l i @ bl2ea@L 'rin 'raie (e a' AieC n& 'reAe(ea@ Di&a
a2eastaC<aleasaC s AN a(&2 n sat&l @e&LC i s'&n (%a@nei Ana4 n rgaD&l (e<&n @%@entC
2n( Le%nteC /sn(&<ne sing&riC intr ta 're%t&l (in satC s ntrebe (e<% 2Bilie (e (%r@it 'este
n%a'te4 Ca s &r@eD 3 KDa2 a *i 'reAD&t at&n2i Di&a a2eastaC a *i a(%r@it (esig&r n a2eeai
2li'C 2Dn( ntr<&n s%@n l&ngC (e '%AesteC 2a s @ treDes2 a2&@ 2& %2Bii la D<A%astrL4
)&nea@Mn A%rba @ea4 2e se alegea (e la sineC &n rit@ (e Aersete4 B&Da (e s&s a D%a@nei Ana
,are se ri(i2 ntr<% 'arteC (es2%'erin( &%r &n -ir (e (iniC *r 'riBanC ntr<&n %braD
trans*ig&rat (e
A
raj4 < 7
In n%a'tea a2eea (%r@ii ntr<% %(aie (in 2asa natalC (e@&ltC 'rsit (e a2eiC 'e 2are alt (at
i n&@ea@ ai
rn
%iC i 2are 2& t%ii a& aj&ns s&bt glie4 D%a@na Ana gsise 2&ib n 2asa '%'ii4 A
(%&a Di (&' a@iaD ne n<
A
E.
t%arser@ 2& &n a&t%b&D la C'lna4 "%&l (%a@nei An s%sise n 2t&n n2 nainte (e a@iaDC
2a s<i (&2I s%ia la Alba<I&lia4 )r%*es%r&l&i ,are i (eAenise *%ari in2%@%( naAeta
s't@nal ntre %ra&l (e 'e M&ri i sat&l (e @&nte4
''
D&'
(e rigoa
a neate'tat i 2& t%t&l n a*ara *%r@el%r a@nei Ana ,are la Alba<I&liaC sat&lC i 2are
sNlNUna@C i @i2%r 'ar2 DareaC n2t n& @ '&tea@ s<i s'&n (e2t 2t&n4 !%rbin(
(es're *%r@eiF ie rig%areC *a2 al&Die la @'rej&rarea 2 (%a@na AI 'le2aC *r (e<a @ an&na
i *r (e a<i l&a r@as b&nC 2a@ ia % %rC (%&C (&' 2e s%siser@ @'re&n ( C@'&i
5r&@%asei4 C&@H A (is'r&t *r a<@i tri@it &n 2&Ant H N<a aA&t rgaD&l (e a tre2e @2ar %
2li' 'e a n%i H @i era nAe(erat 2 'le2area aA& l%2 la (%riniII s%&l&iC (ar 2&@ se *a2e 2 ea
n<a @ai *%st n stare s 2ea2 'retext&l 'entr& % AiDit (e a(i% 7 5el&l (is'3<riiei (a (e bn&itC
i Dile (e<a rn(&l s&*let&l @i<a &@bl @%B%r4 B%areaC 2e btea 'rin 2t&n (&' asiin64 ( t%at
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Btrn&l L%ga @i serAi a@n&nte 'it%reti (es're *el&l 2&@ a gD(&it 'e general&l r&sC a 2r&i
e(ere (e<% n%a'te a salAat (e ja* i (e 'r'( 2@rileC 'iAniele i @&ierile 2t&n&l&i4
General&l n& se nA%ise s se 2&l2e n atern&t&l @%ale i 2&rat al 'at&l&iC 2e i se 'regtise
ntr<% %(aie 2tre &li4 C%@an(ant&l (%r@i @br2atC i an&@e 'e<% laAi (e le@n4 n ti@' 2e
s%l(ai 2& '&ti a&<l %rnate sttea& (e 'aD la t%ate &ileC 'e 2are s<ar *i '&t&t aj&nge la el4
Di@ineaaC g%s'%(ina 2asei 'regti &n 2eai 'entr& general&l<2%@an(antC 'e<% taA alt&ri i
'&se brnD4 @slineC r%ii4 General&l i si@'li*i2 @i2&l (ej&nC t&rnn( n 2eai brnDaC
@slinele i r%iile tiate *elii4 Mixt&ra a2eastaC 2are (&' reetele @e(ieAale ar *i (at natere
la nite %are2iC *& 2%ns&@at la re'eDeal4 General&l 'le2 a'%i 2& t%at s&ita sa4
n 2&rs&l Dilel%r &r@t%are aAea& s s%seas2 'n n 2t&n&l n%str&C 2& (&i&@&lC n%i i n%i
in*%r@aii i ane2(%te (es're @%(&l @&lt @ai agitat i @ai s'e2ta2&l%s a7 naintrii *r%nt&l&i
(e la Ai&( s're MiaD<n%a'te4 n(e%sebi n in&t&l Ain&ril%r naintarea l&a as'e2teC &nele gr%<
tetiC altele (e s*rit (e Aea24 K)e<a2%l% r&s&l &@bl 2 'isat&l b%&l&iLC %'tea& raniiC &tiliDn(
la a('%st&l 'al@ei ri(i2ate n *aa g&riiC % 2%@'araie 2&leas (in ex'2 riena r&sti2 'entr& a
2ara2teriDa @ers&l n Dig<Dag a7 t&r@entail%r (&Bnin( a &@eDeal4 CC i *%arte gre& s<i @ai
&rneti 'e r&iC la ata2C 2n( (a& (e 'iAniele gr%*il%rL @ai a(&ga& eiC K2<i @ai (&l2e s te
'r'(eti ne2at n Ain&l s2'at (in b&i @'&2ate 'rin 'iAnii4 (e2t s ca9u n 'l%aia (e
gl%ane a @itralierel%r (&@aneFF4
n 'reaj@a e2Bin%2i&l&i (e t%a@n aAea s (ea b&Dna n %gra(a n%astr (e la C'lna 9 2ir&e
H Le%nte 7 !enea (in C@'&l 5r&@%aseiC n*r&ntn( 'ri@ej(iile 2%tit&rii ist%ri2eC la 2are ne
gsea@4 KI@'%rtante treb&ie s *ie @%li AeleC 2e l<a& (eter@inat s rite &n ase@enea (r&@C n
2%n(iiile a2t&aleLC @i<a@ DisC a&Din(&<i glas&l n 2&rte4
Y;
c<a@ nt@'inat 'e 'ris'C n& *r (e &n s&rs *2&t
s
<@i a2%'ere n2%r(area4 -i a@ intrat
a@n(%i n s&*ragerieC (e &n(e n<a@ @ai ieit 'n 'e sear4 !enise 2& gn( +reb&ia s
exa@in@ @ai n(ea'r%a'e sit&aia4 Mi se strngea ini@a i @i se n2reea *r&ntea (e 2eea
2e bn&ia@ 2 % s<@i 2%@&ni2e4 )rin C@'&l 5r&@%as2j4C *r%nt&l tre2&se n Aal&riC 2e s%sea&
i (in @&ni i (in !alea "e<2a&l&i4 )e a2%l% se @ai tra& &r2a& %tiC (ar i gl%ate iD%lateC
Aenin( 'e %sea&a nai%nalC (e la "ibi&C s're Alba<I&lia4 44N& las r&ii ni2i &n 'eti2 (e
'rKnt nes2%t%2itLC @i s'&se elC artn(&<@i 'e larg 2&@ s<a 2%@'%rtat n @%@entele 2riti2e4
N& s<a @i2at (in 2asC 2n( tAl&<H'L se r%st%g%li 'rin C@'&l 5r&@%asei4 Dar aA& &n stra<
#jii&C neate'tat n%r%2 2& Alexe )2&rari&C 2are s%sise 2& a@iliaC (in 2a'ital n satC n& @&lt
nainte4 "%ia l&i Alexe '%triAea s *ie 2Biar r&s%ai2 i n2 &na (e la M%s<icAa4 !%rbin( *r
stng2ii n grai&l K*r%nt&l&iLC ea re&i s2a'e 2asa (e 2%tr%bieli in%'%rt&ne4 C&Ant&l r&ses2 3a
% in*l&en @agi2 as&'ra %stail%rC iar 2n( era r%s<2& a22ente i @%(&laii @%s2%AiteC
2&Ant&l aAea 2Biar 2te (e &2aD4 4
Des're a2est Alexe )2&rari& tia@ L@&lteC n2 (e 'e 3@&riC (in '%Aetile r&(el%r sale4 ra
&n %@ @ai n stC n%i l s%2%tea@ (in alt generaie4 ra@ n2 &n ti4 2n( Alexe 'le2C
a(%les2entC (in C@'&l 5r&@%aseiC it (e aleanC s 2&treiere l&@ea4 Alexe era *i&l &n&i San<
neg&st%rC (e<a2%l% (in sat4 AAea& (&gBean i se @ai j'a& i 2& neg%&l (e Ain&ri4 BaC ran&l
era<i 2r2i&<irC %(aia 2ea @ai retras a 2asei l%r era &n *el (e K2atL a KinteligeneiL (in
C@'&l 5r&@%asei444 Aa era 2el in n Are@ea (e (e@&ltC 2n( tatl l&i Le%nteC 're%t&l isile
)tra2& n(r&@a Aiaa sat&l&i (&' n%r@e @ai alteC 2are n& ex2l&(ea&C t%t&iC ni2i 2&'a
baBi24 Alexe r@in 2ele 'atr& 2lase ale gi@naDi&l&i sses2 (in "ebe<baC i at&n2iC elC *ire
n(rDneaC i aAent&r%asC B%trC Sc 2a'&l s&C s<% ia 'e j%sC n K$&n(ers2Ba*tL 'n n Ger<
*2aniaC i @ai (e'arte4 )rin kara ne@eas2 el i ns&iC < Del&l &n&i a(%les2entC 2lit (e
@&lte 'aniiC @eseria (e ti'%gra* i (e *%t%gra*4 D&' 2iAa ani (e tr&( ntr& a2este @eseriiC
AiexeC 2& (i'l%@ ne@eas2 n '&ng (e 'ieleC i 2& KCa'ital&lL l&i Marx n 2a'C % a'&2
ntr<% b&n Di s're ,&sia aristC i n& se @ai %'ri (e2t Bt la M%s2%Aa4 C& @eseriile nAate
n Ger@ania se '&tea *a2eC
Y0
'e la .011C treab 2& *%l%s la M%s2%Aa4 "%sea&C (in 2n( n 2n(C s2ris%ri n C@'&l
5r&@%aseiC (in @'ria ar&l&i4 AlexeC iste (in 2ale a*arC se (es2&r2 'rintre neA%i4 iar 2&
ti@'&l i nte@eiaD atelier i % @i2 ti'arni4 "i 2st%ri 2& % @%s2%Ait4 i *2& legt&ri 2&
@i2area @&n2it%reas2 (in Ae2Bea 2a'ital a ,&siei4 Ct a (&rat nti&i rDb%i @%n(ialC ani (e
Dile n& s<a @ai a&Dit 'e la n%i ni@i2 (es're Alexe4 D&' rDb%iC i (&' 2e +ransilAania se &ni
2& 'atria<@&@C a*lai (e la nite %a@eni '%liti2I r%@NniC 2are n ti@'&l rDb%i&l&i a& rt2it
'rin ,&siaC 2a Alexe )2&rari& era n2 t%t la M%s2%Aa4 O(at 2& reA%l&ia (in O2t%@brieC el
aj&nsese 2Biar &n *el (e 'ri@ar ai &n&i se2t%r al M%s2%Aei4 n a2east 2alitate se (&2ea a(eseaC
n a&(ien (e l&2r&C la4Lenin4 Cei 2iAa %a@eni '%liti2i r%@NniC neA%ii s se re*&gieDe (in
M%l(%Aa n ,&siaC a& aj&ns n ti@'&l reA%l&iei la grea n2&r2t&r4 Alexe )2&rari& le<a
(at ns (e &r@4 -i 2a &n b&n r%@Nn 2e eraC el a *2&t r%st %a@enil%r '%liti2i r%@Nni (i
'aa'%arte4 N&@ai aa %a@enii a2etia a& '&t&t s 'rseas2 ,&sia i s trea2 n "&e(iaC iar
(e<a2%l% la )aris n ti@'&l 2&@'litei *%a@ete (in .0:. Alexe )2&rari& i a(&se a@inte (e
sat&l s& natalC (e r&(ele sale i (e Aalea 'rin 2are 2&rgea la'te i @iere4 l *2& 2e *2&C i
iDb&ti s<i a(&2 *a@ilia (e la M%s2%Aa n C@'&l 5r&@%asei At&n2i @i s<a (at s<l
rentlnes24 La Cl&j Alexe era %@ 'e la 'atr&De2i (e ani4 Mi<a A%rbit (es're l&@ea n%&II (in
,&sia4 Gria n *raDe 2%re2t ti2l&ite i 2& sin2er ent& Dias@ (es're 2&2eririle reA%l&iei
s%2ialiste4 Mi<a s'&s 2I4 se<nt%ar2e iar la M%s2%AaC (ar 2<i las *a@ilia n C@'&l 5r&@%aseiC
a2easta (in 'ri2ina *%a@etei 2e bnt&ie n ,&sia4 -i<a 'le2at4 -i iari n<a@ @ai a&Dit @&lt
ti@' ni@i2 (es're el4 D&' Are% 2in2i<ase aniC t%2@ai nainte (e a 'le2a n strintate U@i
n2e'ea@ 2ariera (i'l%@ati2V se *2& s<l ntlnes2 'e AlexeC n 2Bi' ne'reAD&tC la
B&2&reti 3 KCe e H Ce s<a nt@'lat HL l ntrebC Kte tia@ la M%s2%AaL4 Ne (&ser@ ntr<%
2a*enea &n(e @i '%Aesti 'e larg O(iseea l&i4 )eri'eiile ne*aste n2e'&ser t%t irI .0:.C i ele
Aenir aa4 n (r&@ s're M%s2%AaC tre2n( 'rin B&2&retiC el se gn(i s *a2 % AiDit
%a@enil%r '%liti2i r%@NniC 'e 2are i salAase la M%s2%Aa nMti@'&l reA%l&iei4 Bine*2t%r&l (e
%(ini%ar si@i neA%ia s reAa( 'e %a@eniiC 2r%ra le *2&se &n bineC 22i n& n&@ai &2iga&l
"n si@te n(e@nat s se abat 'e la l%2&l 2ri@ei4 La na<
C1
'%ier2a sa la M%s2%AaC %*i2ialitatea era in*%r@at as&'ra a2est%r AiDite4 Alexe (eAenise
s&s'e2tC i a2easta a *%st s&*i2ient 2a el s *ie arestat i<a'%i in&t la &@e( i r2%areC *r
j&(e2atC Are% trei<'atr& ani4 A *%st tre2&t %@&l 'rin @&lte n2Bis%ri4 Dintr<% n2Bis%are Alexe
re&i n
2
ele (in &r@ s eAa(eDe I ieea 'e '%arta 'eniten2iar&l&i @ 2alitate (e K2a(aAr&L4
De2larat K(e2e(atL (in 'artea 'aDni2il%rC n(&'le2ai 2& A%rbe i 'r%@isi&ni *& s2%s
O'entr& Kn@%r@ntareL4 KM%rt&lL 2&treier a'%i tA*B' (e &ni 9 regi&ni i rai%ane4 B&n
2&n%s2t%r al %bi2ei&ril%r j@nt&l&iC 2a i al teBni2ii se2&ritiiC el *&ge (in ,&siaC s%sete n
ara 'rinil%r si4 A2i %@&l se n*iri' re'e(e4 L se g%s'%(rete 2& l&2i(itatea i 2& Brni2ia
%@&l&i C@'&l 5r&@%aseiC (ar i 2& 'asi&nea @%s2%AitC (e s<a 2%nta@inat Are@e (e<&n
s*ert (e Aea24 Un&l e a2ei %a@eni '%liti2iC 'e 2are el i salAase la M%s2%Aa @'&l reA%l&iei i
2areC nt%rs n arC l&a n 'ri@<an&l&i .0:Y InterneleC i ntin(e % 2al( @n (e j&i%r4 Alexe
i (es2%'er a'etit&rile (e b&n b&rgBeD Ti 'r%*itC *r @&lt alegereC (e aAantajele
K2a'italis@&<?n + re'&(iat n2 (in a(%les2en4 i njgBebeaD % n<Jj e'rin(ereC i<i '&ne
te@ei&ri (in 2ele @ai seri%aseC %b<in@( 'riAilegi&l (e a ti'ri a*iele ele2t%rale ale n%&l&i
I&Z%rn4 n 2iAa ani (eAine @are in(&striaC *r ni2i % I%n2&ren seri%as n se2t%r&l
@eseriil%r 2e i le ns&ise 3n(Aa n Ger@aniaC i 'e 2are le 'ra2ti2ase 2& s&22es la #%s2%Aa4
Mai aAea (%arC 'rintre 'i2t&riC &nele L@iDeriiC &n 2n( n 2n(C 2& "ig&rana r%@Nneas24
Un CCbineA%i<,%rLFC r%s (e 'iD@C n *aa &nei atari 2't&ieliC are s 'li ag l&area a@inte a
"ig&ranei as&'ra a2est&i Kagent F@%s2%AitL4 Dar Alexe iese i (in n%&a n2&r2t&r4 n @e<
@%rii s2riseC (%2&@entat i 2& AerAC el arat 2 s<a '&rtat 2a &n KbraA r%@NnLC t%t(ea&na i
'ret&tin(eniC 2Biar i in ara ste'el%r i a neg&ril%r (e @iaD<n%a'te4 n a2eleai @e@%rii el
@ai artaC 2e n& tia@ ni2i e& 'n n a2est @%@entC 2 n 2%n(iiile &nei l&@iC 2are se n2Bega
(in Ba%sC el i<a serAit ara l&iC 2ea a(eAratC (e la g&rile D&nrii i (in Car'aiC (e 2te %ri i s<
a %*erit 'rilej4 l a r@as Kr%@NnLC aa 2&@ '%'a !asile )tra2& (in C@'&l 5r&@%aseiC tatl
*il%D%*&l&i Le%nte )tra2&C l nAase 2& 2&Ant&l i 2& 'il(a4 +eDa&r&l Bn2ii Nai%nale a
,%@Nniei a *%st tri@isC 'rintr<% in2re(ibil li's (e 'reAiDi&neC n ti@'&l 'ri@&l&i rDb%i
@%n(ialC 2Biar
8.
(e g&Aern&l r%@NnC la M%s2%AaC s're a *i '&s a2%l% la a('%st *a (e Ai2isit&(inile &nei *%arte
'r%babile %2&'aii ne@eti i a&strie2e4 +eDa&r&l 2D& n .0.8 n st<'nirea b&n&l&i 'la2 al
@arii reA%l&ii r&seti4 AlexeC 2areC n 2alitatea sa (e 'ri@ar ntr<&n se2t%r al Ae2Bii 2a'itale
r&seC aAea a22es 'e &n(e ni2i n& s<ar 2re(eC a*lase i (es're &n @are st%2 (e Brtie s'e2ial
4C$asser(r&2cL4 'entr& ban2n%te Kale Bn2ii Nai%nale a ,%@NnieiLC (e'%Ditat ntr<% taini a
se2t%r&l&i s&4 lC 2a 4CbraA r%@NnL s<a (&s at&n2iC n 'ers%anC iC n re'etate rn(&riC a Arsat
(intr<% (a@igeana 'etr%l 'este t%at a2ea Brtie4 2a s n& @ai '%at *i *%l%sit la ti'rirea (e
n%i ban2<ri%te4 Alexe se AD&se n(e@nat la a2east *ant (e glas&l 2%ntiinei saleC 2are<i
A%rbea nt%2@ai 2& A%2ea '%'ii !asile )tra2&4 2%b%rt tare (e (e@&lt n Nrna sat&l&i natal4
a'ta s2&tea stat&l r%@Nn (e<% &ria 'ag&b4 Un ase@enea arg&@ent 2(ea gre& n 2&@'n
la 2ei nsr2inai 2& an2Betarea 2aD&l&iC i Kagent&l @%s2%AitFF n2eta n s*rit s @ai *ie s2it
(e 'atr& %ri 'e l&n (e %a@enii "ig&ranei4 Ne a'r%'ie@ a2&@ Aertigin%s (e s*rit&l 2el&i (e<
al (%ilea rDb%i @%n(ial4 n aj&n&l nt%rst&rii (e la :/ A&g&stC 2e are s aeDe 'e r%@Nni
alt&ri (e aliaii si K*iretiL (e alt(atC Alexe i a(&2e a@inte (e tre2&t&l s&C '%Aestit n
@e@%riiC 2e Da2 'rin arBiAe se2i eleC 2ari Ktre2&tL ar '&tea s *ie (in n%& s2%s la l&@inC la
l&@in 2& t%t&l (e alt 2&l%areC (a2 l&2r&rile s<ar s2Bi@ba4 In 'rag&l 44nt%rst&rii
.
F Alexe
'lea2 (in Ca'ital i % ine a 'n n sat&l s& (e %brieC 'n n C@'&l 5r&@%asei4 A2i
trase n *%sta 2as 'rinteas2 a *il%D%*&l&i Le%nte )N<2ra2&C (est&l (e n2't%are s @ai
2&'rin( % *a@ilie4 Aa se 2%@'%rt biata *iin %@eneas2 n @'rej&rai i graAeC (e rs2r&2eC
e2BiAalente &n&i Airt&al 'r'(4 "<ar nt%ar2e ins&l 2it @ai tare na'%iC n 'eisaj&l natalC '&rtat
(e senti@ent&l 2 ar *i *%st @ai bine s n& se *i ns2&t ni2i%(at4
n C@'&l 5r&@%asei4 Alexe *2eaC (e2iC (e la % Are@eC t%Arie l&i Le%nteC i (e<a l&ng&l
Dilel%rC '%rnite 'e s2(ereC ei (is2&ta& as&'ra sit&aieiC 'e 2are % nt%r2ea& 'e t%ate *eele4
Alexe 2&n%tea (intr<% ex'erien (e &n s*ert (e Aea2 s&*let&l r&s i @et%(ele (e l&2r& (e
@ar^ 're2iDie ale regi@&l&i s%Aieti24 l D@bi a@ar 2n( 2iti n Diare 2&Ant (es're n%n4<
i@ixti&nea n treb&rile interne ale ,%@NnieiC 'r%@is (e r&i4 Le%nte Aenea (in C@'&l
C:
*r&@%asei la C'lna s<@i *a2 2&n%s2&te i @ie 'rerile i a're2ierile l&i Alexe4
K!ine 'r'(C asta<i 'rer4ea l&i AlexeLC @i s'&ne Le%nteC 44n& 'este n%a'teC 2i n2et&l
2& n2et&l4 ,&ii a'li2 %ri&n(e @et%(ele n2er2ate la ei a2asC le a'li2 ai(%@aC *r (e ni2i %
i@aginaieC 'ret&tin(eniC &n(e aj&ng4 i 'retin( 2 *a2 '%liti2 tiini*i2C n<a& neA%ie (e
i@aginaie4 ,&ii s&nt 2%nAini 2 ei (ein A(eAr&lC 2arO Aa *i irn'&s =(iale2ti2T 'e 2alea
*%reiC %ri&n(e A%r 'tr&n(e4 C&@ H Diale2ti2 i t%t&i 'e 2alea *%rei H n @intea l%r OH[ se
'%triAeteC 22i (iale2ti2a l%r este s%*is@&l ri(i2at B*t rang (e 'rin2i'i& &niAersal4 N<aAe@
(e2t s ne in<HOr@@ 2e a& *2&t a2asC 2a s ti@ 2e A%r *a2e ai&reaC SH la n%i4 O@&l Aa *i
asi@ilat ntr& t%t&l 2%%r(%natel%r S'cF @ateriale i re(&s la a&t%natis@ele (e2lanate (e
Kr%aDa *%a@ei i (e ter%are4 La n2e'&t r&ii A%r (eD%r<B*2aniDa @&n2a i 'r%(&2ia4 )rin
=li's&riTC i@'&se @et%(i2 Bi ntr<a(insC ei A%r n2er2a s ne 2%nAingC 2 %@&l este Bleea 2e
@nn2 i ni@i2 alt4 D&' 2e A%r *i (istr&s t%ate S'reteniile la &n niAel (e trai %@enes2C ei
A%r (es*iina Bri2e si@ (e (e@nitateC 're*2n( 'e %@C n2et&l 2& n<ilC ntr<&n a&t%@at al
@&n2ii n serAi2i&l stat&l&i4 -i <i stat&l H n 'ri@&l rn( n%&a =elitTC 2are 2%nsi (er 'e
intele2t&al&l (e A%2aie (re't (&@an&l n&@r&l &n& al ei4 Aa Disa =linieT Aa l&a l%2&l
libertii s'irit&aleC l%Din2a Aa l&a l%2&l 2%ntiineiC 'arti(&l Aa l&a l%2&l l&i D&@neDe&L4 9
Ca@ a2estea era&C n *%arte4n&@rate 2&AinteC 'rerile l&i Alexe 2& 'riAire la trans*%r@rile 2e
S'%r aAea l%2 n starea (e s'irit %bteas2 'e (e % 'arte4 W@i str&2t&ra s%2ialC 'e (e alta4
)rerile l&i Alexe n& a(&<Hra& ni@i2 n%& la 2ele 2e gn(iser@ i n%iC 2ei (%i Kge<HBeniLFC
@ai nainteC (ar ele se r%stea& 'e te@ei&l &n%r S'airi a&tenti2e i a &nei ex'eriene 2%ns&@ate4
Iar trirea Ki ex'eriena a& (ar&l s Dg&(&ie 2%ntiina ntr<&n 2Bi'C @ si@'la %'inie n<% are
ni2i%(at4 KDar 2e<i (e *2&t HL ntreb 'e Le%nte4 KNi@i2 (e%2a@(at 7LF ((& (in 2a' L^
+%t
Alexe 3 " ne nar@@ 2& a2este a're2ieriC Di2e elC i 2& a2este ex'erieneC *a (e t%t 2e Aa
s a(&2 Di&a Ai
s&l4
K i asta 2eAaLC i rs'&n(C Ks tii (inainteH la 2e te ate'taC s 2&n%ti 2eea 2e Aine n 2Bi'
2ert4 )%i s
8/
%Aii rea2ti&ni in&tile i s n2er2i s te salAeDi n l&@ea (in&ntr&C '%triAin(&<te a'arent
@'rej&rril%rL4
Le%nteC 2are era @ai Kl&2i(L i @ai K2%ntientL (e2t @ineC *2eaC n 'aranteDC i 2& &n aer (e
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2a % @are Airt&te4
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@ a'%str%*aC @&strn(&<@ %are2&@ n& 'rin t%nC 2i 'rin 2ele 2e s'&neaC 2ntrin( 2& *%arte
@&lt grij 2&Aintele 3 Kn @%@ente 2a a2estea 2%ntiin n& '%ate *i salAat (e la Ai2ierea 'rin
2%@'r%@is&riC (e2t 'rin ase@enea Airt&i4 "t%i2is@&l anti2C treb&ie renAiatL4
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relatiAitil%rC Klabilitatea n%astr Aine (in %rgani24 M ntrebC b&n%arC (a2 % eAent&al
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'r%'%sC 'rin 2e l%2&ri s<a as2&ns H Ce neg&ri a& ngBiit<% *r &r@ H De @&lte %ri @i s'&n
2 &n s&rs al (%a@nei Ana ar '&tea s 2%@'enseDe n 2&@'na Aal%ril%r 9 2Biar i
'rb&irea &n&i 2%ntinent4 !eDi t&C 2&@ ini@a @i s2%ate (in &D 2%ntiina HL
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a(eAr &n @are s&rs4 Marele s&rs a tre2&t a2&@ (e 2ealalt 'arte a M&re&l&i4 -i s&nt sig&r
2 se gn(ete n 2li'a a2easta la n%i 9 ea 2a&t n M&nii A'&seniC 'rin nisi' (e a&rC b&r&ieni
(e lea2C 'entr& 2%ntiina b%lnaA a &n&i *il%D%* i 'entr& ini@a rnit a &n&i '%etL4
Le%nte a @as la n%iC n C'lnaC Are% (%&<tre Dile L<a@ '&rtat 2& 2eas&rile 'rin 2%2la&ri i
'rin ge%gra*ia 2t&n&l&i4 Des*&ra@ &n 2@'C 2&@ ai (es*a2e s&l&*&n&i 'lan ingineres2C i<i
arta@ l%2&l &n(e N%e i<a 2j(it ar2a4 +reDea@ astlel n el % Aie 2&ri%Ditate (e a 2iti 2t @ai
2&rn( 'iesa4 ,ealitatea i legen(a se @'letea& n *aa @ea aa (e *ires2C 2 '&tea@ s
l%2aliDeD a2i&nea 2& t%ate a@n&ntele i 'eri'eiile eiC 2Biar n larg&l 'riAelitiiC 2e<%
2&'rin(ea@ 2& %2Bii4
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inex%rabil la 'rb&irea 2%ntiinei i existenei n%astre4
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"i@i%n Bar(a4 !enea (in sat&l s&C sit&at n& t%2@ai (e'arte (e<a2i4 ra ttins 2& @ainaC s2&rt4
5&sese t&ns la s2ara Der%C i @ai '&rta AiDibil &n as'e2t (e (ein&t4 "i@i%n stt&se 2& t%t&l %'t
=l&ni n n2Bis%are4 5&sese eliberat 2Biar n n%a'tea 2n( la 3 ,a(i% s<a 2itit *ati(i2 'r%2la@aia
regal 2tre arC (e 2a<M6'it&lare i (e n2Beiere a ar@istii&l&i4 "i@i%n aAea &n Her senin4
Ne<a@ @briatC i @ b&2&ra@ (in t%t s&<S4et&l 2<l Ae(ea@ 9 liber4 Mi<a @&l&@it 2a &n
2%'ilC <'entr& a'rarea 2e<i *2&se@ n 'r%2es4 @i (estin&i (e<
Italii (in ti@'&l instr&2iei i al inter%gat%riil%r *r 2a'tC n 2&rs&l 2r%ra trib&nal&l @ilitar
(%rea s a*le n 2e @s&r '%et&l i 'r%*es%r&l Axente Creang era i@'li2at n a2i&nea
s&bAersiA a 2%@&nitil%r (e la "ibi&4
Kn Da(ar le t%t re'eta@C 2 n& aAei ni2i &n a@este2FC @i @rt&risea a2&@ "i@i%nC KeiC 2&
%riD%nt&l l%rC (e @ilitari bn&it%riC is2%(ea&C (%arC (%arC Aa iei la iAeal Are&n @%tiAC (e 2are
ar *i aA&t neA%ie s're a A aresta i 'e (<A%astr4 O si@'l atit&(ine (e %@enie i gener%Ditate
era inter'retat (e a2eti gg&iC 2a % 2%@'li2itateL4
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s&4 5a'teC 2e se Sr(ea& n 2&rs&l instr&2i&niiC @i era& 2%@'let ne2&n%s<,&te4 ns&@i era@
2a@ (er&tat (e nat&ra l%r4 +%t&iC (in 'rietenieC a@ 2&tat s<i ns2%2es2 l&i "i@i%n &n KalibiLF4
5re2Aentele sale ntlniri 2& &n 'ant%*ar 2&n%s2&t 2%@&nistC le ex'li2a@ n *aa trib&nal&l&i
'rin interesele (e 2er2ett%r ale l&i "i@i%n Bar(4 l a(&na @aterial (%2&@entar i<i *2ea
*ie n Ae(erea &n&i st&(i& (e 'siB%l%gie a ti'&ril%r s%2iale4 Alibi&lC 2e i<l ns2%2ea@C a
2%ntrib&it *r n(%ial la aten&area 'e(e'seiC 2e aAea s<% ia4 Dar n<2BiDn( a2est 2a'it%l (e
re'riAiri as&'ra &n&i re2ent tre2&tC ne<a@ ntins la A%rb as&'ra Dilei (e @ine4
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'arteC CC2n( n ar n2e'e 'r%2es&l (e insta&rare a &n&i regi@ s%2ialistL4 lC 'ers%nalC Aa
2&taC ntr&2t i Aa *i 2& '&tinC s n(r&@e ntr<&n sens a'&sean i intele2t&alC n%&a
%rn(&ire4 A*la@ 2 n n2Bis%are "i@i%n a aj&ns la gl2eaA 2& 2%n*raii si (e i(eiC @&n2it%riC
2are i @ani*esta& nen2re(erea t%tal n intele2t&ali4 Cl&Dit (e i(ei @arxisteC nelese t%t&i
*%arte liberC "i@i%n s'era s n(&'le2e 2%ntiina @&lt%r intele2t&ali (e a 'arti2i'a la l&'ta
2are n2e'e4
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A&g&stC n serAi2i&l n%il%r i(ei (e@%2rateC n2linn( s're stngaC 2Biar i K+elegra*&l r%@NnLC
@i s'&ne "i@i%nC K%rgan&l biseri2ii %rt%(%xe (e la "ibi&C 2are 'n @ai ieriC alaltieriC se
erijase n a'rt%r n*%2at al (i2tat&rii *as2isteC (es2%'ere a2&@ n (%2trina 2retin @ari i
a'r%a'e r%ii Airt&i (e@%2rateL4
KCe @ai tii (es're @itr%'%lit&l (e la "ibi& HL l ntreb 'e "i@i%nC a@intin(&<i (e r%l&l in*a@
'e 2are 44'rea<s*init&lL l<a j&2at n ti@'&l 'r%2es&l&iC n2er2n( s @i i@'li2e i 'e @ine n el4
KMi<a i tri@is % A%rb @ier%as s tre2 'e la (ns&l C @i s'&ne "i@i%n4 L&i i *2ea& BaD
a2este s2Bi@bri (e @a2aD (e &lti@ %r ale @aril%r *ee biseri2eti4
KOa@eni *r ni2i % axLC Di2C Ksnt a2eiaiC 2are n ti@'&l rDb%i&l&i a& i@'&s 2enD&ra
te%l%gi2 2Biar i4 n &niAersiti n2er2n( s 2%ntr%leDe a2tiAitatea (i(a2ti2 a 'r%*es%ril%r (e
*il%D%*ie4 A2&@aC (intr<% (atC s<a treDit n ei % strAe2Be 2%ntiin (e@%2rat4 A& &itat 2 n&
@ai (e'arte (e2t a2&@ e an&lC ei era& a2eia 2are 'reDenta& *il%D%*ia l&i Le%nte )tra2&C
(en&nn(<% 2a % @are 'ri@ej(ie nai%nalL4
Dar "i@i%n Bar( n& se lsa trt (e ran2Bi&ne i ni2i (e n2linarea 'rea %@eneas2 (e a se
rDb&na as&'ra 'ers%anel%rC (at%rit 2r%ra a n*&n(at '&2ria4 Di@'%triAC el era gata s
ierte %ri2&i 9 %ri2e4 n2Bis%area (e %'t l&ni n& i<a s2Bi@bat *iDi%n%@iaC ni2i *iDi2C ni2i @%<
ral4 )&rta n %braji % sntate r&sti2C i<n %2Bi s2li'irea &nei inteligene AiiC (e %rean4 Din
'arte<@i @i r%stea@C (est&l (e s&bliniatC (%ar regret&l 2<l Ae(ea@ (e<'rtn(&<sFe (e
e@inentele a'it&(ini *il%D%*i2eC 2e i le
C.
