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Howard Pitler

Elizabeth R. Hubbell
Matt Kuhn
Kim Malenoski
Classroom Instruction
%oreword by Robert &. Marzano
Techn logy
Classroom Instruction
Howard Pitler
Elizabeth R. Hubbell
Matt Kuhn
Kim Malenoski
!ssociation 'or $u(er)ision Mid*continent Research 'or
and +urriculum ,e)elo(ment Education and -earning
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Using technology with classroom instruction that works ? Howard Pitler
. . . Met al.N. (.
ncludes bibliogra(hical re'erences and inde..
$54 ;":*1*81==*2<"2*= B(bk. 9 alk. (a(erC 1. Educational technology
7. E''ecti)e teaching. . Pitler/ Howard/ 1;<7I
722" 3"1.33Odc77
1: 1" 1= 1< 18 13 17 11 12 2; 2: 2" 1 7 3 8 < = " : ; 12 11 17
-ist o' %igures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . )i %oreword b$
%obert &' Mar(ano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i !cknowledgments. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iii ntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1
I. What Will Students Learn? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1. Setting b!ecti"es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1#
Word Processing !((lications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1: #rganizing and
5rainstorming $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 ,ata +ollection
Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7< Web Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 7; +ommunication $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
II. Which Strategies Will Pro"ide $"idence
of Student Learning? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %&
'. Pro"iding (eedbac) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *1
Word Processing !((lications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
,ata +ollection Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Web Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <2
+ommunication $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <3
%. Pro"iding +ecognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5&
,ata +ollection Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =2
Multimedia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =1
Web Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =7
+ommunication $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ==
III. Which Strategies Will ,el- Students .c/uire
and Integrate Learning? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #1
*. Cues0 1uestions0 and .d"ance rgani2ers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #%
Word Processing !((lications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "<
$(readsheet $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "=
#rganizing and 5rainstorming $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ""
Multimedia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :7
5. 3onlinguistic +e-resentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Word Processing !((lications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ::
$(readsheet $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :;
#rganizing and 5rainstorming $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;3
,ata +ollection Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;:
Multimedia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Web Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11<
5. Summari2ing and 3ote 6a)ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11&
Word Processing !((lications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
#rganizing and 5rainstorming $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17<
Multimedia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17;
Web Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
+ommunication $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13<
#. Coo-erati"e Learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1%&
Multimedia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Web
Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
+ommunication $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1<3
4. +einforcing $ffort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
$(readsheet $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1<=
,ata +ollection Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1=1
I7. Which Strategies Will ,el- Students Practice0
+e"ie80 and .--ly Learning? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
&. Identifying Similarities and Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15#
Word Processing !((lications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1=:
$(readsheet $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1"7
#rganizing and 5rainstorming $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1";
,ata +ollection Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:7
19. ,ome8or) and Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14#
Word Processing !((lications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:;
$(readsheet $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;2
Multimedia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;7
Web Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;<
+ommunication $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;;
11. :enerating and 6esting ,y-otheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '9'
$(readsheet $o'tware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728
,ata +ollection Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712
Web Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717
.--endi;< Planning for 6echnology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '1#
Re'erences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77=
nde. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731
!bout the !uthors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781
-ist o' %igures
1 5loomPs Ta.onomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7 E''ect $ize o' 1.2 $howing a Percentile @ain o' 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "
3 The 4ine +ategories o' nstructional $trategies That !''ect
$tudent !chie)ement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
8 The nstructional $trategies ,e'ined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;
5 The %our Planning Huestions and +orres(onding
nstructional $trategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
= The $e)en +ategories o' Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7 Matri. o' the %our Planning Huestions/ the 4ine +ategories o'
nstructional $trategies/ and the $e)en +ategories o' Technology . . . . . 13
Cha-ter 1
1.1 KWH- +hart +reated in Microso't Word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1; 1.7 -earning
@oal +ontract +reated in Microso't Word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 1.3 #rganizing
Tem(late +reated in ns(iration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 1.8 KWH- Tem(late
+reated in Kids(iration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 1.< @oal Plan +reated with
ns(irationPs @oal Plan Tem(late . . . . . . . . . . 78
1.= Personal -earning Plan +reated with ns(irationPs @oal
$etting Tem(late. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7<
1." Pre*assessment $ur)ey ntroduction +reated with $ur)ey Monkey . . . . . 7:
1.: Pre*assessment $ur)ey +reated with $ur)ey Monkey . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:
1.; Pre*assessment $ur)ey Results 'rom $ur)ey Monkey. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7;
1.12 E.cer(t 'rom McRE-Ps +ontent Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.11 Rubi$tarPs #nline Rubric 5uilder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.17 Presentation Rubric 5uilt with Rubi$tar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.13 Rubi$tarPs Rubric $earch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3<
Cha-ter '
7.1 Microso't Word ,ocument $howing Tracked +hanges
and nserted +omments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 7.7 Microso't
Word Readability $tatistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 7.3 ,esign 0iew o'
enstruction with Pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8= 7.8 nstructor $ummary 'rom
enstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8" 7.< Huestion Re(ort 'rom enstruction . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8" 7.= $tudy @uide 'rom
enstruction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8: 7." ProFect %low +hart 'or a +lass
Poetry 5log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <<
-ist o' %igures )ii
Cha-ter %
3.1 +erti'icate o' Recognition +reated with Microso't PowerPoint . . . . . . . =7
Cha-ter *
8.1 +ueing and Huestioning Using Kids(iration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ": 8.7
+om(leted !d)ance #rganizer +reated in ns(iration . . . . . . . . . . . . :1 8.3
5rainstorming with ns(irationPs Ra(id%ire Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :7 8.8 $creen $hot
o' $tellarium with the !ndromeda @ala.y Highlighted . . . . . :<
Cha-ter 5
<.1 @ra(hics*Enhanced 4otes9 The -etter $ound D,E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :;
<.7 E.cer(t 'rom a @ra(hics*Enhanced $tudy @uide9
The -i'e +ycle o' a 5utter'ly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;2
<.3 Un'ormatted $eismic ,ata ,ownloaded 'rom
The U.$. @eological $ur)ey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;1 <.8 @ra(h o'
the EarthPs %ault -ines +reated in Microso't E.cel . . . . . . . . . ;7
<.< +once(tual?,escri(ti)e Pattern #rganizer +reated
with Kids(irationPs 0ocabulary Word Tem(late . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;8
<.= @eneralization?Princi(le Pattern #rganizer +reated
with the Microso't Word #rganization +hart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;<
<." Time*$eQuence Pattern #rganizer +reated in ns(iration . . . . . . . . . . ;=
<.: E(isode Pattern #rganizer +reated in ns(iration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;"
<.; Process?+ause*E''ect Pattern #rganizer +reated in Microso't Word . . . . ;"
<.12 -ight 5ulb -uminosity and Tem(erature +om(arison +reated
with 0ernier -ogger Pro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
<.11 Pictures o' To(az +rystals Taken with a Pro$co(e ,igital Microsco(e . . 127
<.17 0ideo mage o' a Trio( Taken with a Pro$co(e ,igital Microsco(e . . . . 127
<.13 %rame o' a Time*-a(se Mo)ie on Plant @rowth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
<.18 $lide in a PowerPoint Multimedia Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:
<.1< %rames 'or an !nimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
<.1= %rame 'rom a +laymation Mo)ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
<.1" $toryboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
<.1: $imulation 'rom the 4ational -ibrary o' 0irtual Mani(ulati)es . . . . . . 11=
<.1; E.(lore-earningPs Mouse @enetics @izmo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11"
Cha-ter 5
=.1 Rule*5ased $ummarizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 =.7 Track
+hanges #(tion $creen in Microso't Word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 =.3 Microso't Word
,ocument $howing Tracked +hanges . . . . . . . . . . . 173 =.8 Microso't Word
,ocument $howing !uto$ummarize Mark*U( . . . . . . . 173 =.< +ombination 4otes
+reated in Microso't Word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 =.= ,e'inition %rame Tem(late
+reated in ns(iration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17= =." Problem?$olution Tem(late +reated
in ns(iration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17: =.: +haracter Trait 4ote*Taking Tem(late +reated
in ns(iration . . . . . . . 17; =.; @uidelines 'or a PowerPoint +ombination 4otes
!ssignment . . . . . . . 131 =.12 +ombination 4otes Tem(late +reated in PowerPoint . .
. . . . . . . . . . 137 =.11 +ombination 4otes +reated in PowerPoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 137
)iii -ist o' %igures
Cha-ter #
".1 Rubric 'or a +oo(erati)e Multimedia ProFect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
".7 @rou( Roles in a +oo(erati)e Multimedia ProFect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
".3 Element o' a +oo(erati)e Web $ite +reation ProFect . . . . . . . . . . . . 18:
Cha-ter 4
:.1 E''ort Rubric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1<"
:.7 E''ort?!chie)ement $(readsheet Tem(late +reated
in Microso't E.cel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1<: :.3 +om(leted
E''ort?!chie)ement $(readsheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1<; :.8 E''ort?!chie)ement
+hart +reated in Microso't E.cel. . . . . . . . . . . . 1=2 :.< +hart +om(aring E''ort to
$cores +reated in Microso't E.cel . . . . . . . 1=1 :.= $ur)ey on E''ort +reated with
$ur)ey Monkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1=3 :." $ur)ey Results 'rom $ur)ey
Monkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1=8
Cha-ter &
;.1 @eogra(hy +lassi'ication Table +reated in Microso't Word. . . . . . . . . 1=; ;.7
5ook +lassi'ication Table +reated in Microso't Word . . . . . . . . . . . . 1"2 ;.3 !nalogy
o' the ,ay Puzzle +reated in Microso't Word. . . . . . . . . . . . 1"1
;.8 +om(arison $(readsheet Tem(late +reated in Microso't E.cel9
My Weight on ,i''erent Planets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1"3
;.< +om(leted +om(arison $(readsheet9
My Weight on ,i''erent Planets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1"8
;.= +om(arison +hart +reated in Microso't E.cel9
My Weight on ,i''erent Planets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1"8
;." +om(arison +hart +reated in Microso't E.cel9
$unrise and $unset Times in 0arious +ities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1"<
;.: +om(arison +hart $tage 79 Rows nserted
and ,ay -engths +alculated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1"=
;.; +om(arison +hart $tage 39 ,ates Re'ormatted and Times Hidden. . . . . 1""
;.12 +om(leted +om(arison +hart9 $catter Plot $howing
the 0ariation in ,ay -ength 'or the Month o' !ugust . . . . . . . . . . . . 1":
;.11 0enn ,iagram +reated in ns(iration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1";
;.17 -iterature +om(arison +reated with
ns(irationPs +om(arison Tem(late . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:2
;.13 @ra(hics*Enhanced +om(arison +reated with 1:1
Kids(irationPs +om(arison Tem(late . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1
;.18 !nimal +lassi'ication +reated with Kids(irationPs
!nimal +lassi'ication Tem(late . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1
;.1< Word +lassi'ication +reated with Kids(irationPs
+lassi'ying deas Tem(late. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:7
;.1= +lassi'ication Matri. o' D5ugsE %eaturing #bser)ational ,ata . . . . . . . 1:<
;.1" @ra(hing Motion E.(eriment Using 0ernier -ogger Pro
and Microso't Word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:=
-ist o' %igures i.
Cha-ter 19
12.1 Parabolic @ra(hing Practice !cti)ities +reated in Microso't E.cel . . . . 1;7 12.7
5attle@ra(h PowerPoint @ame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;< 12.3 $creen $hot
o' Writeboard $howing +hanges 5etween 0ersions . . . . . . 722 12.8 5ack(ack To*,o
-ist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721
Cha-ter 11
11.1 nteracti)e $a)ings and n)estment $(readsheet
+reated in Microso't E.cel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72< 11.7
nteracti)e $a)ings and n)estment $(readsheet9 ProFections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72= 11.3 nteracti)e
$a)ings and n)estment +hart9 ProFections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72" 11.8 nteracti)e
$a)ings and n)estment $(readsheet $tage 19
+ell %ormula Programming 'or +om(ounding nterest . . . . . . . . . . . 72: 11.<
nteracti)e $a)ings and n)estment $(readsheet $tage 79
+ell %ormula +o(y Programming 'or +om(ounding nterest . . . . . . . . 72; 11.=
nteracti)e $a)ings and n)estment $(readsheet $tage 39
+ell %ormula Programming 'or Totals Earned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72; 11."
,igital Probe !cti)ity9 Water (H Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711 11.: ,igital
Probe !cti)ity9 Water (H +om(arison +hart . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717 11.; $creen $hot o'
Making History Multi(layer $trategy @ame . . . . . . . . . 713
!.1 McRE- Technology $olutions BMT$C -esson Plan Tem(late . . . . . . . . 771 !.7
-esson Plan +reated with the MT$ -esson Plan Tem(late . . . . . . . . . 777
b$ %obert &' Mar(ano
sing !echnolog$ )ith *lassroo" +nstruction !hat ,orks is a book
that is long o)erdue.
WhatPs s(ecial about this book is that its authors are 'luent in both
the research behind the nine categories o' instructional strate*gies
(resented in the book *lassroo" +nstruction !hat ,orks and the
ways in which technology can su((ort and integrate these strategies.
They know how to teach the strategies and why teachers need to
ha)e (ractical and immediately a((licable solutions 'or their class*
rooms. They understand adult learning theory and the 'inesse neces*
sary to teach to learners who ha)e )arying com'ort le)els with
n addition/ the authors are true educational technology leaders.
,r. Howard Pitler/ an !((le ,istinguished Educator and 4ational ,is*
tinguished Princi(al/ brings years o' e.(erience as an educator and
(rinci(al o' a technology magnet school. His team consists o' 'ormer
classroom teachers/ administrators/ and educational technology
e.(erts who ha)e a )ery clear understanding o' the changes that
must take (lace in classrooms i' we ho(e to meet the needs o' our
71st century learners. Elizabeth R. Hubbell/ a 'ormer Montessori edu*
cator/ brings her e.(ertise in disco)ery and e.(eriential learning and
.ii %oreword
her enthusiasm 'or integrating technology into the elementary class*
room. Matt Kuhn/ a 'ormer secondary science teacher/ administrator/
and national laboratory technology*outreach coordinator/ con)eys
his understanding o' and (assion 'or using technology to teach teen*
agers. Kim MalenoskiPs e.(erience with education at the school/ dis*
trict/ state/ and national le)els ha)e instilled in her a great
commitment to gi)ing (ractical guidance that makes a busy teacherPs
li'e easier. %inally/ all the authors understand that a 'ocus on technol*
ogy is not DaboutE the technology itsel'/ but about changing teacher
(ractice/ moti)ating our students/ and creating learning e.(eriences
that will be a((licable to their world and 'uture work(laces.
Through (ractical guidance and anecdotes that (ut the reader
right in the classroom/ the authors show technologyPs (ower to reach
and moti)ate )arious learners. They consistently make the (oints o'
)h$ and ho) teachers should use modern technological tools to
trans'orm and energize their (ractice. They also make e.(ert use o'
Dnonlinguistic re(resentationE in the )ariety o' gra(hics/ screen*
shots/ and illustrations included throughout the book.
Perha(s this bookPs most (ower'ul contribution to the 'ield is the
'act that it (ro)ides such a wide )ariety o' resources and then sho)s
to )hich strategies those resources best appl$. %or i' your
class is studying constellations/ itPs wonder'ul that you and your stu*
dents can access a 'ree/ online (lanetarium/ but what e.actly is it that
you want your students to do with this e.traordinary resourceR !nd
how will the use o' this resource engage your students in learning
acti)ities that ha)e been shown to im(ro)e achie)ementR This
bookOthrough its structure o' (lanning Questions/ categories o'
instructional strategies/ and categories o' technologyOshows teach*
ers how to think about using technology to hel( their students (rac*
tice conce(ts/ engage in higher*order thinking/ and (roblem sol)e. n
other words/ it hel(s teachers hel( their students hone skills and
knowledge that will ser)e them 'or the rest o' their li)es. That is the
ultimate goal o' education.
his book would not ha)e been (ossible without the assistance/
ad)ice/ and enthusiasm o' 'ellow educators. We would like to thank
our colleagues at Mid*continent Research 'or Education and -earning
BMcRE-C/ (articularly 0icki UrQuhart/ 'or her care'ul edit*ingK -inda
5rannan/ 'or her re)iew o' the manuscri(t and work to obtain
co(yright (ermissionsK -isa Ma.'ield/ 'or kee(ing us orga*nizedK 5rian
-ancaster/ 'or our grou( (hotoK Robert &. Marzano/ 'or re)iewing the
manuscri(t and writing the %orewordK and -ou +icchinelli and
,a)id %rost/ 'or their ongoing su((ort. We are also grate'ul to Rae
4iles/ 'or her writing contribution and detailed Quality assurance
re)iew o' the manuscri(tK and to &oel $olomon/ 'or his care'ul insight
about the manuscri(t during its 'inal writing (hases. ! 'ew o' the in this book are based on acti)ities and stories 'rom two
esteemed educators/ !lan 4o)ember and ,a)id Warlick/ to whom we
e.(ress our gratitude. We e.(ress our thanks to our editor at !$+,/
Katie Martin. %inally/ we would like to thank the 'olks at @lobal
WRTe$/ enstruction/ and ns(iration/ who took e.tra time to hel( us
(ro)ide best*(ractice o' using technology to make a
di''erence in student learning.
ince its (ublication in 7221/ *lassroo" +nstruction !hat ,orks-
%esearch.Based Strategies for +ncreasing Student /chieve"ent has
sold nearly a million co(ies and has become standard reading mate*
rial 'or book studies in classrooms/ schools/ and districts across the
United $tates. Heeding educational leadersP call 'or students to Dlearn
how to learnE in order to better (re(are 'or the 71st century/ teachers
are now using a common )ocabulary to (in(oint the strategies o'
learning that they use and teach to their students.
!t Mid*continent Research 'or Education and -earning BMcRE-C/
our worksho( based on *lassroo" +nstruction !hat ,orks continues
to be our most (o(ular o''ering/ o'ten with standing room only. Within
the educational technology de(artment/ our most reQuested worksho(
is in)ariably DUsing Technology with +lassroom nstruc*tion That
Works.E Most teachers are eager to embrace new technolo*gies/ as
they ha)e seen their studentsP e.citement and moti)ation increase
when they do so. With technology standards becoming an integral
(art o' studentsP education/ teachers are more enthusiastic than e)er
to learn new technologies and methods. What we o'ten hear/
howe)er/ are Questions and comments suggesting that teachers
7 ntroduction
are uncertain about how to e''ecti)ely incor(orate technology into the
D think the interacti)e games and Web sites that 'ind are )ery
engaging 'or my students/ but Pm at a loss as to how and when to use
these during my teaching.E
DWhat skills are my students actually learning when they use
science (robesRE
D,o Sdrill and (racticeP games ha)e any (lace in the classroom/
or are they a waste o' time 'or my studentsRE
D see that multimedia technology engages many di''erent ty(es
o' learners/ but Pm unclear as to how to best use it to im(ro)e stu*
dent achie)ement.E
D know technology is im(ortant/ but Fust donPt ha)e the time to
learn all o' these new (rograms.E
Teachers who ha)e brought technology into their classrooms are
aware that it (ro)ides an o((ortunity to di''erentiate instruction and
change their classrooms into dynamic learning en)ironments. #'ten/
they also know that there are s(eci'ic strategies that will hel( their
students become li'elong learners. ' you are one o' those teachers/
this book will show you the (ower o' combining these a((roaches. '
you are a teacher who hasnPt yet begun to use technology in your
classroom/ donPt wait any longer. Use this book to increase your
knowledge and understanding o' e''ecti)e classroom strategies and
the su((orting and enhancing role that technology can (lay.
