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History of the Delhi

Sultanate
By: Jehanzeb Mumtaz, Mustafa Iqbal, and Ayaz Azam
History of the Delhi
Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate was a Delhi-based Muslim kingdom that ruled
over large parts of India for 320 years (1206 1526). Five dynasties
ruled over Delhi Sultanate: the first four of which were of Turkic origin
and the last was the Afghan Lodi. The Lodi dynasty was replaced by
the Mughal dynasty.

The five dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (120690), the Khilji
dynasty (12901320), the Tughlaq dynasty (13201414), the Sayyid
dynasty (141451), and the Afghan Lodi dynasty (14511526).

Qutb-ud-din Aibak, an ex slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first
sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India.
Afterwards the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central
India, but both failed to unite the Indian subcontinent.
Geography
The Delhi Sultanate was a Delhi-based Muslim
kingdom that ruled over large parts of India for 320
years (1206 1526).
Culture
Muslim society during the period was dominated
by the Turkish rulers. Sanskrit was the written way,
the way which poems were written down. The
country showed the important role which Sanskrit
continued to play during these years. The Turks
who came to India were deeply influenced by the
Persian language which had become the literary and
administrative language of Central Asia from the
tenth century onwards.
Administration
The central administrative machinery of the
Sultanate consisted of the nobles controlling various
offices with the Sultan at the helm of affairs.
The wazir, as the head of the diwan-i wizarat, was
the most important figure in the central
administration. In the early Islamic world, there was
no sanction for the position of the Sultan.
With the disintegration of the Caliphate, the Sultan
began to appear in the sense of a powerful ruler-an
independent sovereign of a certain territory.
Religion and Society
The Main religion in India at that time was Sunni
Islam. There were the sultans who were the head of
the head then came the noble people and then at the
end came the slaves who didnt have many rights.
Monuments and Trade
The most beautiful palaces were built during the Islamic
periods, some of the monuments were forts to protect the
sultan.

When the Turks came to India, they brought with them a number
of new musical instruments, such as the rabab and sarangi, and
new musical modes and regulations.
Most of the Sultanate rulers also patronised music. Balban
encouraged the setting up of a society of dancers and musicians.
Ala-ud-din Khalji patronised musicians such as Gopal Nayak and
Amir Khusrau, who were conferred the title of nayak, or master.
Khusrau introduced many Perso-Arabic ragas such as aiman,
ghora, sanam, iman, zilb and sazagiri. He is also credited with
having invented the sitar. Though music was banned in Ghiyas-
ud-din's time, it was encouraged by Muhammad Tughlaq. Firuz
Shah TugWaq is said to have been very fond of music. He got the
Indian classical work Ragadarpan translated into Persian
Music
Music
The Sultanate painting shows an attempt to arrive at
a fusion of the newly-introduced Persian and Indian
traditional styles. The illustrated manuscript of
Ni'mat Namat of the early 16th century, for
instance, shows the fusion of Persian and Jaina
styles.
Many of the illustrated manuscripts show the
influence of Jain and Rajasthani painting styles. Out
of the Sultanate painting tradition emerged three
major sub-styles-Mughal, Rajasthani and Deccani
schools, all of which displayed an individuality
while bearing some common elements.
Art & Paining
Art & Painting
Hindus occupied an important role in foreign, as in domestic,
trade, although foreign Muslim merchants, known as
khurasani, also had a large share of it. The rulers of the coastal
kingdoms in the Deccan accorded to foreign merchants certain
extra-territorial rights and special concessions, in
consideration of the heavy taxes which they paid to the
treasury.
An organized class of brokers handled the business on the
coast and inside the country. The imports consisted mainly of
certain luxury items for the upper classes, and a general
supply of all kinds of horses and mules, in which India was
deficient. Hindus had never attached any importance to
cavalry, but seeing the success of the Muslim horsemen, they
started to substitute horses for elephants. The exports included
large quantities of food-grains and cloth.
Industry
Coins for trade
Trade
The Delhi sultanate used the silk route to trade. This
brought many things to India, for example it
brought spices and cothing for the people of India.
It also brought wealth because they could do trade
and earn money.