,rib&ia@C 2a s se 'iar( 'entr& 2ine tie 2it ti@' n *2r2&l n%ii Aiei4
i "i@i%n reAenea n 2&rs&l 2%nAersaiei 2& % si@'atie @asiAC rneas2I as&'ra 'ers%anel%r
2are i *2&ser iJ& 2& ne@il&itaC n t%a@na tre2&t4 A2east atit&(ine @i<*t st%rs &n D@bet4
ra 2a i 2&@ "i@i%n i<a* *i ex'ri@at % @&l&@ire *a (e a2ele 'ers%aneC 22i n&@ai (at%rit
2el%r 'ti@ite (in 'ri2ina l%rC '&tea el s 'riAeas2 a2&@ 2& atta %'ti@is@ in Darea 2arierii
'%liti2eC 2e i se
(es2Bi(ea4
I !enea la C'lnaC (&' 2&@ s'&neaC 4Ca(&s (e (%r&l H a @ Ae(eaL i 'entr& a<i r%sti
gratit&(inea 'entr& OHrAeniile nen&@rateC 2e le n2er2ase@ n &lti@ele %'t OH[ n *aA%area
saC la @arii DileiC i a@intii 2C n ti@'&l S*eteni&nii saleC (%a@na Marga M&rean& (e la
'atr%naj interAenit la 2ererea @ea 'entr& &n regi@ @ai '&in Hjtr n *aA%area sa4 A@
re@ar2at 2 l&i "i@i%n n&<i 'l2ea B i se a@intea2 (e interAeniile (at%rit 2r%raC la &n l
@%@ent (atC s<a& (%@%lit 'entr& el rig%rile n2Bis%rii4
@'rej&rarea a2easta a st@it an&@eC 'rintre t%Aarii I si (e s&*erinC bn&iala 2 el ar *i
&n agent al 2lasei
(%@inante4
"i@i%n Bar( @i @ai s'&ne< n s*ritC 2 a Aenit s @ i(C s<@i @&l&@eas2C (ar i *iin(2
are &nele ngri<Mri n legt&r 2& sit&aia @ea4 C&ta s @ CClini<is2LC 2%@&nien(&<@i 2
atit&(inea @ea n 'r%2es&l (e
"ibi& a treDit si@'atii 'rintre 2%@&niti4 )e (e alt rte ns "i@i%n @i (a s neleg 2 sing&ra
*aA%are4
2are @<a '&tea ate'ta (eF a2i n2%l%C era s *i& lsat
'a2e4 44'e linie @%artL4
KDar atit&(inea @ea n 'r%2es&l t&C n<a *%st l&at
gn(&l (e a 2&2eri si@'atia a2est%r 2er2&riFFC ii s'&n e& S&i "i@i%nC Ksi@'atiile l%r sntC (e2iC
2& t%t&l grat&iteL4
"i@i%n Bar( 2%ntin&C 2& &n aer 'r%te2t%rC s @ asi<Bire (e t%at grija sa 'ers%nalC
*g(&in( s li@'eDeas2 OKsN risi'eas2 &nele nenelegeri i &nele *%arte Kst&'i(eL
e2ieri n legt&r 2& 'ers%ana i 2& a2tiAitatea @ea li<
ar4
La (es'rire ne<a@ @briat4 Un *i%r re2e @ li4 OB(&l 2 @brieD 'e 2ineAaC 2areC (e 'e
'%Diia 'e <l&'t i n n&@ele steag&l&i a 2r&i bir&in % (%rea4 @i
Jsese a(n2a%ri 2 sing&ra *aA%areC 2e a @ai '&tea
taC era a2eea (e a *i lsat n 'a2e 44'e linie @%artL4
CC
D&' AiDita l&i "i@i%n Bar(C B%tri s @ nt%r2 i 2& n %ra&l (e 'e Cibin4 +reb&iaC n
s*rit s ia& @s&rile i@'&se (e br&@a t%a@nei i (e ngBe&l ist%rieiC (e a<@i trans'%rta la
"ibi& *a@iliaC b&n&rile (e stri2t ne2esitateC 2e le aAea@ la n%iC i lDile 2& *i2tiAele K2%@%riL4
Dr&@&l @e& 'n la "ibi& n2e'ea s&bt a&s'i2ii tenebr%ase4 AAea@ s a*l& 2& a2est 'rilej 2t
(e aneA%ie se 2lt%rete 2& tren&l ntr<% regi&neC 'rin 2are ar@ate &riae a& tre2&t (%ar 2&
2teAa s't@ni @ai nainteC g%nin<(&<se4 ntre Alba<I&lia i "ibi& n& @ai 2ir2&la (e2t &n
sing&r tren 'e Di4 Iar 'entr& 'ar2&rgerea 2el%r Are% >1 c@ era neA%ie (e .: %re4 )%rnea@ 'e
nt&neri2C bini%r nainte (e a se *a2e Di&4 n l&@ina *&@egn( a *elinarel%r r%ii se Ae(ea& n
Aag%n&lC &n(e re&ii s &r2 i s r@n a'%i n 'i2i%areC s%l(ai l&ngii 'e j%sC 'rintre bn2iC &n
gBiAe2i rasialC n 2are (&' %2Bii &%r 'ieDiiC gBi2eai t%ate ti'&rile &@ane ale &n&ia i
a2el&iai 2%ntinent4 )e %sea&a nai%nalC alt&ri (e 2alea *erat nainta& tr&'e r&seti4 ra %
naintareC 2areC n%&C 2el%r %bin&ii 2& %r(inea e&r%'eanC ni se 'rea Ba%ti24 Une%ri se
Drea& Aag 'e 2@' (es2Bis gl%ate *2n( exer2iii4 )rin alte l%2&riC n(e%sebi 'rin DA%aiele
satel%rC s&te i @ii (e Aite rgea&C nainte (e a *i @inate s're *r%nt4 Ar@ata s%Aieti2 se
a'r%AiDi%na ex2l&siA (in regi&nile 'rin 2are tre2ea4 !Dn( attea 2ire(e (e Aite i t&r@e (e %iC
@inate (in &r@C aAea@ i@'resia 24 &n bala&r neAD&t stinge Aiaa (in 'eisaj4 Cn( l&@ina
(i@ineii 'tr&nse 'rin gea@&ri n Aag%nC 'rinsei a (esl&i i *eele &n%r 2lt%riC aa
ngBes&ii 2&@ era&C &n&l ntr<alt&lC ntr<&n 2%l a@ (ib&it % *aC 2e @i se 'r& 2&n%s2&t4 Dar
era (e ne2reD&t4 M &it @ai atent4 DaC e (%a@na Marga M&rean&C (e la 'atr%naj4 Marea
'r%te2t%are4 A2eea 2are a %rganiDat la Alba<I&lia i @arele aDil 'entr& 2%'iii *r 'riniC
a(&nai (e 'rin M%l(%Aa4 A2eea 2are444 A2eea 2are444 "e l&@ina (e Di4 D%a@na Marga l&a
t%2@ai n a2ea 2li'C &n *&sC (e lng ea4 "&bt &n bra inea % *&r2C n 2are era s'rijinit 2aer&l
(e ln4 -i @area 'r%te2t%are n2e'& s t%ar24 i *2ea l&2r&l 2& @i2i stn<g2iiC 'ar2 at&n2i
i (e'rin(ea ntia %ar K@eseriaL4 MN stre2%rC 2&@ '%tC 'n lng ea4 M re2&n%s2&se (e la
(istan4 M a'le2 s<i 'rin( 2&Ant&l4 @i %'tete 2 este &n @%( (e a se 2a@&*la4 "e 2re(e
&r@rit i 2&tat 're<
C0
SBitin(eni4 Oa@enii DileiC D@eii ran2Bi&nel%rC A%r s<% rN<
B&n4 -i a2&@ ea 2lt%rete *r n2etareC (%arC (%arC i<a
'ier(e &r@a4 A nAat s t%ar24 Asta<i linitete nerAii4
@br2at @iDerC 2a % 2l&griC @br%b%(it 2& % 2''N
gr%asC (e ln neagr4
I A@ ntrebat<% n %a'tC 2&@ s<a 'r%(&s rst&rnarea4 Mi<a rs'&ns 2 Babar n<areC (e%are2e
n& se gsea la B&2&reti n Di&a a2eea4 Din a2ea Oi ea 2lt%rete @ere&C ntre "ebe<Alba i
"ibi&4 -i 'n a2&@ ninieni +l<a (at (e &r@a ei4
D%a@na Marga M&rean& a aA&tC 're2&@ tia@C % Aia (e @ari as2ensi&ni i (e @ari 2(eri4
Mai j%s n& 2D&se ns ni2i%(at (e2t % arta na(ir&l ei (e<a2&@4 O'inia '&bli2 era 2a@
@'rit 2t 'riAete a're2ierea a2estei a'ariii *e@inine (e anAerg&r se2&lar4 ra 2r&nt br<
Bit (e &nii4 & n<a@ 2&n%s2&t<% (e2t n i'%staDele ei bi<Se*2t%are4
n
r%st&rile @ele ea a
interAenit (e2isiA (e 'teAa %riC i n&@ai s're a @ s2%ate (in i@'as&ri4
La % 2%tit&r tren&l n%str& *& %'ritC n 2Bi' neate'tatC n a'r%'ierea &n&i sat4 "e Ae(ea 'e
gea@&rile Aag%<,&l&iC 2&@ s%l(ai r&iC 2& '&tile gata (e tragereC se 'regtea& 'ar2 s
asalteDe tren&l4 Mi s<a strns ini@a4 Ce Aa &r@a H n 'ani2aC *r (e i'eteC 2e s<a 'r%(&sC
2lt%rii a& Bile@nit n ate'tarea gr%DAiil%r4 O 'al%are nAli i n %brajii (%a@nei Marga
M&rean&4 M<a@ &itat la ea4 n2%r(areaC 'rin 2are a tre2&tC *r ntrer&'ereC n 4&lti@ele
Os't@niC a '&s 'e2ete 'e *aa ei4 O nes'&s %b%sealC 'e 2are i<% nAingea t%t&iC se
(es'rin(ea (in %a'ta i (in *eni2rile ei4 aC 2are i<a 'strat tinereea 'n la Y1 (e MiniC
@btrni a2&@ n 2teAa s't@ni4 Ne ate'ta@ s 'e(e@ s%l(aii tbrn( n Aag%n as&'ra
n%astr4 D%a@na Marga n2e'& s t%ar24 ra n t%rs&l ei &n @%( (e a *i i 3 (e a rea2i%na 3
n& @ai A%ia s 'riAeas2 'e gea@ la 2ele nt@'la& n 'reaj@a tren&l&i %'rit n @ijl%2&l 2@<
'j&l&i4 a Kt%r2eaLC (e 2teAa s't@niC 2&@ *a2 trn2ileC 2are n& A%r s 'iar( Are@eaC ni2i
2n( tre2 'n la 5o Ae2in4 Desig&rC @inile (%a@nei Marga M&rean& treb&ia& s *a2 2eAa4
A2&@ ea t%r2eaC *iin(2 n& @ai A%ia s Aa( 2eea 2e ar '&tea s se nt@'le n 2li'a
&r@t%are4 a Aa t%ar2e i @ine i '%i@ineC 22i a2est l&2r& i 'rilej&iete % (estin(ere ntr<%
stare (e 2&@'lit tensi&neC 2are 'e %ri2ine l<ar r'&ne4
80
CineAa a ntrer&'t linitea 2& % ex2la@aie (e b&2&rie 3 44"%l(aii ia2 n&@ai exer2iii 7L +ren&l
*&sese %'ritC aa n&@aiC (intr<&n 2a'ri2i& al 'l&t%nieril%rC 2ari 2%@an(a& @i2ile @aneAreC 2e le
Ae(ea@C i2i<2%l%C (es*&rn(&<seC 'rin gr%'i i an&riC 'e ling %seaC (e<a l&ng&l liniei
*erate4 Un D@bet se iAi 'e *eele rAite (e s'ai@ ale 2lt%ril%r4 )rintre n%i se gsea& i
2teAa *eteC 2areC n(e%sebiC 2a nite a'e (e iDA%rC a& tre2&t n alt stare (e agregareC (e ngBeC
2n( 2ineAa a se@nat 'rintre n%i bn&iala 2 s%l(aii asalteaD tren&lC
i %'tes2 (%a@nei Marga M&rean&C 2 "i@i%n Bar(C eliberat (in n2Bis%areC @i<a *2&t n
'reDi&a % AiDit la C'lna4 A2&@ e la "ibi&4 D%a@na Marga @i s'&ne 2 (e ast (at Aa
(es2in(e i ea 'entr& 2teAa Dile la *ratele eiC la "ibi&C 22i se si@te &2is (e %b%seal4 "tr&ie
ea 3 CC,%ag 'e "i@i%n s<@i *a2 % AiDit la *ratele @e& 7L 9 A@ neles 2 n Ba%s&l (e
'ret&tin(eni al a2el%r s't<@niC ea A%ia s 'rin( (in *&nigeii t%a@neiC 2e 'l&tea& n AD(&BC
&n *ir (e legt&r 2& n%&a %rn(&ireC 2e se njgBeba4 5ir&l n<aAea % @ai @are 2%nsisten (e2t
a *&nigeil%r4 !%i A%rbi 2& "i@i%n4 n s&*let&l @e& era@ ns 2%nAins 2 "i@i%n n& Aa tre2e 'eC
la (%a@na MargaC 22i n& era el %@&l s se ex'&n bn&ielil%rC 2 ar aAea legt&riC (ire2te sa&
in(ire2teC Kaa (e strnseL 2& '&terni2ii Dilei (e ieri4
'''
La "ibi& a@ intrat n Ba%s&l 're*a2eril%rC 'e &r@a 2r%ra &nele @ini &t%'i2e ate'ta& % l&@e
@ai b&n4 )entr& &n %@ (e'lin *%r@at a(a'tarea la n%ile @'rej&rri era (in 2ale a*ar
aneA%i%as4 "e iAea& *ee n%i 'e strDi4 5iine D(ren&ite (e Ant &r2a& tre'tele *el&ritel%r
instit&ii i ntre'rin(eriC 2& aer&l (e a se trans*%r@aC (e la % Di la altaC n st'ni4
DeD@%teniii '@nt&l&i 2&ta& s<i *a2 l%2C 'ret&tin(eniC &n(e se '&tea4 )%*tele l%r 9 era&
nsC (e%2a@(atC ntr& t%t&l si@ilare '%*tel%r %a@enil%r (e ieri42are n2er2a& a2&@ s se
%bin&ias2 2& gn<
.1
n (e a tre2e 'e 'lan&l se2&n( al AieiiC %'&nin( @H&<
S i (r%j(ieiC 2e se ri(i2a&C s&rs&ri i ir%nii n l%2 (e re<
@%rala4 )rin %ra i 'e la @arginiC @i&na&C rD<i n 2eteC s%l(ai Keliberat%riFL4 De %bi2ei
t&r@entai4 jberareN (&Bnea4 Din 2li'a n 2are se lsa n%a'tea 'este a i 4A
in
& (i@ineaa n&
se @ai '&tea 2ir2&la 'e strDiC
n
e2&@ 'e aleile Arinil%rC 2e (&2 s're D&@braAC *r ris2&l (e a
ti b&D&nritC (eDbr2atC @&tilat sa& &2is4 D&@<JraAaC *r&@%asa (&@braAC se2&larC '&r i
itjili2rM s<a 're*2&tC n 2teAa s't@niC ntr<&n &ria @&r(ar atelierC 2& @ir%s (e (&B%t i (e
latrinC n 2are t%at n%a'tea Dbrnia&C la l&@in %rbit%are (e a2etilen i s&bt 2%Ailtire (e
Aer(eaC @%t%arele AeBi2%lel%r (e rDb%iC 2e aAea& ne<7e re'araii4 L&ni (e Dile A%@ a&DiC
(in l%2&ina OHmrC (in a'r%'ierea D&@brAiiC Dg%@%t&lC 2e rb&*nea S2a(at (in a2este
ateliere i@'r%AiDateC n 2are se 2r'ea& OHj ar@atei eliberat%are4 Un *el (e gr%aD 'ri@ar
ne 2n( 2(ea n%a'tea4 "%@n&lC ni se &@'lea (e 2e n& 2e(a& (e2t (i@ineaaC 2n( 'rin
gratiile
S la *erestre ntreDrea@ ntiele raDe (e l&@in4 n2er2a@ ntia %ar n Aia senti@ent&l
%@&l&i 'ri@itiAC 2are
Oe instin2tiA (e a'r%'ierea n%'iiC AD&t 2a % stiBie 2a % stiBie a(&2t%are (e (&B&ri rele i (e
ne're<@agi2eC 2%tr%'it%are 'ri@ej(ii4 "%@n&l @i era Vt (e s'ai@eC 2e l&a& % n*iare
a'r%a'e 2%r'%<@n grea 2a % lab (e &rs 2e @i<ar 2(ea 'e 'ie'tC i&<@C % r%at (e tan2 2e
@i<ar 'rin(e 'i2i%r&lC &n OOB 2e @<ar iDbi n 2ea*4 ntile raDe ale (i@ineii le @ (e aij(erea
2a %@&l 'ri@itiA4 le nse@na& eli<re (in beDnele @it%l%gi2eC (in 2ele (intiC ale l&@iiC n& se
*2ea Di& (e<a bineleaC 2n( *ata (e serAi2i& Aeti 2&lese n grab 'e la '%art (es're 2ele
'e<Ie n 2&rs&l n%'iiC la 2iAa 'ai (e 2asC sa& @ai (e<'e aleile Arinil%r i 'rin (esi&rile
D&@brAii4 +%ate lrile aAea& % legt&r %are2are 2& nt&neri2&l s*< (in 2n( n 2n(C (e
'%2nete (e '&2 i (e ar@e a&t%@ate4 A*la@ ast*el n2 la ntiele 2eas&ri ale (i@ineiiC 2 &n
tnr *r n&@e a *%st gsit g%l<na'C 2& t@'la g&ritC trntit n snge ntr<&n t&*i al aleii4 "<a
nt%rs 'e se@ne a2as (in2%l% (e %ra sig&r a a@&rg&l&i4 "a& a*la@ (es're *e@eiC t%t g%aleC
(eAastate 2a gr(inile 2& @ere (e a&r (in 2&tare bas@C 2are ast*el @i se a@inteaC s2%s (in
&itare (e<% gr%DAie "'argeriC Ai%l&riC asasinateC era& la
;.
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ar i 2&n % trC (&' elC s&bt % '%art 2& b%lt (e Di(4 !i2ti@a ni4 gsiC 2& i'etele eiC ni2ieri
a'rareC 2& t%ate 2 era 6 (e iar@ar%24 Oa@eniiC raniC trg%AeiC %reniC tre2eaiC nainte i se
*2ea&C as2&niC (&' @as2a &n%r 're%2&'a& 2 n& A( ni@i2C 2a i 2&@ (e la % Are@e ar *i
'&rtat 2 t%ii %2Belari (e 2'str&4
La "ibi& l gsii 'e "i@i%n Bar(4 "2ria a2&@ arti2%l%4 (e %rientri 2ar(inale ntr<% sit&aie
2%n*&DC ntr<% gaDet l%2al 2are 'n n& (e @&lt *&sese %rgan al (i2tat&ri3 *as2iste4 C%ti(ian&l
s2Bi@base (e 2&l%are 2Biar (in Di&a 2a'it&lrii4 "i@i%n Bar( era a2&@ KI%n 2el N%&LC &n
'se&(%ni@ (e Aag iD te%l%gi2 i (e 2i&(at a&g&rC 'e 2ar%C (e 2&rn(C (es2t&at&l @arxist i<l
l&a 2& (eDinA%lt&r4 4#%n 2el N%&L 9 a2est 'se&(%ni@ @i an&na n& n&@ai 'e ran&l
'r%letar Aisat (e LeninC 2i i alt2eAa 3 % an&@e al&r Kbiseri2eas2L a regi@&l&i 2e se Aa
insta&ra 'e @eleag&rile n%astre4 O@&l n%& Aa se2&lariDa @&lte (in as'e2tele e2lesiei4 5r
(e<&n an&@e Krit&alL n& Aa '&tea s 'rin( *iin ni2i 2Biar &n regi@ e@ina@ente ateist4
)&ine Dile (&' s%sirea @ea la "ibi& a*lai 2 I%n 2ri N%& se treDiC n 2i&(a ent&Dias@&l&i
'r%'agan(isti2 al ai<ti2%lel%r sale n *aA%area @arxis@&l&i i a %@&l&i s%Aietir4 inAitat la
2%@an(a@ent&l r&s al %ra&l&iC &n(e 'ri@i aAertis@ente n legt&r 2& &n arti2%lC 2e<l
'&bli2ase n '%@enit&l Diar4 n a2el arti2%lC I%n 2el N%& *2ea al&Dii *%arte strAeDii la ja*&rileC
beiileC Ai%l&rileC 2r%ra li si (e(a& eliberat%rii4 I%n 2el N%& 2&ta s s2&De 2%@'%rta@ent&l
%sta&l&i s%Aieti2 2a &n *en%@en general (e rDb%iC inerent naintrii %ri2rei ar@ate4
n2er2area (e a 44s2&DaL a l&i I%n 2el N%&C i aAea stng2iile (e re(a2ta& i se trans*%r@a
inA%l&ntar n a2&D4 C%@an(a@ente7 a*lase nsC (in Are@eC 2 I%n 2el N%& a s2'at n& (e
@&
3
4 (in n2Bis%area la 2are l<a 2%n(a@nat regi@&l *as2ist 'en<Ir& a2i&ni n *aA%area
%rn(&irii s%Aieti2e4 I%n s<a ales s'n n%r%2&l s& (%ar 2& &n aAertis@entC seAer n *%n(C (%r%%i
in *%r@4 I s<a atras l&area a@inte 2 K(es're ar@ata eliberat%are s%Aieti2 n& se '%ate s2rie
(e2t el%gi%sC sa& ni@i2LC i 2 n ni2i &n 2aD er%i2a %aste r%ie n& '%ai CCs2&DatL 'entr& *a'te
&rteC (e 2are (e alt*el ea n& s<I^ *2&t ni2ieri i ni2i%(at Ain%AatC (&' 2&@ % (%A^
0:
ent&Dias@&l (e ne(es2risC 2& 2are este 'ret&tin(eni ri (in 'artea '%'%arel%rC K'e 2ale (e a
*i eliberateL4 "i@i%n Bar(C le'(n(&<iC (in 2n( n 2n(C 'se&(%<'i@&lC 2e<l %bliga s
(e*%r@eDe realitile '%triAit &n%r s&'eri%are 2%@an(a@enteC @ inea n 2&rent 2& eA%l&ia
'%liti2 (in ar4 )arti(&l 2%@&nist eraC (&' 'rerea saC g&r&l *a2t%r a2tiA i (e iniiatiAC 2&
t%ate 2 n& aAea 2a@(at (e2t 2teAa @ii (e @e@bri4 )entr& &n ti@'4 n&@e 'n 2n( se A%r *i
%rganiDat s&*i2iene n&2lee
U4&nisteC K'arti(&lL Aa @'ri '&terea 2& 'arti(ele Kist%ri2eL4 ra ntia %ar 2 @ Dgria n
&re2Bi a2est e'itetC se (a 'arti(el%rC 2e alternaser la '&tere nainte (e "#2tat&ra regal i 2ea
@ilitar (in ti@'&l a2est&i rDb%i4 OKb%i&lC aa %'inia "i@i%nC se Aa ter@ina n 2teAa l&ni
Oist@ la &lti@ele 2%nA&lsi&ni ale *as2is@&l&i intrat ag%nieL4 'itet&l 2e se (a 'arti(el%r
@ari (e alt(at ea i@'li2aii (e're2iatiAe4 le snt Kist%ri2eLC *iin(2 9 OB n2 la '&tere 9
ele a'arin Ktre2&t&l&iL4 "nte@ n OKa liberalis@&l&i (e@%2rati2C 2n( 'arti(&l
2%@&nist KI ex'%nenii si treb&ie s se b&2&re i ei (e 'l2erile ii b&rgBeDeC i s 'r%*ite (e
resta&rarea %r(inei libere le @ir%s&rile (e grtar ale 2a'italis@&l&i intrat n '&tre*a2ieC ns&i
"i@i%n Bar( Aa *i inAitat s a22e'te (iAerse 2%nsilii (e a(@inistraie ale &n%r
ntre'rin(eriC 3n(e%sebi sit&aia (is2retC (ar bn%asC (e @e@br&C *r rs'&n(ere i *r
ris2&riC n 2%nsiliile &n%r '%stri i est%rii sseti (e la Cisn(ie4 A2easta 'n 2n( 'arti(&l
2%@&nist Aa @ai 2%lab%ra 2& 'arti(ele ist%ri2eC 2 'n n 2li'a 2n( 'arti(&l 2%@&nist i Aa
*a2e l%2 S*e&'n( t%ate '%Diiile<2Beie att la 2r@a rii 2t i n OS(&2erea '%liti2 i
e2%n%@i2 l%2alC (in 'r%Ain2iiC S*%rase i sate4 Nen%r%2itele 'arti(e Kist%ri2eLC 'asiAeC
OB%rientateC se gses2 (e 'e a2&@ n sit&aia t%t @ai [riti2 (e a se a'raC (e la % Di la altaC
la *ie2e 'as al s%a<OHMi 'e 2r&g&l s& 2eres2C (e Kelan&l ireDistibilL al 'arti(&l&i 2%@&nist4
)arti(ele ist%ri2e snt n (er&t4 De*en<a l%r e in&t s&bt 'resi&ni (e t%t s%i&l (in 'artea Keli<
at%ril%rLC 2are n Ca'ital '&n la (is'%Diia 'arti(&l&i a&nist s&*i2iente tan2&ri 'entr&
(e@%nstraiile (e (4
La 2teAa DileC (&' nt%ar2erea @ea (in re*&gi&C a@ 2 (%a@na Marga M&rean&C 2areC
%b%sit (e na<tele (intre Alba<I&lia i "ibi&C B%trse s r@n as<
0;
r&ns la *ratele eiC a *%st ri(i2at (e %a@enii "ig&ranei i trans'%rtat ntr<% n2Bis%are la
B&2&reti4 "i@i%n Bar(C 2r&ia i A%rbise@ s<i *a2 % AiDit (e 2&rt%aDieC n& a'&2ase n2
s<i @'lineas2 (%rina4 "i@i%n se artaseC 2%ntrar 'reAe(eril%r @eleC *%arte (is'&s s
(ea &r@are (%rinei (%a@nei MargaC (arC t%2@ai 2n( s<B%tr la a2est gestC &r@a s
a*le Aestea (es're arestri ei4 "i@i%n @i (estin&ia 2 (%a@na Marga n& *&sese ar&n2at n
beDna 2ar2erei (e 2tre 2%@&nitiC 2i (e &nii %a@eni ai 'arti(el%r 44ist%ri2eL4 D%a@na Marga
a *%st re@ar2at n trs&rC 2Biar 2n( se (&2ea (e la gara "ibi&l&i la l%2&ina *ratel&i ei4
,b&*nea& a2&@ Ae2Bi resenti@ente '%liti2eC 'r%Ain2ialeC ilare i ng&steC @'%triAa ei4
C2i (%a@na Marga era A(&Aa &n&i *%M 'ree(inte (e @i2 'arti(C (e alt(atC 2areC (a2 ar
@ai existaC ar *i i el n&@itC astDiC 44'arti( ist%ri2L4 L&'ta ntre 'arti(ele ist%ri2e l&ase 'e
Are@&ri *%r@e (e<% in2re(ibil Ai%len4 A2&@C n *aDa liberalis@&l&i (e@%2rati2C
2%n(&2t%rii a2est%r 'arti(eC (e<% in2%ntien t%tal 2t 'riAete 'ri@ej(iile realeC 2e<i
'tea&C se @ai lsa& ns '&rtai (e resenti@ente 'ers%naleC 2e se 2erea& 2%ns&@ate4 Un atare
'ers%naj '%liti2C ex'%nent l%2al al &rna '&terni2 'arti( ist%ri2C ADn( 'e (%a@na Marga n tr<
s&ra 2e<% (&2ea la garC *2& n&@ai(e2t (e@ers&ri la "ig&rana %ra&l&i4 CBelia *r i(ei
2erea 2a (%a@na M&rean& s *ie ri(i2at i ar&n2at la be2i4 An%ni@&l 'r%Ain2ial&l (%@nC
%rganiDat%r (e alegeri 2& 2i%@ag&3C %@&l 2are aAea &n %riD%nt intele2t&al larg 2t *ar*&ria
(in 2are @n2aC i a(&se 'r%babil a@inte (e nite '%le@i2I '%liti2eC 2e aA&seser l%2 'e
Are@&ri ntre 'ree(inii 'arti(el%r Kist%ri2eL4 "%&l (%a@nei Marga era &n '%2L nai%nalistC &n
@are %rat%r i @ai ales &n te@&t i talentat gaDetarC 2eea 2e (in '2ate n& *&seser 2eilali 'n
e(ini ai (iAersel%r 'arti(e ist%ri2e4 O@&l 2& 2i%@agFF 2re(ea 2 e'igra@ele 2a&sti2e ale
(e2e(at&l&i '%et gaDetar @'%triAa 'ree(intel&i 'arti(&l&i ist%ri2C 2i 2are *2ea 'arteC
treb&ia& rDb&nate n s*rit4 !i2ti@ a2est&i resenti@ent era s%ia '%et&l&i gaDetarC (%an@4
Marga M&rean&C 2are *& ast*el (ein&tC n &n&l % 2ele @ai 2riti2e @%@ente ale ist%riei
n%astreC 2n( triAit 2la&Del%r (e ar@istii& n2e'ea t%2@ai arestarea [ ar a 2ri@inalil%r (e
rDb%i4 C %@&l 2& 2i%@ag&l a I 2&t 2e<a *2&tC n& este n 2ele (in &r@ 'rea (e @iratC
02
rDb&narea aAea ns l%2 s&bt %2Bii Aigileni ai 'ree(in<lel&i &n&i @are 'arti( ist%ri2C 2are
'rin t2erea sa a'r%ba
ire
starea4 Ase@enea @%nstr&%ase *%r@e l&ase li'sa (e aAaleris@ n
Aiaa '%liti2 (in a2el ti@'4
O li's t%tal (e 2aAaleris@ n2e'ea (e alt*el s se re@ar2e i n alte se2t%are ale Aieii
n%astre '&bli2e ,esenti@ent&l Db&ra *r *r& n t%at ara4 diare n%i
JT in&n(a&C (&' 2&@ a@ @ai s'&sC 'iaa4 Des2BiDn( %(at
&
n atare DiarC 2e a'rea n
2a'italC (es2%'r &n4 arti2%lC n 2are se 2ereaC 2& t%at seri%DitateaC 2a *il%D%*&l Le%nte
'tra2& s *ie 44arestatFFC (e%are2e el ar *i Krs'&nDt%rFL 'entr& asasinarea l&i Ni2%lae I%rga4
Hrtia (e ti'ar s&'%rta i a2east en%r@itate 'rintre attea altele4 "e tie 2 Hj=ele n%str&
ist%ri%gra* i n(r&@t%r n @%@ente @ari4 [ nai&niiC Ni2%lae I%rgaC *&sese &2is n t%a@na
an&l&i Hi (e<% ban( (e asasini4 5'taii (es2%'erii i<a& 'ri<
. in rsti@' (rea'ta 'e(ea's 'entr& negrita l%r HiN4 5il%D%*&l Le%nte )tra2& n& s<a
a@este2at ni2i<OH' n Aiaa '%liti2C aAn( % %r%are (e a %'ta n Are&n
&i &n 'r%gra@ (e 'arti(4 5il%D%*&l tria real@ente OOHberelii bibli%te2ii saleC al2t&it (in
2ri eseniale arii &niAersaleC (ar el tria n(e%sebi ntr<&n OOHt 2%s@i2C 2&@ %bin&iete s
trias2 %ri2e gn(it%r OOB2aie4 )rin &nele %'ere ale saleC *il%D%*&l Le%nte '&sese 2n(Aa n
l&@in 2ele @ai n%bile esene OOK@Nnis@&l&i ntr<&n larg 2a(r& (e &@anis@ s'irit&al3 ' &n
'lan (e s&'re@e Aal%ri &niAersaleC i *r (e
i @ai @i2 &r@ (e nai%nalis@ 2& g& tri2%l%rC H'nt i etn%gra*i24 Cel 2e s2ria
in2ali*i2abil&l arti2%lC n H*e se 'retin(ea 2& t%at seri%Ditatea 2 *il%D%*&l Le%nte Hcas2& ar
'&rta rs'&n(erea 'entr& asasinarea l&i Ni<2%jjje I%rgaC i a(&2ea 'r%babil a@inte (e % trist
2a@<OKe a @arel&i 'r%*es%r (e 442%ntiin nai%nalLC @< *il%D%*&l&i n%str&4 Ni2%lae I%rga
aAea % s*ial *a 4 ba 2Biar % %r%areC 'e 2are i<% a*ia 2& %ri2e O 9 n& *r BaD4 l n& era n
stare s asi@ileDe &n siste@ (e gn(ire4 Un siste@ i@'li2 % '&tere (e abstra2i&ne i (e
AiDi&neC 2e (e'ea& t%ate a'tit&(inile ist%ri%gra*&l&i4 C&@ ar *i '&t&t el s agreeDe i(eile
@eta*iD2e ale l&i Le%nte H +%t ti@'&l (intre 2ele (%& rDb%aieC N4 I%rga a 2&tatC 'rin arti2%le
i n 2%n*erine '&bli2eC 'line
1 ir%nie nenelegt%areC s K(e@%netiDeDeL n *aa %btei r%@Nneti *il%D%*ia l&i Le%nte4
Ni2i%(at Le%nte )tra2&
0I
n<a rs'&ns ata2&ril%rC &ne%ri 2& t%t&l '&erileC ale li Ni2%lae I%rgaC 'entr& a 2r&i
'ers%nalitate (e L(i@^ i si&ni asiriene el aAea (e alt*el % sin2er a(@iraieC B *aa 'r%'riei
sale 2%ntiineC *il%D%*&l Le%nte )tra2& 'e 2are l<a@ a&Dit (e attea %ri r%stin(&<se as&'ra
atiti (inii %bt&De a l&i N4 I%rgaC s%2%tea a2este ieiri interniC lente ale ist%ri%gra*&l&i i @arel&i
ani@at%r al nai%nalis@&l&i r%@Nnes2C (re't si@'t%@e regretabile ale &@ gel%Dii senileC i
att4 Le%nte n& le atrib&ia ni2i &n *el (^ i@'%rtan4 Ba *il%D%*&lC 2are 2&n%tea attea (in
se2retele (iale2ti2ii ist%ri2eC s'&nea &ne%ri 2 %'%Diia l&i N4 I%rg i era bineAenitC (e%are2e
i(eile sale *il%D%*i2e as&'iI r%@Nnis@&l&i &r@a& s<i *a2 (r&@ tri&@*t%r n %'inia '&bli2
n*rngn( a2east @are @'%triAire (in 'artea &nei 'ers%nalitiC 2are nainte (e 'ri@&l
rDb%i @%n(ial j&2a r%l&l &nei regaliti intele2t&ale4 I(ei ir *il%D%*&l&i ieea& 2lite
(in ntlnirea 2& % reDistent in2an(es2ent4 Ni2i%(at *il%D%*&l Le%nte )tra2& n<a
s2ris &n 2&Ant @2ar @'%triAa l&i Ni2%lae I%rgaC i ia<t<l a2&@ n*iat (re't Ain%Aat&l
n&@r&l &n& 'entr& asasinarea il&str&l&i 'r%*es%r4 Des2reierat&l 2are seriII arti2%l&lC
as2&nDn(&<se n (%s&l &n&i 'se&(%ni@ i al &nei iniialeC (a (r&@&l 2ine tie 2r&i
resenti@ent 'ers%nal @'%triAa &n&i %@C 2are i<a n2Binat existena ex2l&siA @aril%r
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(e Aiaa '%liti2C (ei era @ere& s%li2itat (e4 t%ate 'arti(eleC 2e<i (is'&ta& ntietatea 'e
arena Aieii %bte 5il%D%*&l se 2l&Dea n a2east 'riAin (&' 'rin2i'iII '%liti2&l este
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'n la 2are a aj&n<at@%s*era @%ral 2e se ntin(ea 'este ar4
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l&2i(itate (e graAitatea si@'t%@el%r4 !e(ea@ n a*ir@aiile i n a're2ierile n(re'tate
@'%triAa n%asta @ai @&lt nite 'r%(&se i@'r%AiDate ale &nei i@aginaii gaDetreti (e
intenii 2ari2at&rale4 nt%r2ea@ a&t%@at 'agina s're a Ae(ea (a2 n& 2&@Aa titl&l gaDetei era
al &n&ia (intre 2&n%s2&tele s't@nale &@%risti2eC ce @ai a'rea& n Ca'italC nainte (e
n2etarea 'e ntins&l rii S%ri2r&i rs sa& &@%r4 Dar n&4 ra& Diare n%iC 2& 're<
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He i @ai ales s&bse2retariatele B%trt%are n a2i&nea
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2BeieC (e &n(e se
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@&n2it%reti '&se B 2aleC n a'arenC 'entr& reAen(i2area &n%r (re't&riC ' 2are ni@enea
n& le @ai tg(&iaC (ar n realitate ^ i s2%'&l bine 're2iDat (e a (estr@a i (e a 2%@'r%@I
'r%(&2ia liberal%<b&rgBeD4 "a&C 'entr& a r@ne la lintiele 2ele @ai largi ale %bie2tiAittiiC
2& a@bele s2%'i& CC ,e@ar2a@ 2& ti@'&lC t%t @ai @&ltC 2&@ t%ate @s&riiC l&ate (in 'artea
2%n(&2erii 'arti(&l&i 2%@&nist era& 2al 2&late s&b egi(a &nei @&lti'le *inalitiC n Ae(erea
%b^<nerii a 2it @ai @&lte reD&ltate4 kinta &lti@ era 3 (%@inaia4 Din *el&l 2&@ a2east
as2ensi&ne s're '&tere era 2%3 <(&s (e (&' 2&liseC se Ae(ea 'rea 2lar 2 t%t&l are I% (&' &n
ti'i2 n2er2at i ai&reaC n& % sing&r (at4 "e *2ea &n *el (e '%liti2 44'&rFF4 K)&rLF n&
n sens 4 '&ritii @%raleC 2i 2Biar (i@'%triA4 N%&a '%liti2 n& s n2&r2a n s2r&'&le (e
nat&r @%ral4 M%ralaC 2& n%r@e ei 2&n%s2&teC era s%2%tit 2a &n *en%@en (es&etC *e&(I<I
<b&rgBeD4 M%rala &r@a s n(&re 'r%*&n(e @%(i*i2aIC i4 s 'ri@eas2 2Biar % n%&
(e*iniieC n *&n2ie exel&sIC (e A%ina (e '&tere a 'arti(&l&i4 Ms&rile 2e se I&3I 4 *iin(C (&'
'rerea 'arti(&l&iC (e nat&r e@ina@ente Ktiini*i2FFC era&C *ireteC li'site (e %ri2e
i@aginat )arti(&l 2%@&nist 2&ta s %bin 2%lab%rarea 'arti(ei ist%ri2eC (ar 2%lab%rarea
(eAenea 'rilej (e ne2&r@II > %*ensiA a 2%@&nitil%r @'%triAa b&rgBeDil%rC 2are s <(ea&
n 2&rsa 2%lab%rrii4 -i %ri2e n2er2are (e %'%Dit (in 'artea b&rgBeDil%rC 2are 2%lab%ra&C (&2ea
la % n%T 9-. re@aniere a g&Aern&l&i I 2eea 2e se nt@'la jignea *ie2e 'as si@&l (e (e@nitate
%@eneas2 a 2etenil^ C (ar &@'lea (e @n(rie bestiile 2%n(&2t%are4
"i@i%n Bar( a *%st inAitat s trea2 la B&2&reti4 I s<a& (atC 'e rn(C (i*erite nsr2inri4 L<a@
r&gat s <intereseDe (e s%arta (%a@nei Marga M&rean&4 N& *in&lV (&' 2e se stabilea n
Ca'italC "i@i%n @ s*t&ia s n linites2 3 (%a@na Marga se gsete s&bt 'r%te2ia4 7 )etr&
Gr%s&C &n&l (in @arii g&Aern&l&iC '%l *ix n g%I6 s2Bi@bril%r i a re@anieril%r4 !estea 'ri@it
(e la "iniiF 4 @i (a gn(&riC 2e se ns%ea& (e la sine 2& alteleC (e 23 "i@i%n ns&i Babar n&
aAea4 @i a@intea@ 'e n(2li (e<% 2i&(at ntN@'lareC 2e aA& l%2 n .0/0C a(i2 2& Ai ^ 2in2i
ani @ai nainte4 M nt%rsese@ t%2@ai (in strinI tate i<@i n2e'&se@ 2&rs&l (e esteti2 la
UniAersiti
i Cl&j4 N& tre2&r 2teAa DileC 2n( *&i inAitat (e %anina Marga la 'arastas&l (e &n
an (e la @%artea l&str&l&i ei s%4 M<a@ (e'lasat n l%2alitatea (e 'r%Ain2ieC &n(e ea tria
retras ntr& t%t&l n ne2%ns%larea ei4 '%anina Marga M&rean&C 2areC n tinereea
eiC I
s
i *2&se *ai@ (e @are 2ntrea4 aj&ngn( n aj&n&l nti&l&i rDb%i @%n(ial s 2nte la
Baere&tB ntr<&n r%l (in KA&r&l ,in&l&iLFC @ai 'stra i a2&@ n *iina <ei % &%ar n2linare
s're s'e2ta2&l%s&l ]agnerian4 Ast*el ja<Sa ei treb&ia s ia n*iare (e jale a nai&nii4
Cere@%nia 'arastas&l&i era n2Bi'&it (e ea 2a &n @are rit&al al '%@eniriiC la 2are treb&ia s
*ie (e *a4 'rin ex'%nenii OHg@ai alei t%t '%'%r&l La se@nal&l (t (i 2l%'%t
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OHgI@ai aleiC t%t '%'%r&l4 La se@nal&l (at (in 2l%'%t<Sb biseri2&ei (e le@nC alai&l
%as'eil%rC 2e se n*iinar B&t2i e4 '%rnete n 'r%2esi&neC (e la 2as s're 2ri'ta Mteran4 n
2are se Ae(ea sar2%*ag&l il&str&l&i literal i B*e%liti24 -i<@i a@intes2 3 n *r&ntea
alai&l&iC &r2a OOB 2ai 'as (e trage(ianC A(&AaC s'rijinit la braC OOKrea'ta (e general&l
Ant%n2s2&4 (e<a sting (e %@&l Sjitie )etr& Gr%s&4 General&l se nt%rsese t%2@ai al&niiC n
Bain (e si@'l& 2eteanC 2iAilC (inti<% @nstire &n(e a stat n2Bis 2tAa ti@' (in
%r(in&l regel&i Car%l4 OOSb era liber4 )este &n an i 2teAa l&ni aAea s (eAin 442%n(&2t%r&lLC
a(i2 (i2tat%r&l @ilitar al ,%@Nniei4 La Wtnga (%a@nei Marga eraC (&' 2&@ s'&sei4 )etr&
Gr%s&C 2Ore n& j&2aC (e%2a@(atC (e2t &n r%l insigni*iant (e 'ree(inte al &n&i *r%nt
rnes2 2& 'r%gra@C (e extre@ Hc' Gr%s& *&sese 2n(Aa &n a(erent ent&Diast al s2rii<Kl&i
(e2e(at I alt&ri (e 2are a2tiAa i '%liti24 M &r<rete @ere& i@aginea a2el&i alai rit&al (intr<%
Di (e *2Aar4 'e<&n (eal s*init (e 'reDenaC n '@nt&l gC a &n&i @are @%rt4 D%a@na Marga
i gsise 'entr& ja ei (e al&r anti2 (%i stl'i (e s'rijin4 A2&@4 (&' i aniC &n&lC general&lC
era (ein&t 'e &n(eAaC 'rin OH n ate'tarea &n&i 'r%2esC 2e se Aa ter@ina (e< CU
2%n(a@narea sa la @%arte4 CellaltC (&' 2e n rDb%i&l&i *2&seC s&bt (i2tat&ra 2el&i (intiC
2< s't@ni (e n2Bis%are 'entr& a2i&ni s&bAersiAe '%triAa %r(inii (e stat4 era a2&@ &n&l
(in '&terni2ii se 'regtea s ia '&terea 2a ex'%nent al @i2<stngaC @'%triAa 'arti(el%r
ist%ri2eC 2are n& @ai ni2i @2ini&l&i internC ni2i 'resi&nil%r (in a*ar ierat%ril%rL4 Din
n2Bis%area n 2are a aj&nsC s&bt
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g'%tliA
(i2tat&ra general&l&iC )etr& Gr%s& a s2'atC (egrabC (at%rit interAeniei gener%ase a (%a@nei
Marga 'C4 ling (i2tat%r4 ste a'r%a'e (e ne2reD&t 2&@ % si@'lIC nt@'lare 2e 'are a n& aAea
ni2i % se@ni*i2aieC '%ate (%bn(iC (&' &n ti@'C '&tere (e si@b%lC n 2are se n2BeagC 2a
ntrO% AiDi&neC % ntreag ist%rie4 Ist%ria rii i a att%r %a@eniC 2are a& j&2at &n r%l n
(estinele7 eiC iat<% 2%n2entratC 2a % anti2i'areC n a2east i@agine Un 'arastas4 Un alai rit&al
(e 2teAa s&te (e 'ers%ane4 D%a@na Marga M&rean& 2%n(&sC (e<a (rea'ta i (e<a stngaC (e
2ei (%i 3 (e general&l Ant%nes2& i (e )etr& Gr%s&4 +%t&l 'are att (e neAer%si@ilC a2&@C (&'
2e (estinele s<a& @'linit sa& snt 'e 2ale (e a se @'lini -i t%t&i nt@'larea a aA&t l%24 Iar
nt@'larea a2easta Aa r@ne 'entr& @ine % @rt&rie a instin2t&l&iC 2& 2are % *e@eieC 2&
ini@a (in2%l% (e bine i (e r&C % *e@eie @in&nat nDestrat 2& (ar&ri (e inteligen i
sensibilitateC 2are 'entr& &nii era (iaA%lC 'entr& alii % @are in2%@'arabil bine*2t%areC se
'ri2e'ea s se stre2%are 'rintre 'ri@ej(iile Aiit%are ale Aea2&l&i4
Ur@rit (e s't@ni (e 2%@ar&l eAeni@entel%rC ee se &r@a&C inn(&<ne 2& s&*let&l la g&rC
a@ @'t&rai 2& &n si@@nt (e linitireC s2ris%area 'ri@it (e la "i@i%n4 +%t&iC (%a@na
Marga aAea s @ai Db%Aeas2 Are% 2teAa l&ni n n2Bis%areC s're a i se *a2e an2Beta (e
rig%areC 2e se Aa ter@ina ntr<% Di 2& '&nerea ei n libertate K'e linie @%artL4
in 2%n(iiile ntr<a(eAr ex2e'i%naleC i (e<% labili<l late (e2%n2ertant ale t%a@nei .0EEC
UniAersitatea 2iS s<janC str@&tat (in .0E1 la "ibi&C aAea s<i (es2Bi( '%rile n&@ai 2&
@are ntrDiere4 Cl(ireaC n 2are Uni<I Aers(tatea i gsise a('%st 2& ani @ai nainteC *&sese7
%2&'at (e tr&'ele s%Aieti2eC i@e(iat (&' 2(erea "i<I bi&l&i K(&' 2rn2ene btliiL n 2&rs&l
2r%ra n& s<a[ tras ni2i &n sing&r gl%nte4 n rsti@' *r%nt&l nainta3F (at%rit interAeniei
gener%ase a (%a@nei Marga iT M&reC n j%s 2tre Ara(4 Ar@atei s%Aieti2eC 2e naintaC i
se integraser i 2%r'&rile ar@atei n%astreC 2are l&'ta a2&@ @'%triAa ne@il%r4 La &n
@%@ent (at tr&'ele s%Aieti2e 2e r@seser n "ibi&C i n UniAersitateC a i
01
e
Aa2&at 2l(irileC 'le2n( s're *r%nt4 "e tre2ea (e D%r
a
'regtirile 2e 're2e( (es2Bi(erea an&l&i
2%lar4 H'<a& 'r%(&s &nele s2Bi@bri n 2%n(&2erea re2t%rat&l&i i a (e2anatel%r4 -i %
s'eriet%are (e 'sri i *2& a'ariia 'rin slile &niAersitii4 O 2%@isie s'e2ial 'entr&
re
AiD&irea 'r%*es%ril%r se instit&i4 C%@isia eli@@ (in nA@nt Are% 2iAa 'r%*es%riC 2are i<
a& ri(i2at 'rea tare glas&l @'%triAa rsrit&l&iC i 'ensi%neaD 'e ali Are% 2iAaC s're a le
salAa 2el '&in 2alitatea J(e K'ensi%nariL4
S"t&(eni@ea se a(&naC n2et&l 2& n2et&lC n %ra&l 2& OS@e(ieAal i 2& attea Aestigii (e
gl%ri%s tre2&t4 "t&(eniiC &nii @ai *%n*iC alii @n(ri (e (ar&rile l%r %rat%ri2e in&te atta ti@'
s&bt %br%2C se 2%@'l2ea& n r%l&l OHiat (e agitat%riC i %rganiDa&C 2&@ se 'ri2e'ea&C st&<
OHtneaC n gr&'ri a*iliate 'arti(el%r '%liti2eC 2e 2%nti<S& a (eine '&terea n stat4 A(&nrile
l%r se inea&C H'<a(insC n %rele (estinate 2&rs&ril%rC 2a s ni se (e<OS&streDeC n%&C
'r%*es%ril%rC 2 '%liti2&l e @ai i@'%rtant (e2t s'irit&l4 "t&(eni@ea intra n Aal<Artej&l
(eD%rientrii generale4
ntreDrin( restri2ii t%t @ai a'rige la '&bli2aiiC a@ 2&tat s<@i ti'res2C 2t @ai grabni2C
n%&a @ea 'ies KAr2a l&i N%eL4 O ti'arni l%2al se angaja la a2east is'raA4 (e @irat 2
n<a@ nt@'inat ni2i % (i*i2&ltate la 2enD&raC 'rin 2areC '%triAit 'reAe(eril%r (e ar@istii&C
teeb&ia s trea2 %ri2e ti'rit&r4 Legt&ra se2ret (intre 'iesa @eaC 2e (ra@atiDa % legen(
b%g&@ili2C rs'n<H n &nele regi&ni ale riiC i a2t&alitatea 2& n*iare C n 'lin
(es*&rareC n& '&tea s s2a'e ntr& ateniei 2enD%ril%r4 )iesa @ea iDb&ti t%t&i s ias O
teas24 CenD&ra era 're%2&'at<(e alte 'r%ble@e
@ai arDt%areC '&se (e 2%ti(ianele '%liti2eC i n& se @'ie(i2a n si@b%l&rile &nei 'iese (e
teatr&4 "e@ni*i2aiileC 2e se as2&n(ea& s&bt Baina &n%r i@agini legen(areC '&tea& (e aij(erea
s trea2 nel&ate n sea@4 n %ri2e MQDC a@ tre2&t 'rin 2enD&r @ai &%r (e2t I%n 2el N%&4
D&' a'ariia 2rii 2%nstata@ nsC ntia %arC n ti@' (e (%&De2i (e aniC 2 % l&2rare '%eti2
(e<a @ea n& strnea ni2i &n e2%&4 A'ariia 'iesei abia (a2 a *%st se@nalat la r&bri2a 2ril%r
'entr& 2%'ii4 Aa se s2Bia b%i2%t&l (e @ine al 2riti2ii literare n legt&r 2& n&@ele
0.