Throughout this book/ we re'er to the research and the categories
o' strategies described in the original *lassroo" +nstruction !hat
,orks' %or a detailed discussion o' both/ we urge you to look there.
Why 6echnology?
!s you become more 'amiliar with the nine categories o' strategies
and the (ro'ound im(act that using these strategies can ha)e on stu*
dent achie)ement/ you might ask yoursel'/ DWhy technologyRE ' the
bene'its come 'rom using the strategies/ what di''erence does it make
which tools and resources a teacher em(loys in the e''ortR
Research indicates that technologyPs use in the classroom can
ha)e an additional (ositi)e in'luence on student learning when the
ntroduction 3
learning goals are clearly articulated (rior to the technologyPs use
BRingsta'' T Kelley/ 7227K $chacter/ 1;;;C. !((lied e''ecti)ely/ tech*
nology im(lementation not only increases student learning/ under*
standing/ and achie)ement but also augments moti)ation to learn/
encourages collaborati)e learning/ and su((orts the de)elo(ment o'
critical thinking and (roblem*sol)ing skills B$chacter T %agnano/
Russell and $orge B1;;;C also (oint to how technology can gi)e
students Dmore control o)er their own learning/E 'acilitating the ana*
lytical and critical thinking and the collaboration cham(ioned in the
constructi)ist a((roach to education B((. 1I7C. Their conclusionO that
integrating technology into instruction tends to mo)e class*rooms 'rom
teacher*dominated en)ironments to ones that are more student*
centeredOis su((orted re(eatedly in the literature. !lthough student
achie)ement outcomes in these learning en)iron*ments are di''icult to
measure because many e.isting assessments do not adeQuately
ca(ture higher*order thinking skills/ in such constructi)ist classrooms/
students tend to work coo(erati)ely/ ha)e more o((ortunities to make
choices/ and (lay a more acti)e role in their learning BMize T @ibbons/
7222K Page/ 7227K +onnell/ T @ray/ 7227C. %urthermore/
technology allows teachers to di''erentiate instruction more e''iciently
by (ro)iding a wider )ariety o' a)enues 'or learning that reach
students o' di)ergent readiness le)els/ inter*ests/ and learning styles.
$ome o' the di''erences in how learning occurs in technology*rich
classrooms as contrasted with traditional classrooms may account 'or
consistent 'indings that technology can be es(ecially e''ecti)e with at*
risk and s(ecial needs students. ! research synthesis con*ducted by
McRE- suggests that com(uter*assisted instruction Bknown as +!C
contributes to the learning o' at*risk students 'or a number o' reasons9
t is nonFudgmental and moti)ationalK 'acilitates 'reQuent and
immediate 'eedbackK allows teachers to indi)idualize learning through
designs to meet studentsP needsK allows 'or more student autonomyK
and (ro)ides a multisensory learning en)iron*ment incor(orating
images/ sounds/ and symbols B5arley et al./ 7227/ (. ;"C.
!s we know/ 5enFamin 5loom created a ta.onomy o' learning
acti)ities that range 'rom sim(le/ 'actual recall o' material to the
8 ntroduction
a((lication and e)aluation o' conce(ts. The ta.onomy has since been
re)ised to re'lect cogniti)e (rocesses B!nderson T Krathwohl/ 7221K
+ochran/ +onklin/ T Modin/ 722"C Bsee %igure 1C. Technology can
certainly be used to (ro)ide immediate 'eedback 'or drill and (ractice/
but it can also be used as a tool 'or the analysis/ synthesis/ and
e)aluation o' in'ormation. Today/ students use com(le. multime*dia
(roducts and ad)anced networking technologies to learn interac*ti)ely
and work collaborati)ely on (roFectsK to gather/ organize/ and analyze
in'ormationK to sol)e (roblemsK and to communicate in'or*mation
BRingsta'' T Kelley/ 7227C.
(igure 1
5loomPs Ta.onomy as +ogniti)e Processes
Robert &. Marzano and &ohn $. Kendall B722"C o''er another (er*
s(ecti)e in their 4ew Ta.onomy o' Educational #bFecti)es/ which
incor(orates a wide range o' 'actors in)ol)ed with studentsP thinking
and learning. This ta.onomy is an intersecting matri. o' three sys*
tems o' thought and three knowledge domains. When a student starts
ntroduction <
a new task/ the self s$ste" decides whether to continue the current
beha)ior or engage in the new acti)ityK the "etacognitive s$ste" sets
goals and monitors (rogress/ clarity/ and accuracyK the cognitive s$s.
te" (rocesses in'ormationK and the kno)ledge do"ains Bin'ormation/
mental (rocedures/ and (sychomotor (roceduresC (ro)ide the con*
tent. Technology can (otentially (lay a role within any o' the sys*tems/
but seems to es(ecially su((ort the cogniti)e system by hel(ing
students to com(rehend/ a((ly/ and recall conce(ts.
,r. Rae 4iles/ director o' curriculum and technology 'or $edgwick
Public $chools BU$, 83;C in Kansas/ tells this story to illustrate the
e''ect that technology can ha)e on student learning9
Educators 'rom more than 8< di''erent school districts came to )isit our high
school during the 'irst year o' our one*to*one la(to( com(uter initia*ti)e. Most
came thinking they were going to see the technology/ and le't realizing it
wasnPt really about the technology at all. t was about the teach*ing and the
learning and how the technology had trans'ormed what was occurring within
the school walls.
Ty(ically/ when )isitors arri)e at our school/ we conduct a 7<* to 32*
minute im(rom(tu tour o' the 'acilities/ allowing 'or s(ontaneous con)ersa*
tions with 'aculty and students. %ollowing the tour/ the )isitors ha)e a chance
to s(eak with a D(anel o' e.(ertsE9 Ten students o' )arying aca*demic track
records and socioeconomic backgrounds/ ranging in age 'rom 1= to 1:.
,uring one )isit/ the su(erintendent 'rom a neighboring school district
turned to one o' the students and said/ in a )ery accusatory tone/ D$o/ how is
this Mthe one*to*one la(to( com(uter accessN really making a di''erence 'or
The young man/ +asey/ looked the su(erintendent sQuarely in the eyes
and re(lied/ D$ir/ Pm s(ecial ed/ and P)e been s(ecial ed all my li'e. 5ut with
this thing here/E he said/ (ointing to his la(to( com(uter/ Dwith this/ am Fust
as smart as the ne.t kid.E
To say you could hear a (in dro( was an understatement. Those in the
room sat in stunned silence. The su(erintendent recoiled and immediately
asked/ D4o/ really. How is it making a di''erence 'or youRE
+asey res(onded9 D donPt read so well/ and learning through my eyes is
hard. With the la(to(/ what do is write what am going to turn in/ like an
essay or answers to the Questions the teacher has on the assignment/ and
then go u( to the menu bar and (ull down to Ss(eak it.P Then (ut on my
head(hones/ close my eyes/ and listen as the com(uter reads back to me
what ha)e written. ' what ha)e written makes sense/ then know what
ha)e written is #K to hand in. ' not/ then can go back and make my
+asey was a senior who had been (laced in s(ecial education as a 1st
grader. %or almost 17 years/ his learning style had been controlled by his
teachers/ re'lecting the way that they assumed he learned best. 5ut
= ntroduction
technology had allowed +asey to use his strengths to learn in the way he
actuall$ learned best. t hel(ed him belie)e he could be success'ul. +asey
went on to graduate 'rom high school and to com(lete a two*year 'ire sci*
ence degree 'rom a nearby community college. He now works as a
'ire'ighter?EMT and was married this (ast s(ring.
t is our intention/ with this book/ to show teachers e''ecti)e ways
to use the dynamic technology tools a)ailable to them to enrich stu*
dentsP learning e.(eriences/ encourage (roFect*based instruction/ and
gi)e students the skills they need to become li'elong learners and
critical thinkers. 5e'ore e.(loring these technologies/ howe)er/ a brie'
re)iew o' the research underlying our recommendations will be
+esearch from Classroom Instruction
That Works
Researchers at McRE- analyzed and synthesized the results o' more
than 122 research re(orts on instruction 'rom the (ast 32 years to
identi'y categories o' instructional strategies that ha)e the most (ro*
'ound e''ect on student achie)ement. The analysis re)ealed nine cat*
egories o' instructional strategies that ha)e a high (robability o'
enhancing student achie)ement 'or all students0 in all subject areas0
and at all grade levels. ! re(ort describing the 'indings/ / !heor$.
Based Meta./nal$sis of %esearch on +nstruction0 was (ublished in
1;;:. ! P,% o' the 1"7*(age re(ort is a)ailable at
n 7221/ Robert &. Marzano/ ,ebra Pickering/ and &ane E. Pollock
wrote *lassroo" +nstruction !hat ,orks- %esearch.Based Strategies for
+ncreasing Student /chieve"ent' This book (resents the research and
theory behind the categories o' instructional strategies 'irst identi*'ied in
McRE-Ps 1;;: re(ort and also o''ers e.(licit sugges*tions 'or
classroom (ractice/ and ad)ice 'or instructional (lanning. The authors
e.(lain how researchers used a techniQue known as "eta.anal$sis to
identi'y the strategies. ! meta*analysis combines the results 'rom a
number o' studies to determine the a)erage e''ect o' a gi)en techniQue.
+ombining the (ools o' subFects in a number o' studies yields data that
are much more meaning'ul than those gener*ated by studies with smaller
sam(le sizes. When conducting a meta*analysis/ a researcher translates
the results o' a gi)en study into a
ntroduction "
unit o' measurement re'erred to as an effect si(e' !n e''ect size
e.(resses the increase or decrease in achie)ement o' the grou( that
recei)ed the inter)ention in terms o' standard de)iation units.
%or an e''ect size o' 1.2 means that the a)erage score
'or students in the e.(erimental grou( is 1.2 standard de)iation higher
than the a)erage score o' students in the control grou(. !n e''ect size
can be translated into a percentile gain' Percentile gains are related to
the normal distribution or Dbell cur)eE o' student achie)ement score
!n e''ect size o' 1.2 calculates to a (ercentile gain o' 38 (oints.
$o/ i' a control grou( scored at the <2th (ercentile/ and the
e.(erimental grou( had an e''ect size o' 1.2/ the e.(erimental grou(
would score at the :8th (ercentile Bsee %igure 7C.
%igure 3 lists the nine categories o' instructional strategies that
showed strong e''ects on student achie)ement/ along with the
(igure '
E''ect $ize o' 1.2 $howing a Percentile @ain o' 38
: ntroduction
(igure %
The 4ine +ategories o' nstructional $trategies
That !''ect $tudent !chie)ement
Strategy ."erage Percentile 3umber of
$ffect Si2e :ain Studies
1. denti'ying similarities and di''erences 1.=1 8< 31
7. $ummarizing and note taking 1.22 38 1";
3. Rein'orcing e''ort and (ro)iding .:2 7; 71
8. Homework and (ractice ."" 7: 138
<. 4onlinguistic re(resentation ."< 7" 78=
=. +oo(erati)e learning ."3 7" 177
". $etting obFecti)es and (ro)iding .=1 73 82:
:. @enerating and testing hy(otheses .=1 73 =3
;. +ues/ Questions/ and ad)ance .<; 77 17<1
corres(onding a)erage e''ect size/ (ercentile gain/ and number o'
studies included.
The e''ect size and (ercentile gains re(resent an a)erage o' the
total e''ect sizes and (ercentile gains within each category. This
means that the e''ect sizes in some o' the studies could ha)e been
smaller or larger than the e''ect size shown here. n other words/
although each o' these categories has been shown to boost student
achie)ement/ none works eQually well in all situations.
%igure 8 (resents McRE-Ps de'initions o' the nine categories o'
strategies. When teachers look o)er this list/ they ty(ically notice that
these are strategies they already use. ndeed/ seasoned teachers are
masters o' Questioning/ hel(ing students to set goals/ (ro)iding
'eedback/ and gi)ing students the tools they need to understand con*
ce(ts. The (ur(ose o' the research is to hel( teachers hone their
cra't9 denti'y the strategies more (recisely/ use the strategies more
(ur(ose'ully/ and ultimately/ im(ro)e student learning.
ntroduction ;
(igure *
The nstructional $trategies ,e'ined
Category Definition
1. denti'ying similarities and di''erences Enhance studentsP understanding o' and ability to use knowledge
by engaging them in mental (rocesses that in)ol)e identi'ying
ways items are alike and di''erent.
7. $ummarizing and note taking Enhance studentsP ability to synthesize in'ormation and organize it
in a way that ca(tures the main ideas and su((orting details.
3. Rein'orcing e''ort and (ro)iding recognition Enhance studentsP understanding o' the relationshi( between
e''ort and achie)ement by addressing studentsP attitudes and
belie's about learning. Pro)ide students with rewards or (raise 'or
their accom(lishments related to the attainment o' a goal.
8. Homework and (ractice E.tend the learning o((ortunities 'or students to (ractice/ re)iew/
and a((ly knowledge. Enhance studentsP ability to reach the
e.(ected le)el o' (ro'iciency 'or a skill or (rocess.
<. 4onlinguistic re(resentation Enhance studentsP ability to re(resent and elaborate on knowledge
using mental images.
=. +oo(erati)e learning Pro)ide students with o((ortunities to interact with each other in
grou(s in ways that enhance their learning.
". $etting obFecti)es and (ro)iding 'eedback Pro)ide students a direction 'or learning and in'ormation about
how well they are (er'orming relati)e to a (articular learning goal
so that they can im(ro)e their (er'ormance.
:. @enerating and testing hy(otheses Enhance studentsP understanding o' and ability to use knowledge
by engaging them in mental (rocesses that in)ol)e making and
testing hy(otheses.
;. +ues/ Questions/ and ad)ance organizers Enhance studentsP ability to retrie)e/ use/ and organize what they
already know about a to(ic.
(our Planning 1uestions for Instruction
!s more and more teachers learn about the nine categories o' e''ecti)e
instructional strategies/ many ask i' McRE- o''ers any guidance regard*
ing when to use a (articular strategy. The answer is yes. %our Questions
'rame the nine categories o' strategies/ and McRE-Ps research shows
that certain strategies are more a((ro(riate 'or res(onding to certain
Questions. The 'ollowing (lanning Questions should guide teachers in
aligning curriculum/ instruction/ and assessment9
12 ntroduction
1. What will students learnR
7. Which strategies will (ro)ide e)idence o' student learningR
3. Which strategies will hel( students acQuire and integrate
8. Which strategies will hel( students (ractice/ re)iew/ and a((ly
Each o' the categories o' instructional strategies relates to at least
one o' these Questions. We should mention that since the (ubli*cation
o' *lassroo" +nstruction !hat ,orks0 McRE- has s(lit some o' the
original categories/ such as reinforcing effort and providing recog.
nition0 into two distinct strategies to more accurately re'lect the di'*
'erent (ur(oses each ser)es during the (lanning stages o' a unit. !s
shown in %igure </ some strategies a((ly to more than one (lanning
QuestionK in this book we address each strategy and related technolo*
gies only once/ as a cha(ter in the Question*s(eci'ic section where the
strategy 'irst a((ears.
Research shows that e''ecti)e teaching results in im(ressi)e gains
'or student achie)ement/ regardless o' (rior achie)ement B@oodwyn/
1;;;C. !s teachers well know/ the maFority o' their teach*ing time and
the strategies that they use 'all within hel(ing students
(igure 5
The %our Planning Huestions and +orres(onding nstructional $trategies
Part Planning 1uestions Instructional Strategies Cha-ter
What will students learnR 6 $etting obFecti)es 1
Which strategies will (ro)ide e)idence 6 Pro)iding 'eedback 7
o' student learningR 6 Pro)iding recognition 3
Which strategies will hel( students 6 +ues/ Questions/ and ad)ance organizers 8
acQuire and integrate learningR 6 4onlinguistic re(resentation <
6 $ummarizing and note taking =
6 +oo(erati)e learning "
6 Rein'orcing e''ort :
0 Which strategies will hel( students 6 denti'ying similarities and di''erences ;
(ractice/ re)iew/ and a((ly learningR 6 Homework and (ractice 12
6 @enerating and testing hy(otheses 11
ntroduction 11
to DacQuire and integrate new knowledge.E %or this reason/ $ection
is this bookPs longest/ com(rising 'i)e cha(ters o' strategies and tech*
nologies to hel( teachers during this most crucial ste( in (lanning 'or
instruction. %igure < (ro)ides a com(rehensi)e ma( o' where we
address each strategy in this book.
Pairing 6echnology and
$ffecti"e Instructional Strategies
n the article D5uilding 5etter nstruction/E McRE- consultants Kathy
5rabec/ Kim %isher/ and Howard Pitler B7228C outline how technology
could be used to com(lement and enhance the nine categories o'
teaching strategies. The authors grou( technology into 'i)e genresO
)ord processing applications0 organi(ing and brainstor"ing soft)are0
"ulti"edia0 data collection tools0 and ,eb resourcesOand (ro)ide o' how these )arious ty(es o' technology su((orted the
nine categories o' strategies. $ince that articlePs (ublication/ McRE-
has added two additional genres o' technology to the list9 spreadsheet
soft)are and co""unication soft)are' %igure = lists the se)en
catego*ries o' technology along with de'initions and o' each.
#ur e.(erience has shown that most (eo(le (re'er e.(loring the
instructional strategies 'irst and the technologies that su((ort them
second. %or this reason/ we ha)e organized this book by the o)er*
arching (lanning Questions/ then by the categories o' instructional
strategies that corres(ond to those (lanning Questions/ and 'inally by
the technologies that best su((ort those strategies. To ensure that our
matri. will endure o)er time as new technologies emerge/ we ha)e
grou(ed the )arious technologies by 'unction Bsee %igure "C. Please
note that although there are se)en identi'ied genres o' tech*nologies/
not all a((ly to e)ery strategy. %urthermore/ the technology
we (resent throughout the book are not a com(rehensi)e listing o' all
(ossible ways in which technology can be used in the classroomK
rather/ they ser)e as guiding o' how teachers can use
hardware and so'tware that is readily accessible in their daily work.