@e&C att (e *re2Aent '%@enit n '&bli2isti2a n%astr (intre 2ele (%& rDb%aie4 )retins&l
@isti2is@ i %rientai JS4C @eta*iDi2 a '%eDiei @ele (eAenea& t%t @ai @&lt &n 'n 4 text (e
al&Dii ir%ni2e sa& 2Biar inta &n%r ata2&ri *iTC (in 'artea n%il%r 2%ti(iene 2e se iAir (e la
2a'it&lai n2%a2e4 M&tis@&lC 2e se stat%rni2ea n j&r&l n&@el&i @e&C i sens&l
(e're2iatiA al 2%ntextel%r n 2a(r&l 2r%ra n&@ele @e& i @ai s2%tea 2a'&l (in 2%l%anele
Diarel%r iC ale reAistel%r4 @i se@nala& % n%& stare (e s'irit4 5a'tele n& @ ngrij%ra&C eleC n
sine4 n alte @'rej&rri @<ar *i lsat 2Biar 2& t%t&l in(i*erent4 A2este *a'te le inter'reta@ ns
2a in(i2ii 2erte ale &nei at@%s*ere 2e se Ai2ia (e la % Di la alta i 2a si@'t%@e t%t att (e sig&rI4
ale &n&i n2e'&t (e inAaDie a 'r%st&l&i g&st4 -i (e la % Di la alta s2(ea AiDibil i niAel&l
'r%(&2iei '%eti2 )r%(&2ia (eAenea te@ati2 i se &@'lea (e l%Din2i iJ73 Dilei4 Mai @&ltC 2Biar
gaDetria se *2eaC t%t @ai str&it%rC (&' @%(ele (e larg 2ir2&laie n rsrit4 ,e'etiia
@(&larel%r n a2eeai r%stire n& @ai era s%2%tit 2a % @eteaBnC 2i 2a % 2alitate a n%&l&i stil
(e *a2t&r i@'ei <s%nal4 5raDele (eAenea& %b%sit%r (e ex'li2iteC ne@ ng(&in( ni2i %
i@'li2aieC (e 2are s te a'r%'ii 2& (ai gBi2irii4 )r%'%Diiile se arti2&la& @iria'%(i2 2res2n(
in I<til n l&ngi@e4 'itet&l B%@eri2 intra n &D&l 2%ti(iane7 r De 2te %ri Aenea A%rba (es're
&n an&@e l&2r& sa& ( % an&@e 'ers%anC se re'eta 2& insisten ilariant B tet&l (e rig%are4
Ar@ata s%Aieti2 era t%t(ea&na 4 iar "talin t%t(ea&na Kgenial&lLC 2&@ n e'%'eile B ri2e Hera
era @ere& a2eeai Dei K2& %2Bi (e b%&L4 Cli4 . i *2ea intrarea 'e s&bt '%rile (e tri&@*
ale s2ris&F i r%@Nnes2C i 2& a2easta i *2ea& l%2C n '%eDie i ia '&bli2isti2C a2eia 2areC
'rin a'tit&(inile l%r (in neaI JC se 'ri2e'ea& s 'ra2ti2e n%&a ex'resie4 A(i2 i@'ers%nal s
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al@ente t%n&l i *i%r&l 2& 2are se A%rbea (es're el n 2a(r&l @i2riiC 2e naintaC 2& '&@n&l
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2r&ia litania @%n%t%n i 2itat&l (%g@ati2 i aAea& l%2&l bine stabilitC &n 2alen(ar 2& Dile
r%ii legate (e ist%ria 'arti(&l&iC 2n( a& l%2 ineAitabilele 'r%2esi&ni @'estriate 'ra'%ri i
2& i2%ane (e<ale n%il%r eAangBeliti4 5ireteC OKiesi&nileC 'e &r@a 2r%ra treb&ie s
2a( 'l%i (e 2ereas2C n& se @ai n&@es2 'r%2esi&niC 2i K(e*ilriL4 Ke n& &it@ 2 era@ n2
n&@ai la n2e'&t (e Are@iC Sn( *%r@ele Aiit%are (e Aia i (e %rganiDare s%2ial se S'ia&
(%ar te%reti2 i 'r%'agan(isti24
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b&rgBeDeC s<a 2%ns&@atC reD%lAn(&<se 2& aj&t%r s%Aieti2 i 2& &i trntite (e Dbirii tiraniei
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liberalis@ (e@%2rati2 rst&rnarea t%tal a %rn(&irii
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se 'etre2ea& *en%@ene si@ilare4 +%t&iC n UngariaC b&n%arC 'arti(&l (e 2&rn( n*iinatC al
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se 'rea t%2@ai li'sit (e arg&@enteC 2& t%ate 2 n& '&tea@ s<@i (a& n2 n(eaj&ns (e bine
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'ri2ina (i*i2&ltil%t iasare a instit&iil%rC (in li's (e l%2al&ri i (e l%2&ine 'entr& 2%r'&l
(i(a2ti2 i 'ers%nal&l a(@inistratiA ersitatea i a@na (es2Bi(erea 'n la n2e'&t&
an&l&i .0EY4 5a@ilia @i<% lsa@ (e%2a@(at la "ibi& Aj&ns la Cl&jC @ AD&i neA%it s
taag la &na (intre 2lini2iC &n(e nt@'lt%r a@ @ai gsit % 2a@er liber "%sea@ 2a@ 'e la
a@iaDC (ar @ l&ngiiC @br2ai H@ era@C 'e 'atC s @ %(iBnes2 (e %b%seala (r&@&l&i )OB
&n&i (r&@ 2e n2e'&se 'ar2 @&lt nainte (e
' (e la "ibi&4 "%@n&l n& A%ia ns ni2i a2&@ s @
HH'*iineDe s&bt 'le%a'e4 O senDaie (e *rig @i se rs<Hn(i 'e t%at ntin(erea e'i(er@eiC
s&bt 2are *iina ar<Ha t%t&i4 Dis2&iile 2& "i@i%nCL a2elea 2are a& 're@en S"as&l&i r&TC @i
reAenea& n @inteC n2 % (atC n2 HjHat4 i n2 % (at4 ra 2a % nArtire 'e l%2 a 2%ntiin<
)OHareC 'rin nat&ra eiC n& treb&ie s stea l%2&l&i4 Unele )OH&ri l&a& *%r@ %bsesiA I n j&r&l
l%r se is2a& Artej&r OS&2i(itate4 -i (&' %re (e *r@nt 'l&@b&ri&C ntr<% 2a<O, tristC (e
2lini2C 'rin *aa 2reia rs&na& 'ai (e i (e b%lnaAi ieii n 2rjiC @i a@intiiC 'rintr<% re<
*a (e @ine ns&@iC 2 '%ate @i<ar *a2e bine % Ai<SK la (%a@na O2taAia Oltean&C 2are
treb&ia s *ie Ir Malitate4 A(resa @i era ti&t4 M<a@ (&O 'e la %ra 2ine H a@iaDC s<% A(4
Cn( a@ intratC (%a@na O2taAc @br2at (e stra(4 !%ia t%2@ai s ias n %ra4 Ci iii ei AiiC
2& *aa (e<% 'al%areC 2e se a22ent&a n 2li'I -e(eriiC O2taAia era nea'rat *r&@%as4 C
KCn( ai s%sii HL @ ntreb eaC *r a<i @ai '&iet I'ni e@%iaC CC)e la a@iaDLC rs'&n(4
KDe 2e n<ai Aenit la n%i H )reAe(ea@ 2 te Aei nt%ar2e Cl&jC Dilele a2esteaC i n 'en&ria (e
l%2&ine i<a@ 'i2 [tit % 2a@er la n%iLC 2&ta ea s @ n(&'le2eI
CC!a treb&i s r@n 2tAa ti@' la 2lini2C n& @ si@ 2@ai bineLC i<a@ rs'&nsC i (&' % t2ere
s2&rtC an i&gat 3 K)e &r@ A%@ @ai Ae(ea4 Nea'rat 2 a * ngrijit ai2iL4
00
ara ar4
C4 'ta
.i+ n *raDe 2n( 'rea a (in
-i a@ tre2&t Ia 2eea 2e4 =i a&( sa2a(ateC r%stite 2& &n glas4 2n( 'r stinsC 2& glas (e 2l%'%t
s*iat (e Ain
&lti@ele Dile4
KDaC a@ a&DitLC Dise eaC 44s tii a a 'r%<
(&s % i@'resie (intre 2ele @ai (&rer%ase as&'ra %'iniI i n%astre '&bli2e4 N%&l 'arti( esteC (&'
t%ate se@neleC % *%r@ai&ne la re@%r2a 'arti(&l&i 2%@&nistC % n2er2are (e a in(&2e n er%are
%btea r%@Nneas2L4
K-i e& 2re( a2elai l&2r&4 N& @ *eres2 s<% @rt&rises24 A@ 2D&t ntr<% 2&rs4 A@ *%st in(&s
n er%are 2& 'riAire 4la nat&ra 'arti(&l&i 2e aAea s se n*iineDeL4 -i t2&i iari4 KN& @ai (%r@
(e atNtea n%'i4 N& e bineLC @ai a(a&g a'%i4 *2n( &n gestC 'rin 2are<i (a& a nelege s
A%rbi@ (es're alt2eAa4
O2taAia l&ase n s*rit l%24 e& @ aeDase@ ntr<&n *%t%li& n2 (in @%@ent&l reAe(erii4
A'arent @i 'stra@ 2al@&lC (ar aneA%ieC 22i t&lb&rarea nrea rb&*nea n 2te<&n gest
ne2%ntr%lat4 Arta@ 'r%babil extre@ (e %b%sit4 O &@br (e ngrij%rare 'este aa O2taAiei S
K-tiiC a@ % ntlnire4 Dar n& @ai 'iei (e A%rbL44 M a(&na@C 2&@ se '& @ere& ntr<art 'arte4
)alin2iiF4 n 2a n& era& % *rn4 O2taAia @ &i@ s @ @brieDe 2& 'riAireaC i 'e &rn &n alt
*ir ntrer&'t (e @&lt 3
KGr%aDni2 a@ s&*eritC (&' (es'riri
ales 'e &r@C ai2iC s&bt %2&'aia &ng&reas24 N& s%sea
(e la tine ni2i &n se@n4 O sing&r s2ris%are @i<a AenitFF4
N& @<a@ s2&Dat 'entr& t2ere4 Dar a@ srit 'na la
2a't&l 2estlalt al *ir&l&iC 2e ea A%ia s<l lege iari 3
44-i &iteC n 2e 2%n(iii (e (estr@are ne ntlni@ (in
&LC i s'&nC '2<&n t%nC 'ar2 a *i r&gat<% s ren&ne la
ex'li2aiiC 2el '&in 'entr& @%@ent4
K& a 2%ntin&a s te i&bes2 2& a2eeai '&tereC %ri2e ar *i4 2Biar (a2 ai (eAeni 2%@&nistL Dise
ea4
KN& e ni2i % 'ri@ej(ie s<@i tr(eD *iinaL4 i rs'&n(C gses2C t%t&iC ntr<% 2&@'lit
n2&r2t&r4 " A%rbi rB s're alt2eAa4 !%iai s 'le2i4 !in alt (atC @ine4 I Area s te lai
ate'tatL4
KAAea@ % ntlnire 2& 2ineAa4 @i '%art &n @ari teres4 l 2&n%s2 (e 'e 2n( l&'ta
@'%triAa ne@il%r 'rin
.11
!re
in(&
'ai
t@ l&a&
ilele4
la "ibi&C i @ai
+atraC (e &n(e @ 2a@ asalta 2& s2ris%riC 2& 2a(%&riC 'i OHlatLC @ l@&ri eaC bagateliDn(C
'rin t%nC 'ers%na si 2ir2&@stanele (es're 2are @i A%rbeaC
Kneleg4 C%l%neii i generalii a& @are tre2ere astD s'&nC n2&rajn(<% 'rin t%nC s<@i arate
@ai (e a'r%aG s're 2e este A%rba4 O2taAia n& nagaC 2i (i@'%tr3 i*ir@a al&Diile @eleC 'rintr<&n
D@bet4 d@bet&lC 2s 4 *e@ei este (e %bi2ei tin&it%rC era la ea 2a % (es*&ri @rt&risiri
ex'li2ite4 ra@ ns iO'reaT abt&t i 'i s%sit (e a @ %2&'a (e (es2i*rarea &n&i D@betC 2areC
jine i 'rin sineC s'&nea @ai @&lt (e2t %ri2e 2&A #2taAiei i A%i (a ns 'rilej (e A%rbC
n(r&@n(<% s jes2Bi( s&*let&l n A%ieC i *r a ine sea@a (e Ai is2e'tibilitate (e<a @ea4 O
ntreb 2e a *2&t i 'e &ri &@blat 2n( *r%nt&l a tre2&t 'e<a2i4
O2taAia @i (es2%'ere 2 n& se gseaC at&n2iC la CI [ la C%j%2na4 5r%nt&l se %'rise 2tAa
ti@'C i ea a
s &r@reas2 Aiaa (e traneeC 2Biar 'rin 'reaj3 n 2are se re*&giase4 N%a'tea ea se
a('%stea 6i&a tre2ea (e 'e 'rag&l 2asei (e<a (re't&l ie a2&@ 2e este rDb%i&l4 A nAat s &rn
2Biar Db%r&l %b&Del%rC (&' *el&l s&net&l&i4 )%A Jre 2ele nt@'jate 'rin 'reaj@a ei n ti@i i se
'r& (intr<% (at 2 O2taAia @i ts 3i (e<ale *irii ei4 Mi se aA / i Aenea& n 2ale 2er&te 'an4
2sita
ling leagn4 -i @i se @ai4 ar< 3Os%a3
ea (esig&r n aAent&r i s'ie2ta22
aC @ere&C inA%l&ntarC era& 2 ie *iiI
l%2 2a s se @'lineas2 s2ri't&ra4 Aj&i iAia n& se s*ia s re2&rg la @ijl%a2ele era& la
n(e@n &nei tinere i *r&@% ex'eriena slbi2i&nil%r @as2&line4 -i J'%i s *a2 &D (e
ex'eriena ei 9 ni2i rN&l l&'tel%r 2& n%r%2 s2Bi@b2i%s (in 'reaj@a 2a3 i a('%stit 'e<%
2%a@ (e (ealC la C%j%2 Fr@ si 'l%aieC 'rin *r&nDe t%@nati2eC 'rin Ir
i (e grena(e i '%2nete (e @itralierC ea 'en(&la n 'r%i&l traneei i n2'erile 2asei 2i&r&ite
(e gl%ar
7
e@eiiC 2& 'r&l 'lin (e @%l%D i (e 'ienjeni (e 'iAn h %*eri n rsti@'&l &n&i
e'is%( (e 2teAa 2eas&ri &n salAareC 'e rn( i alternatiAC (&' 2&@ se alei 'r&ina &n&i44
ilt&iaC att (in 'artea &n&i t3
.1.
%*ier nea@C 2it i (in 'artea &n&i %*ier r%@Nn @ai n Arst4 ,%@Nn&l l&a l%2&l4 -i a'%i
inAers4 )entr& 2a la a treia re'riD s r@n nAingt%r 2%l%nel&l r%@Nn4 A2eeai *e@eieC
2are %bin&ia s 2a&te ase@enea nt@'lri tari i 'ri@ej(i%aseC n& t%2@ai 2& A%ieC (ar
'rintr<&n n(e@n al &rsit%arel%rC sta a2&@ n *aa @ea 3 % tnr (%a@nC @n(r (e Aers&rile
'atri%ti2eC 2e le s2risese 2& attea l&ni @ai nainteC ins'irat (e a'ariia %*ier&l&i r%@NnC
2are<i @ai '&rta interes i 2n( l&'ta 'rin +atra4 iC 're2&@ se 'areC 2Biar i n @%@ent&l (e
*aC 2n( el se gsea n ate'tarea O2taAieiC 'e &n(eAa4 O2taAia @i re2itaC 2& Aibraie
'ateti2C (in a2este Aers&ri ale eiC s'ern( s s@&lg el%gii (in g&ra @ea4 M<a@ 2&lesC 2e<i
(re'tC (e 'rin Aile (e'resi&nii @eleC (ar n&@ai s're a<i s'&neC 2 2el @ai (i*i2il gen (e '%eDie
liri2 @i se 'are 2el 'atri%ti2C i 2 n& 2&n%s2 re&ite @ai @ari n a2esl gen (e2t Are% 2teAaC la
interAale (e se2%le 'e % ntin(ere (e (%& @ilenii i j&@tate 3 )in(arC )etrar2aC H%l(erlin4
KN& te s&'raC (raga @eaC Aers&rile 2e @i le re2itii snt 2a (e 'e Are@ea l&'tel%r r%@Nnil%r
2& t&r2iiC la )leAna i 'rin alte re(&teLC i s'&n4 O2taAia aAea s&*i2ient &@%r s r( i ea (e
BaD&l 2e<l *2ea@ 'e te@a Aers&ril%r ei 'atri%ti2e4 -tia ea (e alt*el 2 n& era@ e& %@&l 2are s
se lase 2%r&'t n 2%ntiina sa '%eti2 I tia ea 2 n& @ las 2%r&'t ni2i 2Biar (e 'r%'riile
@ele senti@ente 'atri%ti2eC 2n( este A%rba (e a're2ierea &nei '%eDiiC 2& att @ai '&in (e
'atri%tis@&l %are2&@ B%r@%nal al &nei *e@eiC 2are<i (%Da &n n%bil senti@ent 2& aAent&ri
er%ti2e (e 2ir2&@stan4
K"<ar '&tea t%t&iLC i s'&nC K2a @'rej&rrile ist%ri2% 'rin 2are tre2e@C s ne *a2 a'i 'entr& %
'%eDie 'atri%ti2 (e alt esenL4 -i n2Beiai (egrab %ri2e (is2&ie n legt&r 2& a2est s*nt
s&bie2t4 UMai trDi& aAea@ s a*l& (es're % slbi2i&ne a'r%a'e b%lnAi2i%as a O2taAiei 3 ea
ate'ta Kre2&n%atereaL Aal%rii Aers&ril%r ei (in 'artea %ri2&i4 -i t%t @ai trDi& aAea@ s a*l&C
n s&bsi(iarC 2 % Kre2&n%atereL era n stare s<% exalte 'n la le'(are (e sine4 De%2a@(at i
(ib&ia@ slbi2i&nea (%ar AagC i<% tre2ea@ ns 2& Ae(ereaC s%2%tin( 2 %ri2e '%et s&*erO @ai
@&lt sa& @ai '&inC (e a2elai @%rb4 !anitatea O2taAiei 9 n& era 'entr& @ine % 'ie(i2 (e a %
'riAi 2& si@'atie4 n 2ele (in &r@C O2taAia @ai areC n a*ar (e talentC i @&lte slbi2i&niC i
attea alte 2aliti *e@inineC
.1:
S(ai%rit 2r%ra '%ate s se 2%nstit&ie n @%tiA (e inti
*2i (e atra2ie 'entr& %ri2e brbat n2 ne@%ri*i2at4i
g2%n2l&Die i s'&nea@ 2 liri2a a2easta a re(&tel%i
're&ies2 @ai '&in (e2t alte 2aiete (e liri2 ale
O52ea@ 2& a2easta al&Die la alean&rile ei %2eani2eC 2a
< n(ea@n &ne%ri s<i (anseDe b&2&riile i exaltrili
raa %glinDii4
KA2%l% A( e& iDA%r&l 2nte2el%r tale4 A2%l%C (in2%l%C n elan&rile tale religi%ase
@%tenite (e la @C .4 Mai ntreine i a2&@ 2%res'%n(ena 2& stareii ( l&ntele AtB%s HL
CC"<a 2&r@at %(at 2& s*rit&l rDb%i&l&iL4 K)2atL4
KN<ai Area s Aii @ine la @asC la n%iC la (ej&I ia ntreb O2taAia4 Kl Aei 2&n%ate 'e s%&l
@e&C i j%reteC (e alt*elC *%arte @&ltC s te @&i la n%iC ja@era (e 2tre stra(4 ki<a@
reDerAat<% ntr<a(ins ii<% @ai 'str@ 2tAa ti@'C (ar s te B%trtiC 22i sn @ere& s%li2itaiLC
@i s'&ne O2taAiaC n ti@' 2e e& ri(i2aiC 2a s 'le24
K!i& la @asLC i rs'&n(C K(a2 AegBea i 2%nti
4n&<@i A%r 'r%(&2e t&lb&rri 2e @<ar (es*iinaC 22i O
a2east ntlnire 2& tine @<a 2a@ t&lb&rat4 A@ gc
*ee s%2%teala Aers&ril%r tale I n& treb&ia 9 22i 'atrie
@&l t&C *iDi%l%gi2 ntr<&n *elC e si@'l& i 2larC i ti
tria (e a<i *a2e *a4 )e @ine @ 2a@ @a2in 2
LBNn&ietiC 'r%babilC (es're 2e e A%rba4 -i n<a Ara
iAi& la @as 2a % si@'l &@br4L n (FeDbaterea i n
2ea AaC 2e le a@ 2& @ine ns&@iC n%a'teaC 2e se lasC
lF'&tea s *ie B%trt%are 'entr& Aiaa @ea i 'entr&
Aiit%r&l @e&L4
Kn %ri2e 2aD n%i te ate't@LC re'et 2& insiti [ O2taAia4
-i a@ ieit n n%a'te 2& senti@ent&l 2 a@ aj&ns s2r&2eC &n(e t%t&l @i era '&s n #%24
O '2l (eas se lsase (in !alea "%@e&l&i 'este 2
neg&r grea i 'l&@b&rieC 2are<@i a@%rea @i2
lainta@ n2etC treb&ia 'ar2 s nAing % @'%trB
xi2i&@&l (in &lti@ele Dile @<a (e'rtat ntr<&n *e
i@eniiC 2ari alt*el @i era& t%t(ea&na 'reDeni4 C
.1/
gin(in( Le%nte (es're *a'ta @ea H -i Ana ,C i4es2
ei 2eAa (in *r@nt&l @e& H lC 2are a *%st (e a*tea %ri 2%ntiina @ea 7 aC 2areC (e<&n an i
j&@tateC (e 2n( n<a@ @ai AD&t<%C se trans*%r@a t%t @ai @&lt 'entr& @ine ntr<% existen
si@b%li2 i n i@agine nalt a as'iraiil%r @ele 7 i n& 2&n%s2 (e2t *a'ta br&tC 2areC l&at n
sineC se'arat (e t%t 2e i<a 're@ers i (e t%t 2e 'are a<i &r@aC a'are 2a % Bi(%as trenie4 i
n& bn&ies2 ni@ie ni2i (in 're@isele i ni2i (in 2%ntext&l *a'tei4 )e &n(e s<ar *i gsin( a2&@ H
La Iai H La B&2&reti H n t&rb&lena %bteas2 'ri2in&it 'e @eleag&rile rii (e eAeni<
@entele i (e 're*a2erile (in &lti@&l ti@'C Le%nte i Ana i<a& 'ier(&t %ri2e &r@4 -i 'entr&
s&*let&l @e& 2e @are neA%ie a aAea (e s*at&l l%r 7 "a& 2el '&in (a2 ar sla a2&@ lng @ineC
n t2ereC 2a si@'li @art%ri 9 ai 2%ntext&l&i 7
M<a@ na'%iat 2& &@erii a'le2aiC 2a (e<% @are '%AarC n 2a@era @ea (e la Clini24 -iC (ei
era n2 *%arte (eAre@eC 'e la ntia s2Bi@bare (e strajC @<a@ 2&l2at4 N& @ '&tea@ n2lDi
s&bt 't&rile &n&i 'at4 n 2are s<a b%lit in*initC i ni2i ntre 'ereii g%i i (ai 2& A%'seaC 2a s
'%at *i s'lai4 !%'sea&a l&2ie (a % senDaie (e *rig%ri*er4 'i(er@a @i<% si@ea@ arDn( 'e
t%t 2%r'&lC (ar 2n( @ DAr2%lea@C @ n2er2a& *i%ri la %ri2e atingere 2& 2ear2ea*&l (e 2ne'4
Mi se agita&C s&bt *ar&l l&2i(itiiC alai&rile (e gn(&ri4 -i<@i re'eta@ a @ia %ar 3 n *%n(
a@ *%st atras ntr<% 2&rs 9 ntr<&n @%@ent (e KabsenL4 Dar (e abia r%stea@ 'entr&
@ine ns&@i 2&Ant&l KabsenLC 2 a2est 2&Ant @i a'rea 2a &n *%arte 2&tat e&*e@is@4
)%ate 2 ar treb&i s i se s'&nC t%t&iC alt*el a2elei striC n 2are a@ a22e'tat (is2&ia 2&
"i@i%n Bar(4 Dr&@&lC 2e @i<l (es2Bi(ea 2eas&l r&C '&tea s nse@ne (esig&r % salAare a
existenei 2reat%areC (ar 9 2e @ai '&tea@ n2e'e 2& eaC (a2 (r&@&l nse@na % renegare
iN?@i salAa@ ntr<a(eAr existena 2reat%are H "a& @i salAa@ n&@ai existens'H Absen H
Absen H N&4 Alt2eAa a *%st4 "it&aia @i a'r& 2lar i n t%at g%li2i&nea ei 3 @i salAa@
n&@ai existena4 xistena si@'lC 'e 2are (e attea %riC n2 (in a(%les2enC la attea rs2r&2i
ale AieiiC a@ (is're&it<%4 De attea %ri n Aia a@ *%4ft a(&s s<@i art 're*erineleC s aleg
ntre existena sirr^
.1E
OH[irC ani@alC i O
K n<a@ %'tat %are t%t(ea&na 'entr& 2ea (e a (%&a H OK*e se *a2e 2 n 2eas&l r&C s&bt 'n
2 a alege
iena 2reat%areC a@ ales existena '&r i si@'l& H C^ 4 %rbit ntr<atta 2a s n& A( 2e @i se
'regtea F4F N& 2&@Aa laitatea @ *2ea %are2&@ s 'riAes2 l&2r&ril<n4intre gene H A2esta ar
'&tea s *ie a(eArat&l n&@e al aa Disei @ele KabseneL4 DaC a *%st % laitate 2 a@ ng(&it
s (is2&t 2& "i@i%n Bar(C aa 2&@ a@ (is2&tat4 Un @%@ent (e laitateC n& (e absenC s<a
*&riat n (eDbaterile n%astreC *2n(&<@ s 2re( 2 (r&@&l 2e @i se (es2Bi(ea ar *i 9
'%sibilC sa& 2Biar 9 &n (r&@ al 2%ntiinei4 Un str%' (e laitateC @are 2t % la2ri@C i<a
HW2&t j%2&l *&nest 2& @ine4 a2%'erin(&<@i %2Bii n *aa SjUaiei (ate4 !%i '&tea s s2a' (in
i@'as&l n 2are a@ *tns H !%i '&tea s ies (in @aras@&l @%ralC n 2are OOS#&rarea
eAeni@entel%r @<a aDArlit H )%ateC (ar a2easta n&@ai
t
'rintr<% n%& B%trreC 2are s
an&leDe is'raAa laitiiC 2e a '&s st'nire 'e @ine s&bt @as2a absenei4 Aj&ns la a2est '&n2t
al *r@ntril%rC &n alt alai (e (eDbateri '%rnea s @ '&stias24 n(e@n&l (e a lN is'raAa
'&tea s @ (&2 'n la B%trre i 'n i *a't4 -i a'%i H Care ar *i 2%nse2inele H ntr<&n *el
t& alt&l 3 (es*iinarea @eaC 2eea 2e ar nse@na i (es*iin<irea existenei @ele 2reat%are4 +reb&ia
(e2i s @ @'a2 I 'ri@&l rn( 2& gn(&l 2 'e linia existenei 2reat%are t*<a@ s'&s &lti@&l
2&Ant4 Ceas&l r& 4a *%st '&n2t&l B n2Beiere al a2esteia4 ra@ a2&@ l&at (e<% 'ani2 a
gjirit&l&i4 " ren&n la t%t 2e si@ea@ 2 @ai a@ (e '&s H La t%ate al2t&irile 2e ate'ta& s *ie
ri(i2ate (in line H n a2east s*iere l&ntri2 a'&2a@ re'e(e s @ jitreb 3 2e al2t&iri A%r @ai
*i a2estea H 5i<A%r ele n 'ire s rs2&@'ere la2ri@aC 2e @<a %rbit H Ai(entC 2& mari ntrebri %
l&@ 'e (r&@&l &nei 2aD&isti2i sterile4 [i@ea@C n s*ritC 2 n& A%i re(%bn(i linitea i e2Bili<
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nite 2%t%are s 'ielea n%&4 C%arnele era& la n2e'&t 2a % si@'l
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2& a(eArat ani@al&l '(&riiC el sing&r 2i s i@ite 2& 2eea 2e se nt@'lN 'e 2retet&l s&C n@ii
rirea 2rengil%rC Db&2nirea lstaril%rC DA%n&l seAel%r4
n @ieD&l l&2r&ril%r se a&DeaC as2&nsC 2a % *&rF %rgani24 Des'ri@Ararea nAalni2 @
2%'leea4 + &i nengr(it @ 2%nta@ina4 ntr<% s'l@nC (%&C t Aer(eaa (eAenea bel&g4
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rarite a DI braAiiC &n *%net @%n%t%nC s*irit%r J@i atrase ICF4I<a@inte4 ra& er'i (e a'C
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+rt%arele i (eD@inea& trai&l %riD%r xtaD&l l%r er%ti2 l&a n*iare (e *l2ri br&ne<AeA 2e<
ar 'l'i 'e<% Aatr4 M %'rii 'e '%te24 -i 'riAiiFI l&ng4 n2er2a@ *a (e er'i % an2estral
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stingBerii (e tre2t%ri4 )reDena @ea4 la 2iAa 'aiC *2<aAea s le t&lb&re extaD&l4 ra@ 'entr&
ei &n tr&n2Bi e 2%'a2 'rintre alte tr&n2Bi&ri4 A@ stat i a@ 'riAit4 A& I trt%arel2 (ans&ri
rit&ale H A2esta era s'len(i(4 @i aC n @&lte 'riAineC liniile i rit@&l &n%r (ans&ri OOS'ti&te
te@'le in(iene4
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s%lar a&g&rC H a2as @ ate'ta Mari&s B%rDaC Ae2Bi&l @b& 'tEete=4 4 (r&@ s're B&2&retiC
Aenin( 2& @aina (e la % 2e<% aA%a la Me(ia4 "e %'rise s @ Aa(4 dA%n&<legt&ra 2&
starea @ea Ll alar@aser i 'e el4 D&' 2Distase 2& n2'nare la asalt&l Aetil%rC se ((&
bt&t4 M ate'ta a2&@ (e Are% (%& %re i se Atea t%2rr&& s 'le2eC 2n( a@ '&s 'i2i%r&l n
'rag&l ta @%nt&l &i n%str&4 D%ra se ngrijise n rsti@' s<i negre4 ntlnireaC 2& 2l(&ra
s&r'riDeiC % s eC 2e Aenea s 2%ns*ineas2 (es'ri@A<
t&@&lt%as (e a*ar4 Mari&s @ l& ntre l&@inile 2%nAing ns&i (e starea @ea & era
S ti&se (e t%t(ea&na4 M tre2& %are2&@ n rAsi 2&@ &@brele ngrij%rrii i (is'rea& L:
@s&r 2e &@brele tre2ea&C Mari&s n2e< @&stre (in %2Bi 'entr& bas@ele l&g&breC C n
&lti@ele l&niC 'e s%2%teala @ea4 a &ii la @ine aa (e @&strt%rLC t Di2 r<& (e Ain 'entr& 2ele
2e se@eniiMns2%2es2 liAN HSF
t la Me(iaLC @i s'&ne Mari&sC Kla *er@C &n(e it t%t&l n Ae(erea &n%r inAitaiiC 2e
inteni%neD le *a24 )este 2teAa Dile @ @&t 2& t%at *a@iliaC (e la i2&retiC la *er@4 !rea& s
Aii i t&C 22i n 'ri@&l rn2 ntr& tine (%res2 s ne ntlni@4 !%r Aeni Le%nte (e la Ei, 'i2t%r&l
!laB& (e la B&2&retiC t%t (e<a2%l% 'ere2BeI ri%ara i Ar%n "tn2&les2&4 !rea& s<i le2&ieti
2&ge '2at s n& 'r%*it@ (e aAantajele 2e le %*ei i lAara la ar4 De alt@intrelea 2el%r
nt@'late n treb&i s le (ai ni2i % i@'%rtanC (&' 2e ai iDb&ti tai *ir&l n2&eit (e "i@i%n
Bar(4 Atit&(inea ta e @&ii 2&lat n 2er2&rile (e intele2t&ali (in 2a'ital4 -iC (&'
../
*aDa (e ne(&@eririC nt%rst&ra (ra@ati2 a i@'resi%nat
'r%*&n(L4
!estea 2 l<a '&tea ntlni 'e Le%nteC 2& 2are n& @ @ai AD&se@ (e la C'lnaC i (es're 2are
ni2i n& @ai tia@ 'rea @&lte (e atta ti@'C @ (eter@ina s a22e't 'rieteneas2a inAitaie 2& %
ner%stitC (ar b&2&r%as @&l&@ire4 D&' Aeselia (e<% 2li' a reAe(erii 2& Mari&sC s&*let&l
@e& *&C 'entr& 2teAa 2li'eC (in n%& atins (e &@bre4 Grijile i tristeea 2e @ l&a&C n& @ai era&
ns ale @eleC 2i ntr<&n *elC ale t&t&r%r 2are ne si@ea@ r&(e s'irit&ale i 'rieteni4 Cele 2e
aAea s<@i s'&n Mari&s (es're Le%nte )tra2& @i nt&ne2a& %riD%nt&l4 Mari&s l<a ntl<nit
'e Le%nteC 4n& (e @&ltC la B&2&reti4 La @inister n2e'&seC t%2@ai at&n2iC s l&2reDe % 2%@isie
(e Ke'&rareL a 2%r'&l&i (i(a2ti2 &niAersitar4 Le%nte se ate'ta s *ie e'&ratC a(i2 s2%s (e la
2ate(ra (e Ist%ria 5il%D%*ieiC 2e<% %2&'a la UniAersitatea (e la Iai4 UniAersitatea se nt%rsese
la AatrC 2el '&in 'arialC (in re*&gi&l ei (e la Alba<I&lia4 L&i Le%nte i se al2t&ia &n (%sarC la
ngr%area 2r&ia i ((ea& 2%ntrib&ia (iAeri in*%r@at%riC re2r&tai n 'arte 2Biar 'rintre
2%legi (e la *a2&ltate4 "e s&bliniaC r re*eratele 2%legialeC n(e%sebi in2%@'atibilitatea
(intre *il%D%*ia l&i Le%nte i *il%D%*ia &ni2 i *r *is&riC 2e st 'regtea s<i *a2 intrarea
@asiA n &niAersiti4 In*%r@aiaC 2e @i<% (a Mari&sC era reAelat%are ntr<&n 2Bi' 22i
devansa 2&rs&l eAeni@entel%r4 Calitatea %a@enil%r n& Aa @ai *i j&(e2at (&' 2riterii
s'irit&aleC 2i (&'= ne2esitile i 2riteriile Aieii (e 'arti(4 De )arti(C s2ris
2& @aj&s2&l4
Mari&s @ai a(a&g 3 KLe%ntO Ae(e (e alt*el n eAent&ala sa nlt&rare (e la 2ate(r % 2%n2l&Die
l%gi2 a sit&aiei4 L<a@ inAitat la *er@4 Da2 Aa *i e'&ratC '%ate s r@nN a2%l% 2t i<a 'l2eaC
'n<i Aa gsi &n r%st4 Da2<i 2%nAine '%i s stai i t& a2%l%C 2t (%reti i 2t te Aei si@i
bine4 In %ri2e 2aD s'er s<i re2%n(ii%neDiC a2%l%C s%@n&lC n 2nte2&l 'riAigBet%ril%rL4 -i
Mari&s i re'et str&it%r i 2& (e%sebit 2l(&r inAitaia (e a @ (&2e la *er@4
Ne 2%@&ni2a@C n aAalana (e gn(&ri a 2%nAersaieiC &2r&riC (es're n%i nine i (es're aliiC
2e (e @&lt treb&ia s le ti@C (ar 'e 2are n& le tia@ (intr<% sing&r 'ri2in 3 2%res'%n(ena
(intre 'rieteni a 2a@ n2etat n
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i@'&l 2e a tre2&t (e la 2a'it&lare n2%a2e4 C%res'%n(ena
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P
a
intr%(&sC s2ris%rile era& in2inerate 'e (r&@C 'r%babil
ar (e (%r&lC 2e ele l 2%ninea& n2Bis n 'li2&riC iar %
2arte '%tal aAea neA%ie a'r%xi@atiA (e trei l&ni 2a s
&i &ng (e la "ibi& la B&2&reti4
"tabilir@C 2& Mari&sC Di&a i 2eas&lC 2n( 'e la s*r< sit&l l&nii a'rilie aAea@ s ne ntlni@ 2&
t%ii la *er@a la Me(ia4 )lan&l eraC (e2iC *ixatC i 2ele 2teAa DileC 2e ne @ai (es'rea& (e
realiDateC era& 'entr& @ine &n 'l2&t 'rel&(i&4 Mari&s '&r2ese s're B&2&reti sM(&2 la 2a<
'regtirile ne2esare n Ae(erea @arii ntlniriC 2e treb&ia s 2%in2i( 2& aAnt&l Aer(e i
(e'lin al 'ri@AeriiC nit s 2%@'enseDeC 2el '&in n 'arteC (e'resi&nile ,'rale i
s'irit&ale ale an%ti@'&l&i4
Mari&s era 2& Are% 2iAa ani @ai tnr (e2t @ine i (e2t Le%nte4 )e 2n( &r@a@ 2lasele
s&'eri%are ale li2e&l&i -ag&na (e la Bra%AC se *2ea 2 Mari&s &r2a tre'tele (e j%s ale
a2eleiai 2%li4 Ne 2&n%tea@ (e2i (e @&lti%rC (ar n&@ai *%arte trDi& i (%ar n ti@'&l 2el&i
(e al (%ilea rDb%i @%n(ial ne<a@ @'rietenit 2& a(eArat4 Mari&s /%rDa era inginerC i &n
intele2t&al (e *r&@%as 2&lt&r i (e larg %riD%nt4 )re%2&'rile l&i atingea& 2ele @ai IAerse
(%@enii4 A(e't ntr& t%ate al *il%D%*iei l&i Le%nteC i i @'ingea a(@iraia 'n la *etiis@4 n
(is'&tele 2& ntele2t&ali (e sea@a saCF el i n2Beia (e %bi2eiL arg&<entele 2& &n 3 Le%nte
(ixit4 De<% inteligen (e ex2e'<i%nal niAel i negrit (e ntre'rinDt%rC Mari&s re&i s<i
BjgBebeDe 'e (i*erite 2iC 2instite nt%t(ea&naC % sit&aie nat2(al (e 'iD@&it4 +ria 'asi%natC
i(enti*ien(&<se e& ntre'rin(ea4 Ca inginer a 2%lab%ratC ani i aniC la #Darea teBni2 a
ex'l%atrii gaD&l&i @etan (in !alea aAel%rC 2%n(&2n( t%ate l&2rrile (e la bir%&l s& (in a4
"&bt 2%n(&2erea sa 2%n(&2tele (e gaD s<a& ntins C%'a la "ibi&C 5graC Bra%A i 'n la
B&2&ret i JAle l&a& 'r%'%riiC 2are at&n2i @i se 'rea& *anteDista al&r &t%'i24 L<a@ ntrebat
%(at 'e Mari&s (a2 OMtarel&ngi eAria 'n n ia(4 2are s<ar n2lDi (esig&r OOSb2%n%@ie
2& gaD (e2t 2& '2&r4 "it&aia (e angajat i ntre'rin(eriC t%t&iC n&<l 'rea @&l&@ea 'e
..>
Mari&s4 -i ast*el el ti&4&4 *i a<i 'rsi sl&jba (e la Me(iaC la *el i *el (e ntre'rin(eri 'e
2%nt 'r%'ri&C (in<ire 2are &na n(e%sebi @i 'l2& 'rin %riginalitatea ei 3 a2easta eraC (e alt*elC
i ntia sa n2er2are4 Mari&s '&s^ te@eiC n regi&nea D&@brAeniC &nei ntre'rin(eriC (^
@ari 'r%'%riiC (e C&lt&ra 2i&'er2il%r4 La D&@brAeni ei a& (ate 'er*e2te 2%n(iii (e
nat&r a ng(&i % atar^ iniiatiA4 )e<% Aast ntin(ere a %ra&l&i se nla& 2aDr@i (e
2aAalerieC 2e *&rniDa& g&n%i&l4 D%i s'e2ialiti n 2&lt&ra 2i&'er2il%rC a@in(%i< &ng&riC s% i
s%ieC 2are si 'regtiser 'entr& @eseria l%r n 5ranaC i @biaiN l&i Mari&s serAi2iile n
Ae(erea ntre'rin(erii4 Mari&s n2Biria % sea@ (e 'iAnie n a2elai %ra4 Cei (%i &ng&ri *&i
angajaiC N%&l era 2&ltiAat%r (e 2i&'ei2i4 s%ia (%2t%<nt (e b%li (e 2i&'ei2i4 G&n%i&l (e la
2aDi@i4 s&te (e C&ieC a *%st tians'%rtat i '&s n strat&ri gr%ase n 'iAniele a@enajate n
a2est s2%'4 n s2&rt ti@' 2&lt&ia 2i&'ei<&l%r l& &n aAnt in2re(ibil4 Mari&s @i (es2ria 2& ent&<
Dias@ strat&rile (e 2i&'er2i (in 'iAniele (e la D&@brAi ni 3 2i&'er2ile era& (e t%ate @ri@ileC
(e la a2eea a 'ei<lel%r 'n la a2eea a &n%r albe s2*rlri (e 2%'ii4 Mari&s a %i ganiDat i