We understand that indi)idual teachersP decisions about tech*nology
integration will re'lect the technology a)ailable/ their stu*dentsP 'acility
with that technology/ the curricular goals (ursued/ and the time
17 ntroduction
(igure 5
The $e)en +ategories o' Technology
6echnology Category Definition $;am-les
Word (rocessing a((lications $o'tware that enables the user to ty(e Microso't Word/ #(en#''
and mani(ulate te.t Writer/ @oogle ,ocs/ MA!ccessU
$(readsheet so'tware $o'tware that enables the user to ty(e Microso't E.cel/ #(en#''
and mani(ulate numbers +alc/ ns(ire,ata/ @oogle
#rganizing and brainstorming $o'tware that enables the user to cre* ns(iration/ Kids(iration/ 5rain$torm/
so'tware ate idea ma(s/ KWH- charts/ and $M!RT deas/ 0isual Mind
category ma(s
Multimedia $o'tware that enables the user to cre* iMo)ie/ Microso't Mo)ie Maker/
ate or access )isual images/ te.t/ and !dobe Photosho(/ Microso't
sound in one (roduct PowerPoint/ KidPi. $tudio/ Keynote/
#(en#'' m(ress
,ata collection tools Hardware and so'tware that enable Probeware/ U$5 microsco(es/ class*
the user to gather data room res(onse systems
Web resources Resources a)ailable on the Web that 0irtual tours/ in'ormation/ a((lets/
enable the user to gather in'ormation mo)ies/ (ictures/ simulations
or a((ly or (ractice a conce(t
+ommunication so'tware $o'tware that enables the user to 5logs/ e*mail/ 0oP/ (odcasts/ wikis
communicate )ia te.t/ (resentation/
)oice/ or a combination o' the three
,o8 to :et the =ost from 6his >oo)
Within each o' this bookPs Question*'ocused (arts/ each cha(ter
'ollows a similar structure. We begin with a short o)er)iew o' the
selected strat*egy/ 'ollowed by generalizations 'rom the research and
s(eci'ic recom*mendations 'or using the strategy in the classroom. We
then (ro)ide s(eci'ic o' technologies that su((ort the
strategy. !ll cha(*ters include teacher* and student*created
many o' which re'lect actual lesson (lans/ (roFects/ and (roducts.
Throughout/ we also gi)e s(eci'ic directions 'or when to use the
tools/ how they hel( students to use learning strategies/ and which
tools work best 'or each task. We ha)e ke(t our directions 'or skill*
based use o' the hardware or so'tware minimal/ as we truly want this
ntroduction 13
(igure #
Matri. o' the %our Planning Huestions/ the 4ine +ategories o'
nstructional $trategies/ and the $e)en +ategories o' Technology
Planning Instructional
1uestions Strategies
What will students learnR $etting obFecti)es
Which strategies will (ro* Pro)iding 'eedback
)ide e)idence o' student
learningR Pro)iding recognition
+ues/ Questions/ and
ad)ance organizers
Which strategies will hel(
students acQuire and $ummarizing and note
integrate learningR
+oo(erati)e learning
Rein'orcing e''ort
denti'ying similarities and
Which strategies will hel(
students (ractice/ re)iew/ Homework and (ractice
and a((ly learningR
@enerating and testing





6 6 6 6 6
6 6 6 6
6 6 6 6
6 6 6 6
6 6 6 6 6 6
6 6 6 6 6
6 6 6
6 6
6 6 6 6
6 6 6 6 6
6 6 6
18 ntroduction
book to be a (ractical guide rather than a (rocedural manual. The
directions we do (ro)ide re'lect the most current iterations o' these
(roducts at the time o' this bookPs (ublication. %or ste(*by*ste(
instructions on using the )arious so'tware and hardware/ we recom*
mend consulting !tomic -earning Bwww.atomiclearning.comC or
Reci(es8$uccess Bwww.myt8l.comC. These subscri(tion*based
resources (ro)ide short/ sim(le instructions/ with screen shots and
)oiceo)ers/ 'or (er'orming a )ariety o' tasks with many (rograms. %or
a more structured classroom en)ironment/ educators might take a
short course o''ered at many com(uter retailers and most commu*nity
colleges. !nd although we ha)e tried to kee( the so'tware and
hardware we discuss generic/ at times we do mention (roducts by
name and talk about their (articular 'eatures. -inks to these resources
can be 'ound in the Re'erences section.
The book concludes with a 'ocus on how to (lan 'or technology in
the classroom. We discuss the national technology standards 'or both
teachers and students and include a lesson (lan tem(late that weds
curriculum with standards and technology. Teachers/ technol*ogy
leaders/ and administrators will 'ind directions 'or im(lementing a
technology initiati)e into their school or district/ and teachers will 'ind a
technology integration rubric to use to see how 'ar theyP)e (ro*
gressed on the road to technology integration.
Technology can trans'orm teaching and learning. +ollected in this
book are a number o' truly use'ul educational tools and*(les/
aligned to research*(ro)en teaching strategies. Used as we ha)e
described/ this technology can mo)e you 'rom a good teacher to a
great teacher and gi)e you the (ositi)e in'luence on student learning
you ha)e always ho(ed 'or.
I. What Will Students Learn?
t the start o' the (lanning (rocess/ the 'irst Question 'or a teacher to
answer is usually the most ob)ious9 ,hat kno)ledge and skills
do + )ant "$ students to have at the end of this lesson or unit1 To
answer this Question/ you must know the s(eci'ic standards/ bench*
marks/ and su((orting knowledge that students are su((osed to
learn. Setting objectives is the instructional strategy to use during this
(hase o' (lanning/ and it is the 'ocus o' +ha(ter 1.
$ETT4@ #5&E+T0E$
he instructional strategy o' setting objectives 'ocuses on estab*
lishing a direction 'or learning. $etting goals or obFecti)es is a skill that
success'ul (eo(le ha)e mastered to hel( them realize both
short*term and long*term accom(lishments.
McRE-Ps research on setting obFecti)es su((orts the 'ollowing
1. $etting instructional goals narrows what students 'ocus on.
7. Teachers should encourage students to (ersonalize the learn*
ing goals the teacher has identi'ied 'or them.
3. nstructional goals should not be too s(eci'ic.
5ased on these 'indings/ we ha)e 'our recommendations 'or class*
room (ractice9
1. $et learning obFecti)es that are s(eci'ic but 'le.ible.
1: What Will $tudents -earnR
7. !llow students 'le.ibility in (ersonalizing the learning obFec*
ti)es or goals.
3. +ommunicate the learning obFecti)es or goals to students and
8. +ontract with students to attain s(eci'ic learning obFecti)es or
Research shows that when students are allowed to set some o'
their own learning goals/ their moti)ation is higher than when they
(ursue only teacher*set goals BHom T Mur(hy/ 1;:3C. Technology
enhances the goal*setting (rocess by (ro)iding organizational and
communication tools that make it easier to clari'y the learning obFec*
ti)es. Technology also gi)es teachers access to resources that can
hel( them identi'y and re'ine standards and obFecti)es. n this cha(*
ter/ we show how to use the 'ollowing technologies to set obFecti)es9
)ord processing applications0 organi(ing and brainstor"ing soft)are0
data collection tools0 ,eb resources0 and co""unication soft)are'
Word Processing .--lications
Many teachers already use a com(uter to write their lesson and unit
(lans and are 'amiliar with the basics o' word (rocessing. ! natural
ne.t ste( 'or teachers is to be more mind'ul o' setting obFecti)es when
they begin to de)elo( a unit or lesson/ and to (rom(t their stu*dents to
think about setting obFecti)es as well. There are se)eral ways that a
word (rocessor can hel( teachers and students set goals more
#ne method that many educators use is to ha)e students create a
KWH- chart/ which (rom(ts indi)idual students to record what they
know about a to(ic/ what they )ant to learn about that to(ic/ how they
(lan to learn it/ and what they learned at the end o' the unit or acti)ity.
This is a great way to acti)ate (rior knowledge and to ha)e students
(ersonalize their learning goalsOone o' the research*based
classroom recommendations.
The draw tools in most word (rocessing (rograms make creating
KWH- charts Quite easy. n Microso't Word/ the draw toolbar is
located on the bottom o' the screen and also at 0iew W Toolbars W
,rawing. n !((leworks/ the draw (alette is )isible when you click on
the ,raw button on the button bar. !s %igure 1.1 illustrates/ creating a
$etting #bFecti)es 1;
KWH- chart in a word (rocessing (rogram is sim(ly a matter o' draw*
ing 'our )ertical rectangles and then keying the a((ro(riate letter in
each bo..
(igure 1.1
KWH- +hart +reated in Microso't Word
Why go through the e''ort to create an electronic chart when it
would be easy enough to Fust draw one on a (iece o' (a(erR -ook
again at the third classroom recommendation 'or setting obFecti)es/
listed on (age 1:9 to communicate these goals with both students and
(arents. ' the KWH- chart is electronic/ it can be e*mailed to (arents
in a newsletter or e)en (osted to the schoolPs Web site.
To trans'orm a Microso't Word document into a Web (age/ Fust
click %ile W $a)e !s/ and then select Web Page Bhtm/ htmlC in the (ull*
down menu at the bottom o' the dialog bo.. The document is now in
HTM- 'ormat and ready to be (osted to the nternet. +heck with your
school or district 'or the (rocedures to 'ollow when you (ost to the
schoolPs Web site.
The 'ourth classroom recommendation in setting obFecti)es is to
create learning contractsOa ste( that hel(s to make goals more (er*
sonal 'or students. %or Ms. +ullen/ a "th grade social
studies teacher whose class is learning about the basic structure o'
the go)*ernment/ uses a word (rocessor to create a Dlearning goals
sheetE Bsee %igure 1.7C to (rom(t her students to think about the class
goals and set some s(eci'ic goals o' their own.
72 What Will $tudents -earnR
(igure 1.'
-earning @oal +ontract +reated in Microso't Word
!'ter creating this contract/ Ms. +ullen can (rint co(ies and dis*
tribute them to her students to 'ill in by hand/ or she can go one ste(
'urther and sa)e the contract as a docu"ent te"plate0 (ut it on the
school ser)er/ and ask students to o(en and 'ill in the contract elec*
tronically during indi)idual work time. The di''erence between a tem*
(late and a regular document is that a tem(late reQuires the user to
sa)e it as a new document/ kee(ing the original unchanged. This
s(ares the teacher the e.tra work o' going in to 'i. the original when*
e)er a student accidentally sa)es o)er it.
How do you create a document tem(lateR -ike creating a Web
(age/ this is a sim(le (rocess. +lick on %ile W $a)e !s and then
choose ,ocument Tem(late B.dotC 'rom the (ull*down menu.
rgani2ing and >rainstorming Soft8are
This 'amily o' so'tware includes the well*known titles Kids(iration B'or
grades (reKI<C and ns(iration B'or intermediate and older stu*dentsC.
These use'ul tools (ro)ide an easy way 'or students to (lan and
organize their thoughts in the beginning o' a unit/ during instruc*tion/
and a'ter a unit.
Ha)e you e)er o)erheard a (arent o' one o' your students ask
their child/ DWhat did you learn todayRE and cringed when the stu*dent
re(lied/ D donPt knowER !llowing students to (ersonalize their learning
goals is one ste( toward ensuring that they understand what they are
learning and why. t has the added moti)ating bene'it o'
$etting #bFecti)es 71
allowing students some control and )oice in their learning. ! )ery
sim(le but e''ecti)e way to hel( students (ersonalize their learning
goals is to create a tem(late using Kids(iration/ ns(iration/ or simi*lar
organizing and brainstorming so'tware.
!s you (resent your broad learning obFecti)e/ standard/ or bench*
mark to your students/ (ro)ide them with an organizing tem(late that
(rom(ts them to think about what they would most like to learn and
what they might 'ocus on to meet the learning obFecti)e. The tem(late
shown in %igure 1.3/ created by an #regon high school teacher/ is an With teacher and student learning goals in (lace/ the
lessonPs (ur(ose is clear 'rom the outset/ and the instruc*tion that
'ollows becomes more meaning'ul. End the class (eriod by re)iewing
what was accom(lished toward meeting the obFecti)es.
(igure 1.%
#rganizing Tem(late +reated in ns(iration
!nother way to encourage students to (ersonalize and track
(rogress toward their learning obFecti)es is with a KWH- tem(late
similar to the one mentioned earlier. %igure 1.8 shows an ns(iration
tem(late created by a 3rd grade teacher/ Mr. %ua/ who begins a unit
on weather by asking his students the KWH- Questions9 What do you
kno)R What do you )ant to knowR 2o) will you 'ind outR What did
you learnR
Mr. %uaPs tem(late illustrates the ada(tability and 'le.ibility o' the
so'tware. !s the students com(lete the chart/ they create a clear
)isual o' their current knowledge/ which will hel( them make
77 What Will $tudents -earnR
(igure 1.*
KWH- Tem(late +reated in Kids(iration
decisions about what else they would like to know. The DHow will you
'ind outRE column (rom(ts students to (lan their learning ste(s and to
decide where and how to learn what they want to know. $tudents
without well*de)elo(ed writing skills/ including younger students/
those with s(ecial needs/ and English language learners/ may re(re*
sent their current and desired knowledge by choosing 'rom the hun*
dreds o' gra(hics and symbols included with both Kids(iration and
ns(iration. ' a desired gra(hic is not (art o' an e.isting symbol
library/ there are two ways to add it. n Kids(iration/ the students can
use the $ymbol Maker drawing and (aint tool to create (ractically any
gra(hic/ using a )ariety o' lines/ sha(es/ brushes/ and colors on a
Dcan)as.E !nd in both Kids(iration and ns(iration/ teachers can cus*
tomize the symbol library by inserting/ deleting/ or creating a new
symbol library o' their choosing. This is e.actly what one elementary
teacher did as she was (re(aring her class to read the book 3nots on
a *ounting %ope by 5ill Martin &r. $he 'ound gra(hics de(icting the
book co)er/ setting/ and characters/ and made a custom symbol
library 'or her students to use. They used Kids(iration to create webs
showing what they knew about the book be'ore and a'ter reading the
$etting #bFecti)es 73
To install a custom gra(hic into a symbol library/ begin by select*
ing the gra(hic that you want to install in the symbol library. #(en the
$ymbol (alette and dis(lay the library to which you want to install the
gra(hic. 4e.t/ choose Utility W nstall User $ymbol. $elect $tandard
$ymbol $ize or !ctual $ize/ and then click #K. When your symbol is
installed/ it a((ears at the bottom o' the $ymbol (alette entries and
can be used Fust like any other symbol. B4ote- n Kids(iration/ this
utility is under the Teacher menu.C
#rganizing and brainstorming so'tware o'ten 'eatures sound
com(onents/ meaning that students o' all ages can also use their
)oices to record thoughts and ideas about their new learning.
Recording a sound in ns(iration is easy. $elect the symbol or to(ic
with which you want the sound associated. +hoose Tools W $ound W
Record. When you are ready to record the sound or )oice/ choose the
record button on the dis(lay. Aou can record u( to 32 seconds o'
sound at one time. 5e sure to sa)e when you are 'inished.
5ecause the technology allows users to modi'y in'ormation/ edit
(lans/ and easily add new learning/ students can work on their KWH-
charts throughout a unit.
ns(iration includes two tem(lates that are worth e.(loring as you
work with students to (ersonalize their learning obFecti)es. The 'irst is
the @oal Plan tem(late Bsee %igure 1.<C/ which comes with ns(iration
)ersion ".< and higher and is located in the Planning 'older. Mrs.
Ma.'ield/ a middle school teacher/ uses the tem(late shown in this
'igure to hel( her students get organized 'or a school*wide reading
challenge. $tudents who read 'i)e selected books and com(lete the
reQuisite con'erence by a (redetermined due date recei)e a X32 gi't
certi'icate to a local bookstore. !s Mrs. Ma.'ieldPs students 'inish each
book/ they meet with her indi)idually 'or a Quick discussion and
com(rehension check/ and to share what they enFoyed most about the
This is a wonder'ul ste(*by*ste( a((roach that (ro)ides a great
way 'or students to organize their learning and set goals. tPs worth
noting the bene'its again9 4aming and dating the ste(s in)ol)ed in
meeting a goal lends concreteness to the (rocess and increases the
likelihood o' accom(lishing tasks.
The second ns(iration tem(late thatPs use'ul 'or hel(ing stu*dents
(ersonalize learning obFecti)es and (lan how to accom(lish
78 What Will $tudents -earnR
(igure 1.5
@oal Plan +reated with ns(irationPs @oal Plan Tem(late
their work is called @oal $etting. t too is included with )ersion ".< and
higher and is located in the Planning 'older. %igure 1.= shows one o'
this tem(latePs (ossible a((lications. n this notice how
student $amantha 5arnes has identi'ied her strengths and set goals
'or her (ersonal learning.
#ne o' the (otential barriers to using organizing and brainstorm*
ing so'tware is that it is not readily a)ailable on many home com(ut*
ersK i' you were to try to e*mail a web created in this so'tware to
(arents as (art o' e''orts to 'urther the communication o' classroom
learning goals/ 'ew would be able to o(en the 'ile. %ortunately/ there is
a way around this. 5oth Kids(iration and ns(iration allow users to
e.(ort a web as a gra(hic image/ such as a &PE@/ 5MP/ @%/ or P+T
To e.(ort an ns(iration document as an image/ sim(ly choose
%ile W E.(ort/ then choose the @ra(hics %ile tab. This will bring u( a
screen asking you to choose the 'ormat in which you would like to
e.(ort your ns(iration 'ile. Aour choices are @%/ &PE@/ T%%/ P4@/
and P+T. !'ter you click ne.t to the ty(e o' gra(hic you would like/
Fust hit $a)e/ and your ns(iration diagram will be con)erted.
$etting #bFecti)es 7<
(igure 1.5
Personal -earning Plan +reated
with ns(irationPs @oal $etting Tem(late
This e.(orted gra(hic is a sna(shot o' the ns(iration 'ile. t can be
inserted into a word (rocessing (rogram and e*mailed to (arents/
(ro)iding you with another way to kee( them abreast o' your obFec*
ti)es and their childPs (ersonalized obFecti)es and learning. Using
these methods will increase the odds o' hearing a more desirable
res(onse when (arents ask their child/ DWhat did you learn todayRE
Data Collection 6ools
+ollecting data with online sur)eys allows a teacher to engage learn*
ers and gather the in'ormation needed to set more meaning'ul and
(ersonalized obFecti)es. #nce you learn the (rocedures/ setting u( a
sur)ey is Quick and easy. Most sites allow you to archi)e your sur*
)eys so that you can re)ise and use them o)er again. WhatPs more/
you can collect the same sur)ey data 'rom multi(le classes. This
makes the sharing o' the results with indi)idual classes all the more
There are a 'ew guidelines 'or (utting together an online sur)ey.
%irst/ consider including some engaging background in'ormation on
the to(ic. This way/ you can use the sur)ey to acti)ate and assess
7= What Will $tudents -earnR
your studentsP (rior subFect knowledge. $econd/ be sure to include
o(en*ended Questions that will re)eal any misconce(tions that you
might need to address. %inally/ kee( the sur)ey short enough to
ensure a large res(onse and gi)e students credit 'or com(leting it.
Here are some o' 'ree or ine.(ensi)e online sur)ey
Web sites9
6 $ur)ey Monkey
This sur)ey site enables anyone to create (ro'essional online sur*
)eys Quickly and easily. t has a 'ree basic ser)ice that (ro)ides most
o' the 'eatures a teacher would need to sur)ey students.
6 Pollcat
The 'ree )ersion o' Pollcat is called Pollcat -ite. t (ro)ides an easy*
to*learn inter'ace to allow you to get your sur)ey on the Web Quickly.
Aou can )iew?download sur)ey summary re(orts/ recei)e automatic e*
mail noti'ications with your sur)ey summary re(orts/ and re)iew?
download each o' the indi)idual sur)ey res(onses.
6 Web $ur)eyor www.websur)'ree*
Here/ youPll 'ind a link to R$0ME/ a 'ree a((lication that integrates
with Microso't #utlook and other e*mail (ackages to make obtaining
'eedback 'rom (eo(le a sna(. Aou can Quickly and easily (ut together
a Questionnaire on any subFect.
6 Pro'iler Pro
This com(rehensi)e sur)ey tool was de)elo(ed to hel( KI1= educa*
tors measure both the e''ect o' integrating new technology into learn*
ing en)ironments and the e''ect o' com(rehensi)e sta'' de)elo(ment
What does the use o' data collection tools to in'orm goal setting
look like in the classroomR +onsider the o' Mr. $olomon/ a
"th grade social studies teacher whose curriculum standards include
$etting #bFecti)es 7"
many learning obFecti)es about World War . Mr. $olomon wants to
'ocus his World War unit on the decisions o' im(ortant ci)ilian and
military leaders and the maFor turning (oints in the war. #ne o' these
turning (oints was the 5attle o' -eyte @ul'/ one o' the last maFor bat*
tleshi( engagements in world history. This sea battlePs outcome le't
the &a(anese islands and mainland coast un(rotected by any signi'i*
cant &a(anese na)al or air (ower.
There are many (aths this lesson might take. Mr. $olomon
decides to use $ur)ey Monkey to create a (re*assessment sur)ey
that will engage his students and hel( him assess their (rior
knowledge/ identi'y their misconce(tions/ and 'ocus the class
obFecti)es based on their (re'erences. His sur)ey lists 'i)e (ossible
class obFecti)es based on his curriculum standards and 'eatures an
introduction he wrote based on research 'rom The 5attleshi( Page
Bwww.battleshi(. org?html?!rticles?History?History.htmC. Mr. $olomon e*
mails the sur*)ey to students to com(lete as a homework assignment
and arranges 'or students who do not ha)e nternet access at home to
com(lete the sur)ey in the library be'ore school. B' most o' his
students had not had access to e*mail accounts/ he could ha)e
arranged 'or them to com(lete the sur)ey in the school com(uter lab.C
Mr. $olomonPs sur)ey is shown in %igures 1." and 1.:.
Mr. $olomon accesses the sur)ey results online and tracks the
answers as they are recorded. 5ack in class/ he shares the sur)ey
results with his students and chooses the two most (o(ular obFec*
ti)es as the 'ocus o' the weekPs lessons on the 5attle o' -eyte @ul'.
He also allows his students to (ersonalize some o' their goals to
re'lect what as(ects o' the content are most im(ortant to them. !s you
can see 'rom the results in %igure 1.;/ the sur)ey hel(s Mr. $olomon
nar*row the class obFecti)es to De.(lain how the &a(anese battle (lan
(ro*gressed and how the !mericans reactedE and De.(lain why the
5attle o' -eyte @ul' was a maFor turning (oint in World War .E HePll
address the other obFecti)es in relation to these two main obFecti)es.
The sur)ey also hel(s Mr. $olomon identi'y student misconce(*
tions to address be'ore the class 'ocuses on the main obFecti)es.
When he shares the sur)ey results with the class/ it elicits a )ibrant
discussion and debate about the signi'icance o' this (articular battle.
The sur)ey results guide his lessons and assessments 'or the rest o'
the week.
7: What Will $tudents -earnR
(igure 1.#
Pre*assessment $ur)ey ntroduction
+reated with $ur)ey Monkey
%eproduced courtes$ of Surve$Monke$'co"'
(igure 1.4
Pre*assessment $ur)ey +reated with $ur)ey Monkey
%eproduced courtes$ of Surve$Monke$'co"'
$etting #bFecti)es 7;
(igure 1.&
Pre*assessment $ur)ey Results 'rom $ur)ey Monkey
%eproduced courtes$ of Surve$Monke$'co"'
Web +esources
Teachers can use the )ast resources o' the nternet as a guide when
setting obFecti)es during the (lanning (rocess. #ne way o' a((lying
Web resources to this end is to access standards online/ trans'orm
them into obFecti)es/ and incor(orate these obFecti)es into a rubric
that students can (ersonalize.
!s you are likely aware/ your district/ your state/ and the United
$tates as a whole ha)e set standards in nearly e)ery subFect/ and
most teachers are reQuired to tie these standards to their classroom
obFecti)es in some way. What are the ste(s teachers can 'ollow to
translate broad standards and benchmarks into rubrics to guide stu*
dent learningR $tart by looking u( your school/ district/ or state stan*
dards. Aou might e)en use national standards/ as they are the
'oundation o' most state and district standards.
Here are three online sources 'or 'inding national education
6 McRE-Ps +om(endium o' $tandards9 +ontent Knowledge*benchmarks
32 What Will $tudents -earnR
This online database o' KI17 content standards and other )aluable
standards tools is used by district and state*le)el educators across the
6 ,e)elo(ing Educational $tandards
This site is a com(rehensi)e list o' standard sources by subFect and
region. t also includes many resources related to standards de)elo(*
ment/ law/ and (ro'essional organizations.
6 +ouncil o' +hie' $tate $chool #''icers$tateYEducationYndicators?KeyY$tateYEduca*
This site links to s(eci'ic subFect area standards by state de(art*ments
o' education.
Creating standards-based ob!ecti"es. -etPs say you are a
middle school science teacher and that one o' the standards in your
curricu*lum is DUnderstands atmos(heric (rocesses and the water
cycle.E Aou might begin by going online to access McRE-Ps +ontent
Knowl*edge and 'inding the rele)ant benchmarks and indicators you
will use to set the class and indi)idual obFecti)es Bsee %igure 1.12C.
Aou decide that 'or this student (roFect you will grou( some o' the
indicators into three obFecti)es9
5bjective 6- ,e(ict all o' the water cycle (atterns and (rocesses
in a clearly understandable and related 'ashion by researching the
water cycle and creating a digital (oster suitable 'or (rinting.
5bjective 7- !ccurately describe 'i)e maFor (rocesses in the
water cycle and how they act as an interde(endent cycle/ using your
(oster as a )isual aid.
5bjective 8- +orrectly e.(lain how the 'i)e maFor (rocesses 'rom
#bFecti)e 7 a''ect climatic (atterns/ using your (oster as a )isual aid.
Creating rubrics. 4ow that you ha)e set your obFecti)es/ how do
you communicate them to your studentsR #ne answer9 +reate a
rubric. $(eci'ic/ criterion*re'erenced rubrics let students know e.actly
what is e.(ected o' them. Howe)er/ rubrics like these are not always
easy to design/ and the (rocess can eat u( (recious lesson
$etting #bFecti)es 31
(igure 1.19
E.cer(t 'rom McRE-Ps +ontent Knowledge
$tandard 19 Understands atmos(heric (ressure and the water cycle.
1. Water in the Earth systemK 7. $easons/ weather/ and climate
Knows the (rocesses in)ol)ed in the water cycle Be.g./ e)a(oration/
condensa*tion/ (reci(itation/ sur'ace run*o''/ (ercolationC and their e''ects on climatic (atterns.
!. water cycleK 5. e)a(oration in the water cycleK +. condensation in the
water cycleK ,. (reci(i*tation in the water cycleK E. sur'ace run*o'' in the
water cycleK %. (ercolation in the water cycleK @. climatic (attern.
1. Knows the (rocesses in)ol)ed in the water cycleK 7. Knows the (rocess o' e)a(oration is (art
o' the water cycleK 3. Knows the (rocess o' condensation is (art o' the water cycleK 8. Knows the
(rocess o' (reci(itation is (art o' the water cycleK <. Knows the (rocess o' sur'ace run*o'' is (art
o' the water cycleK =. Knows the (rocess o' (ercolation is (art o' the water cycleK ". Knows the
e''ects o' the water cycle on climatic (atternsK :. Knows the e''ects o' condensation on climatic
(atternsK ;. Knows the e''ects o' e)a(oration on climatic (atternsK 12. Knows the e''ects o' (re*
ci(itation on climatic (atternsK 11. Knows the e''ects o' sur'ace run*o'' on climatic (atternsK
17. Knows the e''ects o' (ercolation on climatic (atterns.
(lanning time in a teacherPs busy schedule. %ortunately/ technology
can make e''ecti)e rubrics Fust a 'ew clicks away.
! number o' resources are a)ailable that hel( teachers and e)en
students create rubrics. The 'ollowing are a 'ew o' the Web sites dedi*
cated to (ro)iding and designing rubrics. E.(lore these sites to cre*
ate a multitude o' rubric ty(es.
6 Rubrics 'or Web -essons
This site has a com(rehensi)e discussion o' rubric design 'or Web
lessons and other to(ics. t also includes a generic rubric tem(late
and general guidelines.
6 Rubi$tar
37 What Will $tudents -earnR
This is a tool to hel( the teacher who wants to use rubrics but does
not ha)e the time to de)elo( them 'rom scratch. Rubi$tar (ro)ides
generic rubrics that you can (rint and use 'or many ty(ical lessons. t
also (ro)ides these generic rubrics in a 'ormat that can be custom*
ized. Aou can change almost all suggested te.t in the rubric to make it
'it your own obFecti)es.
6 -andmark ProFect Rubric Machine www.landmark*
This Dcollaborati)e rubric toolkitE enables teachers to build e''ecti)e
assessment rubrics and to make them a)ailable o)er the nternet.
Many teacher*designed rubrics are a)ailable.
6 Te!chnology Web Portal 'or Educators
! number o' well*designed rubrics are a)ailable 'or 'ree on this site.
!'ter generating your rubric/ you can select all/ co(y/ and (aste
e)erything into a new word*(rocessing document. Membershi( is not
reQuired to generate rubrics.
6 4orthwest Regional Education -aboratory9 $cience nQuiry Model
The rubrics a)ailable at this site Bhere/ they are called scoring guidesC
hel( teachers assess studentsP (er'ormance o' the essential traits o'
science inQuiry9 connecting/ designing/ in)estigating/ and constructing
meaning. The scoring guides de'ine these traits and (ro*)ide
descri(ti)e criteria 'or student (er'ormance/ enabling teachers to gi)e
students (recise and use'ul 'eedback as well as to in'orm their
instructional obFecti)es.
Ready to build a rubric 'rom your learning obFecti)esR Remember/
the (roFect obFecti)es reQuire the students to create and use a digital
(oster. %or this go to Rubi$tar Bhtt(9??rubistar.8teachers.
org?C/ scroll down to the +reate a Rubric section/ and choose Prod*
ucts. Then choose Making a Poster to create a new rubric based on a
tem(late. Re)ise the Making a Poster rubric 'or a middle school (ro*
Fect to research and create an accurate digital (oster o' the water
cycle. +hoose the criteria to 'it the needs o' your lesson/ based on the
obFecti)es you created with your students. 4otice that as you choose
$etting #bFecti)es 33
criteria/ the rubric is automatically 'illed in 'or you. Aou can custom*ize
the te.t and add categories as you wish. %inally/ choose $ubmit when
you are ready to generate your rubric. The rubric maker will look
something like %igure 1.11.
(igure 1.11
Rubi$tarPs #nline Rubric 5uilder
Develop"ent of this educational resource )as supported0 in part0 b$ the 9'S' Depart"ent of Educa.
tion a)ards to /#!E* :/dvanced #earning !echnolog$ in Education *onsortia; at the 9niversit$ of
3ansas *enter for %esearch and #earning' !hese include %egional !echnolog$ in Education
*onsor.tiu" 6<<=>7??='
When you ha)e com(leted all o' the ste(s and ha)e created your
rubric/ choose among sa)ing the rubric online/ (rinting it/ or down*
loading it. The 'inished rubric will look something like the one in %ig*
ure 1.17. Aou might also guide students through this (rocess so that
they can customize rubrics 'or their own goals/ based on the o)erall
class obFecti)es.
4ow that you know how to create a custom/ standards*based
rubric/ go back to Rubi$tar and look at the library o' rubrics already
a)ailable 'or use and modi'ication. +lick on the to(ic o' your choice
under the ca(tion +reate a Rubric 'rom the menu Bsee %igure 1.13C to
access an amazing number o' rubrics.
Communication Soft8are
+ommunication so'tware/ such as blogs Bshort 'or DWeb logsEC and e*
mail a((lications/ (ro)ide another way 'or you and your students to
set and communicate goals and obFecti)es.
38 What Will $tudents -earnR
(igure 1.1'
Presentation Rubric 5uilt with Rubi$tar
CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Overall Concept and Depicts all five of the major Depicts most of the major Depicts some of the major Depicts a few of the major
Pattern Description water cycle patterns and pro- water cycle patterns and pro- water cycle patterns and pro- water cycle patterns and pro-
cesses in a clearly understand- cesses in an understandable cesses in a somewhat under- cesses in a confusing and unre-
able and related fashion and related fashion standable and related fashion lated fashion
Process and Cycle Accurately describes all five Describes all five major pro- Describes most major pro- Describes few of the major
Description major processes in the water cesses in the water cycle and cesses in the water cycle, with processes in the water cycle,
cycle and how they act as an how they act as an interdepen- some use of the poster as a with little use of the poster as a
interdependent cycle, using the dent cycle, using the poster as visual aid visual aid
poster as a visual aid a visual aid
Eplanation of Climatic Correctly eplains how the five Correctly eplains how most Eplains how some of the five Eplains how a few of the five
Effects major processes in the water of the five major processes in major processes in the water major processes in the water
cycle affect climatic patterns, the water cycle affect climatic cycle affect climatic patterns, cycle affect climatic patterns,
using the poster as a visual aid patterns, using the poster as a with some use of the poster as with little use of the poster as a
visual aid a visual aid visual aid
!raphics" Originality #everal of the graphics reflect One or two of the graphics $he student made the graphics, $here are no student-made
an eceptional degree of stu- reflect an eceptional degree but the designs are based on graphics
dent creativity in design and of student creativity in design the designs or ideas of others
display and display
!raphics" %elevance All graphics relate to the topic All graphics relate to the topic& 'ost graphics relate to the !raphics do not relate to the
and add to the presentation(s all borrowed graphics are topic although some are super- topic O% several borrow
impact& all borrowed graphics accompanied by a source fluous& most borrowed graph- graphics are not accompanied
are accompanied by a source citation ics are accompanied by a by a source citation
citation source citation
! blog is a Web*based (ublication o' (eriodic Fournal entries BD(ostsEC/
usually (resented in re)erse chronological order with the most current
(ost a((earing 'irst. #ne way to think o' a blog is as an online Fournal
with one or many contributors. 5ecause a blog is a (er*sonalized/
dynamic Web (age/ it is much easier to maintain and design than a
traditional/ static Web (age. Using a blog is similar to 'acilitating a
'ocus grou( online.
HerePs an Mrs. 5irnbaum/ a language arts teacher/ wants to
encourage reading during the u(coming winter break. $he sets u( a
classroom blog and (osts the titles and short/ teaser*style descri(*tions
o' 12 short stories/ along with (ossible learning obFecti)es 'or each. Then
she assigns the students to )isit the blog site/ read the (osts/ and choose
three short stories to read o)er the two*and*a*hal' week break. !'ter they
read their three stories/ they must comment on them/ using one o' the
gi)en learning obFecti)es and another obFecti)e o' their own. These
(osted comments show u( as a threaded BchronologicalC discussion with
other students who chose the same story. 5y the end o' the winter break/
Mrs. 5irnbaum returns
$etting #bFecti)es 3<
(igure 1.1%
Rubi$tarPs Rubric $earch
Develop"ent of this educational resource )as supported0 in part0 b$ the 9'S' Depart"ent of Educa.
tion a)ards to /#!E* at the 9niversit$ of 3ansas *enter for %esearch and #earning' !hese include
%egional !echnolog$ in Education *onsortiu" 6<<=>7??='
with in'ormation on each studentPs reading choices/ obFecti)es/ and
discussions. !s you can see/ this is not only a great tool 'or setting
student obFecti)es/ it also is a wonder'ul way to di''erentiate student
learning. %inally/ when students return to the classroom/ Mrs.
5irnbaum 'acilitates the discussions o' each story by 'irst bringing u(
the online discussions 'rom the blog. This gi)es students interesting
in'ormation about the stories they did not read and makes it (ossible
'or them to (ost comments to the discussions o' other stories.
There are many 'ree online ser)ices a)ailable to guide you
through the basic ste(s reQuired to set u( a blog. Most blog sites do
not reQuire you to download any so'twareK they work through your
nternet browser. Here is a list o' the common 'eatures and ca(abili*
ties that 'ree blog ser)ices include9
! )ariety o' color and style tem(lates to choose 'rom
%acilitator biogra(hy and in'ormation (age link
Res(onse?read*le)el settings Be.g./ (ublic/ class list/ 'acilitator
+omment*ty(e settings Banonymous or by user name onlyC
+omment on (osts/ or re(ly directly to other comments
,elay/ delete/ or screen comments 'rom users
%acilitator and user (ictures ne.t to (ostings
4o banners or (o(*u( ads
3= What Will $tudents -earnR
' you are willing or able to (ay a small 'ee/ you will ha)e access to
more 'eatures/ such as sur)eys and storage s(aceK howe)er/ the 'ree
ser)ices are usually su''icient 'or classroom use.
%inally/ the best way to understand how to use blogs to set obFec*
ti)es is to look at how other teachers use blogs with their classes. The
Web site Teaching 5logs Bhtt(9??escra(
teaching.htmC (ro)ides hy(erlinks to teacher blogs used as a tools 'or
teaching and re'lection/ as well as 'or communicating with stu*dents/
(arents/ or other teachers. WeP)e listed some additional blog 'or you to browse. Many o' the teachers who created them
are Fust beginning to e.(lore the 'ull (otential o' using blogs with their
students. !s you del)e into these sites/ think about ways you
might use a blog with your own students.
6 Ms. +Ps @eoblog
$tudent comments are encouraged in this high school geometry blog/
used to kee( students in'ormed about class to(ics and assignments.
$ome assignments reQuire students to (ost their answers to the blog
6 Mr. MackeyPs $cience 5log
This science class blog is linked to a com(rehensi)e Web site used
'or all as(ects o' teaching :th grade science. The blog is used to (ost
cur*rent e)ents/ news/ commentary/ and use'ul links.
6 Room =13 Talk9 Mr. HetheringtonPs =th @rade $ocial $tudies +lass
This is a class blog and (odcast site 'or a =th grade social studies
class at Horace W. Porter $chool in +olumbia/ +onnecticut. t is used
to (ro)ide class in'ormation to students and the community. t also
allows students to (ost essays and other assignments to the blog.
6 Mr. WrightPs 3rd @rade +lass
This com(rehensi)e 3rd grade class blog 'rom Wyman Elementary
$chool in Rolla/ Missouri/ is used 'or all as(ects o' teaching elemen*
tary curriculum.
$etting #bFecti)es 3"
6 Elizabeth %ullertonPs English 0 Weblog
This class blog at +olumbia +entral High $chool/ +olumbia/ Tennes*
see/ is used to teach senior English students writing/ research/ syn*
thesis o' ideas/ and critical reading. $tudents are able to (ost and use
the blog 'or collaborati)e writing.