a*a2erea 2%@er2ialC trans'%rt&l i 'lasareO4 Ca'itala arii aAea s *ie inAa(at (e @n(rele i
snt%a< S 't<le li&'eiei (e la D&@brAeni4 Ingineria (eAeni 'entr& Mari&sC in 2teAa l&niC %
2%rA%a(4 l 2&ta s se s2a'e (i @&n2a teBni2 n sal%'etC (ar "%2ietatea gaD&l&i @etan n&
se '&tea li'si (e serAi2iile saleC i<i s&'rali2ita 'r%*it&rile (e la 2i&'er2i4 IDb&2nin( al (%ilea
rDb%i @%n(ialC ntre'rin(erea (e 2i&'er2i 2D& Ai2ti@ 3 B&(a'estaC (i &n(e 2ei (%i
s'e2ialiti &ng&ri i a(&2ea& s'%riiC a 2&r@at *&rniDarea4 De alt*el era ti@'&l s&'re@ 2a
ntre'rin(erea s<i (e2lare (e2es&lC 22i l%2&it%rii %ra&l&i D&@brAeni ne@(is&'%itn(
@ir%s&l 'enetrant (e g&n%i (e 2ai i (% 2i&'er2iC 2e ieea (in De2ile (e 'iAnieC a& 2er&t 2&
insis<B n serAi2i&l&i sanitar s reteDe ntr<&n *el %riginala iniiatiA a l&i Mari&s B%rDa4 9
A'&2n( % (at 'e 2alea n<O'rin(eril%rC Mari&s Ks<a s'&r2atLC a(i2 a 2D&t la li@aC C&
*anteDia sa 'ra2ti2 <i exa2tC el aAea s 2%n<i' ntre'rin(eri n serieC (e t%t s%i&lC @ere&
altele4 " tensi&nea era &r@rit (e<&n 'ara(%xal n%r%24 di2 'a (%xalC *iin(2 t%ate
ntre'rin(erile sale e&a& 'e rn( 4@inn(&<se 2a 2te<% alt ntre'rin(ere i @ai @are4 C
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% ntre'rin(ere 2& a(eArat seri%as n& era ni2i &na
itre 2ele @&lte ale l&i Mari&sC (ar nen(%ielni2 &na 2e
irinea s%a2rei l&i Mari&s4 L&i Mari&s i 2&rgea& (e a2i
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atn(&<i ast*el %rg%li&l (e @are ntre'rinDt%r4 "%a2ra
t t%ate s'leen&rile *anteDiei 'ra2ti2eC (Mr n&@ai
t &n '&n2tC a l&i Mari&s4 -i Mari&s tre2ea la ntre<
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il%r 2& 2are el aAea (e l&2r&C 2aAaleris@&l i
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ntre'rin(eriC 2e s<a& 'rb&itC Mari&s era a2&@C t%t&iC &n&l (intre 2ei @ai (e sea@
in(&striai ai rii4 Un n%r%2 'ara(%xal l<a sltat (in bir&in n bir&in4 AAea (%i 2%'ii (%taiC
s'rinteniC % s%ie nelegt%areC ea nsi *%arte si@'ati2 i (e<% Brni2ie *r 'ere2Be4 Dar
Mari&sC ntre'rinDt%r&lC %@&l (e s%2ietateC n(rgit&l *e@eil%rC is2&sit&l Ant%rC %@&l (e
2&lt&rC 'asi%nat&lC strl&2it&lC 2al(&l 'rietenC se si@ea &n ne@'linit4 l se str(&ia s C se
@'lineas2 n artC n 'i2t&r4
M
Ctre s*rit&l l&i a'rilie 'le2ai la Me(ia4 In a2eeai Di s%sir i 2eilali inAitai (in t%ate
'rile4 )e Le%nte i 'e 'i2t%r&l !laB& i gsii la *er@4 Mari&s Aenea el ns&i 2& 'ere2Bea
"tn2&les2&4 Ar%n "tn2&les2& era inginer i 'r%*es%r la '%liteBni2C s%ia sa Mari%ara era
(%2t%ri4 La Me(ia s%siser (e @ai nainte s%ia l&i Mari&sC 2ei (%i 2%'iiC i 2& ei n2 (%i
2%'ii ne@iC % *eti 2a@ (e De2e aniC i &n bieel 2a@ (e ase4 A2eti (%i 2%'ii era&
r@iele libere ale &nei *a@ilii ger@ane4 Ca'&l *a@ilieiC &n s2&l't%r nea@ rt2it 'rin
+ransilAaniaC a *%st (&sC %(at 2& (e'%rtarea sail%r (in +ransilAaniaC n ,&siaC n 2&rs&l iernii
(e (&' 2a'it&lare4 "%ia nea@&l&i i 2%'iii *&r ns internai ntr<&n lagr (e la n%i4 Mari&s
i<a (es2%'erit4 l %bin& a&t%riDaia s s2%at 2%'iii (in lagr i s<i a(&2C *r @a@C la
*er@a saC s're re*a2ere4 C%'iiiC n2 *%arte trans'areni i 'aliDiC aAea& s se re*a2 re'e(e n
2%n(iiile (e ab&n(en ali@entar (e la *er@4 Cei (%i 2%'ii ne@iC r@ai *r ngrijire
'rinteas2C< a& *%st s&bie2t&l grijii n%astreC a t&t&r%rC (in a2east 2%le2tiAitate &@anC 2e se
aeDa 'entr& 2tAa ti@' la *er@C i n(e%sebi (in 'artea (%2t%riei "tn2&les2&4 Mari%araC
*e@eie (e<% *r&@&see iDbit%areC (e<% inteligen i @ai iDbit%areC 'lin (e te@'era@entC inea
2%'iii s&bt %2r%tirea ei4 A*e2i&nea ei se @ani*esta &ne%ri s&bt *%r@a &n%r nj&rt&ri (e rs* 3
KOC bat<A D&@neDe&C s A batC ne@il%r F Dra2& A<a '&s s Aenii 'e<ai2i H 7L
"%sirea i aeDarea n%astr la *er@C aAea@ s ne<% n&@i@ K(es2li2areL4 Ca@ a treia DiC (&'
(es2li2areC 2tie searC nainte (e 2inC Mari&s ne %*erea % a&(iie @&Di2al Dis2&ri 2&
@&Di2 (e Ba2B4 ra@ 2& t%ii a(&nai n j&r&l 2@in&l&i n 2are 'l'ia *%2&l4 C& t%ate 2 ne
a'r%'ia&4 (e l&na @aiC seara ne aj&ngea r2%area (in !alea +ina<
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(a (in %(ia 2%'iil%r n B%l&l largC &n(e ne =a*la@C se
(es2Bise4 Cei (%iC *etia i biea&lC i *a2 a'ariiaC 2a
(%& *iine l&nati2e I ei se in (e @n4 5ata ngn 3
i Ba2B 7 Ba2B 7L Biea&lC i el (&' s&ri%ara #4&i 3CIBa2B 7
Ba2B 7L
Ne<a r@asC (esig&rC t&t&r%r n a@intireC a2east a'ariie a 2%'iil%rC 2are re2&n%s2&rC (in
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2%'ii rt2iiC i %are2&@ *r 'riniC ntra& n @&Di2a l&i Ba2B 2a n 'atria l%r4 A *%st Are&n&l
'rintre n%iC 2are s n& *i l2ri@at H Mani*estarea att (e s'%ntan i (e *ireas2 a senti@ent&l&i
a'arteneneiC @ani*estare 2e l&a *%r@ (e r'ireC ne<a n(&i%at ntr<attC 2 Mari%ara le trase
iari % nj&rt&rC tergn(&<i %2Bii (e<% la2ri@ 2e<% '%(i(ise 3 KO bat<A D&@neDe&C s A
batC bestii eestati2e 7L ra *el&l ei (e a<i r%sti att @'%triAirea a*e2tiA *a (e
ex'ansi%nis@&l te&t%ni2C &n senti@ent al ei 'e 2ale (e a se stingeC 2t i nest'nita ei
a(@iraie *a (e '%'%r&l ger@anC senti@ent 'e 2ale (e a se n t%iC (e 2n( a2esta se 'rb&iC
%*erin( %@enirii s'e2<3a2%l&l &n&i a@&rg al Deil%r4
CleAa Dile @ai a'%iM t%t 'e nserateC @ ni@erea@ sing&rC n a2elai B%l4 Biea&l nea@ se
art i tiC *&ri<mn(&<se (in %(ia 2%'iil%rC (ar *r a s'&ne 2&AntC 22i @ Ae(ea 2&*&n(at n
le2t&ra &nei 2ri i n& A%ia s @ (eranjeDe4 "e (&2eC t%t&iC n2etC *%arte n2et la 'ianinaC (in
2%l&l B%l&l&iC i 'rin(e a bate 2la'ele 2& (egetele *iraAe4 "e n2Beag ntr<a(eAr % @el%(ieC
(e<% extre@ si@'litateC (ar n& 2%'ilreas24 Un 2nte2 2a % i@'l%rare 'e 2are 'r%babil @a@<
sa l nAase4 L<a@ lsat s ter@ineC i a'%iC n2BiDn( 2arteaC l ntrebC @ai @&lt 2a s<l '&n la
n2er2are 3 KIst (as Ba2B HL Biea&l se &it la t*ne ne(&@erit i n& tie 2e ar '&tea s
rs'&n(4 -tie
*
<l bine 2 n& e Ba2BC (ar 'ar2 n<ar Area s @ (e2e'<U%neDe4 li '&n ntrebarea
ntr<%<alt *%r@C 2a s<i @bin %
e
-ire (in i@'as 3 KIst (as Ba2B %(er n&r ein B2Blein HL
S
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Jiea &i 'rin(e se@ni*i2aia j&2& i gl&@ea a n<*ebrii i rs'&n(e< 2& s&rlDt%are
s*ial 3 KDas ist n&r ein
a
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Oas'eii era@C 'e 2it e& '&tinC @'rii 'e 2a@ei )4 5ie2are i aAea %(aia sa4 -i *ie2are
Aenise la *er@ 2& gn<(&l (e a ter@ina Are% l&2rare4 & @ n2Bi(ea@C n( sebi nainte (e
a@iaDC n %(ia @ea4 +ra(&2ea@ (in liri2a &niAersal4 )ln&ise@ % @i2 ant%l%gieC att 'eiA
'l2erea (e a re2rea n grai&l n%str& &nele (in 2ele @ai B *r&@%ase '%eDii ale l&@iiC 2t i
'entr& a<@i is'iti s&ne< F t&l s&*let&l&iC 2are tnjea n sterilitate4 Mari&s i 2& !laB& l&2ra& n
B%lC ei 'i2ta& sa& (esena&4 Le%nteC 'e (e all 'arteC se 'li@ba 'n la &n '%( (e a' arBai2C
a2%'erit e& in(ril 2a % 2as I &ne%ri l ns%ea@ i e&4
Din 2%nAersaiile 2e le aAea@ 2& Le%nteC intre 'I %2BiC se (es'rin(ea @ere& a2elai st%i2is@ n
*aa (i n&l&i4 Atit&(inea i ex'resia *eei ii era&C t%t&iC s2Bi@bate i '&inC n %ri2e 2aD @ai
2ris'ate (e2t le tia@4 ngrij%i4 <reaC 2e ne<% '&rta@C 2& re2i'r%2itate *raternC ne n(r&@a i s
ne s'&ne@ gn(&rileC (e 2are a@ *%st bt&i n rsti@< j '&l (e a'r%a'e (%i aniC (e 2n( n& ne<
a@ AD&tC i (e 2n( j attea ist%ri2e *a'te s<a& 'etre2&t4 Ne regsea@ nge@< j nai 2a
t%t(ea&na4 Le%nte @i s'&nea 2 ntr<&n &ngBi r I al ini@iiC el @i '&rtaseC 'n n Di&a
2a'it&lrii ger@aneC I n(ej(ea s&r( 2 ar @ai *i *%st 2& '&tin % regr&'ai i M '&teril%rC
2e se rDb%ia& 'entr& 'ielea 'lanetei4 di&a 0 MaiC Di&a &nei Ai2t%riiC 2e ne 'e2etl&ia s%artaC Aei
(e2i 'entr& el n& t%2@ai (%rit4 a'r%a'e &n an (e<at&n&47 44i n2Bi'&iC 2e 2%in2i(enLC @i
s'&ne Le%nte4 K0 Mai 7 [ +%2@ai n Di&a a2eea @'linea@ E> (e ani4 di&a natal @i [ se an&na
n 2%n(iii e2BiA%2eC (e bir&in i (e 'rb&ire4 + "e a&Dea& (et&nt&rile (e rig%are ale
t&n&ril%rC i b&2i (e 2ir2&@stanC a @&li@il%r 2e srbt%rea& @area bir&in 7 -tii 2e @i s<a
nt@'lat n Di&a a2eea FH Di@ineaaC7 2n( ieii (in 2a@era (e baieC 2& &re2Bea la b&b&it&rile
(e t&n&riC a@ (at 2& *r&ntea ntr<&n 2&i (e 2&ierC a'li2ai 'e &4 +%2@ai at&n2iC @ r%g 7 Cre(
2 (e @ii (e %ri @ii s<a nt@'lat s ies (in 2a@era (e baieC ni2i%(at n<a@ (atl ns 2& *r&ntea
n 2&ier4 A22i(ent&l @i se nt@'laC ns[ t%2@ai at&n2iC n Di&a =Ai2t%rieiTC 2e 2%in2i(ea 2&
Dn( @ea4 M alegea@ (in a22i(ent 2& &n snger%s 2&2&iC 2Bist7 in @ijl%2&l *r&nii4 Un%r atari
a22i(ente (e %bi2ei nirnM
l<
7 nea n& le 2a&t Are% ex'li2aie4 nt@'lareaC banalC (a2a AreiC n&<
@i (a 'a2e4 !rei s ar&n2i % 'riAire n str*&n(&l
.:1
Di 2&@ s<a '&t&t 'r%(&2e &n atare *a't (iAers H j&C ns2ris n anat%@ia i n *iDi%l%gia *iinei
@eleC ta reDerAatC 'r%babilC 'entr& a2ea Di % n2er2are (e sireC n Di&a Ai2t%riei 9 a Ai2t%riei
2&i H 9 treb&ia abil4 '%triAit (estin&l&i @e&C s<@i trag n *r]nte &n (e reA%lAer4 ?@'rej&rri
se2reteC neti&teC (ar '&<2e (esig&rC a& D(rni2it a2est a2t4 -i<at&n2i a2t&l in&2i(erii aA& l%2
s&bt *%r@ si@b%li2 3 @ iDljea@rFin<*r A%ie4 2& *r&ntea ntr<&n 'ir%n (e 2&ierC 2eea 2e
nl
i
lsC 'e l%2&l &n(e '%'a te &nge 2& @irC&n se@n sn<2a (e gl%nte4 Ci2atri2ea % @ai AeDi4 Da2
(estin&l <ar *i *%st (eranjat (e 2ine tie 2e @'rej&rri banale i2e'i%naleC el ar *i treb&it s se
@'lineas2 nt%2<ii 2li'a a2eea4 !iaa @ea s<a n2BeiatC s<a n2Beiat *OH'4 De<at&n2i 9^rnai
tries2 ntr<&n *elC (aiF %are2&@ 'estin 4FSS
nt t&lb&rt%are a2este a(n2i@i 'rin 2ar% @ '%riLC OM*'&n(4 Kse '%ate tri 9 *r (estin HL
nt % il&strare Aie i 2%n2ret a a2est&i *el (e a li leteaD Le%nteC CC@<a '&tea (es'ri %ri2n(
(e <42easta4 Ceea 2e se 'etre2e 2& @ine i<n @ineC (ar i I int@'lrileC 2e se n2Beag s&bt
%2Bi i n a&DC @i snt n<ir<&n 2Bi' exteri%are4 Ni@i2 n&<@i @ai Aine (in (estinC i2i 2Biar
s&*erinele4 Iat (e 2e ele ni2i n& @ai a& inten<ar treb&i 7L
0 Mai4 di&a natal a I&i Le%nte4 H%trise@ 2& t%ii s 4j *a2 @ ni2i % a@intire (es're eaC s<%
ls@ s trea2 it L4 Ca s n& treDi@ n Le%nte 9 K&@breleLC Ubtrse@ s (@ a2estei Dile 9
&n aer (e Aeselie4 A@ stat 'nN la %ra .1 n %(ia @ea4 A@ @ai l&2rat S# tra(&2eri4 Mari&s
intrC 2& 'aleta n @nC s @ 2Be@e
.
B%l4 A2%l% sta eAalet&lC n *aa 2r&ia se tr&(ise gr%<iA
n &lti@ele Dile4 Mari&s s2Biase &n '%rtret al Mrii (%rea s<@i a&( 'rerea4 n 2Besti&ni (e
art @ ea@ 'r%babil @ai bine (e2t t%i 2eilali %as'ei ai )%rtret&l s2Biat n& era li'sit (e
2alitiC iar 'entr& iletant 2a Mari&sC el (%Ae(ea 2Biar @ete&g4
(e<a *a2 2& % s2Bi4 Ca s2Bi l&2rarea e
gari&sC 44(arC (rag Mari&sC 22i .:.
@ai este i &n =(arTC l&2rarea &r@eaD s *ie ter@inata "e2ret&l artei este sN ter@ini % l&2rareC
'strn(&<i (esa<AirireaC 2e<% are 2a s2Bi4 "2Bia ta este ntr<a(eAr re@ar2abil4 M ntreb
(a2 ea se (at%r este @ete&g&l&i
sa& alt&i *a'tFF4
KAsta<i is'raA 2& *a'tLC interAine 'i2t%r&l !la4B&4 Kki<a '&s 2ineAa =*a'tT s&bt 'ernC
Mari&s 7L
"e4 *2eaC (e2iC n (eDbatereaC 2e abia n2e'&seC % al&Die i (intr<% 'arteC i (in altaC la &n
K*a'tL4 -i *a't&l ai *i '&t&t s *ie 2ir2&@s2ris 2a@ aa 3 Mari&s se n(rg%stise gr%DaA n &lti@a
Are@e (e Mari%ara4
KCeea 2eLC s'&n e& tareC 2a i 2&@ n 2%ntin&are a lega &n gn(C Keste 2el @ai sig&r te@ei
'entr& %ri2e 2r%aie (e artL4n2e'&t&l *raDei @ele n& se lega (e ni@i2 9 UJx'li2it4 C4C2ea 2eL
era &n s&bie2t s&s'en(atC n& n g%iC 2i as2&ns (&' r%stiri gn(iteC 2e a& r@as nes'&se4 Dar se
nelegea 2 la2 al&Die la @%tiA&l esenial al interes&l&i4 2i<I arta Mari&s 'i2t&rii4 De la !laB&C
'i2t%r a're2iat i @eter 2%ns&@atC Mari&s 'ri@ea an&@e se2rete teBni2i ale artei4 Ceea 2e
ntreinea n Mari&s '&terea (e l&2r&4 i 2eea 2e<l *2ea s (&2 &n tabl%& 'n n *aDa (e s2Bi
re&itC era ns &n K*a't Arjit%res2 2e i se '&seseL4
D%a@na Mari%ara "tn2&les2& era % *iin *%arte (egajat n relaiile ei 2& 'rietenii4 Ca *%arte
@&lte (%2t%rie ea s'&nea l&2r&ril%r 'e n&@e i aAea % AiDi&ne *iDi%l%gi2 (es're l&@e4 De<%
extre@ l&2i(itateC ea tia t%t&l i tiaC (ei a2est l&2r& n& 'rea s<% 're%2&'e n @%( tc<%sebitC
i 2e nr&rire are as&'ra brbail%r4 i ((ea& n<tlnire n *iina ei t%ate 2alitile 2e le '%ate
aAea % *e@eie La ea t%ate a2este 2aliti era& ns &%r a22ent&ate i sens @as2&lin4 La (is'&t
se (%Ae(ea (e nebir&it4 Ar%n s%&l eiC 'r%*es%r&l i inginer&lC 2are s<a %2&'at n(e a 'r%a'e 2&
'r%ble@a *iDi2al a *&lgerel%rC i 'e 2are (it a2east 'ri2in l ta2Bina@ 2ali*i2n(&<l (re't 2el
@ai (i s2a@ Ks'e2ialist n trDneteLC era &n %@ (e<% bln(ee (e<% *ineeC a'r%a'e *e@inine4
)r%*es%r&l era &n ex2el2n 2a' tiini*i2C inginer&l aAea @ai ales ex'eriena ele2tri2i laii4
Degetele sale era& 2a nite anteneC 2& 2are el @s&i sar2inile ele2tri2e ale %a@enil%r4 Ar%n n&<
i 'ier(ea ni2i &(at 2&@'t&l n 2%nta2t&l 2& se@enii si4 ?i a(%ra s%lii i 2& b&n (re'tate4
-i 'e b&n (re'tate el aAea i % ne @rginit n2re(ere n ea4 De alt*elC n& se '&tea 2a % *ente
ie 2a Mari%ara s n& *ie @ere& n2%nj&rat (e a(@irateTI
.::
A <%n 'riAea linitit i ng(&it%r la asalt&rile 2e se ((ea& tiei sale4 Mari%ara era att (e
ireDistibil 'rin A(itele ei liti te@'era@entaleC (e inteligen i *r&@&seeC n2t
C
i@enea
(intre n%i n& se @ai @ira (e *el&ri@ea a're2ia<t%ril%rC 2e r%ia& n j&r&l ei4 A2easta era %
sit&aie %are2&@ *ireas24 )e (e alt 'arte Ar%n n<aAea s *ie ni2i%(at (eDa@git (e Are%
&r@are a ng(&inei 2e<% artaC 22i Mari%araC *e@eie (e4 A%in brbteas2C se 'ri2e'eaO s<
i L '&n la '&n2t a(@irat%rii 'rea insisteni satM< agresiAiC ntr<% searC (&' 2e 2%'iii se
retrseser n %(iele j
%
rC Mari%ara aAea s ne ist%riseas2C 2e a 'it 2n(AaC la B&2&retiC
2Biar 2& &n&l K(intre 2ei 'reDeniLC a(i2 2& &n&l (intre n%i4 "n%aAa ast*el n2e'&t ne @ri
atenia i n2%r(area4 C&@ Mari%ara se 'ri2e'ea s (ea '%Aestiril%r ei nt%rst&ri 'al'itanteC n&
ne s'&nea 2Biar (e la n2e'&t (es're 2are (intre n%i este A%rbaC ast*el 2 bn&iala '&tea s
2a( as&'ra *ie2r&ia 3 as&'ra l&i Le%nteC as&'raL l&i Mari&sC as&'ra l&i !laB&C iC (e 2e n& H i
as&'ra @ea4 Ar%n sing&r s&r(ea 2& satis*a2ia ne%stentatiAC 'ar2 ar *i 2&n%s2&t nt@'larea
2e aAea s<% nareDe Mari%ara4 &C (in 'arte<@iC n& @ si@ea@

AiDat4 -i (e la n2e'&t
treb&ie s @rt&rises2 2 bn&iala @ea 2(ea as&'ra l&i Mari&s4 )e Le%nte l s2%tea@ (in
2a'&l l%2&l&i (in j%2C 22i s&bli@C 2&@ l tia@C n&<l '&tea@ i@'li2a ntr<% '%<F AesteC 2areC
(&' t%n&l Mari%areiC 'r%@itea s *ie (est&l (e 'i2ant4 Iar 'e 'i2t%r&l !laB& l tia@ 2D&t la
'ati@ (%ar 2& (a@igeana4
KiC Bai(eC 2%ntin&C Mari%araLC % n(e@n e&CMKn& ne lsa s ate't@C (&' 2e ne<ai aat
i@aginaiaL4 +%i 2ei (e *a insista&C (ar Mari%ara i<a s&s'en(at % 2li' '%AesteaC &itn(&<se
la n%iC (r2%as 3 K" s'&n HL
K"'&neLC % ntrit i !laB&4 U!laB& n& este n j%2C @i s'&nea@4V
KDa2 t& Di2iC Bai(eC s<% s'&n 7L -i Mari%ara i ntin(e 2& 2an(%are &n bra 'e (&' 2a'&l l&i
!laB&C 2are e(ea Sng ea 3 KA*laiC (e2iC 2 e A%rba (es're &n&l (intre 'iet%ni n%tri 7L
KA(i2 (es're &n&l (intre 2ei (%i 2are snt (e *a HL n2er2 e& % 're2iDareC n ti@' 2e t%i
%2BiiC a*ar (e ai l&i !laB&C se %'rir as&'ra l&i Mari&s4
KDaC (esig&rC i Aei a*la n&@ai(e2tC 2are (intre 2ei (_i a& *%stLC n2e'& Mari%ara s
'%Aesteas24 Kntr<%
.:/
nainte (e a@iaD Aeni aa(ar 'i2t%r&l la n%iC la % %rC ei4
tia 2 Ar%n n& este a2as4 l a'&2ase n& ti& 2e s<@i
&n '%rtret4 Cel '&in aa Aenea 'i2t%r&lC 2& a2est 'retext4
=B&nTC i Di2 e&C as2&nDn(&<@i 'er'lexitatea4 -i 'i2t%r&l
i aeD linitit eAalet&lC i (es2Bise linitit 2&tia 2&
2&l%ri4 -i (&' 2e @ aeDai 'e<% 2ana'ea s<i sta& @%(el
el n2e'&C linititC s l&2reDe4 Atta linite @i 2a@ (a (e
bn&it4 D&' &n ti@' @i se 'r& 2 'i2t%r&l ai< *iC t%t&iC S
're%2&'at @ai @&lt (e 'reDena @eaC (e2t (e '%rtret4 Ar&F
'lArgit 2te (e t%ateC 2a@ % j&@tate (e 2easC 2n(C 'e
neate'tate 'i2t%r&l i las 'aleta i 'enel&lC i Aine s siJ
aeDe lng @ine4 - *r (e &n 2&AntC %@&lC A n2Bi'&iiC
ia iniiatiAeC 2& t%at '&terea4 "it&aia (eAenin(C %ri2&@C
2a@ 2riti2C @ @'%triAes24 N&<@i 'ier( e& 2&@'t&l
t%r < i<i aa &%r4 -iC *e@eie<brbatC 2e sntC @i l&ai %@&l
2i iba i 2& bln(eea 3 =BineC (rag !laB&leC 2Biar a
G
Ete i<% n2Bi'&i H 5r 'i2 (e 'regtire H Un( J
iniea i s&*let&l H N& 2reDi 2<ar treb&i @ai nti s ir S
& '&in 2&rteC s<@i tri@ii *l%riC s<@i (ai ti@'C =i
neniC s @ ate'i la 2%l (e stra( i e& s nI&<F S4C
i te a@rtiC i<n 2ele C(in &r@ s Ain t%t&iC i <i tJ
2ari 7 N& 2reDi H= -i n2Bi'&ii<AC !laB& se '%t%li
&&*4
C&@ Mari%ara '%Aestea t%ate astea 2Biar n 'r3<l&i !laB&C a@ '&*nit 2& t%ii n B%B%te4 !laB&
@ai n i a2&@a s se s2&DeC se blbia 3 eraC @ r%gC a*&@atC l(ea @&l 2%rn i a@&Dat (e *el&l
2&@ Mari%ara ist%&O& nt@'larea4 Ct @ 'riAeteC @ @in&naiC t%t&iC4C+\ &n s'e2ialist n
trDnete '&tea s 'riAeas2 l&2r&ril li Ce (%@%l4 O@&l 2& atta ex'erien a ele2tri2itii
ja s&bstan nerA%as 'la2i(4 l D@bea ng(&it%r & 2n( i Ae(ea neAasta sr&tatC 'e
rn(C (e t%i 2%le2tiA&l&i 2e se strnsese la *er@4
D&' 2e Mari%ara i s'&se 2e<aAea 'e s&*letC @& n s*rit i Mari&s 2& % 'rieteneas2 @i2
r&tate la a l&i !laB&4 Dar s l@&res2 interAenia l&i Mari&s4 )cA r&l !laB&C talent
@&ltilateralC se n2er2ase 2n(Aa i 'r%Da literarC '&bli2n( &n r%@an a&t%bi%gra*i2 intit&
.
KA@ 'le2at (in satL4 Mari&s n& se '&tea st'ni s ni serAeas2 l&i !laB&C % *%arte la ti@'
AenitC *in ir%n i n2Beie seara 'resri
I
2& sn%aAe3 KDrag !laB& 2n( s2%i % n%& e(iie a
r%@an&l&i t& HL CCCe ti& t (ar (e 2e ntrebi HL se ne(&@erete !laB&4 KIa2 a
.:E
(e Mari&s4 CCM gn(ea@ a(n2a%ri 2 la % n%& ar *i '%ate ni@erit s<i Di2i =A@ 'le2at (in
satC (ar A"-C aj&ns (e'arteTL4 Ir%nia l&i Mari&s iDbea n 'linC (ar !Flab& 'ri@i l%Ait&ra
rnete4 l se ri(i2 (e la @as4 rDn( i *r Are&n se@n (e s&'rare (e BaD&lC 2e se *2ea
'e sea@a n(rDnelil%r sale steti4 !laB& i l& (a@igeana (e Ain 2& 2are AeniseC (in %(ia
l&iC la @as4 "2&Da l&iC 2 ar *i *%st a*&@atC 2n( 2& nt@'larea '%Aestit (e *l6laFri%araC n&
'&tea s *ie Aalabil4 !laB& n&Mse a*&@a ni2i%(atC 22i bea nen2etat4 l %bin&ia s bea *r
ntre<
r&
'ere4 N%a'tea i Di&a4 N%a'tea el i inea (a@igeana
2
& Ain lng 'at4 Di@ineaaC 2n(
tre2ea n B%lC s l&2reDe4 T. i 2ra (a@igeana i i<% '&nea lng eAaletC iar 2n( ne (&2ea@
2& t%ii la @asC el i a(&2ea (a@igeana la nias4 !laB& era &n ran @br2at K(%@neteLC &n
talent *%arte %riginalC (e<% Aig%are r&sti2 i@'resi%nantC 'lin (e s&r'riDeC @ere& n%& n i(eile
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ns * 2%ntiina 'rin(ea 2Biar n raDele l&2i(itii sit&aia (alaC n(&rerarea @ l&a n st'nireC
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ase@&itC 2e<% n2er2a@ 2n( l&a@ n 'al@ b%t&l @nD&l&iC @ a(e@enea s intr& 'entr& %
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@ainile s *ie '%rnite a (%&a Di (&' s%sirea n%astr la *er@4 +%t&iC ina&g&rarea *estiAC n
'reDena &n%r %a@eni att (e il&triC 2r%ra Mari&s inea s le %*ere % (e@%nstraieC se t%t
a@na4 M%t%r&l aAea s *ie '&s n @i2are 'este K'&inL ti@'C 2are ti@' se t%t l&ngea4
"'erana 2 ni2i % s&r'riD ne'l2&t n& Aa interAeni n b&na *&n2i%nare a inAeniei 'entr&
'&lAeriDarea litar<geiC se @eninea inta2t4 KLitargaL era 'entr& @ine (%ar &n 2&Ant 2e ri@a 2&
KtargaLC (ar @i iriga 2&ri%Ditatea i i@aginaiaC 22i Mari&s lega n(ej(i @n(re (in 2ale
a*ar (e n%&a ntre'rin(ere in(&strial4 O'ti@is@&l s& teBni2C 'ra2ti2 i a*a2eristC n& s&*erise
n2 n*rngeriC 2are s n& '%at *i 2%@'ensate 'rin 'r%*it&rile i aj&t%arele 'ri@ite (e la %
s%a2r at%tnelegt%are4 n2%lit (e eAeni@entele (e la :/ A&g&st n2%a2eC Mari&s @ai
tresreaC t%t&iC 2t2<L(at4 )reAe(ea i el &n ter@enC 'e 2are ist%ria n 'lina (es*&rare &r@a
s<l '&n s'irit&l&i (e liber ntre'rin(ereC 2a'italist i b&rgBeD4 Mari&s 2re(eaC nsC 2 *aDa
(e liberalis@ aAea s @ai (&reDe n ara n%astr 2el '&in &n (e2eni&C (%&4 A2est %'ti@is@ l
(eter@ina s se lanseDe 2%nstr&2ia *abri2ii (e litargC al 2rei 'r%(&s era *%arte
.:8
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est sit&aieC (&' inAestiiile @atei (estt A le<a@ *2&t 2& 2l(irea i 2& @ainii Fj&ns&rile
iAite n sin&l *abri2ii a(&2ea& % #U g&st (e 2en&C n Aiaa 2%ti(ian a 2%le2tiA 4an&lC
a&t%(i(a2tC 2are 'r%'&sese inAent6aC er4 n&s2%2it%r4 +%t(ea&na teBni2ian&l s<a (% C<e(it C n
ale 2r&i i(ei te '%i n2re(e4 De asl a s'e2&laiil%r sale teBni2e ne era eAi(ent t&i O
le2ia@ 2& t%ii er%area (re't ire@e(iabil4 ( ln(&lC nsC teBni2ian&l *2ea (e
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Are&n *el ansa@bl&l ntre'rin(eril%r sale4 D&' enerAa
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sensC 2eea 2% se '&tea (e(&2e i (in *a't&l 2 n& s2ria4 *<aAea 'e (egete 'ata (e 2erneal (e
rig%are a celui 2are s2ria4 ntr<% Di l<a@ is2%(itC t%t&iC 2& t%ii4 Ne<a rs'&ns 3 C4N& l&2reD4
Cites2FF4 i a(&seseC n ate'tarea e'&rrii (in nA@ntC % sea@ (e CCbr%&riL (e la Iai4 Le<
a@ 2a@ ter@inat 'e t%ate4 Cites2 9 n2Bi'&ii<A 9 Sbr%&ri @enite t3 @ iniieDe n
(%2trina @]rxis+<leni<*tist<stalinist4 N& 2a s @ 2%nAing (e 2eAa4 2i 2a s A( atea't4
,eAelaia i (iAinitatea a& (is'r&tC (ai< a / %rgan&l A(eAr&l&i4 -i %rgan&l A(eAr&l&i
este t&l Central al F'arti(&l&i 2%@&nistC (in Uni&nea ti24 sa& @ai bine rFis ex'%nent&l
a2est&ia 3 genia<2 s&*i2ient s 2iteti br%&rile @i2riiC 2a s nelegi Dilei (e @ineC %ri&n(e
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s2r%b (e 'l2inte4 le 2%nin C 'r%*eie 7L A2estea era& l@&ririleC 2e Bi le (a ite 2&
'riAire la le2t&iile sale4 +%i 2%i (eF*aa it &n *i%r tre2n( 'rin r(2ina *irel%r (e 'rC 2e &
r@as nearse n2 'e 2retet4 N<a@ insistaM ite s ne 2%@&ni2e 2eAa (in sens&l
eAeni@ente7 3e le Ae(ea (e2&rgn( 2& '&terea (e 2%I S &n&i 'er*e2t sil%gis@C (in 'r%*eia s
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ex2e'i%nal 4(%tat 2are l&2ra (&' 2a'ri2iile &nei ins'iraii (e ne(%@esti2it4 In%gal n %'era
eiC t%t(ea&na interesantC ea '&tea s s%2%teas2 ale ei 2teAa iDbnDi (e<a (re't&l
geniale4 )arioara a(&2ea a(esea A%rba (es're Alina i ast*elC 'n ne s&r'rin( 2&
AiDita a2easta la *er@C i i *2&se@ o i2%an (est&l (e Aie (es're ea4 N& (e @&ltC Alina
2D&se la gn(&l s 'le2e n strintate4 A2easta n 2%n(iii (intre 2ele @ai ne'rielni2e4 )le2ri
n strintate n& @ai aAea& l%2 (e2t s&bt *%r@a eAa(ril%rC i@'li2n( 2ele @ai graAe ris2&ri4
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2eea 2e alt@intrelea %ri2e intele2t&al r%@Nn ar *i (%rit (e aij(erea s *a24 -i ea nainta
o 2erereC 'entr& AiDa (e ieireC la 2%@an(a@ent&l s%Aieti2 (in ca!ital5 Alina aAea s *ie
2Be@at (e Are% 2teAa ori la 2%@an(a@entC &n(e *& s&'&s &n&i a@'l& inter%gat%ri& as&'ra
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abilitate siJ Strecur ea 'rintre s&tele (e ntrebri ale *%r@&larel%r4 2e treb&ia& 2%@'letate4
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!a? 2a ni@enea s n& @ai trea2 'rin 2%rtina (e *ier ee se lsa ntre rsrit iFa'&s4 Alina
Brnea 2ele @as vii nde*di 2 Aa %bine AiDa (%ritC 2eea 2e @&rit%ril%r (e rn( li se 'rea
2eAa (e (%@eni&l *antas@ag%riil%r "ici Mari%ara n& 2re(ea 2 Alina Aa %bine 2ele L/erite5
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bn&ial 3 K" 4tii 2 AUna are vvH.a (e ieire4 Alt*el n<ar Aeni la *er@4 6rda s ne @ai Aa(
n2 % (at nainte (e 'le2are4 4 Hrobabil3 2 'entr& 'le2are are tex<@en s2&rtFF4 A2easta ^
ra nc=eierea la 2are a*ungea )arioara3 2are eraC re'etC % vec=e 'rietena a AlineiC i n
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n& Aa @ai *i l%2 'entr& ea n arC ni2i 'entr& ea i ni2i 'entr& arta ei4 2are se nte@eia 'e
%O*%arte n(rDnea stiliDare i as'ir4M la % AiDi&ne s&'rarealistC ntr<&n *elC des!re l&2r&ri4
&lina se si@ea n (e'lintatea '&teril%r ei 'lasti2O4
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AlinaC intrn( 2& Mari&sC n B%lC ne AesteaF2& 2leAa 2&Ainte 2 are n @n 'aa'%rt&l
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s%2ietatea b&rgBeDC n& se '&tea gn(i ni2i n Ais la &n ex%( (in a2east arC @irat n s*era (e
in*l&en a rsrit&l&i i n2%nj&rat 2& sr@ gBi@'at i 2& %b%are s&b@inate4 +%t @ai @&li
(intre 2ei 2e n2er2a& s eAa(eDe 2lan(estinC era& @'&2ai 'e la s'ateC sa& 2el '&in 'riniC
j&(e2ai i %sn(ii la6ani (e @&n2 silni24
-i Alina %binea 'aa'%rt n reg&lC 2& AiD (e ieire (in nt&neri2 n l&@in4 ra ntr<a(eAr
(e ne2reD&t4 N<a@ '&t&t a*la ni2i%(at (e 2e @ijl%a2e a &Dat a2east 2i&(at *iinC s're a
%bine AiDa salAat%are4 Alina eraC *iieteC o *iin 2& t%t&l ieit (in 44n%r@aL %a@enil%r (e t%ate
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'reDenta i n + iaa (e %ale Dilele 2a &n 2aD 2& t%t&l a'arteC (&' 2are tre2t%rii nt%r2ea&
'riAirile 2ltinn( se@ni*i2atiA (in 2a'4 )n i @br2@intea ei (e stra( eraC 'ar2C ntr<a27
ins 2&tatC 2a s atrag atenia4 "%seaFla *er@ 2Biar n a2east @br2@inteC 2e 'rea
&ni*%r@a &n&i ar (e 'e Are@&ri4 )&rta 22i&l (e 2aDa2 2& % 'an nir<1 'arte4 CiD@e4 -i @
&it l&ng la ea 3 ntr<a(eArC Un *el (e BainC 2are n<ar '&tea s *ie n&@it alt*el (e2t &ni*%r@
(e @'rat4 L&@ea strDii b&2&retene % 2re(ea i2nitC i aiit4 Alina era ns i2nit n&@ai n
@rs&ra n 2aF<e era i genialC a(i2 ex2e'i%nal (r&it 2& =ar 2reat%r4 N& e 2& t%t&l ex2l&s 2a
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j 'artea @ea (e s'irit&ala
i '&nea n l&@in (e2t est
rC < M ale existenei4 ABna c s%@i F &l4 )e 'nDa *4Zat 'e S
n& J@C 2i &n s'iiit4 ra@ *44444444444< C <<<<<<<
*iin ntr<&n 2Bi' (aC i '%ate 2 @ai @&lt 2BiarC daiC3 '&tea@ s *i& 'rin *'t&ra @ea4 n
2arne< i 2is<e4 Arta '%rtretisti2 are (esig&r &n ase@enea stra@& #CC!" s're esenialC silin(&<
ne &ne%ri s ne re2&n%ate@ Oentitate @ai 'r%*&n( i @ai as2&ns4 Cei (e *K
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(e 2a'%(%'era realiDat n ti@' ^^tit !t JS t s&qt %2Bii E1 r.