Written e*mail communication between a teacher and students is a
sim(le way to set obFecti)es in or out o' school time. #ne as(ect o'
setting obFecti)es through e*mail is the ease in which the messages
can be stored and recorded 'or 'uture use in assessment and
con'erencing with students and (arents. !n e*mail newsletter is a sec*
ond a((lication o' the technology and a clear alternati)e to tradi*tional/
hard*co(y newsletters that students are su((osed to take home and
deli)er. %or you might collaborate with other teachers in your
grade le)el/ subFect/ or team and create a grou( newsletter to send to
all (arents on an e*mail distribution list. This newsletter might include
a standard section that outlines the u(com*ing curricular to(ics and
learning obFecti)es 'or the class. Kee(ing (arents in'ormed about
class learning obFecti)es is one way to recog*nize them as the
im(ortant team (layers that they are. t also hel(s (arents kee( their
children 'ocused on the right learning goals at home.
Here is an o' how one elementary grade*le)el team uses
e*mail and newsletters to set obFecti)es. !t the beginning o' the year/
the 1st grade team collected all e*mail addresses a)ailable 'rom (ar*
ents. They 'ound that about ;7 (ercent o' (arents had an e*mail
address they could access at home/ work/ or both. 4ow/ the members
o' the team take turns editing a monthly 1st grade newsletter. The
newsletter includes a message 'rom the (rinci(al co)ering general
school news and concerns/ and it re(orts on e)ents in s(ecial curric*
ulum areas Bmusic/ art/ (hysical educationC/ along with news about
clubs/ s(orts/ or other s(ecial subFects and acti)ities.
The 1st grade teachers also (ost the electronic newsletter on their
indi)idual classroom blogs/ and they (rint and (ost a hard co(y on the
classroom wall. They go o)er it with their students once a month on
the day it is sent out to (arents so that 'amilies can discuss
3: What Will $tudents -earnR
it at home. The 1st grade team makes sure that all newsletters start
out with the to(ics and a summary o' the learning obFecti)es 'or the
u(coming month. The team has 'ound that this has cut down on (ar*
ent com(laints and misin'ormation. n addition/ they ha)e noticed
increased (arental in)ol)ement since the team went to the e*mail
newsletter system. The : (ercent o' (arents who do not use e*mail
still rely on their children to deli)er a hard co(y to them/ but each
month/ more and more (arents are sending in their e*mail addresses
and becoming (art o' the e*mail distribution system.
5e'ore the 1st grade team started collaborating and sending
newsletters by e*mail/ (arents o'ten com(lained that they were con*
'used by the multi(le hard*co(y newsletters coming home at di''er*ent
times 'rom the music teacher/ (rinci(al/ teachers/ and )arious
committees. %urthermore/ many students damaged or lost newslet*
ters or sim(ly 'orgot to gi)e the newsletters to their (arents. #ne
teacher commented that she used be )ery 'rustrated to disco)er at
teacher?(arent con'erences how little her studentsP (arents knew
about the learning obFecti)es in her class. How could she ask (arents
to su(er)ise homework/ (roFects/ and studying i' they didnPt e)en
know what students were trying to learnR 4ow/ more (arents indicate
that they recei)e and read the newsletter because it has all the in'or*
mation they need in one communication. They know when to e.(ect
the newsletter each month/ and they no longer ha)e to worry about
students losing or damaging the newsletter be'ore they see it. The
class obFecti)es are now easy to access. !nd as a 'inal bonus/ the
time and money once in)ested in buying (a(er and arranging 'or bulk
(rinting can be 'unneled into other acti)ities.
II. Which Strategies Will Pro"ide
$"idence of Student Learning?
nce you and your students ha)e identi'ied the skills and knowl*
edge that they will learn/ the ne.t ste( is to decide how you will
determine that students ha)e indeed learned them9 selecting the
terms and means o' obtaining e)idence o' mastery and gi)ing 'eed*
back. !ssessment can be for"ative Bconducted during the learning
(rocessC or su""ative Bconducted at the culmination o' the unit or
school yearC. t should com(rise not only teacher*designed tests and
(roFects/ but also studentsP sel'*assessments/ (eer assessments/ and
automated assessments generated by hardware and so'tware. Part
discusses the strategies teachers and students must use to generate
this in'ormationOproviding feedback B+ha(ter 7C and providing rec.
ognition B+ha(ter 3COand the technologies that su((ort these
PR#0,4@ %EE,5!+K
he instructional strategy providing feedback 'ocuses on 'orma*
ti)e assessment9 gi)ing students in'ormation about how well they are
(er'orming relati)e to a (articular learning goal so that they can
im(ro)e their (ractice. !ccording to Har)ard researcher &ohn Hattie/
who analyzed almost :/222 studies on learning and instruc*tion/
'eedback is Dthe most (ower'ul single inno)ation that enhances
achie)ement. The sim(lest (rescri(tion 'or im(ro)ing education
must be Sdollo(sP o' 'eedbackE BHattie/ 1;;7/ (. ;C.
McRE-Ps research on (ro)iding 'eedback su((orts the 'ollowing
1. %eedback should be correcti)e in nature.
7. %eedback should be timely.
3. %eedback should be s(eci'ic to a criterion.
8. $tudents can e''ecti)ely (ro)ide some o' their own 'eedback.
5ased on these generalizations/ we ha)e three recommendations 'or
classroom (ractice9
87 Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
1. Use criterion*re'erenced 'eedback.
7. %ocus 'eedback on s(eci'ic ty(es o' knowledge.
3. Use student*led 'eedback.
Research shows that the more immediate 'eedback is in class*
room settings/ the greater its im(act on student beha)ior BKulik T
Kulik/ 1;::C. Technology is es(ecially e''ecti)e when it comes to (ro*
)iding this kind o' 'eedback. @ames and simulations/ 'or
allow teachers and students to get near*instantaneous 'eedback dur.
ing the learning (rocess/ allowing 'or immediate redirection or cor*
rection o' misconce(tions. +ontrast this with holding 'eedback until
the end o' the lesson/ unit/ or school year. Technology also makes it
easier to com(lete multi(le re)iewersP 'eedback on a studentPs work
and allows the 'eedback (rocess to ha((en ubiQuitously.
n this cha(ter/ we address the technology resources that 'acili*
tate and enhance the (rocess o' (ro)iding 'eedback 'or students and
teachers9 )ord processing applications0 data collection tools0 ,eb
resources0 and co""unication soft)are'
Word Processing .--lications
While many teachers and students use word (rocessors as tools 'or
writing/ these (rograms also ha)e 'eatures that su((ort robust and
timely 'eedback. n Microso't Word/ 'or instance/ teachers and stu*
dents can use the Track +hanges and nsert +omments 'eatures to
gi)e and gather student*led 'eedback/ which is one o' the recommen*
dations 'or classroom (ractice.
n %igure 7.1Ps illustration/ you can see the 'eedback that Karen/ a
student writer/ recei)ed 'rom two di''erent (eer re)iewersK the so't*
ware dis(lays each re)iewerPs comments in a di''erent color. These
comments can ser)e as the starting (oint 'or editorial decisions.
Karen/ 'or might acce(t some o' the suggestions and reFect
To track changes in Microso't Word/ be sure the Re)iewing toolbar is
)isible. ' itPs not/ go to 0iew W Toolbars and select Re)iewing. BThe Track
+hanges icon looks like a (iece o' (a(er with red lines/ a (encil/ and a
yellow star.C To insert a comment/ go to nsert W +omment.
Pro)iding %eedback 83
(igure '.1
Microso't Word ,ocument $howing
Tracked +hanges and nserted +omments
$a)ing documents in a grou( shared 'older (ro)ides a way 'or an
entire classroom o' students to Quickly access one anotherPs work/
and gi)e and recei)e 'eedback 'rom their teacher and their (eers.
!nother use'ul tool a)ailable in Microso't Word is the %lesch*
Kincaid Readability $cale/ which calculates the com(le.ity o' a (iece
o' writing in terms o' sentence length and the number o' syllables in
the words used. When the tool is acti)ated/ e)ery time a student runs
a s(ell check/ the so'tware will dis(lay summary in'ormation and
assign Dreading easeE and grade*le)el ratings to the te.t. !lthough ini*
tially/ students who take ad)antage o' this tool might be interested
mostly in their ratings/ they can learn to use it to gather 'eedback on
the so(histication o' their writing. This 'ollows the second classroom
recommendationOto (ro)ide 'eedback on s(eci'ic ty(es o' knowl*
edge rele)ant to the subFect matter. %igure 7.7 shows the %lesch*
Kincaid Readability assessment o' KarenPs essay.
To use this 'eature/ go to the Tools menu and select #(tions/ and
then click on the $(elling T @rammar tab. +lick on the 'or
+heck grammar with s(elling and $how readability statistics.
88 Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
(igure '.'
Microso't Word Readability $tatistics
Microsoft@ product screen shot:s; reprinted )ith per"ission fro" Microsoft *orporation'
#nce students know the readability scale le)el o' a (iece o' writ*
ing/ they can re)ise it be'ore turning it in/ (aying close attention to
word choice and )ariation. BAou might also encourage students to use
the built*in thesaurus in Word or www.) to re'ine
their word usage.C !'ter Karen addressed the some o' the (eer*and
teacher*suggested changes and comments in her original essay
Bwhich/ as the 'igure shows/ rated an :.< on the %lesch*Kincaid @rade
-e)el scaleC/ the 'inal )ersionPs score rose to ;.2. tPs easy to see how
this 'eature might hel( students a((roach the 'eedback and re)ision
(rocess as an engaging/ game*like challenge.
Data Collection 6ools
! 'rustration o' being one teacher res(onsible 'or the learning o' many
students is that it can be tremendously di''icult to (ro)ide each o'
them with s(eci'ic and immediate 'eedback. ,ata collection tools are
a wonder'ul hel( here. Remember that one o' the generalizations 'rom
the research is that 'eedback should be timely. With data collec*tions
tools/ it can be immediate.
Pro)iding %eedback 8<
Classroom +es-onse Systems
!utomated classroom res(onse systemsOalso known as student
response s$ste"sO(ro)ide teachers with a new way to gather and
disseminate s(eci'ic 'eedback. This tool collects data through the use
o' Dclickers/E then generates an immediate analysis o' how stu*dents
res(onded. Manu'acturers o' (o(ular classroom res(onse sys*tems
include enstruction/ Edu@ame/ Promethean/ and +lass!ct. The
screen shots included in this section are 'rom enstruction.
+lassroom res(onse systems rely on multi(le*choice Questions.
!lthough itPs common to think o' multi(le*choice Questions as a((ro*
(riate only when e)aluating studentsP gras( o' sim(le 'acts and
)ocabulary/ when multi(le*choice Questions are a((ro(riately
designed/ they can e)aluate all le)els o' skill within 5loomPs ta.on*
omy/ 'rom recall through e)aluation.
+onsider this Mr. %aulk/ a 7nd grade teacher/ is using
the enstruction so'tware to create a Quiz that will check his studentsP
understanding o' animal classi'ication. %or his 'irst 'ormati)e assess*
ment in the unit/ he enters these Questions into the system database9
1. !nimals with backbones are called
7. !nimals without backbones are called .
3. Which o' these animals is a )ertebrateR
8. Which o' these animals is an in)ertebrateR
<. Which o' these is not a class o' )ertebratesR
=. Members o' this class o' )ertebrates breathe with gills their entire li'e and
lay eggs.
". Members o' this class o' )ertebrates s(end (art o' their li)es in water and
(art on land. They lay eggs.
:. Members o' this class o' )ertebrates s(end most o' their time on land.
!lmost all lay eggs/ but a 'ew gi)e li)e birth. They breathe with lungs.
They are cold*blooded.
;. Members o' this class o' )ertebrates are warm*blooded. They lay eggs/
breathe with lungs/ and are co)ered with 'eathers.
12. Which o' these is not a characteristic o' mammalsR
11. ! mouse is an o' .
17. ! gecko is an o'
13. ! whale is an o'
4otice that the numbered Questions (rogress 'rom basic/ recall*le)el
tasks to those reQuiring more com(rehension and analysis o' the
basic 'acts and )ocabulary o' )ertebrate classi'ication. %or each o'
these Questions/ Mr. %aulk is able to insert a range o' answer o(tions.
8= Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
To 'acilitate com(rehension 'or his emerging readers/ he also may
choose to substitute images or (ictures 'or words in both Questions
and answers. The (ictures in %igure 7.3Ps come 'rom www.
(igure '.%
,esign 0iew o' enstruction with Pictures
%eproduced courtes$ of e+nstruction' *lip art i"ages A 7??B &upiteri"ages *orporation'
5e'ore Mr. %aulk administers the Quiz he created/ he gi)es each
student a wireless clicker and e.(lains that they will res(ond to each
Question within a set amount o' time. Then he reads each Question
and (rom(ts them to use their clicker to enter a res(onse. The (er*
cei)ed anonymity o' the res(onses makes 'or more honest answers
and thus more accurate assessmentK students are neither deterred by
the 'ear o' Dlooking stu(idE in 'ront o' their (eers nor swayed by the
answers o' others. When the res(onse time is u(/ the 'eedback to
students is immediate and s(eci'ic. They can see 'rom Question to
Question whether they are answering correctly or not. !t the end o' the
Quiz/ Mr. %aulk has many re(orts a)ailable to him. #ne is an nstructor
$ummary Bsee %igure 7.8C/ which shows each studentPs name and the
(ercentage o' Questions that he or she answered correctly.
He also might choose to create a Huestion Re(ort Bsee %igure 7.<C to
see i' (articular Questions (osed (roblems 'or the class in general. n this a dis(ro(ortionately large number o' students
Pro)iding %eedback 8"
(igure '.*
nstructor $ummary 'rom enstruction
%eproduced courtes$ of e+nstruction'
(igure '.5
Huestion Re(ort 'rom enstruction
%eproduced courtes$ of e+nstruction'
8: Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
res(onded that they thought a ladybug/ rather than a gold'ish/ was an o' a )ertebrate. These data are e.cellent 'eedback 'or Mr.
%aulk/ indicating that he needs to re)isit this section o' the animal
classi'ication lesson and address his studentsP misconce(tions.
%inally/ the teacher can (rint out a $tudy @uide 'or each student/
showing which Questions were answered correctly and gi)ing the cor*
rect answer 'or those answered incorrectly Bsee %igure 7.=C. Using this
tool/ teachers and students ha)e access to a )ariety o' data that gi)e
them instant 'eedback on student understanding o' the material.
(igure '.5
$tudy @uide 'rom enstruction
%eproduced courtes$ of
-ater in their study o' animal classi'ication/ Mr. %aulk will (ose
more in*de(th Questions in order to assess i' his students are able to
synthesize or e)aluate the in'ormation. o' higher*order
Questions include the 'ollowing9
1. magine that/ during a walk through a desert climate/ you come across an
animal that you ha)e ne)er seen be'ore. Aou know 'rom its body
Pro)iding %eedback 8;
sha(eOeyes that sit high on its headOand its skin te.ture that it is either
a re(tile or an am(hibian/ but youPre not sure which. Without endangering
yoursel' or the animal/ how would you go about 'inding out which it isR
a. !sk a local i' there are any nearby streams or lakes/ now or at some*
time in the year.
b. Touch the animal to see i' the skin is moist and smooth or dry and
scaly or bum(y.
c. Watch to see what it eats.
7. The scienti'ic theory o' e)olution claims that li'e started as sim(le
organisms li)ing in oceans and (onds. 5ased on this theory/ which o'
these claims can you assume is correctR
d. E)erything li)ing in the ocean e)ol)ed be'ore e)erything li)ing on land.
e. -and dwellers are more com(le. that ocean dwellers.
'. Re(tiles e)ol)ed a'ter am(hibians because they ha)e the ability to
breathe on land.
With this batch o' Questions/ Mr. %aulk will ask his students to
share their thoughts with a (artner be'ore clicking the answerK this (air
work is a way to ele)ate the le)el o' classroom discussion and
synergy o' learning. We also encourage teachers to use classroom
res(onse systems in this way to start discussions with students/
in)iting indi)iduals to de'end their answers. ,oing so gi)es students
the bene'it o' answering anonymously and the chance to learn 'rom
debate and discussion in the classroom.
:rading Soft8are
Manu'acturers continue to de)elo( more and more so(histicated
grading so'tware 'or use at all grade le)els. n uni)ersities/ some o'
the newest tools are ca(able o' e)aluating student essays and other
larger (roFects/ a (rocess once belie)ed to be something only humans
could do. Makers o' this ty(e o' so'tware include 0antage -earning/
Ma(leso't/ Educational Testing $er)ice/ and $!@rader. $tudies thus
'ar show a strong correlation between com(uter*generated scores
and those o' human e.(erts B!dam/ 7221C. n one documented case/
teachers 'ound that using 0antage -earningPs MA !ccessU so'tware in
their classes led to an im(ro)ement in student writing and an increase
in how much time students de)oted to the writing (rocess BDHigh
$chools Plug into #nline Writing Program/E 7223C. ' com(uter*
assisted testing becomes the norm in uni)ersities/
<2 Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
we can assume that KI17 classrooms will e)entually ado(t this (rac*
tice as well.
Web +esources
5ecause we co)er rubrics e.tensi)ely in +ha(ter 1Ps discussion o'
setting obFecti)es Bsee (ages 1"I33C/ we will not go into as much
detail here/ but we cannot o)erem(hasize the wisdom o' using rubrics
to (ro)ide 'eedback on student attainment o' the obFecti)es set.
5ecause rubrics (ro)ide detailed descri(tions/ they hel( teach*ers
meet the classroom recommendation o' gi)ing 'eedback thatPs s(eci'ic
to a criterion as o((osed to gi)ing a sim(le grade or score. We also
encourage the use o' rubrics 'or (eer e)aluation. !s students learn to
work collaborati)ely/ they need sca''olding in how to (ro)ide 'eedback
in a s(eci'ic/ constructi)e/ and su((orti)e manner. Using a Web*
based rubric creator/ such as ,a)id WarlickPs -andmark ProFect
Rubric 5uilder Bhtt(9??landmark*(
builder.(h(C/ can hel( them to do that.
n this section/ we 'ocus on Web resources that (resent online
Quizzes/ games/ and simulations to (ro)ide immediate 'eedback. Edu*
cators and (arents sometimes e.(ress concern about the role that
games ha)e in education/ but we sus(ect they do so because they
ha)e an erroneous sense that Dgames in the classroomE means stu*
dents zoned*out in 'ront o' a com(uter or T0 screen. ' the games and
simulations are care'ully chosen/ they can be both educational and
entertaining/ and anything but mindless. Remember that doctors/
soldiers/ (ilots/ and e)en customer*ser)ice agents use simulations
and games 'or training. n 'act/ a number o' research studies suggest
that bringing games and simulations into the KI17 classroom (osi*
ti)ely a''ects student moti)ation/ retention/ trans'er/ and skill le)el
BHal)erson/ 722<K Klo('er/ 722<K Prensky/ 7222K $Quire/ 7221C. !nd
many educational and entertainment games encourage 71st*century
skills such as sol)ing (roblems/ collaborating with other (layers/ and
(lanning BKlo('er/ 722<C. !nother great characteristic o' com(uters as
DinstructorsE is that they are nonFudgmental entities. ! struggling
student can (ractice a skill as many times as necessary to achie)e
mastery/ and the com(uter/ unlike a human instructor/ will ne)er grow
Pro)iding %eedback <1
The best Web resources 'or games and simulations not only (ro*
)ide the student with Fudgment*'ree (ractice and immediate 'eed*back
but also make the acti)ity 'un. #ne such resource is iKnowthat. com
Bwww.iknowthat.comC. This site is designed 'or (reK through =th grade
and has learning games 'or the arts/ language arts/ mathe*matics/
science/ social studies/ and thinking skills. Each subFect area has
acti)ities that are di''erentiated by grade le)el/ and a teacher guide
lists the standards that each acti)ity addresses. To see an
go to the Web site and na)igate to Math W -eonPs Math ,oFo W Play. n
this game/ students choose an acti)ity/ which might range 'rom basic
counting (ractice to addition/ subtraction/ multi(lication/ and di)ision.
Taking on the role o' -eon the +hameleon/ a martial arts student
dressed in a gi/ students answer a series o' Questions by DkickingE the
hanging bag dis(laying the correct answer to each. They recei)e
)isual and aural 'eedback as they (lay. ' -eon selects an incorrect
answer/ the hanging bag 'lies backward and bonks him in the head. !
DdingE signi'ies a correct res(onse and triggers a new (roblem. This
game is timed and dis(lays a running tally o' the num*ber o' Questions
attem(ted and the number o' correct answers. $tu*dents can work to
beat their best scores and those o' their classmates.
Here is a sam(ling o' other Web resources 'or games and
6 Math Playground
This action*(acked site 'or KI= students (ro)ides engaging games
that encourage students to challenge themsel)es.
6 E.(lore-earning
This Web resource is 'or middle and high school students and teach*ers.
E.(lore-earning allows students to use DgizmosEO)irtual mani(ulati)es
Oto e.(eriment in science and mathematics. !'ter going through a
guided tutorial using the gizmos/ the students take a short Quiz. Their
answers are assessed and they recei)e detailed 'eedback. !lthough
E.(lore-earning is a subscri(tion site/ a 'ree 32*day (ass is a)ailable
u(on sign*u(. E.(lore-earningPs research shows
<7 Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
that com(uter*based simulations are the ideal medium 'or con)eying
in'ormation in math and science B+holmsky/ 7223C.
6 +ut The Knot www.cut*the*
This site is 'or teachers/ (arents/ and students who seek engaging
mathematics. tPs a re(ository o' nearly "22 a((lets that illustrate
mathematical conce(ts. !n a((let is a so'tware com(onent that runs
in the conte.t o' another (rogramOa Web browser/ 'or !n
a((let usually (er'orms a )ery narrow 'unction/ and it will run on any
com(uterPs browser.
#ther Web resources (ro)ide in'ormation in a multimedia 'ormat
and then Quiz students on basic com(rehension o' the material.
!lthough we discuss these ty(es o' resources in more detail in other
sections o' this book/ there are two that warrant mention here due to
the rich and immediate 'eedback that they (ro)ide students9
6 5rainP#P
This subscri(tion*based resource has short %lash mo)ies on a wide
)ariety o' to(ics in science/ social studies/ mathematics/ English/
health/ and technology. The mo)ies use clear animation to demon*
strate conce(ts and highlight new )ocabulary. !'ter watching a mo)ie/
students can take a brie' Quiz and e*mail the results to their teacher/
or they can rewatch the mo)ie and retake the Quiz as many times as
they need to do so. 5rainP#P also 'eatures some 'ree mo)ies and a
'ree trial.
6 55+ $killswise
This Web site (ro)ides 'act sheets/ interacti)e a((lets/ games/ and
Quizzes in mathematics and language skills 'or grades KI=. Each Quiz
is broken into three le)els so that students can ad)ance as they learn
the skill. This is es(ecially hel('ul 'or teachers looking to (ro)ide di'*
'erentiated instruction and assessment.
Pro)iding %eedback <3
Communication Soft8are
+ommunication so'tware/ such as blogs/ wikis/ e*mail/ instant mes*
saging BMC/ and )ideo con'erencing/ can (ro)ide timely/ interacti)e/
and criterion*based 'eedback to students. Each o' these ty(es o' so't*
ware has distinct classroom a((lications. %or classroom
blogs are ine.(ensi)e and easy to maintain and manage without the
need 'or Web de)elo(ment skills. Wikis are similar to blogs but more
)ersatile9 a way 'or grou(s to collaborate by contributing and easily
accessing in'ormation on a gi)en to(ic. 5ecause a wiki allows all
users to add and edit content/ itPs es(ecially suited 'or collaborati)e
writing and (roFect*based learning. The constant 'eedback mecha*
nism o' a wiki is what makes it a uniQuely (ower'ul learning tool. !nd
because a wiki is Web*based/ contributors do not need to be in the
same geogra(hical area/ nor do they need to be working synchro*
nously. 4e.t/ therePs e*mail/ which (ro)ides a written record o' two*
way communication that is easy to archi)e. %inally/ while )ideo
con'erencing has been used mostly 'or distance learning and teacher
(ro'essional de)elo(ment/ its use in KI17 education is growing.
5ecause )ideo con'erences allow two or more locations to interact )ia
two*way )ideo and audio transmissions simultaneously/ they ser)e to
connect rural communities/ distant classrooms/ and e.(erts with
learning sources and classes 'rom around the world.
-etPs take a closer look at each o' these ty(es o' communication
! blog/ short 'or DWeb log/E is a Web site in which items are (osted on
a regular basis and usually dis(layed in re)erse chronological order.
-ike other media/ blogs o'ten 'ocus on a (articular subFect/ such as
education/ technology/ or (olitics. Howe)er/ blogs di''er 'rom other
ty(es o' Web sites in that moderators 'rame the discussions and then
in)ite readers to re(ly to (osts. This works best in a written 'ormat/
although blogs ha)e the additional ca(ability to dis(lay gra(hics and
e)en )ideo. The manager or 'acilitator o' a blog can decide i' others
will be allowed to comment on (ostings to the blog.
' you want your classroom blog to be interacti)e/ allowing stu*
dent in(ut and 'eedback/ you will need to enable this comments
<8 Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
'eature. Aou can do this by allowing only certain registered users Byour
studentsC to (ost and blocking all others. !lternati)ely/ you may set u(
your classroom blog to be o(en to (ostings 'rom anyone. Remember/
though/ that blogs o(en to (ublic (ostings sometimes recei)e
ina((ro(riate comments 'rom unaccountable sources Bonline
We recommend that teachers decide which students will be
allowed to (ost to the classroom blog and make sure they understand
the acce(table use (olicy in your school or district. #'ten/ losing the
(ri)ilege to comment to the class blog is conseQuence enough to
kee( students 'rom (osting ina((ro(riate or o''ensi)e comments.
%urthermore/ as the manager o' the blog/ you can screen student
comments be'ore you allow them to be (osted. na((ro(riate blog
(ostings are not as big a (roblem as you might think/ (ro)ided that
you sti(ulate students use their actual names as their user namesK
most students do not want their name on an o''ensi)e (osting 'or all
the school and their (arents to see.
#ne o' (ro)iding 'eedback with a blog is a (oetry Fournal
blog. Ms. &eargen/ a middle school English teacher/ (osts a (rom(t
on the class blog 'or students to write and (ost (oems. !s a 'ollow*u(/
Ms. &eargen (osts a (oetry rubric to the blog/ re)iews the rubric in
class/ and directs the students to re)iew their classmatesP (oems and
use the rubric to (ro)ide criterion*based 'eedback on three (oems. n
this way/ students are e.(osed to other (oems and both gi)e and
recei)e timely and meaning'ul 'eedback. Ms. &eargen then closes the
assignment thread 'rom 'urther student comments and (ro)ides her
own criterion*based 'eedback as the last comment 'or each (oem.
4e.t/ she starts a discussion that (rom(ts the students to write their
'inal dra't o' the (oem. This thread is closed to comments. t will be
used as the 'inal (roduct and can be )iewed by other classes/ (ar*
ents/ and the community. The )arious ste(s in the assignment are
de(icted in the (roFect 'low chart in %igure 7.".
!lthough we discuss wikis 'urther when we look at technology that
su((orts coo(erati)e learning Bsee +ha(ter "C/ we mention them here
because users can gi)e unlimited in(ut and editing to each other
using wikis to 'orm a continually e)ol)ing body o' knowledge. !n
Pro)iding %eedback <<
(igure '.#
ProFect %low +hart 'or a +lass Poetry 5log is when students use a wiki to create a grou( (roFect on a
com(licated subFect/ such as the ci)il rights mo)ement. The teacher/
and anyone else 'or that matter/ sees e.actly which students are con*
tributing and how the grou(Ps combined in(ut strengthens the 'inal
#nline/ you can 'ind )arious o' how wikis are being
used in many di''erent subFect areas. !s with any resource/ we
encourage teachers to teach their students to gather in'ormation 'rom
a )ariety o' sources. Teachers and students also need to understand
that because anyone can make an entry on a wiki Blike Wiki(edia/ 'or the in'ormation they 'ind there must be )iewed as one o'
se)eral data (oints. Here are some recommended resources 'or wikis9
6 High $chool #nline +ollaborati)e Writing
<= Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
This Web site (ro)ides 'ree wiki so'tware that runs through your
browser. Aou can set u( a collaborati)e writing (roFect on almost any
subFect as long as you do not )iolate the sitePs license agreement.
6 Wikis(aces
Wikis(aces is a (lace 'or (eo(le to easily build Web (ages together.
!nyone can Foin the site 'or 'ree/ create a s(ace/ and begin contribut*
ing within a matter o' minutes.
6 Peanut 5utter Wiki
This is a user*'riendly and 'ree wiki ser)ice site. Whether you make
your wiki (ublic or (ri)ate/ you choose a (assword that others must
enter be'ore they will be (ermitted to edit an entry.
Teachers can send 'eedback to students through e*mail any time/
whether in or out o' school. E)en students without home com(uter
access can set u( a Web*based e*mail account through a number o'
'ree ser)ices such as @mail/ AahooU mail/ Hotmail/ and -ycos that
they can access through a classroom or library com(uter.
+onsider the o' Mr. ,unla(/ a high school ci)ics teacher
who wants to kee( his class on track o)er the three*day weekend that
marks the PresidentPs ,ay holiday. He sets a %riday deadline 'or a
short essay assignment about the e.ecuti)e branch o' go)ernment
and asks students to submit their essays to him )ia e*mail/ as
attached Microso't Word documents. Mr. ,unla( grades the essays at
his leisure/ then e*mails the graded essays back to the students on
$unday a'ternoon. $tudents recei)e this 'eedback in the 'orm o' the
tracked changes and also in comments that he makes about the
essays in his e*mail message. ' a (articular studentPs essay suggests
that the student doesnPt 'ully understand the assignment/ Mr. ,unla(
attaches the rubric 'or the essay. He can easily co(y (arents in this
corres(ondence/ and the e*mail so'tware maintains a record o' these
e.changes along with essay submission and return dates. n addition/
all the 'iles are electronic/ meaning there are no stacks o' (a(ers to
Pro)iding %eedback <"
shu''le through. tPs easy to see that using e*mail to (ro)ide 'eedback
has the additional bene'its o' being e''icient/ timely/ and s(eci'ic.
Instant =essaging
Many schools ha)e begun using the tremendous (ower o' instant
messaging to bring true e.(erts into the classroom 'or curriculum*
based con)ersations and 'eedback on student understanding. $im(le
and 'ree (rograms like !M and i+hat allow two*way te.t con)ersa*
tions and e)en grou( con'erencing without (utting stress on a
schoolPs network. ' your class is studying how the go)ernment works/
'or you might call or e*mail your state or national
re(resentati)e and ask 'or 72 minutes o' a sta'' memberPs time to talk
about their role in go)ernment. Aour students should (re(are Ques*
tions in ad)ance and (ro)ide those Questions to the sta'' member.
When itPs time 'or the instant message con'erence/ (roFect your com*
(uter onto a screen/ and the con'erence is on. How better to learn
about the intricacies o' how go)ernment works than by talking to
someone in)ol)ed in the actual (rocess and getting their reactions to
studentsP insightsR
!nother way to use instant messaging to (ro)ide student 'eed*
back is to establish a time e)ery week that students know you will be
onlineOsay/ Thursday e)ening 'rom "922 to :922 (.m. This allows stu*
dents to (o( online and ask any clari'ying Questions as they are work*
ing on homework or (roFects.
7ideo Conferencing
$ometimes )ideo con'erencing is the ideal way to gain access to uniQue
e.(ertise/ cultures/ and locations. %or Mrs. 0alenza/ a $(anish
teacher/ wants to gi)e her students con)ersational e.(eri*ences. $he
arranges a )ideo con'erence with an English language class at the sister
school in $(ain. The students (er'orm skits in $(an*ish and English
during the )ideo con'erence. !'terward/ the teachers e.change 'eedback
about the skits and the language usage 'or each class. They encourage
their students to ask Questions9 the !merican students in $(anish/ and
the $(anish students in English. 5oth grou(s o' students also use a blog
to gi)e 'eedback to one another/ again using the other grou(Ps nati)e
language to create their (osts. The !merican students recei)e )aluable
'eedback 'rom the teacher in
<: Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
$(ain )ia )ideo con'erence and 'rom the students in $(ain )ia the
(ro*Fect blog.
@arnering 'eedback 'rom authentic audiences like these is a (ow*
er'ul moti)ator. #ther ty(es o' authentic audiences students can
access through educational technology include (oetry clubs/ research
scientists/ and historical societies. Teachers can 'ind a num*ber o' 'ree
(rograms a)ailable online to hel( them set u( a )ideo con*'erence.
These include www.i) www.( and www.
BMacintosh onlyC.
PR#0,4@ RE+#@4T#4
s an instructional strategy/ providing recognition means gi)ing
students rewards or (raise 'or accom(lishments related to the
attainment o' a goal. Unlike most o' the strategies outlined in
*lassroo" +nstruction !hat ,orks0 it s(eaks to the general a''ecti)e
de)elo(ment o' students rather than to their s(eci'ic academic
de)elo(ment. Teachers who im(lement this strategy success'ully use
recognition to (ositi)ely in'luence their studentsP attitudes and belie's
about accom(lishment.
McRE-Ps research on (ro)iding recognition su((orts the 'ollow*ing
1. Rewards do not necessarily ha)e a negati)e e''ect on intrinsic
7. Reward is most e''ecti)e when it is contingent on the attain*
ment o' some standard o' (er'ormance.
3. !bstract symbolic recognition Be.g./ (raiseC is more e''ecti)e
than tangible rewards Be.g./ candy/ moneyC.
=2 Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
5ased on these 'indings/ we ha)e three recommendations 'or class*
room (ractice9
1. Personalize recognition.
7. Use the Pause/ Prom(t/ and Praise strategy.
3. Use concrete symbols o' recognition.
#ne o' the most (ower'ul ways that technology 'acilitates the use
o' this strategy is that it gi)es teachers a way to e.(and recognition
beyond gi)ing a student an /L on an assigning or (osting it on the
classroom bulletin board. With technology/ teachers can easily make
e.em(lary work a)ailable 'or the a((reciation o' (eers/ (arents/ and
(ro'essionals across the world. n !he ,isdo" of *ro)ds0 &ames
$urowiecki B7228C makes the similar argument that a large and
di)erse grou( working collecti)ely makes better decisions and recog*
nizes whatPs DbestE better than a single indi)idual can. Web sites such
as ,igg Bwww.digg.comC and +li(marks Bwww.cli(marks.comC o(er*
ate by this (rinci(le/ allowing )isitors to recognize which news items
or Web cli((ings are most use'ul.
Technology tools can hel( teachers create (ersonalized certi'i*
cates or rewards and gi)e indi)idual/ grou(/ and class recognition
through automated classroom res(onse systems. n this cha(ter/ we
show how a teacher can use the 'ollowing resources to (ro)ide recog*
nition9 data collection tools0 "ulti"edia0 ,eb resources0 and
co""uni.cation soft)are'
Data Collection 6ools
n +ha(ter 7Ps discussion o' (ro)iding 'eedback/ we described the use
and ca(abilities o' Web*based sur)eys and classroom res(onse sys*
tems Bsee (ages 8<I<:C. Here/ we o''er two ways to use these same
tools to (ro)ide recognition.
5ecause Web*based sur)eys and classroom res(onse systems
allow students to recei)e 'eedback 'rom both teachers and (eers/ you
can use these tools to recognize students who earn the highest*
scoring 'eedback. When doing so/ always remember to base recogni*
tion on a clear standard o' (er'ormance. This is es(ecially crucial
Pro)iding Recognition =1
with student recognition o' their (eersP work. Teacher*set (arame*ters
are the best way to ensure that the recognition re'lects the stan*dards*
based criteria and not student (o(ularity or another outside 'actor.
HerePs an o' how a teacher might use data collection
tools to (ro)ide recognition. Ha)ing Fust concluded a unit on the @reat
,e(ression/ middle school students (ost original mo)ies/ essays/
digital images o' artwork/ or other (roducts to a designated Web site.
#n or be'ore the assignmentPs due date/ all students make their blog
(osts anonymously/ using a teacher*assigned code instead o' their
actual names. Then/ the students use a Web*based sur)ey/ such as
$ur)ey Monkey/ to re)iew a (roFect rubric/ )iew the (osted (roducts/
and gi)e rubric*based 'eedback/ including a Dgrade.E The (rogram
tallies the scores/ a'ter which the teacher re)eals the names o' the
students whose (roducts recei)e the highest scores/ and they are
'ormally recognized 'or com(leting high*Quality work that meets the
criteria described in the (roFect rubric. This kind o' (ersonaliza*tion is
in line with McRE-Ps 'irst classroom recommendation 'or (ro*)iding
n another a mathematics teacher might gi)e a (o( Quiz
using a classroom res(onse system/ with the e.(ectation that i' the
studentsP collecti)e res(onses achie)e an agreed*u(on (ro'iciency
le)el/ such as ;2*(ercent accuracy/ they will all earn bonus (oints to
redeem later in the year. When the Quiz is com(lete/ the classroom
res(onse system returns an immediate )erdict on the studentsP (er*
'ormance9 TheyP)e earned their bonus (ointsU The teacher gi)es the
students )erbal (raise and distributes Dbonus (oint cou(ons/E 'ol*
lowing the classroom recommendation to (ro)ide concrete symbols o'
recognition. 4ote that in this the teacher rewards the entire
class/ encouraging students to hel( each other achie)e. !t other
times/ it might be a((ro(riate to look at indi)idual student res(onse
records and reward students indi)idually.
Remember that one o' the classroom recommendations 'rom the
research is to (ersonalize recognition 'or your students/ and another
is to (ro)ide concrete symbols o' recognition. Handing a student a
(ersonalized certi'icate to celebrate high*Quality work is a way to do
=7 Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
both and a sure'ire way to make that student 'eel a((reciated and
moti)ate 'urther success. There are se)eral so'tware (rograms that
make it easy 'or teachers to (ro)ide this kind o' concrete recognition.