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ntreb MNri%aia4 ntrebarea n& ^
t
' ai (e te@eiC 22i Alina aAea 'entr&
'enel&l i 'a ei &n s&bie2t 're*erat 3 ign2ile4 Dar ign2ile AiiF era& 2a nite *ara%a*le
sa& 'rinese (in bas@ in(i M&li ani (in Aia Alina i<i 'etre2&se 'rin b%r(ei *igqn2ti (in
@aBalalele b&2&retene4 A2%l%F n Ai (e b%t (ei sa& (e 2%rtC n l&@ea greieril%rC a
*%2&ril%r si4 2er&l liberC a 2ea&nel%r i a grai&l&iC &%r 2ntat i B (&2itC (&' strAe2Bi
@%(ele sans2riteCM< ABa U ntr<a(eAr 2eea 2e 'rea s *ie (&' ilara ei &ni*%rrr @'rteas4
n @e(i&l a2esta Alina n*l%rea4 n I&n a2eeaC 2e % n2%nj&ra 2& (rag%ste i a(@iraieC Al
s2'a (e ti@i(itateaC (e 2are s&*erea ntr<&n *el b%lnF 2i%s 're2&@ aAea@ s a*l@C (&'
'le2area eiC 2Biar lPt MNri%araC (%2t%ria att (e aAiDat n an%@aliile s& teii 'r%'rii nea@&l&i
*e@eies24
i<ar *i '&t&t n ni2i &n 2Bi' s 'le2e la )# nai sta % (at (e !%rb 2& MNri%araC ntr<ise a2esteia4
" n& &it@ 'e &r@ 2i 2&ta& s se 'rel&ngeas2 *r ter@enC a te Dnsena nu 8a uri
7uJin", ci 8a a". Z)e Are@ea a2eea era 2& a#eAraM it al @%rii se instala ntre 2ei 2e se (es'3
M&' alte (%&De2i i 'atr& (e %reC a n*iarea s*iet%are a &nei r&'t&riC 4 i
2e s<ar (es2Bi(eC i 'este 2are ni2i ' Ke te Z a nai aterne4
DA' 'O2area AlineiC 2are treb&ia s salAeDe t& Fla B%tare 2eAa (in Airt&ile artei n%astreC Dile n
=+ @& A%rbii (e2t (es'reM 2i&(eniile ei4 Mari%
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rasC 2e se as2&F 4e%le AiDibile ale &n%r *iine ex2e'i%ral a a2este a@n&nte ale Aieii
Al@ei le l%ra (intre n%iC *irete t%t 'e 2alea &n%r in(is2reii (in 'artea Mari%areiC 2are nsi
We ne(&@irea n *aa 2aD&l&i4 Cel @ai '&in iniiat n A4%a i<n straniile neaj&ns&ri
s&*leteti ale Alinei ^LF M@ e&4
Cine i<ar *i '&t&t i@agina 2 Alina i ng(&ia sa& i bine s'&sC i i@'&nea (iAersele
extraAagane att (e
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iDbit%areC n&@ai (intr<&n sinAa@nt (e ti@i(itateC 2e<
era nns2&t H
5&sese 2n(Aa % *at *r&@%as AlinaC (ar (in t%t(ea&na (e<% b%lnAi2i%as s*ial4 La Arsta
2n(C 'rin *r&@&seea '&bertiiC 2e 'rin(ea s se 'rg&ias2C Alina n2e'ea s atrag %2Bii
tre2t%ril%rC eaC 2are ni2i @ai nainte n& 'rea s&'%rta 'riAirileC se B%tr s n*r&nte4 " n*r&nte
2e H O2Birile 2el%r 2e tre2ea& 'e ling ea i 2are (e la % Are@e (eAenea& t%t @ai str&it%are4
"*ialaC neaj&ns&l s&*letes2C % 2%n(a@na& la s&*erin4 -i<at&n2i Alina 2&ta @%(&ri (e a se
nAinge4 a B%tr s se @bra2e 2t @ai extraAagantC i<a2easla ntr<a(insC 2a s atrag 2t @ai
@&lte 'riAiriC 2e treb&ia& n*r&ntate4 +i@i(itateaC 2e i<% 2%@&ni2a& %2Bii tre2t%ril%rC Alina i<
% n*rinse n2 (in anii 2reteriiC 2n( *%r@ele i era& s2%ase la iAeal (e 2nte2&l i (es2nte2&l
&n%r (arni2e &rsit%are4 De<at&nei a r@as ea 2& n2linarea (e a se @br2a 'e 2it 2& '&tin
@ai btt%r la %2Bi4 A2&@C la 'atr&De2i i 2in2i (e aniC ea 2%ntin&a s se @bra2e t%t att (e
extraAagant 2a la 2in2is'reDe2eC 2n( n a2est 2Bi' i bir&ise s*ii2i&nea (e r%( (at n 'rg4 Aa
aj&nse 2aC tre2n( 'rin (iAerse *aDe Aesti@entareC la i'%staDa (e K@'rteasL4 Alina @ai
aAea ns s s&*ere n Aia n2 (e @&lte alte an%@aliiC 2%nse@nate a2&@ n 2r%ni2a nes2risC
'e 2are a (at<% s're 'strare Mari%arei4 A(&nn( 2%le2tiA&l (e la *er@ n j&r&l eiC Mari%ara
aAea s ne *a2 a(esea le2t&ri (in
i@aginara 2r%ni24
O Aia s&*leteas2C s&*leteas2 i *iDi2C (intre 2ele @ai ne%bin&iteC se (es*&ra n a&D&l
n%str&4 Mari%ara '%Aestea 2& AerA i 2%l%rat4 a (a ntN@'lril%r narate un relie* Are(ni2 att
(e i@aginaia ei 'lasti2C 2t i Kc (ar&l 2i a'r%a'e a2t%ri2es2 (e a @i@a an&@e sit&aii4 5a'te
i @'rej&rriC atit&(ini i rea2iiC se ntr&2Bi'a& K' 'aginile neAD&te 2& % s&'eri%ar
%bie2tiAitateC *r (e ni2i % &r@ (e *ab&laie r&A%it%are4 )ers%naj&l 'rin2i'al al
2r%ni2ii eraC (i@'%triAC &r@rit 2& % si@'atia 'e 2are n&@ai &n s2riit%r ar '&tea s<% a2%r(e
*ig&ril%r 2el%r @ai interesante ale n2Bi'&irii sale4 A*la@ ast*el 2 Alina a @ai trit 2n(AaC i
an&@e n 'ri@a ei tinereeC la )arisC %ra&l<l&@inC &n(e treb&ie s *i (es2ins t%2@ai a2&@C
2n( Mari%ara ne K2iteaL (in 2r%ni24 Alina a
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r
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Oeat at&n2iC n 'ri@a tinerOe4 lrJ )a<i*C 2a s <n #4Ote&g&l a<tei sale i sN<i ?<4L < %
A3Ii&3ie4 4F2rat n (i]<4a ateliere i @ii tJ 4 'e @al&l "e n j%2&l (e l&@ini al a'el%rC n 2are
btrnii 'es2ari 'r&n2 &n(iaC s 'rin( 2te &n 'ete s*rijit (&' ntregi (e rNb(&rie ate'tare
i 'n(4 )e la Arsta %'ts'reDe2e ani Alina a *2&t 2&n%tin &n&i 'ii ger@anC 2are s&bt &n
'se&(%ni@ q%@Bi2C i 2re2 % *ai@ (e inAi(iat 'rintre 'i2t%rii @%(erni ai 5rar A2est 'i2t%rC
&n&l (intre 2ei @ai (% sea@ ai Arei aAea s<% n(r&@e 'e Alina4 "&bt 2%ntr%l&l @eter& 2are
'r%@itea % (eDA%ltare liberC *ata aAea s se gsej 'e sine *r 'rea @&lte (ib&iri4 "<a nt@'lat
a'%i 2 2% era (est&l (e *ires2 s se nti@'le4 ntr<% b&n + iet%r&l aAea s se (e2lare n2ins (e
arDt%are 'at l4ii (e 'rea<*r&@%asa i ex2e'i%nal (r&ita sa 2l^ "i a'%iC n& 'este @&ltC el aAea
s<% 2ear n 2ste 2 F2a 2e tnra 'i2t%ri n& '&tea i ni2i n& aAea 2 MS C<i re*&DeC (in @%@ent
2e la &n 2&Ant al @aetri 2 @isiile 2ele @ai 'reteni%ase ale ex'%Diiil%r 'ariDi i!2e'&r a<i
s%li2ita tabl%&rile4 a se si@ea n(at%i [ Lntr& lansareC i (eAeni s%ia 'i2t%r&l&i4 +%t&iC ( 2<
ntre2tNr2a 2st%riei 2& *ai@%s&l 'i2t%rC ti@' (e ani Alina sRa n(rjit s i se re*&De 2a *e@eie4
N& % n(rjire 2e s<ar *i '&t&t @%tiAa 'rin Are% aAersH n 'rag&l (r&irii ea 2aC (e *ie2are (ataC
2&'rins 2 'ani2C 2a se (e2lana a&t%@at4 )ani2a a2easta se ex' a& att 'rin ti@i(itatea ei (e
t%t(ea&naC 2t @ai C
rintr<% nl@'lare a'arteC 'rin 2are Alina tre2&se Arsta (e (%is'reDe2e eni4 5eti2anaC 2e
n2e'ea l&g&reas2C era s 2a( Ai2ti@ &nei n2er2ri jjil&ire (in 'artea &n&i
ne2&n%s2&t4 n2er2area (e
r%@&riC 22<i @ai (a 'al'itaii i (&' atia aniC jie'it li@itele i se@ni*i2aia &nei n2er2riC
(ar i
<a alOsC du7 %2&l nerA%sC 2& &r@ri (e 2are aAea resi@t atta ti@'4 Atit&(inea ei *a (e
gen&l st' n l&@e a *%st (eAiat (e la ti'ar&l *ires24 -i as
)ist%ria 2& 'i2t%r&l ger@an r@nea ne2%ns&@at4 A
lNr&ia n nen(&'le2are *a (e 'ati@a (eDln&it7
J&l&i4 De a2i % sea@ (e neaj&ns&ri4 "e @ai ntnj 'i2t%r&l ger@anC as2&ns s&bt &n 'se&(%ni@
r%@aI *ie n a2elai ti@' (e<% gel%Die @ai @&lt r%@as
./>
(< ,' ger@ani24 A(ese%ri 'i2t%r&l treii&ia s 'l^ il%<n<^ i 2& l&nileC 'entr& a l&2raC n
Ae(erea exC &F%rC (e la 2are inea s n& li'seas24 n atari r< &rai 'i2t%r&l se
neA%ia s ia @s&ri 'reAentiAe si i Kl%anai 2a<n b&nele Are@&ri @e(ieAale ale i@'eri&l&i
r%@an al nai&nii ger@aneC 2re(ea 2 treb&ie s a'li2e s%iei sale4 2are ti@' (e ani n& aAea s i
se (r&ie 2a *e@eieC % 2ent&r& (e 2astitate4 -i 2Beia % l&a 2& el4 AlinaC 2are ni2i ea M n&
era 'rea @'2at 2& sineC n(&ra 2& rese@nare &r4 atare trata@entC 2are<i aAea aAantajele
saleC 22i e&iD+A 2el '&in ea s2'a 'entr& &n ti@' (e insistenele DilrT re'etate (e 2teAa %ri
ale s%&l&iC 2are se t%'ea net ne6te ntre (%rin i 'ani2C ntre sete i re*&DC nt%ar2erea
s%&l&iC (&' l&ni (e (es'rire4 Alina ^ (in<n%& s&'&s 2aDnel%r &nei 'asi&ni nesatis* a2&te4
' *aa insistenel%rC re*&D&l se (e2lana a&t%@at 2& t '&tere 'e 2are ni2i % %bin&in
n<% est%@'aC D&' %'t ani (e nArtire n 2er2&l Ai2i%s al &nei 2astiti i@'&O<'rin
a&t%@atis@ele se2rete ale AieiiC 2sni2ia se (es*2&4 Alina se nt%arse n arC B%trt s se
(e(i2e 2& ex2l&i<Ait J 'i2t&rii4 CteAa ex'%Diii an&ale a& aA&t (an&l s<t 4iseDeC
2ren(&<i % re'&taie (in 2ele AC biiiO stI te 3 ea era 'i2t%ria<@in&ne4 InegalC 2
M2ta >% g
r
i 'rea @&lt I genial 'rin 2teAa rei 2e M
ini '&nea& *r (is2&ieC a&t%area &n&i stilC ^ era I 4 ei i n&@ai al ei4 De<% sensibilitate
'ri@itiAIL i a*inain Dn a2elai ti@' )lin (e s'%ntaneitate4 !iDiM L4 I#nH
l<
%ri '%ate 2a
'rea (e2%ratiA4 A2easta era i, 2i4 D4ss
l<
!3 Jta H )r%ble@a ra'%rt&l&i (intre sexe % 'ix
i'a rLF si n4 AL Ori4 Iar (&' (es*a2erea 2sni2ieiC 'r%ble@a r $ia ^J LV2&' t%t @ai
@&lt4Cra 2%nsULnt (e AraF 2i&r s i % an&@e l&2i(itate 2it 'riAete s.ar= i *ni
(i*&DC 2are la %r atingere 2& &n brbat s<eA re6%ca in ireDistjbil 'ani jalni2&l
(een%2!nA&nt4 Dar %are n& iDb&tise ea s<i Frng la ArsM jbertNii % ti@i(itate (e
nat&r (e %@enea b%lnaA isC 'ri*l si@'le e*%rt&ri (e A%in i 'rin B%trrea ^ i
braAa ' La Arst (e treiDe2i (e ani Alina era n i J ail&(inea *r&@&seii *iDi2e i arta ei
@ergea (in iDbn( n ii<bn(N4 La a2eeai Arst 'r%ble@a relaiei (intre gen&ri aAea s<%
2%tr%'eas2 'n la %bsesie4 -i ea l&C n2 % (atC 2a<n '&bertateC B%trrea (e a KbraAaL4 i
a(&n A%ina t%et*4 n B&tritAn (% a se- (&r&i &n&i brbat4 C&lese (e 'e
./Y
tra
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e

&n
H,C&n2s2si4 i<l a(Fi=' n FF2i7
.
4 '_ r a (4t 2a'&l l%2&l&i i l<a aranOt 2& v
in!iin%t *e@inin 'entr& i@aginare @%@ente (e eZi Cnre4 2e se t%t arNna&4
Ne2&n%s2&t&lC 2a@ s&r'rins (e n%&l @%( i& n gare intraC se a(&n (intre i@'resii AiD&ale i
%l*a2tiAeC 'regtin(&<se 2& @i2i agresiAiti i 2& j%2&l (eC rig%a@ .7, @area %*i2iere 'rintre
2riniC (ar 2n( s intre n *&n2ie rit&alC se treDi l&at la 'al@iC i 2& % grin(in (e '&@ni
n 2a' i<n 2%aste4 Alina n& s<a '&t&tP @eaine ''ste At%rile t&lb&riC 2areC ri(ien(&<se (in
a(n2C (22an<ea& iari a&t%@atis@ele ei s&*leteti4 a 2D& (in n%& 'ra( 'ani2ii4
Ne2&n%s2&t&l b&i@2it n<aAea s neleag ni@i2 (in t%at iDbeliteaC n 2are s<a lsat is'itit4
"JJ Ae(ea sn%'it (e<% *e@eieC 2are a(n2a%ri l inAitase la ea4 +iAitaia *&sese *2&tC *r
n(%ialC 2& &n an&@e s2%'C '&tea4s *ie gBi2it (in ex'resia *eii *e@eiiC i (=a S<Ct '&rtarea
ei4 Ne2&n%s2&t&lI inti@i(at 2a &n r(&*n%J 3C B(ir<a l%Ait&rile 'e t2&te i se treDi (at
'e Ir4 i n 2ele (in &r@ @brn2t4 'rintr<&n n%& 2 n 'artea eiC 'e tre'te n j%s4 l @ai a&Dea
(%ar ntit n &r@a l&i4 i 2Beia s2rin( n br%%O2t n&ntr&4 Alina '%rnea ast*el 'e 2alea
&nei n%i 'r%*ei at@teC *irete4 C2i (e a2i nainteC n *ie2a
.
e Di Fjjeta 2el '&in (e
(%& %riC 2& ai ne2&n%s2&iC 2&
a
Ae 'e stra(C *ie (in 'ar2&riC *ie la 2ine@at%gra*e
resta&ranteC a2eeai '%Aeste4 -i '%Aestea se re e%ti'4 Ne2&n%s2&t&l a(&s n atelierC *2ea
'regtiiC O%ase sa& @ai sra2e (&' 2&@ l n(e@na L*ireaC n U*erea '&stiirii 2rinil%rC (ar la
2ele (inii agresiAiti 2& neles&ri (e sex4 Alina i (a re'li2a 3 ne2&n%s2&t&l re<6*Ja D(r%bit
n '&@niC 'e la 2%asteC stil2it 'rin ' 'riC i a'%i @brn2it 'e tre'te n j%s4 O
& *tti 2& Dg%@%t @ar2a (e *ie2are (at '&n2t&l *inalC > *&rt&naC 2e (&ra &n s*ert (e 2eas4
de2e ani a %*erit a2este in&@ane i int%lerabile 2%n(iii AiDitat%ril%r 2t%iiaL era n2 t%t
*r&@%asC (ar *2&se la brae !MTM#I H a2est%r Dilni2e exer2iii (e a&t%a'rare4 @&2L 2&
a(eArat atleti2i4 kr&&l 'siBi2 (e 2are ea era legatC in n%(&l 'ani2ii 9 se 'er@anentiDa< )e la
'atr&Det OaniC Alina ntlni ntr<&n resta&rant 'e<&n ne2&n%s2&i *2 se (%Ae(i @ai r%@Nna i
@ai 'ri2e'&t (%rit s&teO 'iile (e brbai atrai n 2&rs @ai nainteC ti@' 2 ani4 Ne2&n%s2&t&l
l& 2& el (%& sti2le (e Ain AeeJVC
./8
2Mar (% la resta&rant&l (in 2are era K2&lesL4 Aj&nai n atelierC ne2&n%s2&t&l i @bta s*inx&lC
'tt" la in2%ntien4 ,est&l s<a aranjat a'%i *r (i*i2&lti i *r %bin&itele bti rituale5
Alina *& ast*el (eDlegat4 a n2e'& % Aia n%r@alC 2& 'asi&nea &nei *e@eiC 2are (%&De2i i
%'t (% ani a *%st s2laAa Unor (%rini aniBilate (e<&n a&t%@atis@ 'siBi2C 2e se instalase 2Nn(Aa
*%arte ana'%(a n *r&@%asa ei *iinC (eslig&rn( % existen [
i &n (estin4
dilele 'etre2&te la *er@ n<aAea& ni@i2 (in @%n%t%nia r&sti2 a @e(i&l&i4 +re2erea Alinei
'rintre n%i *&sese ai(%@a &n&i Ais2%l (e 2i&(enii4 Des're tre2erea ei aAea@ % (%Aa(
2%n2ret 3 '%rtret&l @e&C % i?bndG a arteiC 2&@ n& '&tea@ s @ai s'er alta la *el4 Dar Alina a
@ai lsatC n a*ar (e astaC % rAeal n *iina n%astr4 a era 'asrea @iastr 2are s2'a
(intr<% 2%liAie @are . 2t araCF i<i l&a Db%r&l 'este B%tare4 N%i r@nea@ (&' gratiiC 2a s
tnji@ 2& %2Bii n Dare4
ra s &it I la (es'rireC Alina ls l&i Mari&s &n 2art%nC &n (esenC n 'eniC *2&t la
re'eDeal4 ra % 'riAelite (e n&(&ri *e@inineC (e<&n (eD@ ner&inat [ i 2& (etalii (eR&n
realis@ l&bri2 i gr%tes24 Un (esen j 'rin 2are se arja i@aginaia Aal'&rgi2 a l&i Mari&sC I
2are '&tea s *ie ns a %ri2r&ia (intre brbai4 K-ti& 4 e& 2 'e (r&@&ri (e<a2estea i &@bl
Ais&rileL i Disa # ta l&i Mari&sC 2& &n aer seri%sC 2e 2%ntrasta ti@i( 2& jj i@agineaC 'e 2are i<%
*2ea 2a(%&4 Mari&s atrn (esen&lC I
'rea &n a'%2ali's al sex&l&iC ntr<&n 2&iC 'e 'erete4 .
ntr<&n 2eas @atinal @<a@ ni@erit n B%l n&@ai 2& L2%nte4 I se n@na % s2ris%areC 2e t%2@ai
s%sise 2& '%4Jta (% (i@inea4 Le%nte 2er2et @ai nti *el&l s2ris&l&i i *N2& &n gest (e
'l2&t s&r'riDC 2a<n *aa &nei 'riAeliti 2aligra*iate4 Citi s2ris%areaC 'strn( 'n la s*rit&l
le2t&rii &n s&rs bln(4 Ate'ta@ s ter@ineC n ti@' 2e
3er2a@ s (es2i*reD (es*&rarea gn(&l&iC (in ex'resia
*eii sale4
+er@inn( 2& 2itit&lC Le%nte @i s'&ne 3 K % seri<F s%are (e la Ana $are45 "e intereseaD la
&r@ (e tineC 2&i % (e%sebit 2l(&r4 Un(e eti 7 Ce *a2i 7L A&Din( n&@ele (%a@nei Ana
,areC 2& t%t&l 'e neate'tateC n& @i<a@ @ai j
./;
Miit st'ni e@%ia4 N& @ai tia@ (e atta ti@' ni@i2 ea4 A *i '&t&t s a*l&C (esig&rC @&lte
l&2r&ri
i @ 'rsea4 A'r%a'e (%i ani tre2&serC (e 2n(
i @ai AD&t<% 'e Ana4 Ulti@a %ar % @aiF Drise@
n(C n Di&a (e '%@inC '%Arni&l 2%astei (eas&<
rr(inil%r (e la C'lna4 )rin t%ate s&*erineleC (Oe're<
leC ins%@niileC *r@ntrileC (in &lti@ii CCi aniC Ana
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*ireteC (in rs'&teri4 "it&aia (e Knsr2inat 2& a*a2eriL 'r%(&2e a(eArate raAagii n
'siB%l%gia se2retaiil%TI (e legaie n generalC 22i % atare sit&aie nsea@n % 're*ig&rare a
a2eleia (e @inistr& 'leni'%teniarC la 2are tinerii (i'l%@ai as'ir 2Biar (in @%@ent&l n 2are
iDb&tes2C 2& aj&t%r&l @t&ii%rC (e %bi2ei (%a@ne (e %n%are la Cr '"i, sN<i (ea exa@en&l (e
Kataai (e legaieL4 Iar Knsr2inat&l 2& a*a2eriL se b&2&ra n l&@ea Kb&nL (in t%ate rileC
ntr<&n 2Bi'C (e t%ate %n%r&rile sa& @2ar (e si@&la2r&l (e %n%r&ri (e 2are se b&2&r @inistr&l
'
.
eni'%<teniar4 nsr2inat&l 2& aFa2eri i re'reDint ara n ab<sena @inistr&l&i sa& n ti@'&l
2it la % legaie se (e2lar % Aa2an4 Cn( se@neaD statele (e 'latC nsr2inat&l H' a*a2eri
n2aseaD i al%2aia (e # o'reDentare 2e e2BiAaleaD &ne%ri 2& &n @&lti'l& al salari&l&i 2e<l
'ri@ete4 lesne (e i@aginat 2it se %rete &n nsr2inat 2& a*a2eriC 2n( i 'arAine Aestea 2
&n n%& @inistr& 'l2ni'%t%niF Mx e n&@it n l%2&l r@as Aa2antC 'rin 2eea 2e sit&aia sa (e
nsr2inat 2& a*a2eri n2eteaDC iar el (eAine (in n%& 2 I Ii '2e este 3 se2retar (e legaie4 Cn( n
'ri@Aara an&l&i .0/; Ia@ 'le2at (in ar 2a s<@i ia& n 'ri@ire '%st&l (e @i nistr&
'leni'%teniar n L&DitaniaC @i s<a atras atenia 2 iW2%l% A%i *i se2&n(atC n a2tiAitatea @eaC
(e &n se2retarC %@ (e ni@i2 i in2a'abil4 )rin bir%&rile Minister&l&i i se s'&nea K!iel&l
.
F4 Mi
se @ai atrase l&area a@inte 2 !iie<
.E8
% "3. e& a&re%l (e (i
2& 'alat&l4 La
@ii ar *i d& a'r%'iat (e<a @i2i i 2 ar aAea strnse leg<gi -? n L&DitaniaC ara 2eE%r
a 'ri@Aeri i tNrN e^ t%a@nC @i gsii se2retar&l la I st4 A@ l&at n 'ri@ire legaia4 n2 (in
'ri@&l 2eas al
b%rriiC se2retar&l n2e'& s se la@enteDe 2 Legaia tre2e t%2@aiC 'rintr<&n @%@ent (e 2riD4
i 2er l@&riri4 Care<i 2riDa H CriDaC iF%arte (eDagreabil 'entr& 2iC 2%nsistII n *a't&l 2
(a2til%gra*a LegaieiC %
s
tnr l&Ditan4 0i-a 'rsit '%st&lC inteni%nn( s se 2st%reas24 Ki
i HM l ntrer&' e&C KA%@ gsi % alt (a2til%gra* 7L 44Dar s Ae(eF4 (%@n&le Ministr&LC @
l@&rete "e2retar&lC CC(a2lil%<
a 2e ne 'rseteC inea i 2%ntabilitatea LegaieiC %*i2i& extre@ (e 2%@'li2at4 N& A%@ gsi n
t%Ft %ra&l % a
i (a2til%gra*C 2are s se 'ri2ea' i la 2%ntabilitateFF4
aja se gsea (e2i A(&Ait (e (est%ini2ia *&n2i%nareiC
'n a2i 2%n(&sese t%ate treb&rile (e bir%& ale Lega<
4<etar&l 2%ntin&a s se la@enteDe 2 n& se 'ri2e'i
Ci i ii@2ti2LF i 2 n& Ae(e (e%2a@(at ni2i % ieire (in
l<a@ 2er&t s<@i arate registreleC a(i2 s @ inii<
CF&in n treb&rile 2%ntabilitiiC 2& 2are l&a@ 2%nta&
a %ar n Aia4 A *%st 2& ne'&tin s %bin Are% l<@&rir' (in 'artea (%@n&l&i "e2retarC 2areC
t%t&iC 'atr& ani se@nase n 2alitate (e nsr2inat 2& a*a2eri t%ate ra'%artele
3
(e 2%ntabilitate
2tre Minister&l (e xterne (e LC B&2&reti4 A@ re@ar2at (egrab 2 "e2retar&l se 2%@'%rta
n *aa registrel%rC 2&'rinDn( n @are 'arte s%2%teli 2%ns&lareC ntr<a(eArC 2a &n Aiel4 i
Aeri*i2a@ '%re2la i<% gsiI *%C b&n reg&l4 -i a@ neles 2a n& '&tea@<Rs ate't (in 'artea
l&i ni2i % iniiere n %'eraiile 2%ntabilitii4 C%ntabilitatea legaiei n& l&2ra 2& s&@e @ariC (ar
aAea4 2eea 2e e *%arte *ires2C t%ate 2%@'li2aiile (e r&bri2i ale &n&4 @inister4 In n%&a @ea
2alitate gsii 2 n& '%t s *a2 (e rs Legaia n *aa Minister&l&i (e xterneC @'%t@%lin(&<@
n ase@enea 2Besti&ni (e ni@i24 C&@C 'n la 'reDentarea s2ris%ril%r @ele (e a2re(itare n ara
l&DitanC n& aAea@ 'rea @&lte treb&riC B%tri s n2er2 a @ iniia<sing&r n 2%ntabilitatea
Legaiei4 "t&(iin( registrele i ra'%arteleC 'e 2are (a2til%gra*aC 2e se 2st%riseC le in&se n
'er*e2tIL4
&lC a@ re&itC 2& %arei2are e*%rtC s @ l@&res2C i a2easta n 2&rs (%ar (e 2t%Aa Dile4
L&2r&l 'rea (e nebir&it (%ar &n&i DeADe2C 2are 2&n%tea %'eraiile arit@eti2e
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N
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(a2til%gra*C 'e 2are ns ns&@i *&i neA%it s<% iniieD n treb&rile 2%ntabilitii4 Legaia
era
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2%@'let&l ei 3 e&C se2retar&lC (a2til%gra*aC % l&Ditan i %@&l (e serAi2i&C t%t l&Ditan4
O@&l (e serAi2i& se n&@ea #%a%4 n&@e 2e se 'r%n&n
I
@ li@ba riiC #&<a&4 "ilaba a (%&a se
r%stete 'e nas i a22ent&atC si se a&(e 2a &n @%n%silab ltrat (e 2ine4 #%a%C s *i t%t aA&t
treiDe2i (e aniC era &n %@ *%arte 2&@se2a(e ij%arte serAiabil4
M
di&a nti a l&nii este i 'entr& legaii % Di (e%sebit i *%arte ate'tat4 Di&a 2n( s%sete
2e2&l n lire sterlineC 2& s&@a t%tal a salariil%r4 La . I&nie (%@n&l "e2retar Aine @ai (eAre@e
la bir%&4 "e arat extre@ (e a*erat4 +re2e 'e la @ine4 Ar (%ri 2a re'artiDarea salariil%r i %'e<
raia (e s2Bi@b la ban2 a lirel%r n4banii riiC s le las n grija saC (e%are2e are ex'erien i
legt&riC n2t %'eraia n& Aa s&*eri ni2i % ntrDiere4 M nA%ies24 D&' Are% 2teAa %re @i
'ri@es2 salari&l I 2eilali sl&jbai (e ase@eni4 Ca s @ 2%nAing 2 %'eraia este n reg&lC a@
(es2Bis &nFDiar l%2al s A( 2are<i 2&rs&l lirei4 )rintr<&n 2al2&l si@'l&C *2&t n 2a'C '&tea@ s
Aeri*i2 2 "e2retar&l @i OKe salari&l 'n la % 2enti@4
OOSgsea@ (e2i aeDai n @&n2a i<n %bi2ei&rile (i'l%@ati2e4 Ca@ la (%& l&niC (&' 2e @i
l&ai n 'ri@ire '%s<OHOa& (e A%rb 2& (a2til%gra*a (es're (iAerse 2Besti&ni OOB&4 a @i
s'&neC 2& %arei2are s*ialC 2e (a &n *arar te *r&@&seii ei (e ti' arab 2 %@&l (e serAi2i&C I i<
ar *i r%stit &n *el (e ne@&l&@ire 2& 'riAire la . 2e<l 'ri@ete4
&@ a(i2 H Dar 2e salar 'ri@ete #%a% HL % ntreb 7aria L&iDaC (a2til%gra*a4
& ti& 're2is4 n %ri2e 2aD 9 s Ae(ei 9 el n& 'ri<s&@a 'entr& 2are se@neaD n statele (e
'latLC @i n(e (a2til%gra*aC CC(e alt*el ni2i 'n la @ine n<a t%2@ai n ntregi@e s&@a 'entr&
2are a@ se@nat i@ireL4
F%aite s&r'rins (e a2east n%&tateC % ntreb i Ct ai 'ri@it D<ta HL
A'r%xi@atiA j&@tate (in s&@a in(i2at n stateL4 OCC&@ HL *a2 e& @iratC Ki #%a% HL
[U
.
'ri@ete a treia 'arte (in s&@a 2e i s<ar 2&AeniLTC
L .E0
A@ neles n&@ai(e2t sit&aiaC (ar @<a@ st'nit i n& @i<a@ (at 'e *a bn&ielileC 2e @i<a&
n2reit *r&ntea4 ,s'&n( (a2til%gra*ei 2a "e2retar&l Aa s%si ia bir2& (e n(at i 2 i A%i 2ere
l@&ririC (e%are2e el a *2&t re'artiia salariil%r4 )re2iDa@ ns 2 @ie @i<a (at exa2t s&@a
'entr& 2are a@< se@natC n2t n& @i<a@ n2Bi'it 2 %'eraia (e ansa@bl& ar ne2esita Are&n
2%ntr%lC
Da2til%gra*a tre2& n bir%&l ei4 D&' 2teAa @c%t% s%si "e2retar&l4 l '%*tes2 la @ine4 )e<&n
t%n ne&tr&4 a'r%a'e bln(C ii ntreb 3 K+e 'ri2e'i la arit@eti2 HL
K! s'&nea@ n2 (e a2&@ (%& l&ni 2 n& @ 'ri2e' Dar (e 2e ntrebaiC (%@n&le
Ministr& HL se ne(&@irete "e2retar&lC
KUiteC 2e e 9 2re( 2 ai *2&t nite er%ri (e 2al2&l la @'rirea 2e2&l&iC 22i att (a2til%gra*aC
2it i %@&l (e serAi2i& snt ne@&l&@ii (e salariile 2e le 'ri@es2LC i s'&n "e2retar&l&i4
KDaLC rs'&n(e "e2retar&lC Kt%2@ai A%ia@ s A A%rbes2 i e& (es're a2east 2Besti&neL4F
KCit 'ri@es2 ei HL ntreb4
Ki 'ri@es2 exa2t salariile 2& 2are a& *%st angajaiL4
KDar salariile n& 2%res'&n( s&@el%rC 'entr& 2are se@neaD n stateL4
S KN&4 Dar n<ani ni2i &n @%tiA (e 'lng2reC 22i e* "<a& angajatC 'rin b&n nelegereC exa2t
'entr& 2it 'ri@es2
.
F
CCA r@as % (i*eren4 Ce s<a *2&t HLF
KCBiar (es're asta A%ia@ s A A%rbes24 Di*erena este a D<A%astrC i A%ia@ t%2@ai Ls A<%
(a& n 'ri@ireL4 -i "e2retar&l i ntin(e @inaC s<i s2%at '%rt@%ne&l (in b&D&nar4
KN& te grbiLC i s'&nC K22i n2 n& snt 2%@'let l@&rit as&'ra sit&aieiLF4
"e2retar&lC re(%bn(in(&<i 2al@&lC (&' CG @ani*estase b *%arte ne'l2&t t&lb&rareC 2e<i
t&rna @l&l 'r%stiei i t&r'it&(inii 'este *aC 2%ntin& 3
K!e(eiC (%@n&le Ministr&C n *%n(C ai2i la LegaiIH D<A%astr sntei s&Aeran4 Angajai
salariai (e4 2ateg%ria a2easta 'rin b&n nelegere4 Di*erena e a D<A%astiA4 !a asig&r 2 Aei
aAea @are neA%ie (e a2east (i*erenaC 22i Aiaa (i'l%@ati2 2ere @ari 2Belt&ieli4 Din 2e
a2%'erii ne2esitile i@'&se (e re'reDentare HL
KDin al%2aia 2e @i se ( n a2est s2%'LC i rs'&n(4
.>1
)rea '&inLC re'li2 'r%@'t "e2retar&l4 "e '%ateC (ar a@ s @ r2strng n 2eT<a 2e @i se '&ne
la (is'%Diie4 N& neleg s =re'reDintT 'e s%2%teala (a2til%gra*ei i a %@&l&i (e serAi2i&LC
're2iDeD e& *r a iei 2t&si (e '&in (in t%n&l egalC 2e @i l<a@ i@'&s4
KO s regretaiC (%@n&le Ministr&4 -i (e alt*el att %@&l (e serAi2i& 2t i (a2til%gra*a a&
a22e'tat ei niiC *r (e ni2i % 2%nstrngereC salariile 2e le ia& la @n4 i ##U '%t ri(i2a ni2i %
'retenie as&'ra (i*ereneiL4
CCAi (re'tate ntr<&n *elLC i rs'&n(C K(ar n 2aD&l a2esta (i*erena treb&ie restit&it
Minister&l&i (e xterneC 2are ne<a '&s la (is'%Diie s&@ele n li@itele 2r%ra '&te@ s
angaj@ ase@enea sl&jbaiL4
"e2retar&l *& l%Ait (e<% 'al%are n *aC (ar se re(%<bn(i iari3
KAr *i % @are greealC D%@n&le Ministr&C i s Ae(ei (e 2e4 Da2 restit&i@ (i*erenaC snte@
a@eninai s *e@ne@ *r 'ers%nal4 Minister&l sesiDatC ar al%2a n state 'entr& sl&jbaii n%tri
n&@ai s&@ele 2e ei le 'ri@es2 a2&@ nente4 Ce s<ar nt@'laC (a2 a2eti sl&jbaiC ne@&l&@ii
(e salariile l%rC ar 'le2a H Cre(ei 2 A%@ gsi aa (e &%r aliiC (is'&i s se angajeDe n
a2eleai 2%n(iii H AneA%ie 7 C&n%s2 e& %bi2ei&rile (e la @inisterC @%(&l (e<a glntii al
Dire2iei 2%ntabilitii4 " 'res&'&ne@ 2 a@ gsi t%t&i ali %a@eni gata a se angajaC (ar
'entr& salarii @ai @ari4 Care ar *i &r@area H n 2%n(iiile 'res&'&seC a@ ii siiii s 2ere@
Minister&l&i &n s'%r (e al%2aii 'entr& a2este '%st&ri4 De la Minister ni s<ar rs'&n(e 2&
'r%@'tit&(ine 2 n& se '%t @%(i*i2a salariile n 2&rs&l ii b&getarC i ar tre2eC 'e &r@C
'r%babilC ani (e DileC 'ii& s %bine@ s'%r&lC iar n rsti@' Legaia ar *i a@eninat s n&<i
gseas2 ni2i %@ (e serAi2i&C ni2i (a2til%gra*L4 Arg&@entele "e2retar&l&i n& era& t%2@ai ale
&rna !iel4 )ri2e'ea@ @ai ales 2 %@&l @e(itase n(el&ng as&'ra &n%r (eli2ate i 're2are stri
(in a(@inistra<
ainisterel%r4 I A@ stat % 2li' n 2&@'n4
C4ri (re'tate ntr&2tAaLC i s'&n "e2retar&l&iC Kn& e 'r&(ent s restit&i@ Minister&l&i
(i*erena4 Dar n 2aD&l a2esta n& A( (e2t % sing&r s%l&ie 3 A%@ 'lti n ntregi@e sl&jbail%r
s&@eleC 'entr& 2are se@neaDL4
X'U1#%S& *5 C0"#$&U* -6"l6S$9'#&/t& CLU+-"&/ (C&
44O s regretaiC D%@n&le )inistru3 Aiaa (i'l%@aii3L e *%arte 2%stisit%areLC @ai n2ear2
"e2retar&l s RS abat (e la B%trrea ea5
CCUiteC a@i2eLC ii Di2C C4(&@neata AeDi l&2r&rile ntr-un /el3 e& le A( '&in @ai alt/el5 "u nD
intereseaD 2&@ I i reD%lAat a2east 2Besti&ne 2t ti@' ai *%st nsr2inat 2& a*a2eriC (ar iat 9
e& neleg 2a (in @%@ent&l n 2are @i<arI4 l&at n 'ri@ire '%st&l @e& (e ai2iC sl&jbaii n
(is2&t<4 Bi4i 'ri@eas2 salariile 'entr& 2are se@neaD n stateL4 -i (&' o 2li' (e t2ereC l
ntreb 'e (%@n&l "e2retar K@i (ai A%ie s aranjeD sit&aia 2& *iC 'entr& ti@'&l 2il ai *%st
nsr2inat 2& a*a2eri HL
KC&@ HL se ri(i2 "e2retar&lC s'eriat4
KC&@ H 5%arte si@'l&4 n sens&l 'rerii D<tale 2 e*&l Legaiei este =s&AeranT la LegaieC D<<
ta ai /ost =s&A i ai reD%lAat l&2r&rile 2&@ ai exeD&t4 & sint =s&AeranT reD%lA l&2r&rile 2&@
2re(L4
K"nt (e a2%r(LCC se grbete s rs'&n( "e2retar&lC ntr&2tAa &&ratC K(ar Aei Ae(ea 2&
ti@'&l 2 e& arn reD%lAat l&2r&rile @ai bineL4
A@ ntins @na "e2retar&l&iC 2a s treac @ai i4c 'este &@ilirea 2e treb&i s<% n(&re n *ata
!ro!riului S 2&getC i<l r&gai 2& &n D@bet s @ lase sing&r 2& 2e (%i sl&jbai 9 rDArtii4
D&' Are% 2teAa 2li'e Secretarul 'le2C .
I
3 2%<
res'%n(ena 'ers%nalC 2e<i s%sise n a2ea (&' a@iaH i 'e 2are % strngea 2& A%l&'tate n
@in4 De alt*el (=F la &n ti@' el n& @ai Aenea la bir%&C (F i idieB
@rlta i *%arte Aariata cores!onda [ *iF@ei<Aa@'e sa& 2& i >ti M
globul5 L<a@ (is'ensat 2er2< de i S3
2e ana re@ar2at 2 a!roa!e cu orice i 3 22<% nei A%&C el iDb&tea (%ai
3i a'tit&(ini (e2t pentru Ziaia onc 4 ia inteligena i destoinicia &n&i o n& era& n i
&n *el '&se la Are% ncerci
D&' 'le2area Secretarului3 2Be@ai n bir%& 'e dactilogra/a i 'e oul (e serAi2i&4 O r&gai
'e (a2til%gra*C 2& 2are @ nelegea@ ntr<% li@b @ixt /rarico-lu?l s n2 'e inter'reta
ntre @ine i %@&l (e serAi2i&C i4 n& A%rbea (e2t li@ba rii sale4 Yactilogra/a tra(&2ea Cin
*ran&Dete 2ele 2e aAea@ (e s'&s %@&l&i (e serviciu3 i uni tl@2e4FiC inAersC rs'&ns&rile l&i
#%a%4
.>:
j% (%@ni%ara4 (a2tiF%gn
.
*> @i s'&ne 2 %ti n2<(e lea*a 2e<% !rie4ti la legaie4 <
a(eArat HL C
a
% ( n&@ai s*i%s (in &@eri4 )e &r@ i a(&n
5-raiul5
FL 4!e(eiC (%@n&le Ministr&C a@ *a@ilie i @i<e 2&
S'&tin s ies la 2ale 2& /11 es2&(%s4 A@ *%stF neA%ii ai ia& % sl&jb4 n %rele libere alergC
@'art '%taC 2a s @ai 2tig :114 Dar *%arte gre& '%i *a2e *a la ^:'& sl&jbFe4 @i @nn2
sntatea4 L&n( sea@a 2Mn state 4<4rrnneD 'entr& % s&@ @ai @areC @ gn(ii s atrag aten-
ia x2elenei !%astre446F
K#%a^J s<@i s'&i 2& 2e salar ai *%st angajat din 'artea (%@n&l&i "e2retar HL l ntreb4 L KC&
/11<F4
KAt&n2i (e 2e e4ti neuluit H Cele trei s&te 7S 'ri@it reg&lat HL
KDaLC rs'&n(e #%a%C Kle<a@ F'ri@it reg&latL4 C& *l2t&l n(%itC %@&l A%ia 'ar2 s bat n
retragere 3 M"-a5/ '&tea s'&ne 2 snt ne@&l&@itLC 2%ntin& #%a%C K(ar arn *a@ilieC s%ieC trei
2%'ilai4 A@ *%st silit s @ai 2a&t % s&jb4 2eea 2e @ @'ie(i2 (e a sta Di&a ntreag /I4
'%Diia Legaiei4 9 -i aa 9 2&getai s A r%g444L
KUiteC #%a%4 snt *%arte s&r'rins (e 2ele 2e<@i s (es're I (%&a sl&jb4 N& <tia@ l&2r&l a2esta4
A*l 2 @ai '&i2a t%lera % ase@enea sit&aie4 Un salariat al LJ
l
<J n& '%ate sl&ji i n alt
'arte4 Dar s 'riAi@ h9-2r&ric< ai (e a'r%a'e4 n 2ele (in &r@ /11 es2&F(%s n& snt % s&@
(e (is're&it ai2i n ara (<A%astr4 -i nc 2eAa 3 (&@neata re2&n%ti 2 le<ai angajat *a (e
(%@n&l "e2retar 2& /11C iC t%t&iC ar&n2i % %2Bire la cei e s2ris n state 7 A2easta 9 n& e 'rea
*r&@%s4 D%@ni<2retar @i s'&ne 2 e*&l Legaiei este s&Aeran i i jeaD salariaii 'rin b&n
?nelegereC (e la %@ la %@4 D&@neata te<ai nA%itH +e<ai nA%it4 At&n2i (e 2e e4ti
ne@&l&@it HL
KM<a@ nA%itLC rs'&nse #%a%C Ki snt gata s Aes2 i 'e @ai (e'arte4 D<A%astr sntei ns
suveran (re'tate (%@n&l "e2retar4 +%2@ai (e a2eea n(rDnii s A A%rbes2 (es're gre&tile
@ele *inan2iare4 "'era@ 2 aAei b&ntatea444<
S MYa3 #%a%C nelegC i iatC Area& s<i n(re't sil
.