%or at htt(9??o''ice.microso'*us?tem(lates/ you can
download 'ree tem(lates 'or Microso't Word and Microso't Power*
Point that make designing and (rinting certi'icates a sna(.
n addition to this 'ree resource/ you might seek out so'tware (ro*
grams designed to create certi'icates/ cards/ banners and more. #ne
o' the best on the market is The Print $ho( ,elu.e/ a)ailable 'rom
5roderbund. Aou can easily create a certi'icate or card with the stu*
dentPs name and e)en include a (hoto.
%igure 3.1 shows a certi'icate that a middle school (rinci(al
awarded to a student who won 'irst (lace in a school essay contest.
The (rinci(al downloaded a tem(late 'rom the Microso't site and
edited it in Microso't PowerPoint/ (ersonalizing the tem(late to 'it
the s(eci'ic occasion.
(igure %.1
+erti'icate o' Recognition +reated
with Microso't PowerPoint
*lip art i"ages A 7??B &upiteri"ages *orporation'
Web +esources
McRE-Ps meta*analysis shows that (ro)iding (ersonalized recogni*
tion based on s(eci'ic and indi)idualized (er'ormance obFecti)es is a
(ower'ul student moti)ator. n addition to the recognition you can
Pro)iding Recognition =3
(ro)ide with (rograms like Print $ho(/ you might e.(lore many o' the
resources a)ailable on the Web/ including online showcases or galler*
ies o' student work/ online certi'icate?greeting card creators/ and e*
mailed )oice messages.
Web Sho8cases and Picture :alleries
When a student brings home an o' outstanding schoolwork
to show his or her (arents/ the (arents o'ten (raise the child and (ost
work on the household re'rigerator 'or e)eryone in the home to see
and admire. This is a good o' in'ormally recognizing a stu*
dent based on indi)idual achie)ement. Technology (ro)ides a way to
take this recognition to the ne.t le)el. Posting e.ce(tional student
work on the nternet o(ens u( (ossibilities 'or recognition 'rom 'riends/
(eers/ (ro'essionals/ and relati)es across the globe. Many o' these
Web sites stay u( 'or years/ (ro)iding to other stu*dents
and becoming a lasting source o' (ride and con'idence 'or the
recognized students.
%or instance/ Reagan/ a struggling <th grade student/ sets a goal
with her teacher to write a three*(age story about her 'a)orite time o'
the year. $he agrees to include (ro(er writing con)entions and to (ro*
duce a (a(er that is 'ree o' grammatical errors. !'ter working hard at
dra'ting/ re)ising/ and editing/ she accom(lishes her goal. The teacher
(osts the story to the classPs D$tudent Work $howcaseE on the
schoolPs Web site and includes an annotation that recognizes the
story as an accom(lishment com(ared to the studentPs learning
obFecti)es. !'ter the (osting/ Reagan tele(hones her grand(arents in
another state so they can see her work on their home com(uter.
Physical education and art teachers o'ten use online (icture gal*
leries as a means o' recognition because e.hibitions are natural
e.tensions o' those content areas/ but (icture galleries are a 'antastic
way o' moti)ating students and recognizing their e''orts in any con*
tent area. #' course/ always check your districtPs (olicy on the (ost*
ing o' student work. !lso take care to (ost a di)erse sam(ling o'
student work and not Fust (roducts 'rom the best and brightest stu*
dents. When selecting work to (ost/ assess how well a student has
achie)ed his or her own goals 'or im(ro)ement rather than com(ar*
ing the work to that o' other students.
=8 Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
#ne o' a (hoto gallery ser)ice is the (o(ular %lickr
Bwww.'lickr.comC. $etting u( a 'ree account is sim(ly a matter o' (ro*
)iding a user name and a (assword. #nce you ha)e an account/ you
can u(load (ictures/ enter comments/ and send a link to the account
Web (age to students/ (arents/ and colleagues. Aou can also restrict
the (age to only certain )iewers or choose to make it a)ailable to the
general (ublic. ' you add a 'ew key word tags in your account (ro'ile/
anyone will be able to 'ind the (age by searching %lickr.
!dditional o' (ro)iding recognition through Web show*
cases and (icture galleries are a)ailable at the 'ollowing Web sites9
6 Mrs. Mc@owanPs $tudent $howcase
This Web site is an e.cellent o' an elementary showcase site
'rom H. W. Mountz Elementary $chool in $(ring -ake/ 4ew &ersey. t
highlights student work/ nternet (roFects/ class acti)ities/ and online
resources 'or (arents/ children/ and )isitors.
6 @reene)ille Middle $choolO+elebrations
This award*winning Web site 'eatures student work and accom(lish*
ments at @reene)ille Middle $chool in @reene)ille/ Tennessee.
6 KidsP $(aceOKidsP @allery*s(
This is a )ery large collection o' international student work in all ele*
mentary school subFects. tPs (resented in multi(le media9 stories/
artwork/ and musical com(ositions.
6 Kennedy High $chool !rt @allery'
This 'antastic collection o' high school student art is 'rom +edar
Ra(ids/ owa/ and includes animations/ scul(ture/ (hotogra(hy/
drawings/ (aintings/ and digital art.
6 Pleasantdale Elementary Physical Education Picture @allery
This is not the ty(ical gallery o' athletes holding u( tro(hies/ but an
llinois elementary schoolPs collection o' (hotogra(hs highlighting
student e''orts in a standard (hysical education class.
Pro)iding Recognition =<
6 !((le -earning nterchange $tudent @allery
This digital media gallery allows students to create/ (ost/ and (ro*
mote their work in the 'orm o' mo)ies/ animations/ (ictures/ music/
and (resentations. Those with user accounts can choose their 'a)or*
ites 'or s(ecial recognition.
6 4ew Technology High $chool $tudent Port'olios
!ll students at 4ew Technology High $chool in 4a(a/ +ali'ornia/ are
reQuired to (ost student work (ort'olios. %ollow the Recognition W
$tudents link at the to( o' the (age to 'ind (ictures o' the D$tudents o'
the Month.E
nline Certificates
$ending an online certi'icate o' recognition is easy and o'ten 'ree.
$ome noteworthy o' online certi'icate and greeting card
ser)ices are listed here9
6 Microso't #''ice Education Resources
This is a large collection o' resources 'ree 'or use with Microso't #''ice
6 Education #asis!wards?awardsYcerti'icates.htm
Education #asis is an inde(endent/ not*'or*(ro'it site where teachers
can acQuire ideas/ in'ormation/ and ins(iration. ts stated goal is to
(ro)ide Quality materials that will hel( teachers take their (ractice to
the ne.t le)el.
6 !!! +erti'icates
This site o''ers many 'ree award certi'icates (rintable 'rom your Web
6 !merican @reetings E*+ards
== Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
! site subscri(tion is necessary be'ore sending an e*card Balthough a
32*day 'ree trial (eriod is usually o''eredC.
6 AahooU @reetings
This site has many 'ree e*cards 'rom which to choose.
n addition to (osting student work and (ro)iding certi'icates 'or
download/ Web resources also include many online interacti)e games
that (ro)ide recognition to students through the awarding o' (oints/
sounds/ and audio messages Bsuch as D@reat FobUEC. $ome games
also o''er hints and cues i' a (layer does not answer or (er*'orm a
)irtual task correctly/ encouraging the (layer to try again/ and greet
the new/ correct res(onse with 'an'are. n this regard/ they can hel(
teachers 'ollow the classroom recommendation o' using the Pause/
Prom(t/ and Praise strategy.
Communication Soft8are
TodayPs communication so'tware ca(italizes on indi)idualsP natural
desires to socialize/ to connect with one another/ and to e.(ress o(in*
ions. n the modern classroom/ e*mail and )ideo con'erencing (res*
ent new ways 'or teachers to (ro)ide recognition to all learners.
.udio $-mail
!udio messages can be an une.(ected and e.citing way 'or students
to recei)e recognition. Hearing the congratulatory tone and enthusi*
asm in a teacherPs )oice o'ten lea)es a lasting im(ression. Recording
oral (raise on a com(uter and sending the audio 'ile as an e*mail
attachment is easier than you might think. Many com(uter o(erating
systems include a sim(le sound recorder (rogram. #n a com(uter
running Microso't Windows/ it is usually 'ound in the Entertainment
'older/ which is in the !ccessories 'older. #n a Macintosh com(uter/
you can record audio with iMo)ie or by u(grading to HuickTime Pro.
Aou might also use many sim(le audio recording a((lications
a)ailable 'or 'ree download o)er the nternet. !udio 'iles attached to e*
mail are )ery small com(ared to most multimediaK the entire e*mail 'ile
will range between a((ro.imately 122 and :22 kilobits/ de(ending on
the length o' the message.
Pro)iding Recognition ="
HerePs o' how a teacher might incor(orate audio e*mail
recognition. Mr. Webster/ a high school geometry teacher/ is grading a
set o' mathematics Quizzes and 'inds that one o' his students has
made signi'icant im(ro)ement in the ability to calculate and gra(h the
slo(e o' a linear eQuation. %or a week/ he has worked closely with this
student/ trying to ensure that she gras(s the key conce(ts. He is so
ha((y with her (rogress that he decides to send the student a sim*(le
audio recording (raising her 'or meeting her goal to im(ro)e this skill.
He sim(ly o(ens his audio recording (rogram on his com(uter/
)ocalizes his (raise/ sa)es the 'ile/ and sends her an e*mail greeting
with the direction to o(en the attached audio 'ile. $he recei)es the
audio message and is delighted to get the timely recognition.
7ideo Conferencing
0ideo con'erencing allows two*way or multi(oint communication in
more (ersonable/ meaning'ul/ and rele)ant ways than e*mail or tele*
(hone can (ro)ide. Through )ideo con'erencing/ students can com*
municate with (eers and ha)e contact with (ro'essionals who can
ser)e as authentic audiences 'or student work.
! thri)ing o' using )ideo con'erencing to (ro)ide rec*
ognition is the @lobal WRTe$ (roFect. BWRTe$ is an acronym 'or
Writers and Readers ncor(orating Technology in $ocietyC. This
non(ro'it organizationPs mission is to (romote literacy through the
(er'orming arts using technology resources such as )ideo
con'erencing and digital media. 4ow in its ninth year/ the (roFect/
based in the 5ron./ 4ew Aork/ brings together (er'ormance (oets/
classroom teachers/ and students to create integrated (oetry units. !s
students write their (oems/ they (ractice (er'orming them 'or students
in other classrooms connected )ia room*based )ideo con'erencing.
!'ter the (er'ormances/ they re)ise their writ*ing/ incor(orating the
'eedback they recei)e 'rom their (eers. The (oetry studies culminate
twice (er year in a )ideo con'erence Dslam sessionE o' com(etiti)e
(er'ormance (oetry in which teams o' 'i)e/ chosen by (eers as
re(resentati)es o' their schools/ (er*'orm their (ieces 'or the entire
school district. Per'ormances are Fudged by a (anel o' (eer (oets and
two adults 'rom the districtPs regional o''ice. !ll o' the teaching artists
in the (rogram come 'rom an inno)ati)e arts*in*education
organization/ ,reamAard/ which
=: Which $trategies Will Pro)ide E)idence o' $tudent -earningR
(artners with @lobal WRTe$ to integrate arts (rograms into 5ron.
The students are in)ol)ed in the de)elo(ment o' e)ery stage o'
the (rogram/ 'rom making suggestions on Dslam rules/E to hel(ing
write the (er'ormance rubric/ to ser)ing as (anel Fudges. The (ro*
gram is an integral (art o' the regular classroom day/ 'acilitated dur*
ing literacy block (eriods. !t the time o' this (ublication/ 7= schools in
the 5ron. were (artici(ating. +urrently/ the (rogram in)ol)es stu*
dents in grades 3 through :/ but (lans to e.(and into the u((er
grades are underway.
The (roFect underwent a three*year/ Quasi*e.(erimental study
called Poetry E.(ress/ to determine its e''ecti)eness. %unded by the
U.$. ,e(artment o' Education and conducted by MET$ !ssociates/
the study 'ollowed two elementary schools and two middle schools.
+om(arison schools with matching demogra(hics (ro)ided the con*
trol grou(. Preliminary data demonstrated signi'icant increases in
student moti)ation and commitment to school as well as im(ro)e*
ment on standardized tests/ attendance/ and writing Quality. $tudents
also de)elo(ed collaboration skills and were able to ha)e construc*
ti)e/ honest con)ersations about each otherPs work B%ico/ 722<C.
Technology (lays a di)erse and signi'icant role in this
and models how e''ecti)e )ideo con'erencing can be as a tool 'or (ro*
)iding recognition. nitially/ students use blogs to (ublish and share
written work with each other. Then they use )ideo con'erencing to
engage in real con)ersations about their (oetry/ (articularly during the
writing and (ractice (hase/ where they gi)e and recei)e 'eedback on
(er'ormances. n a school district that is geogra(hically s(read out/
such as the 5ron./ it is costly and di''icult to get students to the same
(hysical location 'or this kind o' regular collaboration. 0ideo
con'erencing drastically reduces tra)el time/ allowing more time 'or
other subFects. !ll students get to see all (er'ormers/ as well as the
Fudges/ during the slam sessions/ and older students who ha)e (re)i*
ously e.(erienced the slam sessions mentor younger students. Per*
ha(s most im(ortant/ the students recei)e (ersonalized 'eedback
'rom (eers and (ublished (er'ormance (oets. Through )ideo
con'erencing/ student writing is )alidated in 'ace*to*'ace e.changes.
Pro)iding Recognition =;
%or additional resources related to the @lobal WRTe$ (roFect/
)isit one o' the 'ollowing Web sites9
6 @lobal WRTe$
This is the o''icial Web site 'or the @lobal WRTe$ (roFect. Users can
'ind more in'ormation about the (roFect/ o' student work/
and research data.
6 ,reamAard
,reamAard is an inno)ati)e arts*in*education organization that inte*
grates the arts into the curricula o' elementary/ middle/ and high
school students. #n this Web site/ users can 'ind out more in'orma*
tion about ,reamAard and about lesson (lans and student arti'acts.
III. Which Strategies Will
,el- Students .c/uire
and Integrate Learning?
uided by the 'irst two (lanning Questions/ you ha)e identi'ied the
learning obFecti)es 'or your lesson and ha)e selected the terms and
means o' assessing (er'ormance and gi)ing 'eedback. 4ow you ha)e the
'un and interesting task o' hel(ing students acQuire and inte*grate new
knowledge. n order to do this/ you need to hel( students acti)ate their
background knowledge and 'acilitate the (rocess o' connecting new
in'ormation to what they already know so that they begin to see (atterns
and understand (rocesses. Part discuss the categories o' instructional
strategies that 'all into this (hase o' the learning (rocess9 cues0
Cuestions/ and advance organi(ers B+ha(ter 8CK nonlinguistic
representation B+ha(ter <CK su""ari(ing and note taking B+ha(ter =CK
cooperative learning B+ha(ter "CK and reinforcing effort
B+ha(ter :C. Research shows that these strategies (ro)ide sca''old*
ing 'or new in'ormation so that students ha)e a higher chance o'
understanding and retaining the conce(ts.
+UE$/ HUE$T#4$/ !4,
!,0!4+E #R@!4VER$
he instructional strategy cues/ Cuestions0 and advance organi(ers
'ocuses on enhancing studentsP ability to retrie)e/ use/ and orga*
nize in'ormation about a to(ic.
n +ha(ter 1/ we talked about using a KW- or KWH- chart to acti*
)ate (rior knowledge. To hel( students com(lete the DWhat do you
knowRE and DWhat do you want to knowRE sections o' this chart/
teachers o'ten use cues and Questions. *ues are e.(licit reminders or
hints about what students are about to e.(erience. Duestions (er*
'orm the same 'unction as cues by triggering studentsP memories and
hel(ing them to access (rior knowledge. !d)ance organizers/ a con*
ce(t originally de)elo(ed by ,a)id !usubel B1;=2C/ are structures that
teachers (ro)ide to students be'ore a learning acti)ity to hel( them
classi'y and make sense o' the content theyPll encounter/ (artic*ularly
new content that is not well organized in its original 'ormat. n
essence/ ad)ance organizers hel( students 'ocus their learning.
"8 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
McRE-Ps research on cues/ Questions/ and ad)ance organizers
su((orts the 'ollowing generalizations9
1. +ues/ Questions/ and ad)ance organizers should 'ocus on
what is im(ortant rather than what is unusual.
7. DHigher*le)elE Questions and ad)ance organizers (roduce
dee(er learning than Dlower*le)elE Questions and ad)ance
3. !d)ance organizers are most use'ul with in'ormation that is
not well organized.
8. ,i''erent ty(es o' ad)ance organizers (roduce di''erent results.
<. Waiting brie'ly be'ore acce(ting res(onses 'rom students has
the e''ect o' increasing the de(th o' studentsP answers.
=. Huestions are e''ecti)e learning tools e)en when asked be'ore
a learning e.(erience.
5ased on these 'indings/ we ha)e se)en recommendations 'or class*
room (ractice9
1. Use e.(ository ad)ance organizers.
7. Use narrati)e ad)ance organizers.
3. Teach students skimming as a 'orm o' ad)ance organizer.
8. Teach students how to use gra(hic ad)ance organizers.
<. Use e.(licit cues.
=. !sk Questions that elicit in'erences.
". !sk analytic Questions.
TechnologyPs (otential a((lications are readily e)ident in this
strategy/ as teachers and students can use a )ariety o' technology
tools to create well*organized/ )isually a((ealing organizers. n this
cha(ter/ you will see what we mean/ as we e.amine ways to use )ord
processing applications0 spreadsheet applications0 organi(ing and
brain.stor"ing soft)are0 and "ulti"edia applications'
We can recommend se)eral resources that 'ocus on the conce(t o'
Dhigher*le)elE or DessentialE Questions and (ro)ide e.cellent
+ues/ Huestions/ and !d)ance #rganizers "<
6 %rom Tri)ial Pursuit to Essential Huestions and $tandards*5ased -earning
This article by &amie McKenzie looks at the di''erences between tri)*
ial/ meaningless Questions and those that truly encourage students to
use critical thinking skills.
6 !((lying 5loomPs Ta.onomy
This Web site goes through each le)el o' 5loomPs ta.onomy and gi)es o' Questions/ )erbs/ and (otential acti)ities 'or each le)el.
6 5loomPs Ta.onomy Model Huestions and Key Words
This resource 'rom the Uni)ersity o' at !ustin (ro)ides sug*
gested cues and Questions to use at each le)el in 5loomPs ta.onomy.
6 %or the 5est !nswers/ !sk Tough Huestions
This is an outstanding article on the to(ic o' essential Questions/ writ*
ten by &oyce 0alenza and originally (ublished in the !(ril 7222 issue
o' the Philadelphia +nCuirer. !n essential Question is one that reQuires
the student to make a decision or create a (lan. t reQuires more than
sim(le research and regurgitation o' answers. The article includes
links to other resources addressing the to(ic o' essential Questions.
The technologies that su((ort cues/ Questions/ and ad)ance
organizers assist teachers in Quickly ca(turing student res(onses and
organizing the res(onses into use'ul in'ormation.