F *ei %jZ condiii5 Ce<ai s'&ne s<i
(a& >11 '%
,I;
dar s ren&ni la a (%&a sl&jea H ta sa in . J (is'%Diia n%astr444L
'er@an24
;11 H Ai greitC (%@n&le Ministr&4 "2&DaiC XC)< S
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rDb%aieC &n ti' intele2t&al 2are 2%ntin&a4&n iI' Aet&st (inainte (e nti&l rDb%iC s&bt % *%r@
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&n @eseria (e2t &n intele2t&al4 O (is2&ie 2& a2eti s'e2ialitiC 2are se sit&a& exa2t la @ijl%2
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ar *i s&*erit n el &n *el (e re(&2ie4 l se si@teC 2a &@breleC n& t%2@ai n Ha(esC (ar 'rin
a'r%'iere4
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s l&2r@ (e a2i nainte4 A*lase@ n2 @ai (e @&lt 2 Le%nte *&sese angajat s l&2reDe Kn
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2er2etareC i s<a& *ixat te@ele4 +%ate 'riAes2 se2%le (e'rtate4 Ast*el i n 2er2etrile saleC
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*ie 'entr& el &n @e(i& negrit @ai 'rielni2 (e2t 'reDent&l4 Ai(entC 2el 2e se nt%r2ea n tre2&t
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eiC gn(irea *il%D%*i2 a 2r%ni2aril%r n%tri4 Le%nte treb&ie s &r@reas2 gn(irea r%@Nneas2
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@i @rt&risete 2 e'%2ileC 2e le s2r&teaDC snt *r n(%ial 'line (e interes4 L&2rrile 2e i s<
a& 2%@an(at treb&ies2 ns *2&te ntr<% 'ers'e2tiA i@'&s (in a*ar4 N& n2a'e n(%ial 2 i
n a2east 'ers'e2tiAC i@'&sC se '%t '&ne n la@ina &nele *ee ale ist%riei n%astre4 +%t&iC
%ri2e 2er2etare ntr<% atare 'ers'e2tiA (es'%aie *en%@en&l ist%ri2 (e 2%@'lexitatea sa
gen&in4 As'e2tele ist%ri2eC %ri2t (e Aeri(i2 ar *i '&se n l&@inC a'ar ntr<% 2er2etare
&nilateralC 2&@ este a2eea a @aterialis@&l&i ist%ri2C si@'list s2Be@atiDate4 Din %ri2e
ase@enea 'reDentare rnjete % 2ari2at&r a *en%@en&l&i ist%ri24
KA@ st&(iat n(ea'r%a'e (%2trina %*i2ial a @aterialis@&l&i ist%ri2LC @i s'&ne Le%nteC Ki
2&n%s2 i(eaia i teBni2a4 -i<i 2&n%s2 i slbi2i&nileC '&n2tele (e @in%r reDisten4 N& ti&
(a2 A%i @ai aj&nge Are%(at sa *a2 % ex'&nere 2riti2 a @aterialis@&l&i ist%ri24 DarC 'ar2 a
(%ri4 C2i *il%D%*ia %22i(ental n& i<a l&at n2 %steneala (e a<l s&'&ne &nei 2riti2i seri%ase4
n a2east @'rej&rare treb&ie s 2&t@ &na (in 'ri2inile 2are *a2 2a @aterialis@&l ist%ri2 s
@ai re'reDinte % se(&2ie 2Biar 'entr& b&ne inteligene4 A@ aj&ns la 2%nAingerea 2 'rin si@<
'l bagateliDare n& se '%ate s&r'a % atare 2%n2e'ie4 O s i se 'ar &l&it%are &nele 'reri ale
@eleC (rag AxenteC (ar 9 s AeDi444 Materialis@&l ist%ri2 9 n& @i se 'are 2<t&i (e '&in 9
@aterialis@4 D&' 'rerea @ea 9 ntre @aterialis@&l (iale2ti2 i aa Dis&l @aterialis@ ist%ri2
exist % r&'t&r4 Materialis@&l ist%ri2 este % 2%n2e'ieC 2e are la baD ele@ente e@ina@ente
'siB%l%gi2eC iar n& @aterialitate4 Materialis@&l ist%ri2 re'reDint nen(%ielni2 % (%2trin
(es're ist%rie4 n *%n(C a2east (%2trin @i se 'areC nsC ntia 'siBanaliD (e a@'l%are
siste@ati24 ki se 'are 2i&(atC (ar aa este4 le@entele (e baDC esenialeC ale )siBanaliDeiC
a'ar ntia %arC *ireteC s&bt alte (en&@iriC n 2%n2e'ia aa Dis&l&i @aterialis@ ist%ri24 Cn(
a@ (es2%'erit a2est l&2r& @i<a@ Dis 3 'siBanaliDa 2&rentC 2& ea*%(aj&l ei (e ele@ente
2%nstit&tiAeC n& este % (%2trin &ni2C 're2&@ n2lina@ s 2re(C 2i @&lti*%r@4 n2Bi'&<ie<i
AxenteC 2 ar *i 2& '&tin % serie in(e*init (e ='siBanaliDeT4 +%ate 'siBanaliDele '%sibile ar
aAea a2elai ea*%(aj (e ele@ente eseniale4 "e tie 2 )siBanaliDa 2&rentT
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a *%st 2%nstit&it n j&r&l instin2t&l&i sex&al4 a ne<a A%rbit (es're (%@inana a2est&i instin2t
i (es're *el&l 2&@ a2esta ne (eter@inC (in 'r%*&nDi@i in2%ntienteC t%at Aiaa 'siBi24
Ni sRa A%rbit b&n%ar (es're =Ais&riT< 2a ex'resie a a2est&i instin2t4 Ni s<a A%rbit (es're
=2reaii (e 2&lt&rT 2a ex'resii (e =s&bli@areT< a a2el&iai instin2t4 -i ni s<a atras (e attea %ri
l&area a@inte as&'ra =@til%rM 2e le @bra2 instin2t&l sex&al4 Attea a2te i atit&(ini ale
n%astre se =(e@as2MC la % analiD @ai n(ea'r%a'eC 2a (eriAaii se2rete ale instin2t&l&i
sex&al4 +reb&ie s re2&n%ate@ ns 2 )siBanaliDa sex&alitii n& este sing&ra 'siBanaliD4
C&n%ti (esig&r 2aD&l a2el%r 'siBanalitiC 2are n2ear2 s 'streDe ea*%(aj&l (e ele@ente al
'siBanaliDeiC @e2ani2a ei 2a atareC (ar 2ari nl%2&ies2 instin2t&l sex&al 'rin a2ela al
(%@inai&niiC al A%inei (e '&tere4 Ni@enea n<a re@ar2atC !n a2&@C 2 =@aterialis@&l
ist%ri2T a 2l(itC 2& (e2enii naintea 'siBanaliDei @%(erneC &n siste@ (e 'siBanaliD al &n&i alt
instin2t 3 al *%a@eiC al 2%nserArii4 Da2 'riAi@ @ai bineC (es2%'eri@ 2 @aterialis@&l ist%ri2
este n &lti@a instan 'siBanaliDa a2est&i instin2t4 le@entele te%reti2e *&n(a@entale ale
@aterialis@&l&i ist%ri2 sntC n &lti@ instanC 2ele ale )siBanaliDei 2&renteC n&@ai ter@enii
*%l%sii snt alii4 Materialis@&l ist%ri2 este )siBanaliDa *%a@ei4 Ne A%rbete @aterialis@&l
ist%ri2 (es're =baDaT %ri2r&i *en%@en ist%ri2C 2are ar *i relaiile (e 'r%(&2ie4 Dar n aa
n&@itele relaii (e 'r%<4 (&2ie se ex'ri@ (e<a (re't&l *el&l (e %rganiDare s%2ial a
satis*a2erii instin2t&l&i *%a@ei4 Ia sea@a a'%i la 2elelalte as'e2te4 Ceea 2e @%(ernii n&@es`
'r%(&s (e =s&bli@areTC a'are n Materialis@&l ist%ri2 @&lt nainteC s&b (en&@irea (e
=s&'rastr&2t&rT4 n 2reaiile (e 2&lt&r se ex'ri@C (&' 2%n2e'ia Materialis@&l&i ist%ri2C
in(ire2t i a(esea 2a@&*lat relaiile (e 'r%(&2ie ale s%2ietii ntr<% an&@e *aD (e (eDA%ltare4
,elaiile (e 'r%(&2ie re'reDint *%r@a s&bt 2are se %rganiDeaD s%2ietatea n Ae(erea
satis*a2erii instin2t&l&i *&n(a@ental al =*%a@eiT4 "2Be@a te%reti2 este a2eeai n )siBanaliDa
@%(ern 2a i n Materialis@&l ist%ri24 Materialis@&l ist%ri2 n& e (e<2t )siBanaliDa &n&ia (in
instin2tele *&n(a@entale ale %@&l&iL4 9 O re@ar2C as&'ra 2reia Le%nte reAeneaC era 2
)siBanaliDa n& este &na sing&rC ea ar *i @&lti'l4
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"&nt r%sibile attea )siBanaliDe 2te instin2te *&n(a@entale sta& la baDa Aieii4 x'li2aiileC 2e
Materialis@&l ist%ri2 le ( *a'tel%r ist%ri2eC *a2C 2el @ai a(eseaC i@'resia
&
n%r ex'li2aii
2ari2at&rale I (ar a2elai l&2r& se nt@'l si n 2aD&l ex'li2aiil%r 'e 2are )siBanaliDa 2&rent
le ( att%r *a'te 'siB%l%gi2e i ist%ri2e4 I@'resia (e K2ari2at&ralL n& 2%nstit&ie ns &n
s&*i2ient @%tiA 'entr& a bagateliDa a2este Kex'li2aiiL4 C& re'&(ierea '&r i si@'l& a a2est%r
Kte%riiL n<a@ *2&t n2 ni@i24 -jOLe%iAte 2%ntin& 3 KCa 'ri@ *%r@ siste@ati2 a
)siBanaliDeiC Materialis@&l ist%ri2 treb&ie exa@inat 2& (esArit seri%Ditate4 Cte &n @i2
a(eAr 2&'rin( t%ate )siBanaliDee '%sibile4 Materialis@&l ist%ri2 i (es2%'ere neaj&ns&rile
n&@ai 2n( ri(i2 'retenii (e ex2l&siAitateC (eAenin( (%g@ati24 D%2trinarii int%lerani i 2&
@intea ng&stC 2are trans*%r@ % 'ers'e2tiA i % i'%teD (e l&2r&C relatiA AalabileC n ar@ (e
l&'t s%2ialC 2a( @ere& n a2est '2atC a(&2n( n @are i@'as % i(ee as&'ra 2reia (is2&iile
snt 'n la &n '&n2t '%sibile4 +reb&ie s ne ine@ treji4 " aAe@ @ere& n Ae(ere @'rej&rarea
2 ist%ria are la baD n& &n sing&r instin2tC 2i t%ate instin2tele %@eneti4 +reb&ie s @ai ine@
sea@a i (eR&n as'e2t @ai *&n(a@ental (e2t a2estaC al ist%riei4 Instin2tele %@eneti n& *a2 ni<
2i%(at ist%rie *r (% 2%@'li2itatea att%r *a2t%ri (e nat&r s'irit&al4 Ori2e 'siBanaliDC 2e s<
ar a'li2a as&'ra *a'tel%r ist%ri2eC este 2%n(a@nat s r@n &nilateral4 Materialis@&l ist%ri2
n& '%ate *i 'riAitC (e2iC 2a<% ex'li2aie (e ansa@bl& a *en%@enel%r =ist%ri2eT4 D&' % s2&rt
ntrer&'ere Le%nte n2Beie 3 KMaterialis@&l ist%ri2 n& '%ate serAi (re't te@ei 'entr& al2t&irea
&n&i 'r%gra@ (e @i2are s%2ial4 ,@ne la n(e@na %ri2&i s a2%r(e % 're*erin &nei atari
(%2trineC (ar a2easta e % 2Besti&ne (e %'i&ne s&bie2tiA4 O @i2are s%2ial 2e se nte@eiaD
'e Materialis@&l ist%ri2C n& este n ni2i &n *el @ai an2%rat n =abs%l&tTC (e2t ar *i
eAent&alele @i2ri 2e ar '%rni (e la % 're*erin artat &nei alte )siBanaliDeL4 x'&nerile l&i
Le%nteC la &@bra b&t&r&gil%r (e sal2ieC aAea& (ar&l s<@i sting % sea@ (e ne(&@eriri4 N& 2
a *i *%st n2er2at Are%(atC @2ar 'asagerC (e n2linarea (e a atrib&i @aterialis@&l&i ist%ri2
Are% i@'%rtan4 )rea @&lte era& reDerAele @ele a*e2tiAe *a (e a2east (%2trinC 2a s *i
al&ne2at 'e &n ase@enea (r&@4 Interes&l
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@e& 'entr& (%2trina n @ar n<a aj&ns s se@ene ni2i 'e (e'arte bare@ 2& interes&lC 2e era@
(is'&s s<l a2%r(C in 2a(r&l &n&i relatiAis@ (e 'rin2i'i&C %ri2rei te%rii sa& *il%D%*ii4
x'&nerile l&i Le%nte @ l@&rea& (e*initiA4 Arg&@ente @enite a Dg&(&i @aterialis@&l
ist%ri2C ale 2r&i 2%nse2ine 'ra2ti2e n2e'ea& sN ne trans*%r@e n s2laAiC arg&@ente att (e
2%nAingt%are n& a&Dise@C t%t&iC 'n n 2li'a a2easta4
K+reb&ie s te %steneti a2&@ @ai a(esea 'n n C@'&l 5r&@%aseiLC @i s'&ne Le%nteC
K@ b&2&r 2 ai *%st @&tat la Alba4 Cel '&in aa A%@ *i @ai a'r%a'e &n&l (e alt&L )ar2 s<ar
nt%ar2e b&nele Are@&ri ale 2%'ilriei i ale a(%les2enei4 -tii 2ine Aine (e la Alba<I&lia *%arte
a(esea 'n n C@'&l 5r&@%aseiC s @ A(ii HL KBn&ies2 9 (%a@na Ana ,are 7L KAi
AD&t<% la Alba HL
KDaC % (atC nt@'lt%rC 'e<% str(&C 2tre 2entr&4 A r@as nes2Bi@bat (e Aal&l Are@iiC
@i2a @in&ne (e la C'lnaL4
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s2araLC @ l@&rete Le%nte4 K"tNrn @&lt i (&@ini2al (e A%rb4 Are AnaC 2a ni2i % alt *iinC
(ar&l (e a te *a2e s te (e'eti4 Une%ri @ n2ear2 senti@ent&l 2 a2east nalt 'rietenie ar
'&tea s<@i restit&ie i (estin&l 2e @i<a *%st *&ratL4
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*l%are (e 'ir%nC str&ie n2 a2%l% n @ijl%2&l *r&nii4 K!a str&i se@n&l 'n la &r@LFC @i
s'&n 'entr& @ine ns&@i4 K-i<at&n2i '%ate 2 rana se Aa (es2Bi(e (in n%&C 'entr& 2a s se
@'lineas2C t%t&iC (estin&lL4 C (%a@na Ana este 'entr& Le%nte 2eea 2e este 9 n& @ @ir4
)entr& @ine ns&@i Ana era *iina (es're 2are % s*ial a'r%a'e @agi2 @ %'rea s A%rbes2 2&
2ineAa4 De ani (e Dile Ana era *%2&l a@intiril%rC (&' 2are tnjea@4 I@aginea ei @i reAenea n
s&*let 2a %bsesia &n&i 2nte24 @'rej&rri '@nteti i attea %@eneti neaj&ns&ri s<a& aeDat
@ere& ntre n%iC inn(&<ne (e'arte &n&l (e alt&l4 -i ast*elC i@aginea D%a@nei Ana se 're*2&C
n2et&l 2& n2et&lC ntr<&n si@b%l al ina22esibil&l&i4 I@aginea s<ar *i (estr@at n &itareC (a2
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sngele i (&B&l &n&i nea@ (e %a@eniC (e a2eeai %brieC 'rin @ii (e ani4 N&@ai Le%nteC 2areC
'e &n(e &@blaC 2%b%ra @ere& 'rin a(n2i@iC a ti&t s *a2 analiDa s'e2tral a (%r&l&i @e&4 l
sing&r a (ib&it 2a'a2itatea a*e2tiA 2e @%2nea n @ine4 -i ntr<% DiC @ai a2&@ 2iAa aniC el @i
s'&seC 2Biar n 'reDena (%a@nei AnaC 2 n (%r&l @e& (e ar (in ti@'&l 'eregrinril%r @ele
'e la @arginea (i'l%@aiei i 'e @eleag&ri strineC se a@este2a (%r&l (e 2ele @ai *ragile *'<
t&ri ale riiC (e n2 Kne2&n%s2&teleLC 2e ar *i '&t&t s *a2 2& (rag%stea l%rC s n*l%reas2 n
@ine s&'re@&l 2nte24 Ni2i at&n2i i ni2i a2&@ n& n(rDnea@ s<i @rt&rises2 l&i Le%nte 2t
(re'tate a aA&t4 N& n(rDnea@C 22i ar *i treb&it s<i s'&n a2&@ 2 ti@'&l r%(ni2iei a tre2&t4
N& n(rDnea@C 22i ar *i treb&it s<i s'&n 2 sing&ra a'ariie *e@ininC (es're 2are bn&ia@
2 ar rs'&n(eC 2a argint&lC Aibraiil%r @ele '%eti2eC a (eAenit 'entr& @ineC (in 'ri2ina
@'rej&rril%r '@nteti i a
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n a2ele 2li'e la &@bra &n%r b&t&r&gi (e sl2iiC (ar ni@i2 (in t%ate astea ale @ele n& i<a@
tr(at l&i Le%nte4 Ca s<@i abat sing&r gn(&rile ntr<alt 'arteC i a@intes2 l&i Le%nte (e &nele
s2ene 'etre2&te n a2elai l%2C Ia '&nea (in -i<riniC n ti@'&l 2%'ilriei4
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tri@ii Oe<ai n%tri s Ae(e@ (e b%ii g%s'%(riil%r4 "l2iile ((&ser n n&iele 'r%as'eteC
glb&iC 2& *r&nDe a@r&i4 N& Ora& b&t&r&gi 2a a2&@4 "t@ la &@br4 Ur@rea@ 2& l&are
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se iAea&
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g%s'%(ria i t%t 2alabal2&l4 Mi<a@ .' a@intit i at&n2iC la a2east 2%tit&r (e (r&@ s2ene
(in 2%%llrie4 2& '&tin s *i@ (es'rii 'rintr<&n 'eri te aFt (e %'a2 (e 2ele Aiit%are H Da2
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nt@'laC 'rin a2eleai l%<
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te gn(eti la a2easta *r a te 2&tre@&raL4 Le(nte i 'iFr(&C iariC 'riAirileC 'e &n(eAaC 'rin
a(n2i@iC 'rin a(n2irni ae 2r%r (i@ensi&ni n& 2(ea& s&bt si@&iiFe @ele4 i 2&n%tea@
a2east 'riAire4 n2 (in 2%'ilrie 'riAea &ne%riC 2a 'ier(&tC n neti&te 'r'stii4 A2&@
'riAete s're C@'&l 5r&@%aseiC s're ,'ile ,%iiC 2are s!arg C%asta Mare4 K"nte@ n2
*%arte 2%'iiC 2t ne @ai U ls@ n2er2ai (e *i%rii ti@'&l&iLC @ai a(a&g Le%nte4
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2teAa s2&n(e n2'eri4 A2iC s%ia @eaC e2%n%@isin( la @axi@&@ s'ai&lC Ar @%bilier&lC %
sea@ (e rariti @&DealeC i AaseC 2%A%areC &stensile (e ale g%s'%(riei4 )este t%t a2est
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rent%rs (in re*&gi& la Cl&jC se re'eDi ntr<% Di 'n n sat&l 'rintes24 !%ia s n2er2e a
(es2%'eri 'e &2igaii tatl&i s&4 Cin2i ani (&' *a'tC Lae Ni2&lae A%ia s &rneas2 'r%2es&l
&2igail%rC 2are tria& liberi4n2C (ei era& ti&i4 Lae Ni2&lae A%ia s a@inteas2 &2igail%rC
2 *a'tele @ai a& i % is'ire4 C&@ s<a *2&tC 2&rn n&C %@&l 2are n& A%ia s lase ne'e(e'sii
'e asasiniiC trin( n B&D&rC ai tatl&i s&C se '%@eni arestat (e n%ile a&t%riti l%2ale4 N%ile
a&t%ritiC (ei era& n%iC 2%ntin&a& s *ie t%t &ng&reti4 le era& ns 2%@&nisteC (&' ti'ar&l
e'%2ii 2e n2e'ea4 Lae Ni2&lae *& arestatC si@'l& n&@ai 'entr& Aina (e a *i 2er&t s se *a2
2er2etri 'entr& i(enti*i2area asasinil%rC
:10
'e 2are (e alt*el t%i steniiC i @ai ales r%@NniiC i arta& 2& (eget&l4 Me(i2&l n& era @inat (e
gn(&l Are&n'i rDb&nriC 2i (%ar (e 2%ntiina legii i a (re'tii4 l 2re(ea 2 2ea @ai
ele@entar eti2 s%2ial 2ere i(enti*i2area &n%r &2igaiC a2easta @ai Art%s 2 t%at s&*larea
(in sat i (in @'rej&ri@i i tia 3 asasinat&l (in .0E1C a 2r&i Ai2ti@ a *%st &n 're%tC 2&n%s2&t
'entr& Are(ni2ia saC n t%at +ransilAaniaC se sArise la l&@ina Dilei i n AD&l att%r @art%riC
2are @ai era& i a2&@ n Aia4 Ca &n si@'t%@ al rst&rnrii 2riteriil%rC i al (e@%raliDrii 2e
'&stia ara (e la K2a'it&lareL n2%a2eC treb&ie a@intit n legt&r 2& 'aniile l&i Lae Ni2&lae
&n in2re(ibil a@n&nt4 A&t%ritile l%2aleC 2%@&nisteC aAea& s ri(i2e 'e &2igaiC (ar la *el
aAea& s<l aresteDeC a2&@C i 'e Lae Ni2&aeC 'e r%@Nn&l 2are A%ia s '%rneas2 'r%2es
@'%triAa asasinil%r @agBiari ai tatl&i s&4 A@n&nt&l in2re(ibilC la 2are @ re*erC n& este
ns a2esta 2BiarC 2i &n alt&l4 Me(i2&lC %(at arestatC a 2&tatC 2iirn era *ires2C s a*le @%tiA&l
'entr& 2are a *%st arestat4 ,eD&ltat&l Dbaterii sale a *%st 2 el se treDi 2& % (es2%'erire
'&stiit%are (e s&*let4 Lae Ni2&lae (es2%'erea a &n @%@ent (at 2 2e#&la nt&ne2at a
n2Bis%riiC n 2are aAea s stea &n an ntregC % @'rea 2& asasinii tatl&i s&4 Ase@enea
n*iare l&a (e2i (re'tatea (&' n%&a legi&ire4 Asasinii era& rani &ng&ri4 5i&l 2el&i asasinat
era r%@Nn4 C%i (inti era& Ain%Aai (e &n asasinatC 2e aAea la r(2ina '%rnirea %Ain I 2el (in
&r@ eraC i elC KAin%AatLC (e aij(erea (e % 2ri@ 3 i se '&nea nF sar2in a2eeai '%rnire
K%AinL4 D&' 'rerea n%il%r a&t%riti 9 n& 2%ntiina @%ral i (rag%stea *ilial l
n(r&@a& 'e Lae Ni2&lae s 2a&te a<i i(enti*i2a 'e asasiniC 2i &ra4 Ura 9 (intre nea@&riC &ra
2e n& @ai treb&ia 2 (in&ias2 'e *aa '@nt&l&i4 Asasinii 2a i %@&l n%str&C 2are 2&ta
(re'tateaC se *2ea& (e2i Ain%Aai (e a2eeai 2ri@inal atit&(ineC (e %Ainis@ I ei @erita& 'rin
&r@are a2erai 'e(ea'sC i (e%'%triA 2ea @ai grea I A%r 2%nAie&i 2teAa an%ti@'&ri n
a2eeai 2el&l a n2Bis%riiC 2a s<i neteDeas2 'e n2et&l as'eritile s&*letetiC i a2esta 2&
re2i'r%2itate4 i n2Bi'&ie %ri2ine 2Bin&rile @%rale ale @e(i2&l&iC 2%nstrns s n(&reC elC 2el
*r ni2i % AinC (eteni&neaC n t%Aria &2igail%r tatl&i
:.1
s&4 Aa era '&s la n2er2areC 2a ni2i%(at nainteC 2%ntiina (e 2retin a l&i Lae Ni2&lae4 -i
2n( te gn(eti 2 in2ali*i2abila @s&r a n%il%r a&t%ritiC '&tea s *ie inter'retat i alt*el 3
a(i2 'e linia (iAinel%r 'reAe(eri4 Aj&ns n atare sit&aieC j s<a @ai @t@'lat l&i Lae Ni2&laeC
*%arte 2&rn(C s se Aa( neA%it a (a aj&t%r @e(i2al asasinil%r tatl&i s&4 A2etia se
@b%lnAea& 'e 2a'eteC 'ar2 ntr<a(ins 2a biata 2%ntiin (e 2retin a l&i Lae Ni2&lae s *ie
2t @ai a'sat '&s la n2er2are4 DaC aa a& Aenit ntr<a(eAr t%ate a2este l&2r&ri4 " ne @ai
@ir@ 2 n 2&get&l l&i Lae Ni2&lae a n2e'&t s n2%leas2 bn&iala 2 el era ales 'entr&
attea 2aDne @%rale 2Biar (e D&@neDe&l t&t&r%r 2retinil%r H 7 ,eligi%s *&sese el 2res2&t n2
(e a2as4 Dar religi%s (eAenea el (e abia n @'rej&rrile (e ne2reD&t4 N& aAea Lae Ni2&lae
'entr& s&*let&l s& @&lte (r&@&ri (e alesC (%ar (%& 3 neb&nia sa& religia4 l a ales religia4 N&
t%2@ai 2& ex2l&siAitate religia 2& Aal%rile ei i@'%n(erabileC (ar a'r%a'e4 A'r%a'e 3 22i
&ne%riC @ai rarC i(eile sale 'rea& &%r atinse (e @anie4 "'re a Ae(ea ns 2&@ n s'irit&l
s& interAineC 2a % gri@asC nt%rst&ra 2e a(&2e a @anieC treb&ie 2 s&r'rinDi n Lae Ni2&lae
@%@ent&lC 2n( 2%ntr%l&l (e sine 2e(eaD4 @i a@intes2 i (e<&n ase@enea Dg&(&it%r @e@ent4
x
C%nse2Aena 2& 2are Lae Ni2&lae &r@rete % i(eeC l%gi2a sa i@'e2abilC snt (e nat&r s te
*a2 s 2reDi n '%sibilitile sale (e 2@ (e tiin4 O@&l ar i '&t&t s (eAin &n ex2elent
2er2ett%r n &na (inM s'e2ialitile @ai legale (e 2%n2ret ale @e(i2inii4 ntr<% Di Lae Ni2&lae
@i ist%riseteC la &n 2% (e stra(C 2 n ti@'&l rDb%i&l&iC l&2rn( n 2lini2a (e interneC (e la
"ibi&C ar *i aj&ns la % i@'%rtant (es2%'erire @e(i2al4 )entr& % b%al %arei2are el a 'r%'&s
&n n%& trata@ent 2& extra2t (in<tr<% an&@e glan(C 2%@binat 2& n2 2eAa4 5%r@&la sa 9
lansat n2 (in ti@'&l rDb%i&l&i 9 era a2eea a &n&i @e(i2a@entC 2are 2iAa ani @ai a'%i
aAea s *ie en&@erat 'rintre is'rAile (e @are *ai@ ale @e(i2inii a@eri2ane4 Me(i2a@ent&l
a@eri2an (%bn(eteC s&bt n&@ele (e K2%rtiD%nLC CL larg i senDai%nal ntreb&inare in t%ate
rile n ti@' 2e Lae Ni2&lae se Dbate ani (e Dile n n2Bis%are 'entr& Aina (e a *i 2er&t
&r@rirea
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ig74 L%r tatl&i s&4 Des're @area 2&2erire a tiinei @e(i2ale a@eri2aneC Lae Ni2&lae a*l (e
abia a2&@C 2n( se '&ne (in n%& n 2&rent 2& 'r%gresele tiinei4 Dar n 2Besti&nea 2%rtiD%n&l&i
%@&l n%str& se 'reAaleaD 2& t%at 2%nAingerea (e % 'retins 'ri%ritate4 K" Ae(eiLC @i
%'tete elC 2a n tainC s2%n( % br%&iFi2C 2e % ti'rise ntr<a(eArC la "ibi&C n ti@'&l
rDb%i&l&iC i n 2are se A%rbea (es're extra2t&l 2& 'ri2ina4 Ar&n2 % 'riAire as&'ra *%r@&lei i
(a& (in 2a' 3 KDaC s<ar '&tea s *ie4 aa4 Ca&t<i (re't&lL4 K"nt B%trtLC &r@eaD Lae
Ni2&laeC Ks n2e' % a2i&ne4 +reb&ie s @i se re2&n%as2 'ri%ritatea a2estei (es2%'eriri
tiini*i2e4 !%i *a2e a'el 2Biar la *%r&l internai%nal (e la A@ster(a@C 2are (e2i(e n atari
2Besti&ni4 xist % sing&r (i*i2&ltate4 Cei (e la A@ster(a@ se A%r ntreba bn&it%ri 2&@ se
*a2e 2 @ intereseD 2& atta ntrDiere (e (es2%'eririle @eleL4 KiC asta n<ar aAea % aa (e
@are nse@ntateLC n2er2 e& s<l 2%ns%leD4 KBa areLC rs'&n(e Lae Ni2&laeC K22i n 2e 2Bi'
a '&tea s ex'li2 strintii ntrDierea @ea H )%t e& s 2%@&ni2 2&iAa 2 a@ *%st in&t 'rin
be2i&ri ti@' (e 'atr& aniH N& '%t4 Dre't&rile L Area& s @i le 2er 'e 2ale %*i2ialC 22i 'rin
2%rtina (e *ier ni2i n& s<ar '&tea alt*el4 n @e@%ri&l 2e<l a(reseD @inister&l&i sntii n& '%t
s s2ri& ni@i2 (es're 2ei 'atr& ani (e t2ere4 Da2 a *a2e 2Biar i n&@ai % Aag al&Die la aa
2eAaC @inister&l n<ar (a @e@%ri&l&i @e& (r&@&l 'este B%tareL4
+%at a2east s2enC 2& i@'li2aiile eiC arat 2& 'ri<H s%sin n 2e 2%n(iii (e iD%lareC *a (e
&niAersC n2e'&ser@ s tri@ n a2eti ani (e %bt&rare a %riD%nt&ril%r intele2t&ale4 ntre n%i i
%22i(ent se lsase n2 (e @ai (e @&lt *ai@%asa 2%rtinC 'rin 2are ni2i % Aeste n& @ai '&tea s
trea2 ne2enD&ratC 2%rtina n 2are (intr<% 'arte ri2%a 'ani2a n *aa a(eAr&l&i i (in alta
l&@ina4
O@&l n%str&C '&nn( % (istan *il%D%*i2 ntre sine i agitaia saC se arat A(it 're%2&'at (e
(i*i2&ltile 2e s<ar '&tea iAi n 2alea re2&n%aterii internai%nale a (re't&ril%rC 'e 2are @ie @i
le (%Ae(ete 2& % br%&r 'al'abil i 2& % *%r@&l ti'rit negr& 'e alb4 n 2li'a a2easta se
'r%(&2e n s'irit&l l&i Lae Ni2&lae &na (in a2ele <nt%rst&riC al 2r%r @art%r n& @ (%res24
Cli'a @ '&ne< n *aa gri@aseiC n *aa 2el%r @ai se2rete a&t%<rnatis@e 'siBi2eC n *aa @aniei4
"<a si@it (%2t%r&lC 'n
:.:
a(n2a%riC &r@rit '%ate 2& 'rea @are interes (in 'arte<@i H M &l&ise ntr<a(eAr 'asi&neaC
2e<% '&ne( n 'le(%aria 'ateti2 (es*&rat n *aA%area (re't&ril%r sale4 -i<ast*elC 'entr&
a (a 'r%babil &n a22ent @ai '&<*in 'ers%nal 'asi&nii sa& 'entr& a<i a2%'eri %rg%li&l U'e 2are
n t%ate (is2&iile n%astre l s%2%tea 2a &n @are '2atVC el a al&ne2at s're % stare (e Aigilen
s2D&tC s're % (estin(ere a 2%ntr%l&l&i (e sine4 )rin ase@enea &i l inAa(a @ania4 KN& e
'entr& @ineC (%@n&le 'r%* `g%rLC<Mse s@erete el n *aa @eaC n 2Bi' 2& t%t&l neate'tatC Ke&
n& @ai a@ ni2i % a@biie4 !rea& ns s se re2&n%as2 'ri%ritatea Mai2ii D%@n&l&i n a2east
'r%ble@ a tiinei @e(i2aleC 22i ea @i<a s&gerat *eri2ita i(eeC n ti@'&l 2n( era@ asistent la
2lini2a (e b%li interneL4 KDrag&l @e&LC l ntrer&' 2& bln(eeC Kn& ti& (e 2e a@este2i n
a2easl *%arte *r&@%as i interesant 2Besti&ne tiini*i2 9 'e Mai2a D%@n&l&i 7 "'er 2
n&<i a@inteti n&@ele i n @e@%ri&l 2e eti 'e 2ale (e a<l a(resa @inister&l&iC i ni2i n
@e@%ri&l 2e<l Aei tri@ite la A@ster(a@ 7
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F KN&C asta A<% s'&n D<A%astr 7L @i rs'&n(e
Lae Ni2&laeC 2&tn( s 2al2e iari 'e '@ntC a(i2 'e 2al(ar@&l 2a@ gr%s%lan i 2a@
(es*&n(at al Albei4
Lae Ni2&lae se arta 2a@ stnjenit 2 a (at gas n *aa @ea &nei %bsesii4 La rn(&l @e& @
jena@ (e jena l&i4 A(eArat e 2 as%2iaia (e i(eiC a 2rei Ai2ti@ el (eAenise 'entr& &n
@%@entC @i<a a(&s &n D@bet 'e b&De4 De%2a@(at a *i *%st ns *%arte n2linat s a're2ieD
2ele (ebitate (e Lae Ni2&lae n2 t%t r*&@ai n 2a(r&l 2%nse2Aenei sale (e gn(ireC a2easta 2a
s<l aj&t s ias (in n2&r2t&ra s&*leteas2C n 2are a aj&ns4 Dar n 2li'a &r@t%are rni<a@ s'&s
3 Iat &n(e (&2e % 'rea s&sin&t 2%nse2Aen a s'irit&l&i 7 Cir2&@s2ria@ 2& &n e&*e@is@
ng(&it%r % slbi2i&ne4 )e @ai tnr&l @e& a@i2 l<a *i (%rit s2&tit (e atari al&ne2ri n
a&t%@atis@e 'siBi2e4 L<a *i (%rit @ere& la a2elai niAel (e energie s'irit&al 2a n 2li'a 2n(
@i<a a(resatC ai(%@a &nei 'r%A%2riC 2&Aintele 3 KCreaia sRa ter@inat n Di&a a asea 7L Lae
Ni2&lae i<a as2&it @intea n 2ei 'atr& ani (e K'ensi&neL la @axi@&@4 -i i<a (eDA%ltat la *el
entitatea etni24 n2Bis%rile i<a& %*erit 2%n(iii 'rielni2e &nei atari (eDA%ltri4 La n2e'&t el a
2%nAie&itC 're2&@ a@ artatC ti@' @ai n(el&ngat 2& &2igaii tatl&i s&C *a
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(e 2are *2ea 'e @il%stiA&l sa@aritean4 Dar @ai trDi& el a *%st nAre(ni2it i (e alte t%Arii4
A@ a*lat @&lte (e la Lae Ni2&lae (es're a2este t%AriiC 2e a& 'riit (iale2ti2ii sale4 I&re&l
'rig%anei n& s<a %'rit ni2i n *aa 2el%r @ai agere i @ai 2&ltiAate s'irite ale rii4 5r n&@r
era& intele2t&aliiC 2e<i *2ea&C (in *el&rite 'ri2iniC stagi&l 'rin %2neC n lagre (e @&n2C la
2anal&l a'el%r negreC 'rin blt%a2ele 2& li'it%ri i 2& n%ri (e n<ar ale %reDNriil%r i@'r%AiDate
'rin @n%ase
.
2@'&ri (&nrene4 )ret&tin(eniC n '&inele sa& @&ltele %re (e rgaDC %a@eniiC
intele2t&aliiC (is2&ta& strni n tain la @i2i eDt%ri in&te n %a't4 Dein&t&lC r%b&lC i @%<
biliDa (in str*&n(&ri (e a@intire t%t 2e tia4 )&terea (e a@intire se nteea &ne%riC aAansn(
'n n 'rag&l 2%ntiinei 2e n& 2&n%ate &itarea4 Dein&t&l i %rganiDa gn<(ir2a4 "'irit&l se
alegea @ai ager i se n2&@eta s're esenial4 Ce '&tea& s *a2 a2eti %a@eni n 2li'e (e rgaDC
2a s n& s&2%@be H Dis2&ta&4 5%ti generali se Ae(ea& @&tr&l&ii 2& exer2iii *iDi2e (in 2ele
@ai in&til<bes*ialeC (in 'artea 'aDni2il%rC 2are a& *%st 2n(Aa i ei @&tr&l&ii n anii (e %stie4
5%ti 'r%*es%ri &niAersitari ei*&i in&i g%i n 2ar2er ngBeatC *iin(2 se @'%tri<Aa& s
2%ns&@e 2ir&lC 2e li se @biaC (&' 2e 'aDni2ii s2&i'aser sa& i s&*laser nas&l n ga@el4
"t&(eni 2&lei (e 'e bn2ile &niAersitiiC n 'lin le2ieC se '%@enea& ar&n2ai n n2Bis%ri
'entr& Aina (e a n& *i (en&ni
.
C t 2%@'l%t&ri inexistenteC (es're 2are le A%rbea& n %a't
(iAeri ageni 'r%A%2at%ri4 Mn2area 2e li se (aC e4a ns%it (e s&(al@eC (ar ni2i%(at 'aDni2&l
n& &ita s *a2 'r%'agan( n *aA%area regi@&l&i 3 KN%aC AeDiC ai Ar&t s<@b&rDi r'&bli2a i
r'&bli2a i ( @%r@%<la( 7L Ce '&tea& s *a2 a2eti %a@eni n 2li'e (e rgaDC 2a s n&
s&2%@be HS Dis2&ta&4 -i se re*&gia& n te%l%gieC sing&r&l siste@ n stare s (ea % j&sti*i2are
att%r s&*erine abs&r(e4 K"&*eri@ ai2iC 2a s aAe@ (re't&l la b&2&rie 9 (in2%l% 7L
5a (e atari s&*erineC 2r%ra Aiaa le era s&'&s (&' @et%(e (es2%'erite (e 2ei @ai sa(i2i
teBni2ieni ai s&*erineiC @ si@ea@ 2a &n rs*at al s%rii4 Ce nse@na *a (e ase@enea
s&*erine neaj&ns&l 4@%ral 2 era@ '&s 'e linie @%artC 2 era@ 2%nstrns 'e 'lan intele2t&al la
&n *el (e @&n2 (e j%sC sa& 2 n& @ai aAea@ ni2i&na (in 2%n(iiile 2reaiei libere H
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Ain
n2e'&t (e l&n Mai4 !egetal&l iDb&2nea 2& t%at '&l 2reaC a(&nn(&<i ele@ent&l Aer(e
(in AD(&B i (e g&bt '@nt4 ?@b%l(it (e aer i (e alean 'ri@sArati2 @ l&a (%r&l (e a @
'li@ba 'e 2@'4 De 2e n& @<a (&2e o(al 'n la M&reC 'rin 'artea &n(e se arat 2a
% aeDa@ %@eneas2 H ra@ @ere& is'itit sOri (&2C (ar a@na@ iari i iari4 A*lase@
nt@'t%r (e la nite 2&n%s2&i 2 a2%l% s<ar *i stabilit n2 (in .0EYC Aenin( (e la Cl&jC
!asile Oltean&C *%st 'r%*es%r i 're%tC 2& O2taAiaC s%ia sa4 n 'ri@Aara a2el&i anC
'r%*es%r&lC (in @%tiAe '%liti2eC ar *i *%st s2%s att (in sl&jba 're%eas2C 2t i (@ *&n2ia sa
te%l%gal4 Ur@n( 'il(a att2r intele2t&aliC 2areC eli@inai 'entr& *el&ri (e 'ri2ini (in
sl&jbele l%r (e la %raC se nt%r2ea& la l%2&rile l%r (e batinC !asile Oltean& a'&2C i elC 'e
(r&@&l %briil%r4 N& aAea s gseas2 &n n%& a@A%n 'entr& 're(i2ile sale 2& @ir%s (e
b&s&i%24 I se (es2Bi(ea ns 2alea s're %2&'aii rnetiC Are(ni2e (e 'iD@&it4 D&' s'&sele
2&n%s2&il%rC a2%l%C 'e a'a M&re&l&iC n& (e'arte (e AlbaC !asile Oltean& i<a al2t&it
nebn&ite r%st&ri4 )%'a aA a2%i% l%2 (e 2teAa Be2tareC @%tenire (e la 'rini4
5%l%sit%are i era 'al@a (e '@nt n(e%sebi (at%rit *a't&l&i 2<i tiat n (%& (e<% a'
2a M&re&lC 2ir2 a(&2e n g%s'%(rie (e t%ate 3 &@eDeal 'entr& DarDaAat&ri s(ite n
strat&riC n@%l 'rielni2 @i%r an&@e leg&@e b&lgretiC nea@&ri (e 'etiC ra2i i br%ateC i
a' s&b'@Nntean 'entr& arinii i sl2iile 2e inC s&b s2&t&l 2%r%anel%r l%rC aeDarea4
)it%reas2 (in 2ale a*ar (eAine aeDarea 'rin br%(&l arBai2 2% *a2e legt&r @i2t%are ntre<
2ele (%& @al&ri ale M&re&l&i4 Br%(&l i trage *iina t%t (in @%tenirea '@nteas2 a l&i
!asile Oltean&4 -i br%(&l e l&2ratiA4 C& 2tig&l (&' el s<ar '&tea ntreine % *a@ilie
'atriarBal4 Br%(&l e *%l%sit (e l%2alni2ii (in @'rej&ri@iC 2are eAit s *a2 n2%nj&r&lC
in2%@%(C 2a s aj&ng la Alba tre2n( '%(&l 'e la )art%4 Oa@enii (intr<% sea@ (e sate,
're2&@ Ci&g&(&l4 Li@baC DaiaC -e&aC GBirb%@&lC H2nig&lC H'riaC neaAn( la n(e@n &n
'%( 'este M&reC *%l%ses2 br%(&l *a@iliei Oltean&C s're a aj&nge @ai *r (e n2%nj&r n
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2iAa ani4 5r n(%ial 2 Aa(&l a2elaC al sl&jb i a(&2ea nease@&it @ai @&lt (e2t Aa(&l
a2este br%(&l&i4 C%@'araiaC 2e 2a(e n (eDaAantaj&l a2t
.
sale 'r%*esi&niC i s2ie 2%ntiina4
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(e @t&rt%r (e gr(ini '&bli2eC 'n la a2eea (e br%(ni2L4 C& ase@enea 2&Ainte n2er2 s
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s%nerie n2e'e s 2rie (eas&'ra &ii4 Clt%rii a(&nai n rsti@' la br%(4 (e % 'arte i (e altaC
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&n&l (e K*a&nLC<i &n&l (e Kbr&tL '&r i si@'l&4 )%'a i (%DeaD a2este s&*leteC (&'
ne2esitile (e @%@entC 2& @ai @&lt is2&sin i @ete&g 2Biar (e2t &n a2t%r4 +%ate a2este
s&*leteC i (is'&t ntietatea n *iina sa4 D%Daj&l se *a2e (&' treb&in4 n an&@e @'rej&rri
se nt@'l 2a &n&l (in SF (&B&rileC 2e<l ns&*lees2C s a'ar t%t&i n *%r@
i l
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i@'&ne &n trai 2l&<e era br%(ni29St%t ai2i4 "e '%ate tri i (in asta 7L gar*es2 (e '%st i
r&g2i&neC (es'rins (in t%ate @rejele
iil *l l t l i lb
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A%iiC n &lti@ii aniC s<i s2Bi@be %2&'aia4 Cei 2e n& s*2el @ai '&in reDistent4 n *iDi%n%@ia
l&iC g
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r%2%AanC b&Dele 2rn%aseC s'rn<(intre intele2t&ali a'&2 'e 2alea @eseriil%r4 Dar 2e aI
2e*tele 2a nite (esi&riC (inii snt%i 2e i<i s'al (%ar a *a2e H Cre( 2 n& este 2aD&l s ne
@ai ls@ @&n2iiT O%&2n( (in @ieD (e *r&2te s&nt (esig&r ale &n&i *a&n4 Aa 2%ntiinC (e
@n(rieC sa& (e gn(&l 2 ar exista i &ntI arat 2l&gr&l i *a&n&l4 kran&l iese la iAeal @ai
Art%s 'r%*esi&ni ne(e@ne (e n%i4 "e @&t Aal%rile (e la % e'%2 t& *
e
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2%ti(ian4 +%ate l&2rrile sale
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4s&nt 2ntNrit' g%2'%(rete n Ae(erea &n%r (%bnDi 2e '&tea s 'i2e4 i i&bete neAasta *r
(%ar i '%ate4 b] (rag%stea l&i e s&'&s 2el%r @ai 2a'ri2i%ase *l&2t&aiiC

*&n2ie (e 2&rba
*%l%asel%r 2e le a(&2e *e@eia n g%s'%C (arie4 @ere& 2& %2Bii la ea4 O 'DeteC eAi(entC (ar
n&C . @ai n an&@e li@ite4 Cn( n 2ariera sa '%ate s aibjl an&@e aAantagiiC '%'a se arat
(is'&s s n2Bi( &n %2Bi I 5%arte ng(&it%r a *%st '%'a !asile t%t(ea&na 2t 'ri# Aeste
2%@'%rta@ent&l s%iei 9 @ai Art%s n s2Bi@b&l7 K(ar&ril%rL a(&se la 2asa sa s&bt 'retext&l 2
ar *i (ar&ri I 'entr& altar4 Une%ri se nt@'l 2a O2taAia s (e'eas2C I ntr<&n *el sa& alt&lC
li@itele 2&Aiinei4 At&n2i iDb&2net I n el 2el (e<al 'atr&lea s&*let 3 br&ta4 l n& s&'%rt b&n4
. %ar 2a O2taAia s s2rie Aers&ri4 A2estea snt (e %bi2ei g (e2laratiAe i 'rea legate (e 2&Ant4
Une%ri stiB&rile ie^ . ns la nli@ea 'asi&niiC 2e @&r@&r n a&t%are4 n asWl @enea 2aD&ri
'%'a !asile esteC n 2Bi' re*lexC4 l&at (U I a22ese (e *&rie4 )%'a !asile se ntreab a(esea
'entr& . K2ineL s2rie O2taAia4 N& n2a'e n(%ial 2 eaC *iin 2el are 'ati@a 2%n2ret&l&iC s2rie
Aers&rile t%t(ea&na 'entril K2ineAaLC (ar l&i !asile ea i s'&ne 2 le al2t&iete aa<l 9 n
abstra2t4 ntia rea2ie a *%st&l&i 'r%*es%r (e te%l%gi gleC 2n( seRnt@'l s gseas2 as&'ra
O2taAieiC 'rii@ Are&n b&D&nrel (e %rC sa& 'e s&bt bl&DC Are% '%eDieM7 este (e br&tC 2e se
(e2laneaD att (e ne2%ntr%lat 2 ani '&tea s *a2 @%arte (e %@4 O2taAia @ai '%art la
ti@'iT % 2i2atri2e (e @&lt Ain(e2at4 )e la n2e'&t&l 2st%riei . ea i 2itise %(at nite Aers&ri
(e (rag%ste4 Dar '%'a al (ib&it 2&@Aa 2 '%eDia n& era s2ris n abstra2tC i a i gBi2it @ai ales
2 n& el era %bie2t&l 'lat%niDrii4 De aj&ns I 2a br&ta s '&nC at&n2iC @na 'e<tJ 2li@ar (e
@eta I i s<% aDArl% 2& t%at '&terea (&' O2taAia4 "enin&l I &n(e a l%AitC se @ai Ae(e i
a2&@C (&' atia ani4 Ce . lesne ar *i '&t&t s ir@n '%'a 9 *'taC (in 'ri2ina &n%i .
stiB&ri 7 Dar a aA&t n%r%2 %@&l 2& 2%ntiinaCP la 2are I 2%lab%ra& 'atr& s&*lete 7 9 Cn(
*ar@e2ele s%iei '&teai S *i l&2ratiA angajate 'e linia &n%r 'ln&i (e aAansare l sa& si@'l& s'%r
@aterialC '%'a !asile se artaC (e %bi2ei # *%arte 2%n2esiA4 n atari @'rej&rri '%'a i n(r&@a
. ns&i s%ia 'e 2i (e e2BiA%2 i 2%@'r%@is4 Ast*elC iM ti@'&l rDb%i&l&iC O2taAiaC
a22e'tn( b&2&r%as s&gestiile # s%&l&iC se (&2ea Dilni2 n AiDit la &n ierarBC (e<a 2r&i [
::E
b&nA%in atrna % n%& aAansare4 !&ia &rbea (e DA%n&riC 2e aj&ngea& i la &re2Bile '%'ii
!asil%C (ar el n& Aei 2a (e2t aAansarea4 n *%n( i'%2rit&l *a&n 2&@'nea 2a@ aa 3 s%ia se
'&rta *a (e el 2a % *eti2an neti&t%areC (e &n(e '&terni2a sa n2re(inare 2 O2taAia ar *i
2%nstit&i%nal K*rigi(L4 O2taAia era n2 FK*rigi(L *a (e elC (intr<&n *el (e sil *iDi2 I n
realitate ea %ra (e<&n senD&alis@ *reneti2 *a (e a2ei brbai j2are<i sti@&la& (ar&l stiB&irii4
)%'aC 2t ti@' l&2iFa tI& 're@isa 2%ns%lai %aie a *rigi(itiiC era n stare s s&'%rte *r arrn (e
gel%Die 2%@'%rta@ent&l 2el @ai lax al s%iei i 2Bar gn(&i 2 2a ar @ai sri 2te%(at '%te
gar(4 Iar 2n( Are&n interes g%s'%(res2C sa& Are&n&l '&s n @i2are (e<% sit&aie 're2arC
interAenea n j%2&l nt@<'lril%r4 '%'a era n stare s aranjeDe l&2r&rile ast*el 2a s%ia s
aj&ng 'r4 n atern&t&l Are&n&i '&terni2 al Dilei4 In ase@enea 2aD&ri el se 2%@'l2ea n i(eea
2 O2taAia ar *i *rigi( i @t^Jr'iL2ta *a'tele '&r i si@'l& 2& in(i*erena 2& 2are ar *i 'riAit %
Airit % ei la &n @e(i2 gine2%l%g4 L&2r&l 'rin2i'al era 2a t%t&l s se (es*%are 'e linia &nei
eAi(ene l&eraiiA'4 5a't&l 2 s%ia l&i era 're%2&'at (e '%eDieC lC (eranja ns 2&@'litC 22i
bNii&ia in a2easta 'ie%e&'are % real *ierbinte 'asi&ne 2e 9 ntr<&n *el i 'e %2%lite 9
(eD@inea 'res&'&sa ei *rig^ISS
I
34ite4 -i<at&n2i *a&n&lC 2& Aeleiti (e 2l&grC era a'&<6^J
I
s&bt &n 'retext sa& alt&lC (e a22ese (e *&rieC 2e<l iu+ i a& s se n'&steas2 as&'ra Ai2ti@ei4
+%ate a2estea @i tre2&r ntr<% 2li' 'rin @inteC 2n( r@sei iaisi sing&r 2& *r&@%asa
O2taAiaC 2are se @b&j%ra la gn(al 2 A%@ aAea 'rilej&l (e a sta (e A%rbC n&@ai n%iC ntre
'atr& %2Bi4
44C&@ i @ai '%triAete s&*letele !asile al t&C i (&' 2e @s&r HF % ntreb aa ntr<% (%arC
2a s &rnes2 2%nAersaia4
KIese t%t @ai a(esea la iAeal 9 br&taLC @i rs'&n(e eaC as2&nDn(&<iji s&bt bl&DC a sniC
2&@ rn2&ele as2&n( &ne%ri @ereleC *ilaC 'e 2are a s2ris Aers&riC n 2li'a 2n( a@ W%sit4
Gestal ei era *%aite a(e@enit%rC i 'ar2 @ n2er2a %L '%rnire s<i aj&t s as2&n( 2t @ai bine
Aers&rileC 'rin tainie4 K)entr& s2risC *%l%ses2 t%t(ea&na ti@'&l 2t !asile % 'rins 2& bra(&lLC
2%ntin& O2taAia4 K@i r&'e %aseleC 2n( @ s&r'rin(e as&'ra *a'teiLF4
KDar @ie n<ai Area s<@i ari 2e s2riaiC 2n( a@ intrat HL % ntreb aaC *r a '&ne Are%
insisten n ntrebarea @eaC
K)%ate 2C (ar alt (at4 A@ r@as 2& tea@ (e %2Bi&l t&4 +reb&ie s @ %bin&ies2 2& 2riti2a4
Ai % 2%ntiin in2%r&'tibil4L Ni2i 2n( i sta& 'e gen&n2BiC n<ai *i n stare s te n2lDeti (e<
&n AersC 2e i<ar 'rea (&l2eagL4
O2taAiaC a 2rei 'asi&ne 'rin2i'al era ntr<a(eAr '%eDiaC n& s&'%rtaC 'rea b&2&r%asC
%bserAaiile 2riti2e4 Di@'%triAC se n(rj2a n exBibiii (e %rg%li&4 Cel '&in a2easta era rea2ia
ei i@e(iat4 Cn( r@nea ns sing&rC n& *2ea (e2t s re*le2teDe as&'ra 2riti2iiC se nrn&ia
s&*leteteC 2a s 'r%*ite ar 'e &r@a a2esteiaC
ntrOale '%eDiei aAea@ %<ex'erien 2%ns&@at4 La %ri2t b&nA%in @<a *i n(&'le2atC n&
'&tea@ s<i 'riAes2 Aers&rile (e2t 2& a2eiai %2BiC 2& 2are @i 'riAea@ 'e ale @ele4 !%ia@ s<%
n(r&@4 "N<i 2&ltiA g&st&l4 "N<i (eDA%lt a&t%2riti2a4 A2easta 2& att @ai @&ltC 2& 2Nt
re2&n%tea@ reale i @n(re '%sibiliti n '%eDia ei4 O2taAia re&ea &ne%ri s s2rie Aers&ri
*%arte *r&@%ase4 Dar 2(ea 'rea a(esea ntr<% A%rbrieC 2e n& se (e%sebea 'rea @&lt (e
i@'r%AiDaiile 2e le (ebita n 2&n%s2&tele ei CCirani4eL liri2e4 n2er2a@ s<% *rneD4 ^On2er2a@ s<
% nA s<i 2%ntr%leDe la re2e % '%eDie %(aa atern&t 'e Brtie4 i 2erea@ @ere& s
2ntreas2 s&bstanaC s r&' lstarele (e 'ris%s ale Aiei (e AieC s reteDe rn(&rileC 2e iDA%ra&
(intr<&n *el (e 'ier(ere (e sine n s&nete i n 2&Ainte *r a2%'erir[Jkara tre2ea n Are@ea
a2eeaC (e s*rit (e rDb%iC 'riiitr<&n 'r%2es (e in*laie bneas24 At&n2i i<a@ s'&sC % (atC
'&stiin(&<i Aers&rile 2& 2rei%n&lC tergn( 2& ne@il&ita 3 KAsta este in*laie (e 2&AinteL4 A rs
O2taAia 2%'ilrete i n2i&(atC (ar a a22e'tat terst&rile4 Le<a a22e'tat ns 2& s&*erinC
a'r%a'e 2& i'eteC 2a nite tiet&ri n 2arne4 Cn( n Aers&ri (e<ale ei a@ i(enti*i2at %(at %
sea@ (e re@inis2ene (inF '%eDiile @eleC @<a@ n2r&ntatC @br<2n(&<@i s&*let&l n as'ri@iC
2e n&<@i era& *ireti4 -i<a2&@C a@intin(&<@i (e A%rbeleC 2e<i s'&sese@ att (e a'satC n2e' s
D@bes2 (e seAeritatea @ea e(&2atiA (e alt(at4 De%are2e O2taAia se @'%triAea s
re2&n%as2 e2%&rile (e ai&reaC risi'ite 'rin '%eDiile eiC a@ re'eDit<% 3 KAs2&ltC (raga @eaC e&
(%res2 s (eAii % 'ers%nalitate '%eti2C n& % @ai@& 7L In @%@ent&l 2n( @i tre2
::Y
'rin 2&get a2este a@intiriC ea i (%Ae(ete ntr<alt 2Bi' '&tinele (e reD%nan la gn(&rile
@ele inti@e 3
C i a@inteti 2n( la "ibi& @i<ai s'&s 2 snt % @ai@& HSF
4CN&<@i a@intes2LC rs'&n( e&C Ks<i *i a(&s ase@enea i'j&ri
.
7 N& &DeD (e at%n ''itete 7L
KB# (aC @i<ai s'&sC i<at&n2i a intrat n @ine tea@a (e a<i F<nai arta Aers&ri (e<ale @eleL4
K!tAi 2t (e ana'%(a ai inter'retat n2er2area jnea (e a te ieri (% an&@e l&ne2&&ri4 D%rea@ s
eAii (r&@&l 2%@%i al i@itaieiL4
KM<a 2a@ (&r&tC (ar re2&n%s2 2 a@ nAat 2eAa4 " tii 2 a2&@ s2ri& Aers&ri @ai b&ne 2Biar
(e2t ale taleL4
Kste t%2@ai 2eea 2e ate'ta@C 2n( @i<a@ r%stit (nrin4V s (eAii % 'ers%nalitate '%eti2C n& %
@ai@&4 !eDiC 2 n 2%ntext&l l%r a(eArat 2&Aintele @ele aAea& % alt se@ni*i2aieC (e2t
a2eea 2e le<% ( a@intirea i %g%l@l H Ne<a@ neles HSF
KAi @ere& a2elai relie* 7 "'irit&l t& 7 i n2er2i 3F riiiC s&n 2a i alt (at 7LF @i Di2e eaC
l&ne2n( &%r
M transC (ar se<nt%aTF2e4
4+i se 'are n&@ai4 De ani (e Dile @ si@t %are2&@
&n ban (e a&r *Ni e*igie4 r%as e*igiaC 'n la
4 < 7aRi 7L *a2e ea @iratC K+& 9 *r e*igie HL
O J 2&@ se (&2e s're *ereastra 2e rs'&n(e s're
ra4 A a % 'riAire (e is2%(ire 'e gea@C a'%iOe<nt%ar2eC
+ire la rr ineC 2& exa2t ex'resia (e alean %2eani2C (e alt
2laia4 -i @i se aeaD 'e gen&n2Bi4 C& exa2t @i2rile BjIitit%ILU e (e alt (at4
i 4='&n 3
C4-lii 2 (e ani n ntr<% *a44N 2Fe ster iii l r&@ 2 HLI @ai ies 7L
K-i Zii aa (e @&lt s iei (in ea HL
KCe ntrebare i
l^
KO gseti 2&ri%as H N&4 *%arte *ireas24 Aa te A( e&4 +i@' (e &n s*ert (e Aea2 ai (at
%'ere 2e A%r r@ne4 A& intrat %'erele tale (e*initiA n 'atri@%ni&l '=eti2 al stir'ei n%astre4 Ai
(at 2& Ar* i n(esat4 ti % *ig&i (e'lin r%t&njit4 Ai (re't&l la sterilitate4 Mai
::8
@ai s2ris &n rn( 7 M gses2 i (e re(&2ieC (in 2are n& ti&
ai 2iAa ani 9 (e 9 Bai s<i Di2e@ 9 tineree *r Arst 7L
KDe *l2& t%@nati2 7L % ntrer&' gl&@in(4
KDaC @ai ai 2iAa ani (e tinereeC 2e Aine &ns%ri t%a@na i 'rin '%@i4 +reb&ie s te b&2&ri (e
a2eti ani 7 Oare n& te<ai (r&it 'rea @&lt a2est&i negrit 2BinC a2est&i ist%Ait%r elan 2are este
2reaia H +& n& @ai treb&ie s *a2i ni@i24 Bnt&ie r&l i vreuie4te tare 'e '@nt4 " te
b&2&ri (e 2eea 2e Aiaa Hi @bie n @'rej&rrile triste i a'r%a'e ni@i2it%are (e astDi 7
Cr%ni2a is'rAil%r tale e n2Beiat4 N& Arei s @ai lai i alt%ra (e l&2r& H Ni2i @ie H Las<@
s s2ri& e& (2<a<2&@a i s @ tr&(es2 ntr& *r&@&see i 2nte24 "2ri& e& 9 'entr& tine i n
l%2&l t&4 n t%ate sens&rile Area& s @ %stenes2 'entr& tine4 +e i&bes2 'n la (%rinaC 'n Ia
ArereaC (e a te nl%2&iC s te s2&tes2 (e %ri2A str(anie444L O2taAia se %'ri % 2li'C 2a i 2&@ s<
ar treDi 3 Kki<ani s'&s % 'r%stieC n&<i aa HL
N<a@ rs'&ns4 nregistra@ (%ar 2& *%arte @are l&are a@inte 2i&(ateleC *%arte
2i&(atele l&2r&ri ee<**ii s'&nea a2east *iinC att (e inegal<2& sine n attea (iB as'iraiile
ei4 nregistra@ 2& intenia (e a @ gn(i @ai ti/?iu la 2eea 2e<@i s'&nea4 M gsea@ (ia n%&
n *aa &neia (in %bin&itele ei Ktranse liri2eL sa& s'&sele ei Ae"x2a& (e ast (at (in
a(n2i@ea &nei l&2i(iti in2i(entale H N& era@ (is'&s s a'&2 'e (r&@&l 'e 2are ea @ inAitaC
s<@i '&n a(i2C subt t%ate as'e2tele i<n t%at adnciea eiC 'r%ble@a existenei 2reat%are4
n rsti@'&l &nei (estin(eriC 2e (&ra 2t tre2erea br%(&l&i l&i Car%ti(e la un r la alt&lC @<
arn lsat nAl&it (e 2l(&ra @%ale a *iineiC 2e<@i sta 'e genunc=i5 )rilej&l (e a rnG b&2&ra
era 'ri@Arati2C n& t%@nati2C i era @'letit (in s'len(i(e is'ite i (in rga?ul 2e ni<l
%*erea 'entr& senDaia t%'iriiC absena (e % j&@tate (e 2eas a %@&l&iC 2are era ranC 2l&grC
*a&n i br&t4 Cl(&ra tr&'eas2a a a2estei *e@ei @ 'tr&n(ea (in n%& (&' 2e atia ani ieise
(in s*era si@&ril%r @ele4 A@ @ngiat is'ita 'rin Ae@inte4 )este 2%a'se4 )este 'ie't4 -i ait4
C2i se a&Dea& 'ai !e-a/GrG5 O2taAia i 'rsi l%2&l i nce!u a<i *a2e (e l&2er& 'rintr<&n
(&la'C 2a s abs%arb n tain *iina
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&%ara @b&j%rar%C 2e i se iAise n 'al%area %bin&it a /eei5
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@ijl%2&l n2'erii
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r%st aAea@ n %ra&l (in a'r%'iere H Art 4l&2r&rile aa 2&@ a&T Aenit4 O (at e'&rat (in
2%r'&l (i(a2ti2 s&'eri%rC Bi s<a gsit gl&jba (e bibli%te2ar4 Un ins %arei2areC %2&'n( %
'%Diie<2Beie 2t 'riAete n%&a n(r&@are a 2&lt&riiC a*unse la n2Beierea 2 e&C 2are a@
'&bli2at atlea 2ri nea/t-t%as2C '&se a2&@ s&b inter(i2ieC (ar t%t&i K2riLC @ 'ri2e'
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(es're (%sar&l 2% i<a !ins 'e OlteniC @ai nainte 2& 2iAa aniC 'n ntre B%tareC
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OetaAia an&n @ere&C n (rea'ta i<n stngaC la 2&n%s2&i @ai Ae2Bi sa& la 'r%as't 2&n%s2&iC
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i intr n casa3 2& 2%n(iia s *i tre2&tC tea*r 'este '&bertateC i<n *ie2are ea Area s (ib&ias2
&n str%' (e s*inenieCL (e er%is@ sa& bare@ (e geni&4 )e 2t (e re'e(e se a@baleaDC 'e att (e
grabni2 se 'li2tiseteC 'entr& 2a n 2ele (in &r@ s (eaC 'e rnd3 2& t%iiC (% 'erei 7 Al (%ilea
2&s&r 3 O2taAia are % *%arte naiA n2re(ere n t%i %a@enii 2e<i ntlnete4 ntr<att 2 le
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2a'C i @ai ales se2rete inti@e4 a s<ar @b%lnAiC (a2C 'rin Are% 2%nstrngereC ar *i a(&s n
sit&aia (e a 'stra 'entr& sine Are&n se2retL4
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2r2i&@ile 7L ri(i2 O2taAia 2&AntC 2a@ enerAat i nest'nit4
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2ele s'&se (e '%'a !asile (es're ea 3 KDar AeDiC aa se br*es2 s%ii 9 ntre ase %2BiL4 De
alt*elC t%t 2& nen2re(ereC res'ing a2&Da '%'ii !asile 2& 'riAire la 2%@'%rtarea O2taAie* *a (e
strinii tre2&i te*eri (in2%l% (e '&bertate 3 K& a@ 2&n%s2&t<% 'e O2taAia @ai a2&@ Are% ase
aniC i A( 2 n2 n& a (at 2& @ine (e 'ereiL4
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iei@C s ne 'li@b@ 'e lng a'4 Mai a@ ti@'C 2a@ % j&@tate (e %rL4
Ieir@ (in 2as 'n la a'4 In a'r%'ierea 2asei era& nite 2%nstr&2ii (e ntreb&inare
g%s'%(reas2C ase@enea &n%r bar2iC &n %'r%n @are (e le@n i &n @i2 graj( (e aij(erea n
le@n4 A *i A%it s tre2 2el '&in 'rin graj( 'entr& 'l2erea (e a Ae(ea a2%l% Are&n Aiel sa&
@nD4 Dar O2taAia @ (eDa@gete 3 KN<aAe@ n2 ni2i &n 2a' (e (%bit%2 la iesleL4 )entr&
@nDC *'t&r 're*erat a i@aginaiei @eleC (en&@irea (e K(%bit%2L @i se 'r& 2a@ tare4
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n& te ate'tai s gseti ase@enea neA%iai4 Dar 2e tiiC '%ate i<a *a2e 2ineAa '%@an 2&
n%i 7L _ .
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Aiit%area &n(e ai '&s 'lea2a (e s%@ni4 )%ate s<a *i 'rins 2eAa 7L
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ng&stC 2e @ere& se str(&ia 'ar2 s i se ri(i2e 'n 'este r%t&leC (eDAelin( nite '&l'e
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t'&l'ele 'rea& nite s%@ni4 Linia 2%a'sel%r j%a2 atrgt%are s&bt Ae@nt4 C&@ *e@eia
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'rel&nges2 n a' *iina 3 r%ii 2a sngele snt ra(<j'nile arinil%r *in ra@i*i2ate n *iri2ele 2a
'i2i%r&ele t%iria'%(el%rC glb&i snt r(2inile sl2iil%rC 2a<(e 2ear4 Jrvniea @i ar(eC 22i @<
a 'rj%lit s%areleC 2n( a@ Aenit s're aeDare4 Mir%ase a @&g&r 'r%as't i a a' n@%<g%as
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ngrij%rarea @ea era (e *%r@4 !%ia@ s ar&n2 % A%rb 2a s<@i a2%'r interes&l %2&larC 2&
2are &r@rea@ @ers&l O2taAiei i tl'ile eiC 2e se 2&*&n(a& &%r n n@%l&l nisi'%s (e 'e
'%te24
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(a 7 A'L 2&rat n<are M&ne&l ni2i%(atC ni2i 2Biar n Dilele M2ele @ai senineC 22i albia e
n@%l%asC iar 2er&l se a@este2 n %glin(a a'ei @ere& 2& @l&l ri(i2at (e Artej&ri4
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sine 2a ar'ele 2e s<ar @&2a sing&r (e 2%a(4 Dig&rile a2estea s&nt *2&te 2a s @'ie(i2e
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(e etIaJ @i s'&ne 2 a *2&t % 'r%@isi&ne M2 U#l D%@n&l&i 2n( D2ea 'rin n2Bis%ri4
"tt&se %@&l 2NiAa a@L 'rin be2i&ri4 N<aAea 2e s is'eas2C sta i elC s i se 'tr&n(
n2Beiet&rile (e igrasia s&bteranel%rC 2&@ sta& astDi t%i %a@enii (e treab (in ar4 I<a *%st
(at s s(a'e n2 Ai& (in n2Bis%ri4 -i 2&@ n& aAea alt (e *2&tC 'rinse a 2&ta *ag&ri 'entr&
l&@inri (e 2ea*C a2easta 2a s<i @'lineas2 % *g(&inL4
"Vib&ia@ 'ers%naj&lC (&' 2%nt&r&l *%arte AagC (ar n2 n&<i (estin&ia@ O2taAiei bn&iala
@ea4 "'era@ s @ai a*l& % sea@ (e l&2r&riC 2e<ar *i '&t&t s ar&n2e %arei2are l&@in as&'ra
tre2&t&l&i4
K-i 2e<a @ai &r@at HLF % ntreb 'e O2taAiaC K'ar2 A%rbeai (e<% tr(are .LF
Kntr<&n *elC (ar s AeDi444 Neg&st%r&l era &n s*nt4 n2Bis%rile a& *2&t (in el &n s*ntL4 O2taAia
s&blinia 2&Ant #G e& e@%ii i 2& 2%nAingere4
I K-i t& le<ai lsat n2 % (at n2er2at 7L str&i7 e& 2& intenia (e a @ai s2%ate &n 2&Ant (in
ea4
K5r (e A%ieC asa a& Aenit l&2r&rileLC rs'&n(e O2taAia r@nn( n AD(&B&l ei Aag4
:E.
K"<ar *i '&t&t alt*el H Ni@i2 n&<i sti@&leaD i@aginaia 2a s*inenia 2&iAa n *l%area Arstei 7L
KDaC nt%2@aiL4
K)e &r@ HL
K+i@' (e<% l&nC (%& el Aenea a'r%a'e Dilni2 'e<ai2i4 ?i (es*&ra %@&l 2&lt&ra te%l%gi2 n
*aa @ea4 "<a n(rg%stit (e @ineL4
KCeea 2e era (e ate'tatLC % ntrer&'C Ki n2Beierea HL
KMi<a 'r%'&s s @ (es'art (e !asile i s ne l&@C 22i i&birea el n<% Ae(e (e2t 2a % iDbn(
a Aieii n *%r@e biseri2eti4 Ne *2ea@ a(esea @rt&risiri (e *%24 Dar n 2li'a 2n( s ne
@bri@C el 2(ea 2a tiat 'e la gen&n2Bi i n2e'ea s se r%age 3 Mai2 )re2istC 'Dete<ne
(e %ri2e is'it4 -tia 'e (ina*ar t%t 2easl%A&l4 M silea i 'e @irL s @ r%gC 2a s al&ng@ (in
'reaj@a n%astr (iaA%lii is'itel%r4 La str&inele %@&l&i @ nA%ise@ n 2ele (
3
4n &r@ s @
(es'art (e !asileC a@ A%rbit 2Biar 2& i (e la Alba n a2east 2Besti&ne4 N&@ai 2&
!as iese@ n2 s @ neleg4 dilele tre2ea& i
ne i&bea@ 9 A%rba Aine4 Ne *2ea@ @r<
t&risiri *r s*ritC 2&@ i *a2 *l2rile 'e<% Aatr4 Cn( n2er2a@ s<l a(&2 'n la
@briareC el 2(ea n gen&n2Bi i se r&ga4 ntr<% Di@<a@ treDit 3 s*nt&l era @ania2 7LL
K"a i<l s'&n 2ine e HL % ntreb 'e O2taAia4
KII tii HL
KDa2 @i l<ai artat a'r%a'e 2& (eget&l4 Dar Bai(eC A%rbete 7 9 C& 2ine @<ai @ai tr(at n
2&rs&l anil%r HL
KAa 2& n2 Are% (%i<treiLC @i rs'&n(e O2taAiaC 2%ntabili2ete4 ra '%rnit s (es2Bi(
2r%ni2a (e la Ban4 Dar i reteD A%rba4
KDest&l 'entr& aDi 7 Mania2&l @ai Aine i a2&@
'e<ai2i HL
K,ar4 +%t @ai rar4 "<a ter@inat '%AesteaC 2n( a@ l&at sea@a 2 este ne@'linitL4
K!%rba l&i !asile 3 ai n2e'&t s (ai 2& el (e 'erei 7L
KCa@ aaC n& n&@ai si@b%li2C 2i a'r%a'e *iDi24 I<a@ s'&s 2 n&<i (in l&@ea n%astrL4
AAea@ 2ertit&(inea 2 O2taAia n<a (%Dat
.
2& ni@i2 I@aginar '%Aestea neg&st%r&l&i (e 2ear4
-i @<a@ n2r&ntat '&inC 'ier(&t n gn(&rile @ele4 M ntreba@ (e 2e O2taAia se (e( a2est&i
exBibii%nis@ (e a@intiri4 O *2ea (in slbati2 '%*t *e@inin (e a<@i aa gel%<
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Dia H "a& n&@ai (in slbi2i&nea (e a n& '&tea 'stra ni2i &n se2i et H Oare s<ar *i @b%lnAit
(e se2ret&l 2iC (a2 n& i I<ar *i (at 'e *a H Mai era 2& '&tin i alt 2eAa 3 '%Aetile ei eraF&
'%ate 2a % 'regtire n Ae(erea &nei is2%(iri4 Inteni%na '%ate s @ (es2%aseC 2e<a@ "2&t n
rsti@'C (a2 n& 2&@Aa n 2r%ni2a @ea inti@ s<a& nse@nat eAeni@enteC (es're 2are n&
a&Dise n2 ni@i2C sa& nt@'lri i *a'te (es're 2are 'n la ea n<a& *tj&ns (e2t DA%n&ri Aagi4
O 2&ri%Ditate Art%as sa as2&n(ea n (%s&l g&re&l&i exBibii%nis@ i &n %rg%li& rnit4 a
(%rea s l@&reas2 n(e%sebi an&@ite DA%n&riC 2e 2ir2&laser 2n(Aa n j&r&l @e&4
K!eDiC e& s&nt sin2er 2& tineC i s'&n (e t%ateC (ar t& n& s&*li 2&Ant (es're ale tale 7L @i
re'r%eaD 2aC ri(ien(&<se (e 'e gen&n2Bii @ei4
KDes're ale @ele HL % ntrebC 'ier(&t4 -i gB(&l @e& % l&a *%arte (&2& s're Ana ,are4 a
era sing&i a *iinC n j&r&l 2reia n2Bi'&irea @ea 'l&tea (e C ini 2&
alintri (% AisC 2& nAl&iri (e %bsesie4 Dar 'entr& exis<@ea 2%n2ret 'rintre 2%ntingene
CO3OC#^IZ Ana lise &n si@b%l al ina22esibil&l&i4 A(i2 9 % real b%al4 -i ni@eneaC ni2i
Ana nsiC n& bn&ia ni@i2 (es're a2est @%rbC 'er@anent tnjit%r s&bt%n al existenei (e t%ate
Dilele4 B%ala @ea era 2a &n elan @%2nin( s&bt 2en&C b%alC (ar n a2elai ti@' sing&r&l
2le@ent aC (at%rit 2r&ia @i (e'ea@ 2%n(iiile s&b<%@eneti ale biet&l&i @e& trai (e
la % Di la altaM4 "i@b%l al ina22esibil&l&iC b%alC elan @%2nin( s&bt 2en&4 M si@ea@ 2a &n
@are @&tilat al existeneiC 2%@'letat n in (2<&n @%rbC 2e ntreinea s&*larea n @ine4 A %are
O2taAia 2eAa (in negritaC b%lnaAa @el%(ieC I Dbtea n @ineC s&*erin i *ar@e2 n
a2eiai ti@' H A si@it ea 2eAa (in 2nte2&lC 2e n2er2a s se n2Bege i n& se '&tea r%sti H
O2taAia n<aAea 2&@ s si@t a2eastC stareC 2e se alegea n @ine (in *r@ntri 2el&laxe 2&
ai4 6
Ia s2Bi@b O2taAia Aenea 2& re'r%&ri n legt&r 2&
ii Cr a2&@ 2iAa aniC 2 @<a *i Ka@balatL (e<%
2 st&(entC al 2rei n&@e e& l<a@ &itatC (ar 'e 2are
@ai reinea n *%2ar&l gel%Diei ei tar(iAe4 ^
44dA%n&rile n j&r&l @e& 9 ia& (e %bi2ei % n*i<
2& t%i&l *anteDist4 ki<a(&2i a@inte (e 'ri@Aara
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an&l&i .0EG H Ii ainte4ti 2e /a Bi(%as a& l&at ins%@niile @el2 n i@aginaia &n%r
2%l'%rt%ri /r rs'&n(ere H +&C O2taAiaC ai *%st &na (in '&inele 'ers%ane n sUi&Wia (e aRi
'&tea (a sea@a 2t (e @%nstr&%s se (eD<ln*&ie &ne%ri *ab&laia %bteas24 -i<at&n2i 2e @ai
ate'i H " (eD@int 2e se (eD@inte (e la sine HL n ti@' 2e<i arta@ ast*elC 2t (e abs&r(e s&nt
(r&@&rileC 'e 2are &@bl &ne%ri n2Bi'&irea n%r%(&li& i a ntril%rC O2taAia se xelrageC
n2r&ntatC n 2%l&l n2'erii ntr<&n *%t%li& 2& res%rt&ri &Date4 A&Dise 'ai 'e<a*arC ea 2are
sta 2& &re2Bea @ere& la 'n(C *r a 'rea 2 % *a2e4 "e a'r%'ia 2ineAaC i n& treb&ia s ne
ls@ s&r'rini intr<% sit&aie att (e inti@4
Cel 2e intra era 2Biar '%'a !asile4 i ter@inase 'a Di&a a2e%a a2tiAitatea (e br%(ni24
KC%rni A( %2Bii HL Di2e elC K'ar2 A<ai *i (&@nit 7 -i !4ntry 2e @ r%g HL
K<aAea@ s rs'&n(e@C ni2i e&C ni2i O2taAiaC &nei ntrebri3 n 2ar% se *&riaC nt@'lt%rC %
(est&l (e j&st %bserAaieC (ar 2are aAea i &n &%r aer (e 'r%A%2areC O n2r&ntare (e 2%'il
ne2jit se instalaseC ntr<a(eArC i iica (%2il i t%t(ea&na (is'%nibila %ri2rei ex'resiiC a
O2taAiWiC )%'a se a'r%'ie (e ea i 'rin(e s<% gi&gi&leas2 2& gest&ri tr(n( % Ai%lent !o/t
2arnal (e *a&riC O2taAia l l%AeteC 2& &n si@@nt (e silC 'este rainile 'r%aseC 2are %
2%tr%'es2 2& insistene ne<t &I4iriate4
KiC AxenteC AD&i 2t e (a *rigi( H Ce<a s'&neC t&C n *aa &nei *e@eiC 2are n& s&'%rt ni2i
atta atingere HL ntreb '%'aC a(&nn(&<i 2& li@ba r@iele (e @n<2areC 2e i se Arser
ntre gingie i &n '%( (e @etal
Kntr<% 2ani2&l 're2&@ 2ea (e aDiC atingerea (e<&n gBear '%ate *i i ea 'l2&t 7L rs'&n( 'e<
&n t%n 2& t%t&l (etaat (e s2ena (a al2%A (e a(n2a%ri4 )%'ii i *2ea@ 2& a2easta 2%n2esia
i'%2rit (e a a22e'ta 'rerea l&i (es're r2eala O2taAiei4
Ce<i i@agina n *%n( 'rintele !asile n legt&r 2& att ^*cI (esel% @ele AiDite la Ban&l l%r H
)rintr<% sing&r r%4<tireC l&ng 'e 2t '%ate *i % res'iraie s&s'inatC a2exista n& se '%ate artaC
iar 2eea 2e A%i s'&neC se al2t&iete aneA%ie i @ai @&lt (in 'res&'&neri iFbn&ieli )este t%ate
i (in t%ate r@ne &n *a't 3 el n&trea (in 0(a2 2%nAingerea 2 s%ia sa n& e *2&t 'e @s&ra
&nei
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Aiei er%ti2e n%r@ale i %rgani2e4 a %raC (&' 'rerea sa3 % intele2t&alC % religi%asC %
exaltat4 -i AiDitele ele3 l&ngile n%astre 2%nAersaiiC n rsti@'&l /ierbinte 2e 2&'rin(ea n
'aranteDele sale a2tiAitatea (e br%(ni2 a '%'iiC '& '&tea& s aib n %2Bii a2est&ia alt
se@ni*i2aieC (e2t 'e a2eea a &nei 'rietenii intele2t&ale4 Cn( *e@eiaC (in<ix<&n 2a'ri2i&
@br2at ntr<&n 'retext %arei2areC (e *als te%l%gieC ba 2 ar *i Di&a 'ati@il%rC ba 2<i Di&a
s*intei D%2BiiC re*&D s<i @'lineas2 '%*tele (e al2%AC 2eea 2e se ntN@'lC (&' s'&sele eiC
t%t @ai <deseG3 '%'a se arat (in 2ale a*ar iras2ibil4 i sare din ni@i2C /. a'&2 *&rii (in
albastr&l triei4 De&nDi 2BiarC 'e 2n( s%sea@ /a Ban i &r2a@ tre'tele 'ri(A%r&l&iC aAea@ s
n&(C n2 (e ararC i'ete i l%Ait&ri n(esate4 )e '%'a l gsii 2a ieit (in *ire4 Intrn( n %(aia
@areC l A( 2& &n s@%2 (e 'r n @in4 l s@&lsese (in 2a'&l O2taAiei n ti@'&l n2ierrii4
O2taAia s2'ase 2& attC (at%rit intrrii @ele n s2en4 Dar '%'a !asile a *%st neA%it s-i
as2&lte A%rba4
KN& te<ai 2iDelat (el%2 Ia 2%lile 'e &n(e ai &@blatLC i s'&nC C4t%t ran 'r%st ai r@as 7L
Alte (ai %raC (&' 2ite '&tea@ s 'ri2e'C 2Bin&it &% gel%Die4 i aAea el *r n(%ial bn&ielile
saleC (ar 4i le gt'n2aC i *2ea %ri2e s eAite % eAent&al 2%n*ir@are4 "e *erea s is2%(eas24
Ba @ai @&lt4 A@ aA&t (e aitea ari 'rilej&l s re@ar2 2 ni2i%(at n& intra n %(aiaC &n(e st@
la tai*as 2& O2taAiaC *r a (a senine (e a'r%'iere n2 nainte (e a aj&nge 'e 'rag&l
'ri(A%r&l&i4 )%'a ar&n2a 2te<% nj&rt&r (&l&l&i 2e 'Dea 2asaC sa& A%rbea @ai tr4reC (e2t
era neA%ieC 2& 2ineAaC (a2 2ineAa 4se ni@erea 'rin a'r%'iere4 "e *2ea &n2%4i 2 strig 2eAaC %
A%rb (e 'ris%sC ar&n2at Are&n&i 2lt%rC 2are s%sea t%2@ai la 5vcA. i!ai a(esea t&ea
Dg%@%t%s i *r 'ri2in4 l se n(e@na la t%ate astea i la alteleC 2a n& 2&@Aa s ne s&r'rin(IVC
'e @ine i 'e O2taAiaC n Are% sit&aie 2e i<ar *i ntrit bn&ielile4 Ai(ent el n& (%rea s Aa(4
O (atC *iin( 'r%babil *%arte grbitC '%'a &itase s ia atnri @s&ri (e 'reAt re, &intindu-4i
t%t&iC (e ele n &lti@&l @%@entC ^4 . a bt&t n &C nainte (e a intraC i a'%iC *r (% a intra
i<a @ai d2&t %@&l (e l&2r& in 'ri(A%r 2t2Aa 2li'e4 A intrat (%ar (&' &n rsti@'4 De%are2e
at&n2i el -i<a s&bliniat j%rea insistent %4bi2ei&4.C B%tri s<l linites2 sa& 2Biar sN<i (es*iineD
bn&ielile4 L<a@ 'ri@it s&r<
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Dn(C (ei era@ n2 2& %brajii @b&j%rai (e *%2&l *e@eii4 -i i<a@ s'&s aa 2a<n gl&@ 3 Kti
&n %@ *r 'ere2BeTC !asile 7 A@ l&at sea@a 2 ii 2& %ri2e 're s n& ne s&r'rinDi n Are%
sit&aie (eli2at 7 -i ne (ai se@neC *el i *elC 2n( te a'r%'ii4 A*l 2 i *a2i griji (egeaba4 "e
4'%ate s ne bn&ieti 2Biar n Bal&l sta 7L
N& se ate't '%'a la &n ase@enea 2&Ant4 A@ iDb&tit s<@i r%stes2 @&strarea 'e<&n t%n att
(e *ires2 i (e gl&@eC 2 n2e'&r@ s r(e@ t&strei4 O2taAiei i 'l2ea nes'&s *el&l
(estin(erii 2e<% a(&2ea@ n at@%s*era 2aseiC (e %bi2ei 2& 2te<% gl&@C la 2are ni2i &n&l n& se
ate'ta (in 'artea &n&i %@ n& 'rea g&raliAC 2&@ se *2ea s *i& De at&n2i at@%s*era la Ban&l
br%(ni2il%r s<a @ai n2r2at n2 (e atitea %ri 2a n Ae(erea &nei *&rt&ni4 Dar *&rt&na se a@ina4
A2&@ era@ (&' % Di (in 2ele @ai *ierbini ale an&l&i4 M&n2ise '%'a la br%( n aria s%arel&iC
4 br%b%ane (e s&(%are i nrn&ia& *r&ntea i %brajii4 n n2'erea &n(e st@ 2& O2taAia se
a(&nase t%t jr<gncil Aerii4
JJ Di2iC !asileHL l ntrebC K*a2e@ % baie n a'ele &l&i H 7 La %ra a2easta 2lt%rii n& @Ni (a&
b&Dna br%(&l&i4 N<a@ Ae@nt (e baie la @ineC i ) ibil ni2i A%i n<aAei4 Dar s<% *a2e@ 2a
nite a(e'i ai @l&i4 Ne<%@ (&2e 2%lea @ai la % 'arteC 'e &n(e
1 JC 'e &n(e n2e'e trestia4 O2taAia treb&ie s ne
'n i n& se Aa &ita 'e *ereastrC la n%i4 N& aAe@
n&(&ri4'rea *er@e2t%are 'entr& %2Bii &nei *e@eiC ni2i t&C ni2i e& 7 De alt*elC 2&@ *e@eia este
*rigi( 9 2re( 2 ren&n b&2&r%s la 'l2erea 'r%ble@ati2 (e a ne Ae(ea iiitrn( g%i n a'ele
M&re&l&iL4
\
I&lie n& aj&nsese la 2&@'na a'el%r sale4 Ur2a n24 OrOle (e (i@inea Aestea& 2& l&@ina l%r
tare 9 2ani2&la # 'e la n@ieDi4 M gsea@C '%triAit %rar&l&iC la sl&I n r2%area agreabil a
Ae2Bi&l&i l2a (e 2&lt&r BaterS4<ne&@4 Cl(ire (e *%st biseri2C i n 'arte (e 2etateC 2&
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'iAniiC n 2are se 'streaD Ain&ri Ae2Bi n b&i &riae4 'iAniele a& *%st 2n(Aa 2aA%& (e @ari
ierarBi4 Bir%&l
n
ii<l instalase@C n2 (e la n2e'&tC n n2'erea ng&stC 2a ^te t&rnC &n(e se
gsete i 2%le2ia (e strAe2Bi i *%arte rare @an&s2rise4 )e *ereastr se '%ate Ae(eaC 2a &n
tabl%& nr@atC % 'arte (in M&nii A'&seni4 ra@ la etaj -'alt I (eas&'ra n& @ai era (e2t
%bserAat%r&l astr%n%@i2 2& &neltele sale @&Deale (in se2%l&l al X!III<lea4
Ora era n2 @atinalC 2n( &a (e @etalTa bir%&l&i
s
e (es2Bise s2rin( (in ni r&ginite4 O
AiDit (esig&rC nt%r2 2a'&l4 D%a@na Ana ,are4 Dit s intre4 Mi se 'rea 2 Aine (intr<&n
s'ai& irealC (e &n(eAa (intr<&n (e'rtat tre2&t4 Are s intre ntr<a(eAr H ntrebarea treb&ia s
@i<% '&nC 22i s<ar *i '&t&t nt@'la s se *nienr2C (e n(at 2e ar *i (at 2& %2Bii (e @ine4
!enea b Mine H )&in 'r%babil4 C2i (e l&ni (e Dile ea '&nea % A(it 2%nse2Aen n a @
%2%li4 A@ re@ar2at a2easta n& % (at4 A@ re@ar2at a2easta 2& n(&rerare n re'etate rn(&riC
a(i2 (e 2te %ri a@ *i aA&t 'rilej&l (e a ne ntlni 'e Are% stra( a &rbei4 Ana *2ea 2e *2eaC 2a
ntl<nirea4sN n& aib l%2I ea intra n Are% 2&rte sa& ntr<% 'rAlie4 Dis'rea &ne%ri 2& %
a(eArat (ib2ie4 Ce s<a nt@'lat 2 (e ast (atC a ni@erit &a bir%&l&i @e& (e Ia
Bateane&rnC &ren( 'n a2i tre'te @&lteC n s'iral %b%sit%are H M 2&ta 'e @ine H a intr
ntr<a(eArC i@irea @ea 9 se a'r%'ie (e @asa (e s2risC ele &n(i3F n& a'&2 s @ ri(i2 (est&l (e
re'e(eC s're a %F 'ri@i n 'i2i%areC 2&@ (esig&r s<ar *i 2&Aenit4 Ana @ 2a&t (e2i 'e @ineC iar
n& 'e alt&l4 a n&<@i 2al2 'rag&l (inir<% si@'l er%are4 De alt*el % er%are ni2i n<ar *i 2& est
l2a 9 a'r%a'e nel%2&it4 Ana intra 2& &n D@b%AC S r4e%l D@bet (e ne&itatC 'rin 2are se r%s<4
Lei4 d@bFet&l eiC 2are este tin&ire i
n&li 2 in Ii ti@'C are (ar&l s (es*iineDe
itr<% B%trre a 2iC se '&sese ntre n%i n *a (% eaC 2a s '&n ntre n%i % (is tana4 In 444C4<
*i n2'&t 2%nstelaii H
)e la n 1 '&t (e 'ri@Aar ne<a@ ntlnit ntia %ar
ea &n2ie aAea@ s slNl&i@ *r ter@en4 Ana n<a
at&n2i &n sing&r 2&AntC 2e ar *i se@nat a inAi<
(e a tre2eH 'e la eaC s<% A( a2as4 ra 2eAa @isteri%s
St&(inea ei4 O 2&t Aerti2alO 'e *r&ntea ei @i s'&<
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nea 3 n& Area& s te A(4 Dar a2&@ era D@bit%areC aa 2&@ % 'strase@ (e ani n a@intire4
KCe @ai *a2eiC (%@n&le )r%*es%r HL @i ntin(eO ea @naC Ka@ a&Dit 2 se gses2 ai2i la
ateane&@ nite Ae2Bi @an&s2rise 'ersaneC 2& il&straii4 A Area s le Aa(C (a2 exist 2&
a(eArat4 -ti& ns 're2is 2 n n2'ere<C a2eastaC 2& & *ere2atC se a*l 2elebr&l C%(ex
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st'inire4 " @ (%@%les24 "N<@i 2ntresg4 2&Aintele *a2 &n @%@entC n ti@' 2e
interl%2&t%r&l @a& atea'L<J s 2%ntin&i4 -i 2%ntin&i 'e<&n t%n *%arte s2D&t r<4i a'arent niai
'&in enerAatC 2are<@i (%Ae(ete @ie nrMM7 i=
2
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s4L^ bi@ 2& 2al@&l ne2esar4 N& 'rea ?neleg (e 2e se a'el la @ine si interAin 2& s2ris&l @e&
ntr<% ase@ 2Besti&ne7 M s%2%t 2e%a 2e snt3 &n 2etean l%L44 44 a2estei ri4 -tie ns t%at
l&@ea 2 n&4 snt &n @arxZ3 Mi se s%li2it % s2ris%are (e 'r%test H C&@ s<ar *4 i a2easta H @i
A%rbii @i se 'are (es'i2 % 2B2WU&ne '<T liti2C (e 'arti(4 De 2e @i se 2ere t%2@ai @ieC 2are
n<M *2&t ni2i%(at '%liti2C s interAin 2& 'r%teste i (e2FCI raii n 2Besti&niC 2are intereseaD
ex2l&siA ='arti(&l< F "e *aaJ a'el la @ine 9 n 2e 2alitate H "e *a2e a'el 74<@ine 2a la %
='ers%nalitate HT Dar4 D&@neDe&le<D%a@nMC (e aii (e Dile e& n& @ai s&nt % ='ers%nalitate<4
De ani 9 snt &n si@'l& n&@r sin(i2al4 A@ *%st (at a*ar 2iJ4 literat&r4 C& % grij @et%(i2C
s&sin&t4 "<a& l&at @I s&riC ntr&2t @ 'liAeteC la Ge@&rC la DiasreC la irs Aisle4 N&@ele
L@e& n& @ai '%ate *i a@intii n 'reM (e2t ns%ii (e inj&rii4 N&@ele @e& a *%st ras (in lisJi
@e@bril%r A2a(e@iei ,%@Nne4 Aj&nsese@ n2 (e *%arte tnr 9 =ne@&rit%rL (ar
=ne@&rireaT< @ea era 2& ter@enC +eatr& 'iesele @ele 2ali*i2ate (re't @isti2e aiA *%st
ex2l&s (in teatr&4 A@ *%st (at a*ar (e la UniAersitateC '% @%tiA 2 a *i &n ex'%nent al
esteti2ii ^E(ea listeM4 Din ='ers%nalitatea<< @ea n<a @ai r@asC 8&C ni@i24 A2t&al@ente
2&nt &n *%arte %bs2&rC @e(i%2r& n&@r sin(i2al4 n s'irit&l l%ialitii @ele (e an%ni@ 2eteanC
s&nt (is'&s s se@ne3F3 (e2laraii 2%le2tiAeC (e sin(i2atC (ar 'ri@es2 &n %r(in "n a2est sens4
N& '%l s
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O'ers%nal rUtL<4 A're2iai i
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nitate %@eneas2C 2sle 2aD&l s re2&n%ate@ ir%'<2& exist l&2r&riC 'e 2are le '%t *a2eC i
l&2r&ri 'A n& ie '%t *a2e4 C&@ a(i2C e& @C trans*%r@C (e la > la altaC n ='ers%nalitate J 2Nn(
regi@&l are neAeCI n&@ele @e& n 2Besti&ni i a2i&ni (e 'r%'agan( 'eti B%tare H @i (ai
A%ie s n& neleg trata@ent&l 2a'rI 2i%sC 2r&ia i snt s&'&s444L
K"&nt exa2t (e 'rerea D<A%astrC (%@n&le 'r%*es%r re'li2 gaDetar&lC Ksar2ina @ea s<a
ter@inat4 N<e@ *a2i (in 'arte<@iC (e2t s A trans@it % (%rin a gir la 2are l&2reD4 ,e2&n%s2
2 aAei (re'tate4 CBesii&nt s2Ais%iii (e 'r%test e ntr<a(eAr (e nat&r stri2i '%lI<ti24 @i (ai
A%ie s 2%@&ni2 e*&l&i @e& (in C%rarle&4 CentralC 2ele 2e @i<ai s'&s HL
KDa2 n& 2%@&ni2ai alt2eAa (e2t 2ele n<tr<a(eA43 s'&se (e @ine 9 '%*ti@ 7L
IF&i la tir@ e%nAersaia l&ase (e2i &n4 t%n sl'& i (%@%lC % nt%rWt&r a'r%a'e a2a(e@i24
-i %& a= n2<a@ (es'rit4 ,i(i2 n brae 'e KiliC 2are n& r @iiI 4 -te 2& tr2%alele 'e la
gleDneC i intr& n !s&. C S i 2&@ ni@i2 n& s<ax *i nt@'lat4 D%ra re@ar2 nsCC
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&n gaDetar (e la B&2&retiLC @i BjT&n^J eaC C42e<a A%it HL
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A%i4 Ni2i @ai @&ltC ni2i @ai '&in (e2t attC
,%bii (in iv-tenebrel%rC 2are se tr&(es2 la @&n2a 'ira@i(el%r4 (&i la M%@*is s (e*ileDe i s
a'la&(e &rln( 2 le 'la2e r%bia4 !eDi t&C a2est l&2r& n& s<a &t@'lat 'e Aiern<4 *ara%nil%rC (ar
se nt@'l n se2%l&l n%str&444L
K5i i<ai (at 2eAa HL @ ntreab s%ia 2& s&*lt<i&i 74
g&ra4
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i '%Aestes2 s%iei 2& (e<ainan&nt&l t%at se<re'r%(&2 nt%2@ai 2%nAersaia 3
KGaDetar&l Aa 2%@&ni2a *r n(%ial C%@itet&7MI Central 2ele 2e i<a@ s'&s4 Ce Aa
&r@a n& se tie
+i@' (e<% l&nC Aiaa @ea a 2%ntin&at *H se se n Mat2a %bin&inel%rC 2e @i le<a@ ns&it (e
:/:
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y r<ItaC s *i& t&@Ks #a % @&n2 i @ai (e j%sC (e2t era tA%a Es la Bibli%te2a Bateane&@4
Dar l&2r&rile aAea& s Ain '&in @ai alt*el (e2t C&tea@ s le 'reA( la s*irit&l l&nii a&g&stC
)e la s*ritiFl l&nii se'te@brieC n ti@'&l 'rel%r (e bir%& (e I*t Bate<iie&@C s&nt 2Be@at la
tele*%n (in %ra4 >2 nt*@'la extrstt (e rar s 'ri@es2 ase@enea tele*%ane4 ra 'e la %ra 0
nainte (e a@iaa4 Mijse tele*%na le a se(i&l 'arti(&l&i4 ra@ '%*tit s @ 'reDint la %ra j H
"e2retariat&l l%2al4
Mi se *ixa 2eas&l 2tr4( Aa l&a s*rit br&@a (e liberate 2e<% @ai aAea@ H ra@ inAitat ntia
%ar 9 la Jarti^L Ni2i n& tia@ &n(e este "e(i&l4 M<a@ interesat t (ire2t%r&l Bibli%te2ii4 O
bn&ial @ @&n2ea4 "&nt Iat n legt&r 2& ex'li2aia 2e<a@ aA&t<% 2& ga<&l (e la "2nteiaC 2<
% l&n @ai nainte H "<ar '&teaC '&tea& s *ie *& aitea altele 'ri2inila a2estei inAi<n 'lin Di4
n2 &n n%r%2 2 n<a& tri@is (&' W'%Ai n%a'tea 7
D&' agitaia 2e<@i n2letase @axilaiele la 'ri@i<ea 9 tele*%n&l&iC n2e'ea@ 2e<i (re't s
@N @ai liiii<(ar n a2elai ti@' @i *2ea@ t%ateT s%2%telile *@#aa@ la 2te (e t%aFe4 La
t%t 2e @<ar '&tea e< 7 -i @ 'li@ba@ 'rin bir%&C @s&rn( 2& 'as&l j@<ea i li@ea
n2'eriiC 2a Aier@ele 2e '%arta $-lf (a Kge%@atr&L4 Un s*ert (e %r nainte (% .: i2<J
bir%<F 2%b%rn( tre'tele In s'iral 'n ci *tr(a s're sa(Al 'arti(&l&i4 "e(i&l se gsea iC j%s n
%OaC 'e stra(a 'rin<ia nai%nal 2aie vlae (a la ii 5r&@%asei4 n2%r(area @eFJ .%AE. Aj&ng
la se(i&4 Intr& 2i &<% ( s*iala (% a n& *i A"nit "
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*2&l&j Cei+lAal4 Kste n e(inC (ar A Aa 'ri@i n&@ai<-e2tL4
5&ra (e a<l *i 2&n%s2&t Are%(atC l tia@ (e n(e<B@g Are@e 'e C%nstant Mir%nes2& (in
n&ra%C 2a 'e i@ intele2t&al (e sea@C 2el @ai (e sea@ (esig&r (% la ^ 2%n(&2erea 'aiti(&l&i4
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ntlnire 2& &n Kintele2t&alL t%arn Dn @ine <% gleat (e nes'erat linite4 N<aAea@ s ate't
'rea i+&lt4 D&' Are% De2e @in&te s&nt '%*tit s intr& n n2'erea 'rin2i'al a a2est&i se(i&
(e 'arti(4 M ate'ta& ia % @as l&ngiiC (e e(ineC trei 'ers%ane ne2&n%s2&te4 N&@ai 'e
C%nstant Mir%nes2& l re2&n%s2 (&' *%t%gra*iile 2e a'iF2a& 'rin Diare4 C& ex'eriena
(i'l%@ati24I e<% a2&@&lase@ n @ine 'rin 2ele strintiC a@ ii<I i 11 2 *a (e C%nstant
Mir%nes2& 2are (%@ina "'ai&l 'rin r%b&steea saC 2eilali (%i j&2a& &n r%l se2&n(ar4 In
2&rs&l 'reDentril%r 2e s<a& *2&t (&'< t%ate reg&ljLF b&nei 2&AiineC a*l& 2 t&strei s&nt
@e@bri ai bir%&l&i '%iiti2 (in C%@itet&l Central4 C%nstant Mir%@J32aC 2ar% Sn 2li'a intrrii
@ele n bir%& se ri(i2are (e Ia i iC i 2ar% @i ntinse @naC @ '%*tete s& tarit Mir%n2s2&
se aeaD iari 'e s2a&n&l t&l (in sting @ea al @esei4 Ceilali (&i u?+ @ea4 +&strei 'rea&
n2 're%2&'ai (e 7ri ttate n e(ina 2e se *2ei+ainae t%2@aiC (ae
3
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ai2i a@ aj&ji4s (% alt*el n aer&l 2%'ilriei @ele4 "&nt (e l%2 (intr<&n sst (in a'r%'iereL4
A@este2 ntr<a(ins a2est elerrjent a&t%bi%gra*ie @ rs'&ns&l @e&C (%ar<(%ar A%@ a'&2a s're %
2%nAersaie te@'erat 2a aer&l in&t&l&i4
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rein&t (e &n(eAa n legt&r 2& @ine A%ia 'r%babil s @ @g&leas2 ntr<&n *el4 -i el
2%ntin& 3 CCIn @'rej&rrile (ateC 2&@ s'&ne7C7C a@ (%ri s ne A%rbii (es're ne@&l&@irile D<
A%aslr24 !<ai 'lns (e &nele ne(re'tiC (a2 n& @ netC @inistr&l&i G&rg&iC ntr<%
s2ris%areIC4 De<a2eea A<a@ 2Be@at 7L
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G&rg&i444L rs'&n( 'e<&n t%n (e ne(&@erire4
KAC (a444 n& D<A%astrC (ar aa 2eAa 9 ai stat @i se 'r& (e A%rb 2& &n gaDetarC 2are a
2%@&ni2at @inistr&l&i g&i ne@&l&@irile D<A%astr444L
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r%tarC 2r&ia 'rintre altele444 DaC (aC aa a *%st4 Un ga<D2ar a tre2&t 'e<ai2iC Aenea (e la
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2reat <n &lti@ii aniCC4L
KiC t%2@ai 'entr& a2easta A<a@ (eranjat4 N<a@ A%it s 'rsi@ %ra&lC n 2are l%2&iiC *r (e
a l@&ri &n(e sit&aii4 !rei s ne A%rbii HL
r4il &n @%@entC a'%i ntreb 2& &n s&rs 3 S K)%t s A%rbes2 (es2BisC sin2erC *r reti2ene HL .
KDar t%2@ai (e<a2eea A<a@ 2Be@at4 ntlncea a2easta n<ar aAea ni2i &n r%stC (a2 n<ai A%rbi
(es2Bis 7L
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KDaC (esig&rC treb&ie s n2e'e@ (e &n(eAa4 )%ale 2
i in(i2at s re'r%(&2ei 2%nAersaia 2e ai aA&t<% 2& gaDetar&l4 Din A%rb n A%rb 2&lege@
s&bie2tele (e interesC as&'ra 2r%ra ne A%@ extin(e444L
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?nse@ntateC (in @%@ent 2e D<A<%astrN l tii444L
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+ensi&nea @Fi<A%as ( a@intiril%r % (e%sebit a2&itateC 2a<n *nB FF 'r%2es Aerbal4 Cei trei (in
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n& tre2 s&bt t2ere ni@i2 (in 2e i<a@ tI As2&n( (%ar a22ent&l ele @ir4ie 2e @i<a@ @ani*eWtA
ntile 2&Ainte444
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'riAarea $F<(^=i t%Aari ai si 3 4CDaC jeja ni s<a 2%@&ni2at i n&& - AsAsaia 2e a aA&t l%2L4
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texte4
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'aris&l vL n *e '%eti2 a '%'%ral&l n%str&4 Ur= =464^ d T4s&i D<A%astr aAe@
t%t&i4 Des're rx2T72i >T 4. A%rbi@4 Ce '&te@ s'&ne n 'realabil L& . "F
7
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r&!l&tiat '=4Hli2 7 H i & WA2i @&4 R) ) '%eDiaC nlei n teaL&i D<A%astiL4
i (%i t%Aari (e rt&i$J saiitat<l i4MgBiar ai F Mir%n2W2& ntres2C (n(<(in 2a'C s'&@ele U
Ajre la absena n%tti O%AineL ('n %'era rr4eii 2H4t rA2e 2e le aAe@ *2T Cc- literat&ra D J
ie alt nat&rLC 2%ntin&a C%ns*a<i7 Mir%nes2& ai 'ei@it t<l<l ntrer&' 3
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%@ al s'irit&l&iC s<a grbit s ia 2%nta2t 2& @ine 'entr& 2a eAent&ala @ea n2%<*tare 2& la&rii
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ns @ai '&in @&l&@it (e2t @ine4 KCe<ar *i nse@nat s iei 'iA<
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nlat4 -i ist%ria n%astr ar *i tre2&t 'este '&n2t&l @%rt al na(ir&l&i ei 7L
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la Alba<I&Ha4 ,&@%areaC 2e tre2&se 'este @eleag&riC i<a (at n(e@n sa Ain ns&i 'n n
&rbea n%astr4 Le%nte B%trse 2n(Aa s n& @ai 'rseas2 B%tar&l sat&l&i natal n 2are s<a
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trelea braele @i era& %2&'ate 2& alt2eAa4 @i inea@C strnsC @%tnel&l4 M%tnel&l H DaC a2ela
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Ae2intateC 2Biar a (%&a Di (&' 2e ne stabilir@ n l%2&ina n%astr (e la Alba<I&lia4 N&@ele
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ase@narea &n%r s&nete i@aginare (e j&ngl4 AAea@ neA%ie (e<% 'isi2C n 'ri@&l rn( 'entr&
'rin(erea %are2il%rC 2are se a(&na& @ere& 'rin n2'eriC Aenin( (e 'e 2@'4 Kili era % *'t&r
*%arte j&2&ii i (rg&4 !rsta H N<aAea @ai @&lt (%&n an4 As'e2t&l 8 DesF& (e banal4 AlbC
2& 'ete @ariC gri4 Kili ni s<a ataat (in 'ri@&l @%@entC @ai @&lt 2Biar (e2t %bin&ies2 a2este
*elineC (es're 2are g&rile rele s'&n 2 s<ar lega @ai 2& (ina(inHl (e 2aseC (e2t (% %a@eni4
i **i2&se @%tnel&l %bi2ei&l s& rW ate'ta n '%arta gar(&l&iC (e la stra(C n *ie2% s2arC
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iera<ti2 Deitate egi'tean4 ntin(C t%t(ea&na la *elC @na s're el4 n 2li'a a2easta el se ri(i2
'&in (in s'ateC 2& &n gest re*lexC i<@i '&' @na 2a &n&i Al(i24 @i las % 'at (e ri2%are
2&rat 'e (%s&l @inii4 A'%i l ri(i2 'n la %braD4 @i 'la2e s<i si@t blana @%ale 2& %braD&l4
-i intr& n 2as 2& el4 Kili n2e'e s t%ar2 n&@ai(%2lt 2& &ri ent&Dias@ s%n%r i %rgani24 l e
rs*at&l *r 'ere2Be al 2asei4 K *%arte (rg&LC Di2e AnaC ntinDn(&<i @ina e're el Ki i
ntin(e 2a'&lC (in braele @eleC n ate'tarea &nei @ingi ieri4
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IeriC 2&trr(&<l 'e la 2%teeC l<a@ a&Dit 'e Kili A%rbin( 2& se@enii i 2& se@enele sale (es're
n%i4 -tii 2e e'itete *%l%sete 2n( A%rbete (es're n%i n l&@ea 'isi2il%r H L<a@ a&Dit4 K '4&r i
si@'l& s2an(al%s4 !%rbea eAi(entC (es're n%i 9 =BtriniiTC aa ne n&@ea Kili4 Intia %ar n
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a2easta4 AstDi ne s'&nM el aaC @ne I%anaC i '%i@ne t%t tineret&l &te@ist 7L +rag 2& 2%a(a
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@elan2%li2 s&bliniat (e 2&l%rile t%a@nei re*&giate n Aia (e AieC 2e<% Ae(ea@ 'rija *ereastr
'eL % 2as Ae2in4
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(es're ntl@rea @ea 2& K'arti(&lLC re'r%(&2 s&@ar (is2&ia 2e aA& l%24 Le%nte eraC i elC (e
'rere 2 ntlnirea a& 2&tat<% %a@enii (e la 2%n(&2ereC n legt&r 2& (istin2ia 2e era s 2a(
as&'ra @ea (in ara (e la MiaD<N%a'te4 Le%nte i arta @&l&@irea 3
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=linieiTC t& ai salAat (e@nitatea tag@ei4 Atit&(inea ta 2%res'&n(e nt%2@ai s&bstanei
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n&<i n2Bi'&i 2 t& eti alt2eAa (e2t sat&l n%str&4 Un sat eti t&4 Un sat ri(i2at la niAel&l
aD&r&l&i4 A@ Aenit (in C@'&l 5r&@%asei s<i s'&n a2estea4 )entr& % sing&r (at @i<a@
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(&2e n ser'entin (in &rbe n Ae2Bea 2etate4 A*lase@ n s*rit &n l&2r&C 'e Care (e atta ti@'
a *i '&t&t s<l (es2%'r 'rea lesneC (a2 % an&@e s*ial n& @<ar *i %'rit s ntreb sa& si
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'rln2i'at&i +ransilAaniei4 De Are% (%& se2%le n2%a2e sta& a2i e'is2%'ii 2at%li2i4 Ce aAea@ s
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gseteC i elC n a2east Ae2B%4 (%@neas2 i Al(i2eas2 2l(ire4 Lab%rat%r&l 'entr&
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Ke'&ratL (e la UniAersitatea (in Iai4 Lab%rat%r&l a'arine &nei @ari ntre'rin(eri (e statC 2e
2a&t sa 'r%@%AeDe ex'l%atarea 'lantel%r @e(i2inaleC i 2are areC (e2iC neA%ie i (e % se2ie
(e 2er2etri tiini*i2e4
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(e %rar&l i@'&s t&t&r%r salariail%rC iC (e2iC i *a (e %rar&l 2r&ia i e& i era@ s&'&s 2a
sl&jba al bibli%te2ii Batea&e&@C Bibli%te2a se gsete i ea t%t n CetateC "UBC n& (e'arte
t%2@ai (e Lab%rat%r&l 'entr& 2er2etarea 'lantel%r @e(i2inale4 La %ra 2n( Ana % l&a agale (in
&rbe s're CetateC =ni '&tea@ 'er@ite s eAa(eD 'entr& % j&@tate (e 2eas (e la Bateane&@4
)&tea@ s<@i *a2 (e l&a& 'rin 2etate i s<i ies n ntN@'inareC *ie 'e Are% str(&a (in
a'r%'ierea 2ate(ralei 2at%li2eC *ie 'rin 'ar2&l (in *aa 2aDr@iiC *ie @ai j%sC 'e %sea&a n
ser'entin4 -i ast*elC (e la % Are@e ne ntNlnea@C ne %'rea@ % 2li'C s2Bi@ba@ &n 2&AntC
(%&4 Ni2i%(at n<% ns%ea@4 )retexta@ 2 a@ (e l&2r&C 2 treb&ie s @ nt%r2 (e grab
la bibli%te24 Cte%(at Ana @i 2%@&ni2a 2e @ai tia (es're Le%nte4 @i *2&se@ %bi2ei&l s
% sal&t 2& 2te<&n n&@e (e 'lant (e lea2C (e *ie2are (at 2& alt&l4 Ce @ai *a2iC O(%lean% H Ce
Aeti albastreC De(eel&le H Ce tiri (in l&@ea largC Ci&b%i2% H n2%tr% te legeniC Cer2el&% H
@i aii 2aleaC La@&ra '@nt&l&i H )e 2ine 2a&iC Mngierea a'el%r H 9 -i 2a s r@n n
at@%s*era i n A%2ab&lar&l lab%rat%r&l&i eiC i s'&nea@ (iAersC (&' 2&@ @i Aenea bine 3
L@iC NalbC ,n(&ni4 "tNnjenelC !in(e2&444 a a22e'ta '%re2lele :?@bin(4
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D&' AiDitaC 2e % B%trrN@ i % *2&r@ @'re&n la C@'&l 5r&@%aseiC relaiile (intre Ana i
@ine a& l&atC n s*ritC t%t&iC % alt n*iare4 N& *2&ser &@erii @ni 2&n%tin 2& tl'ile ei
g%ale n Aia l&i Gr&iaC n *a<t 2ais&l&i H 9 Mai a'%i 'rin ntNlnirile (in CetateC s<a ns2&t ntre
n%iC n2et&l 'e n2et&lC (ar n 2&rs (e abia 2teAa s't@niC &n *el (e inti@itate aD&rieC 2e 2&ta
se r%steas2 ntr<&n @%( (ens i la'i(ar4 N& I/a@ s trea2 Da(arni2 ni2i &na (in '&inele
2li'e BrDite a2est%r @ere& KntN@'lt%areL ntniri4 Ana n& @ @ai eAita ni2i j%s n &rbe4 "<
a ter@inat 2& %2%lirile4 Da2 i<ar *i *%st 2t&i (e '&in ne'l2&te sa& ne(%rite a2este ntNlniriC
Ana ar *i '&t&t s a'&2e s're lab%rat%r 'e alte str(&eC sa& la alt %r4 D&' 2teAa s't@ni
aj&ngea@ (e2i . &n *el (e nelegere ta2itC 2N<n *ie2are DiC sa& a'r%a'eC ne A%@ ntlni la *el4
A2este ntniri n& aAea&C (in '2ateC
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ni2i (&rata &n&i 2nte2 '%'&larC (e (%r4 Ca &n a'r%'%s a
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**YHHarginea a2est%r s2&rte %'ririC i s'&n Anei ntr<% Di I [ KCre( 2 A%i n2e'e s s2ri&
iari '%eDiiC 2&@ (e @&lt . n<a@ @ai s2ris4 Dar '%eDiile n& A%r *i @ai l&ngi (e2t IM a2este
ntniriC 2e in 2t &n s&s'in 7L KAr *i e'ini<@ati2eLC rs'&n(e AnaC Ki @ie n&<@i 'la2
e'igra@ele 7L KNi2i @ie n&<@i 'la2LC i s'&nC K(ar 2&@ a@ '&tea K<L re@e(ie@ neaj&ns&l
a2est%r instantaneeC 2e n& ng(&ie ni2i % (es*&rare liri2 H )%ate 2 ntNlnirile a2esteaC al<<
n%astreC ar treb&i s *ie l&ngi 2a bala(eleC 2nte2e ea s2rile nalte ale 2i%2rlieiC '%Aeti *r
n2Beiere L're2isC ns2n( alte '%Aeti444L
KN&<i aa HL Di2e eaC n2er2n( s 'le2eC (ar @na i r@ne n @na @ea % 2li' @ai @&lt
*2e2t (e %bi2ei4 "e 'ier(&se Ana ntr<&n 2nte2 l&ngC 2e n2e'ea4
ntr<alt DiC 2n( a@ sal&tat<% 2& n&@ele (e MngiereIi A'el%rC Ana @i ( % re'li2C 2e @i se
'r& a'r%a'e % 'r%A%2are4
K"&nt 2&ri%as s A( 2n( ai s<@i s'&i =Neb&<nNriT< 7 HL
K)%ate 2 n& Aa @ai tre2e @&lt i<i a&Di i a2easta '%re2l4 +reb&ie s @ai ate't4 n2 n& ai
bine@eritat<%L4
A@ re@ar2at 2& ti@'&l 2 Ana se gsea ntr<% *%arte b&n (is'%Diie s&*leteas2 n(e%sebi a
(%&a DiC (&' 2e se nt%r2ea (&@ini2a seara (in C@'&l 5r&@%aseiC @i a(&2ea (e la
s't@n la s'tN@n Aeti t%t rrrIi @b&2&rt%are n le4rjt&r 2& starea s&*leteas2 a l&i
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L%%nte4 A*la@ ast*el 2 n a2east 'eri%a( (e ti@'4 2ara2teriDat 'rin 2as2a(a t&t&r%r
niAel&ril%rC Le%nte se F Fx%bn(ea4 "e re(%bn(t@ Le%nte4 Dar ntr<&n *el (est&l F% 2i&(at4
A'r%a'e 'ara(%xal4 Le%nte 2%ntin&a s A%rbeas2 n a22ente t%t @ai graAe (es're ti@'&l (e *
aiiC 2art<i n& (e @&lt i se 'rea nesig&r 0i (e@%raliDant (ar a2&@ (e<a (re't&l in*ernal4
KGea@n&lL @e& 'are4 re (e alt 'arteC 2 s<ar re(%bn(iC t%t&iC n2et&l 2& n2et&l4 Ana @i
@'rtete *rNnt&ri (in 2eea 2e ii s'&ne el4 *trnt&rile snt Aariai&ni 'e a2eeai te@C ?nt%ars
i 'e *a i 'e (%s4 A're2ieri *r @enaja@ente as&'ra ti@'&l&i (e *a4 Materia i ntin(e
'&terea4 In Aea2&ri (e (e@&lt nea@&l n%str& @ai aAeaC la rs2r&2iC % salAare 3 retrage<F Fa n
'reist%rie4 n 2%n(iiile (e aDi ni2i retragerea a2easta r&bt *r&nD Aer(e4 n 2%libele 'lai&ril%rC i
la a@narC n& rr4ai e 2& '&tin4 "e (istr&ge t%t&lC 2a(e t%t&l4 "&nte@ trans*%r@ai '&r i si@'l&
n @ase (e r%biC la (is'%Diia &n&i n%& GengBisC 2are are ns la n(e@n 2ea @ai ansat
teBni2 (e (istr&gere4 N%iC 2a nea@C a@ res'irat S<a (e2enii n libertateC i a@ n2e'&t s
art@ ee<a@ ,f&. A2&@ O &r@rete (istr&gerea siste@ati2 a rit&l&i 2are a l&at tr&'
'rintre n%i4 "e4 &r@rete (es<iarea @e@%riei4 "e reteaDC br&tal i 2& *ierstr&l4 *2e Aal%rileC
'entr& 2a &r@aii n%tri s n& @ai gseas2
. &n4 s'rijin s'irit&al i ni2i &n te@ei (e @n(ri2 ni2ieri i n ni@i24 Mine Aa *i t%t&l la
'@nt sa& ras
i 2&@ ni2i n<ar *i *%st Are%(at4 "e @a2in 2%ntiinele 2&@'r 2&getele4 -i Le%nte n& Ae(e
ni2ieri ni2i &n
ii( se@n 2 Aa @ai *i 2n(Aa alt*el4 "e 'are 2 l&@ea %22i(ent&l&i este % l&@e a as*init&l&iC a
'r%s'eritii CU'rins (e (%r&l (e @%arteC a a@&rg&l&i 2are n& @ai
: A%ina (e a *a2e ist%rie4 9 n 2i&(a &n%r atari 'reri a're ti@'&l (e *aC Le%nte s'%rete
@ere&C l&ntri24
"&*letete el e @ai tare (e2t %rien(4 N& se @ai si@te ni2i b%lnaAC ni2i 'ier(&t4 Ar Area s
bir&ie (%ar ntr<att eB s n(&re t%t&l 2& st%i2is@C s se (%@ineC s '%at l&a la neA%ieC
B%trriC la re2e4 " n&<l @ai atingC a*e2tiA ni2i % @'rej&rareC %ri2are ar *i ea4 A2&@ 2n(
@atOrir4 3 nneb&nitC (%rin( s '&n st'nire 'e t%t 2e existC I4 ar Area s (ea (%Aa(a 2
@ateria n& l<a nAins4
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Br%(ni2ii 2%ntin& s *a2 &n *el (e *r%n( instin2tiA *a (e sit&aie4 Le re'&gnC (esig&rC
%ri2e a(a'tare la l&@eaC Dis n%&C 2e se njgBebeaDC sil&in( n ti'are ana'%(a t%ate
se2t%arele Aieii4 Dar br%(ni2ii se 2%@'%rta ne2erebral4 5r%n(a l%r se ist%AeteC ra's%(i2C n
rea2ii %rgani2eC negn(ite4
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ne2&n%s2&iC i (e 're*erin 'entr& a2eiaC 2are 'rintr<&n as'e2t sa& alt&l alL *iinei l%r iDb&tes2
s ias (in n%r@4 )e la n2e'&t (e t%a@n ea @ s&r'rin(e 2& % n%& 2&n%tin4 O *e@eie
br&netC %a2BeC se stat%rni2ete la Ban 'entr& n& se tie 2l Are@e4 Kn2 % 'ri'itLC @i
s'&n rese@nat4 "t ina n&<@i ins'ir ni2i % n2re(ereC (ar a22e'tC 2& A%ieC *r A%ieC n%&a
'rietenie a O2taAiei4 5e@eiaC n2 (est&l (e tnrC 'are inteligentC are %2Bi AiiC negri i linii
2a '%t s *ie ntr<(eAr ale &nei Kitalien2eLC (re't 2e se (4 Des2in(e (e 'e la Ara(C &n(e (&'
s'&sele eiC n ti@'&l 2el&i (e al (%ilea rDb%i @%n(ialC a '&s te@ei &nei @ari est%riiC 2& De2i
(e rDb%aie4 ntre'rin(erea ar *i *%st nai%naliDat n& (e @&lt4 -i a2&@ *e@eia &@bl (in l%2 n
I%2C s se 2't&ias24 i gsete &n re*&gi& n Ban&l br%(ni2il%r4 Are % graie (e igan24
"&sine s&s i tare 2 ar *i sing&ra r@i a &nei *a@ilii (e italieniC 2are n ti@'&l 'ri@&l&i
rDb%i @%n(ial s<ar *i stabilitL ntr<&n sat (e 'a la Ara(4 +atl ar *i *%st 'ietrar4 A@n(%i
'rinii i<ar *i @&rit (e gri' s'ani%l n ti@'&l &nei e'i(e@ii (e '%@inC 2& as'e2te (e 2i&@4
,rnnn( sing&r i *r s2&tC ar *i *%st 2res2&tC n2 (e 2%'ilC (e<&n 're%t r%@Nn *r
%(rasleC (ar (%rit%r (e 2%'ii4 Mai '%Aestete *e@eia (es're sine 2 a *%st @ritatC 2 s%&l i<a
@&rit n @'rej&rri triste 2a@ &n an nainteF (e iDb&2nirea 2el&i (e al (%ilea rDb%i @%n(ial4
Dei A(&AC ea a re&it s nliri'e i s (&2 la n*l%rireC 2& aj&t%r&l '%'ii Utatl ei a(%'tiAV
@area est%r ie4 Din 2Bi'&l 2&@ '%Aestete an&@e *rnt&ri (e AiaC se (es'rin(e l@&rit 2
*e@eia 'riAete as&'ra &n%r nt@'lri i *a'teC 2areC (a2 ar *i l%st realeC ar trans*%r@a
tre2&t&l ei ntr<&n r%@an (e aAent&ri4 Italian2a are % *ab&laie AieC &n si@ a&tenti2 al
'it%res2&l&iC % n2linare s're a@n&nt&l<@rt&rieC n2t 2ele s'&se (e ea 'ar aieAea 'etre2&teC
ni@i2 ns2%2itC 2&
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t%ate 2C (&' 2&@ aAea@ s a*l& @ai trDi& t%t&l< ^ ns2%2it i ni@i2 aieAea 'etre2&t4 5e@eia
iDb&tete K& a(&ne si@'atiaC 'rieteniaC ba (rag%stea br%(ni2il%r4 La Ban ea se Ar 2&
n(rDneal *ireas2 n t%