Word Processing .--lications
Word (rocessing (rograms are e.tremely )ersatile and well suited as
tools to create ad)ance organizers/ whether e.(ository/ narrati)e/ or
gra(hic. Expositor$ ad)ance organizers include brochures/ de'ini*
tions/ rubrics/ and (rograms. 4arrative ad)ance organizers are usu*
ally stories/ articles/ or artistic works. Graphic ad)ance organizers are
usually tables/ charts/ or artistic works.
Teachers can use e.(ository/ narrati)e/ and gra(hic ad)ance
organizers alone or combine them to 'orm com(elling introductory
"= Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
materials that will hel( students 'ocus on the essential conce(ts and
themes that will (re(are them to learn. %or instance/ i' you are taking
your students on a 'ield tri(/ ha)e them conduct research on the
nternet be'orehand and create a sim(le brochure using word (ro*
cessing so'tware. The brochure might contain use'ul in'ormation that
students can re'er to during the tri(/ including ma(s/ 'acts/ and (ic*
tures. Aou might also ha)e them co(y and (aste it into an agenda that
you ha)e created with a word (rocessor and sa)ed to your schoolPs
ser)er or another commonly accessible location. Prior to embarking
on the tri(/ students could skim the brochure as an additional ad)ance
!nother a((lication o' word (rocessing (rograms is the use o'
table*making 'eatures to create an ad)ance organizer 'or note taking.
!t the beginning o' a lesson/ the teacher gi)es students a two*column
notes tem(late with key terms/ conce(ts/ or themes 'or the dayPs
instruction listed in the 'irst column. !s the lesson (rogresses/ the
students can gradually 'ill in this skeleton with e.(lanatory te.t/ Web
links/ and (ictures. This hel(s students organize their thoughts around
the essential in'ormation and gets them thinking about what they
know about the to(ic e)en be'ore the teacher has 'ully begun the
lesson. This e.(ository ad)ance organizer could be (osted 'or all to
see on a com(uter (roFector or sa)ed to a central ser)er 'or the
students to download. %urthermore/ because the notes are digital/
students can easily re)ise them and e*mail them home 'or study.
To create a note*taking tem(late as a table in Word/ click on Table
W nsert W Table and enter the number o' columns and rows you want
the initial table to ha)e. ,onPt worry i' you misFudge the size o' the
tableK you can easily insert or delete rows and columns later.
S-readsheet Soft8are
!lthough s(readsheet so'tware may not be the 'irst technology tool
you think o' when you want to create an ad)ance organizer/ it may
actually be the best choice when a lesson is )ery uniQue or when you
want to use s(readsheet 'unctions in a rubric. Rubrics are e.cellent
ad)ance organizers because they (re(are students to a((ly their
abilities/ knowledge/ and critical thinking skills. +ombining the
e.(ository in'ormation in a rubric with artistic narrati)e organizers is
an e''ecti)e strategy 'or (re(aring students to learn.
+ues/ Huestions/ and !d)ance #rganizers ""
HerePs an Mrs. Kedzierski/ a high school language arts
teacher/ is (lanning a (oetry writing lesson. %or a narrati)e ad)ance
organizer/ she gi)es students a selection o' (oems that set the mood
'or a maFor historical (eriod9 the Renaissance. The )ocabulary/ tone/
and story line o' (oems by $hakes(eare/ ,onne/ and &onson hel(
acti*)ate studentsP (rior knowledge and awaken their curiosity. !'ter
stu*dents read se)eral o' $hakes(earePs sonnets/ they write their
own/ as i' they too were li)ing in Elizabethan England. #' course/
writing 'rom this (ers(ecti)e is not easy and reQuires some u(*'ront
guidance. Mrs. Kedzierski decides to create a rubric to (ass out to the
students be'ore they begin their writing.
!lthough Mrs. Kedzierski is 'amiliar with online rubric*making
sites/ she (re'ers to create her own in Microso't E.cel or in a word
(rocessing (rogram/ using the table*making 'eatures. When using
E.cel/ she 'irst ty(es her lesson criteria Be.g./ follo)s sonnet for"at0
uses vocabular$ appropriate to the ti"e0 sets stor$ in Eli(abethan
periodC into the cells. Then she a((lies her desired 'ormatting/ col*ors/
and 'onts. $he decides to (rogram the s(readsheet to automati*cally
tabulate the rubric score as she grades the (oems. $he does this by
highlighting the cell under the rubric sub*scores column and choosing
the fx on the 'ormula bar. Then she selects the $UM 'unction and
makes sure the summation selects the (ro(er range o' sub*scores/
such as ,19,8. 4ow she has a rubric she can use Quickly and easily
o)er and o)er again.
rgani2ing and >rainstorming Soft8are
#ne recommendation 'rom the research is that teachers use e.(licit
cues. 5y that/ we mean your cues should be straight'orward and (ro*
)ide students with a (re)iew o' what they are about to learn. !lthough
itPs common to think that cues should be subtle or ambigu*ousOlike
hintsOin the classroom/ a direct a((roach is most e''ec*ti)e. $im(ly
tell students what content they are about to learn.
%or illustration/ consider Ms. ,ouglas/ a =th grade science teacher
who starts a unit on the (hysical (ro(erties o' bridges by announcing
to her students that they will be looking at di''erent ty(es o' bridges/
the (arts o' bridges/ and why di''erent bridges ser)e di'*'erent
(ur(oses. $he uses a Kids(iration organizer Bsee %igure 8.1C to show
the class their learning goal. With the so'tware/ she has access
": Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
to a )ast database o' )isual aids/ such as cli( art and (hotogra(hs o'
di''erent ty(es o' bridges. !s the lesson continues/ Ms. ,ouglas and
her students can add more cues and Questions to the organizer in the
'orm o' both te.t and images.
(igure *.1
+ueing and Huestioning Using Kids(iration
4otice that Ms. ,ouglas has also included an essential Cuestion in
this Kids(iration organizer. !sking students to use background knowl*
edge to answer essential Questions aligns with research showing that
higher*order Questions (roduce dee(er learning than lower*order Ques*
tions do BMarzano/ Pickering/ T Pollock/ 7221C. n this the
essential Question is intended to elicit in'erences 'rom the students/ as it
is not in'ormation that will be s(eci'ically stated to them. -ater in the unit/
Ms. ,ouglas could ask her students/ D' you were hired to correct
(roblems with the Tacoma 4arrows 5ridge (rior to its demise/ what
ad)ice would you gi)e to the buildersRE n this case/ Ms. ,ouglas is ask*
ing her students to analyze and critiQue something using the knowledge
that theyP)e learned about bridges/ thereby meeting the se)enth and
+ues/ Huestions/ and !d)ance #rganizers ";
'inal classroom recommendation 'or using cues/ Questions/ and
ad)ance organizers9 asking analytic Questions.
To begin this lesson on bridges/ the teacher has her students 'ill in
a KW- chart to acti)ate their background knowledge. 5ecause they
are doing this acti)ity in conFunction with their study o' 'orces o'
motion/ Ms. ,ouglas gi)es e.(licit cues that will hel( students con*
nect the content. $he states/ D!s you think about your answer to the
essential Question o' which 'actors architects need to consider be'ore
building a bridge/ also think about 4ewtonPs Third -aw o' Motion9 that
'or e)ery action/ there is an eQual and o((osite reaction.E !s a 'inal
cue/ she could use multimedia to acti)ate background knowledge by
showing a selected mo)ie or acti)ity/ such as those a)ailable 'rom
E.(lore-earning/ 5rainP#P/ United $treaming/ or P5$. While some o'
these resources are subscri(tion*based/ most allow either a 'ree trial
(eriod or limited 'ree access. BWe discuss multime*dia and ad)ance
organizers later in this cha(ter.C
!s a teacher/ when you (ro)ide cues and Questions like ones Ms.
,ouglas (ro)ides/ students ha)e a clearer sense o' what they are
going to learn. To aid the learning (rocess/ look 'or o((ortunities to
acti)ate studentsP background knowledge/ thereby (ro)iding a direc*
tion 'or e.(loration. The technology/ in turn/ (ro)ides you with editable
)isual aids and multimedia resources that a((eal to a num*ber o'
learning styles. !uditory learners ha)e the added bene'it o' being able
to listen many times to in'ormation in order to understand it better.
0isual learners use the (ictures and )ideo as )isual clues to
understanding the content. The motion (ortrayed in the )ideo can
reach kinesthetic learners by hel(ing them to (icture the motion o'
'orces associated with bridges.
-etPs take a look at how Ms. ,ouglas might use the same so'tware
to create an ad)ance organizer to 'urther her =th gradersP study o'
bridges. Kids(iration and ns(iration so'tware are ideal tools 'or cre*
ating ad)ance organizers/ and s(eci'ically gra(hic organizers.
Whether these organizers are used digitally with students or (rinted
out 'or them to com(lete by hand/ organizing and brainstorming so't*
ware allows learners to add and organize in'ormation as it is being
Ms. ,ouglasPs goal is to get her students to a((ly the conce(ts
they learned during a study o' 4ewtonPs -aws o' Motion to real*world
(ur(oses. Particularly/ she wants to ha)e them learn about di''erent
:2 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
ty(es o' bridges and how engineers decide which ty(e o' bridge to
build in )arious situations. $he uses ns(iration to create an ad)ance
organizer. t includes blank areas to label the ty(es o' bridges and the
'orces acting u(on them. $he lea)es blank sections and instructs her
students to 'ill these in with a drawing o' each ty(e o' bridge/ com*
(lete with arrows showing the stresses. $he also includes a word
bank to introduce new )ocabulary terms.
4e.t/ Ms. ,ouglas incor(orates multimedia into this (rocess o'
cueing and Questioning. $he (ro)ides her students with a collection o'
links to online multimedia resources/ where they can 'ind the in'or*
mation theyPll need to com(lete the ad)ance organizer9
,o8 >ridges Wor) Bhtt(9??science.howstu''
htmC. This Web site o''ers detailed e.(lanations o' how things work.
The articles are broken into cha(ters/ and )ocabulary terms are in
P>S >uilding >ig< >ridges Bwww.(
bridge?inde..htmlC. This series o' tutorials o''ers a((lets and short
games to introduce the (hysics behind bridges/ domes/ skyscra(ers/
dams/ and tunnels.
37. nline< Su-er >ridge Bwww.(
This simulation has students learn about di''erent ty(es o' bridges and
then a((ly their skills by deciding which bridge ty(e will work best in
)arious situations.
>rainPP Bwww.brain(o(.com?technology?scienceandindustry?
bridges?C. This short mo)ie introduces basic )ocabulary and conce(ts
behind bridges.
!s the students are introduced to new )ocabulary terms and con*
ce(ts/ they 'ill in the blank sections. %igure 8.7 shows one studentPs
com(leted organizer.
-ater/ as the students del)e dee(er into the conce(ts/ the teacher
can add to this organizer. The word bank can grow as the students
learn more )ocabulary. ' she chooses/ Ms. ,ouglas can e)en use this
organizer as a 'inal assessment (iece by gi)ing students a blank
gra(hic organizer at the end o' a unit and asking them 'ill*in the te.t
and drawings.
+ues/ Huestions/ and !d)ance #rganizers :1
(igure *.'
+om(leted !d)ance #rganizer +reated in ns(iration
-etPs look at another o' using organizing and brainstorm*
ing so'tware 'or acti)ating (rior knowledge. Mr. +orum/ a high school
history teacher/ is beginning a unit on the U.$. +i)il War and wants his
students to ha)e a clear understanding o' their own belie's and cur*
rent thinking about its causes. He has se)eral o(tions 'or cueing and
Questioning students/ including ha)ing them e.(lore a Web nQuiry
ProFect he 'ound online at htt(9?? !'ter allowing
students 72 minutes to (eruse the (roFect or one o' the other o(tions/
Mr. +orum mo)es into the ne.t (art o' the lesson and o(ens ns(ira*
tion on a (roFected com(uter screen. The students watch as he ty(es
this Question as the main idea9 DWhat do you think caused the +i)il
WarRE Then Mr. +orum selects the Ra(id%ire tool on the toolbar/
which lets him insert or gra(hics with connectors in one mo)e
rather than indi)idually so that he can kee( u( with the ideas that
students are generating as they brainstorm aloud. !s students enthu*
siastically o''er their contributions/ Mr. +orum records and organizes
them 'or e)eryone to see. %igure 8.3 shows a sna(shot o' the classPs
brainstorming document. This ma( can be trans'ormed into an out*
line with the click o' a button. -ater/ students can skim the outline 'or
ideas on the causes o' the +i)il War.
:7 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(igure *.%
5rainstorming with ns(irationPs Ra(id%ire Tool
Using multimedia tools as ad)ance organizers is an e.tension o'
e.(ository/ narrati)e/ and gra(hic ad)ance organizers. %or many stu*
dents/ multimedia is )ery e''ecti)e because it hel(s them both acti*
)ate (rior knowledge and de)elo( a mental model to hel( them
understand new in'ormation.
@enerally s(eaking/ e.(ository ad)ance organizers can be a )ery
e''ecti)e way to hel( students understand new content. Most teach*
ers introduce new content by (ro)iding an o)er)iew o' whatPs to come
and asking students what they already know about the subFect. !
study on (u(ilsP use o' multimedia ad)ance organizers and its e''ect
on retention by +hien*Hsun Tseng B7228C 'ound that students who
were gi)en a PowerPoint ad)ance organizer to hel( articulate a
lesson retained more in'ormation than those who did not recei)e this
ty(e o' multimedia ad)ance organizer.
HerePs an showing one teacherPs creati)e a((lication o'
this idea. To (ro)ide her students with a 'rame o' re'erence as they
begin reading &ohn $teinbeckPs !he Grapes of ,rath0 Ms. $im(son/ a
12th grade language arts teacher/ (roFects a PowerPoint slide show o'
+ues/ Huestions/ and !d)ance #rganizers :3
images that ca(ture the li)ing conditions o' dis(laced 'arm workers
during the @reat ,e(ression. $he reasons that the )isuals will hel(
her mostly a''luent students/ who ha)e no real idea o' hunger or
ho(elessness/ gain a better sense o' the hardshi(s o' that time
(eriod. While she knows that the (ictures o' the ,ust 5owl (eriod will
make an im(ression on her students/ she s(eculates that a mo)ie will
ha)e an e)en greater im(act. $he )isits the AahooU home(age Bwww.
yahoo.comC/ clicks on 0ideo at the to( o' the (age/ and ty(es D,ust
5owlE in the Web $earch window. The search returns 72 )ideo cli(s
related to the ,ust 5owl/ and Ms. $im(son (re)iews and selects two
to show to her students.
Aou can 'ind )ideo cli(s online 'rom the 'ollowing resources.
6 United $treaming
Use this educational )ideo collection to create an ad)ance organizer
at the onset o' a learning acti)ity.
6 The nternet !rchi)e
Home to the DWay 5ack MachineE and nternet archi)es/ this resource
also has multi(le )ideo cli(s 'rom the 72th century.
6 @oogle 0ideo
This search engine searches s(eci'ically 'or )ideo cli(s using the
keywords that you enter.
6 !;
%rom ! this engine searches images/ blogs/ and mo)ies
in addition to books and Web sites.
6 +reati)e +ommons
+reati)e commons is a non(ro'it organization that o''ers 'le.ible
co(yright licenses 'or creati)e works. This engine searches 'or 'le.i*
ble co(yright materialOgra(hics/ sounds/ and (ublicationsOthat are
meant 'or (ublic use. !s students create )ideos as (art o' their
:8 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
learning/ teachers can sa)e the best o' them on a 'lash dri)e/ +,*
R#M/ or the schoolPs ser)er/ and then use those )ideos as ad)ance
organizers with 'uture classes.
This is Fust what one middle school teacher did when he reQuired
students to use the nternet and other resources to research an
as(ect o' history that illustrates human rights and res(onsibilities.
#ne grou( o' girls created a mo)ie about womenPs rights in +hina/
titled Grass Born !o Be Stepped 5n. Their 'inal (roFect is online at
htt(9??edcomunity.a((,Z1==. This year/
the teacher is (resenting a similar unit and begins by showing the
girlsP mo)ie as a narrati)e ad)ance organizer. n doing this/ not only is
the teacher illustrating how to use ad)ance organizers/ he is also
highlighting nonlinguistic re(resentation/ (ro)iding 'eedback/ and
(ro)iding recognition. n +ha(ter <Ps discussion o' nonlinguistic re(*
resentation/ wePll re)isit the to(ic o' student*created )ideos and their
a''ect on achie)ement.
$o'tware with multimedia ca(abilities can also (ro)ide ad)ance
organizers. %or Mrs. -ewers and her =th graders are study*
ing constellations/ nebulas/ and (lanets o' the night sky. #)er the
ne.t two weeks/ she wants her students to 'ind the !ndromeda gal*
a.y/ which is the 'arthest celestial obFect )isible to the naked eye. !s
(re(aration/ she downloads a 'ree/ o(en*source (rogram called
$tellarium/ which ser)es as a com(uter*based (lanetarium Bwww.
stellarium.orgC. n class/ she dims the lights/ brings u( $tellarium on a
com(uter (roFector/ and sets the current date and the schoolPs loca*
tion. $he sets the local time as :922 (.m. so that her students can see
what the sky abo)e them will look like that e)ening.
Mrs. -ewers uses the arrow keys to na)igate the so'tware until the
dis(lay shows the eastern sky and asks the students i' they recognize
any o' the constellations that they see. $ome correctly identi'y the
DWE sha(e o' +assio(eia/ so she hits a key that acti)ates the constel*
lation lines and titles in order 'or all to see Bsee %igure 8.8C. $he also
asks her students to note a )ery small DsmudgeE o' white near the star
that creates the second D0E o' +assio(eiaPs DW.E !'ter selecting the
!ndromeda gala.y/ she zooms in to gi)e the class a magni'ied look.
With the so'tware dis(lay ser)ing as an ad)ance organizer/ stu*
dents ha)e a better idea o' what to look 'or when they attem(t to
+ues/ Huestions/ and !d)ance #rganizers :<
(igure *.*
$creen $hot o' $tellarium with the !ndromeda @ala.y Highlighted
+"age created )ith Stellariu" :)))'stellariu"'org;'
identi'y the constellation at home. 5ecause the so'tware is 'ree/ they
also can ask their (arents to download it 'or 'urther (ractice.
HerePs one more showing how students can use multime*
dia as both an engaging ad)ance organizer and a tool 'or (ractice.
Ms. Wilson/ a 1st grade teacher/ wishes to (ro)ide her students with
an ad)ance organizer as they begin to study the clock and learn how
to tell time. $he goes to 5rainP#P &r. Bwww.brain(o(Fr.comC/ an online
collection o' short animated 'ilms 'or students in kindergarten through
3rd grade. Together/ she and her students watch a mo)ie about (arts
o' the clock and 'ollow with a short Quiz. n Ms. WilsonPs weekly letter
home/ she encourages (arents to )isit the site with their child to
re)iew the )ocabulary and conce(ts co)ered in class that week.
onlinguistic re(resentation enhances studentsP ability to use
mental images to re(resent and elaborate on knowledge. To back u(
slightly/ knowledge is stored in two 'orms9 linguistic 'orm Bas
languageC and nonlinguistic 'orm Bas mental images and (hysical sen*
sationsC. The more indi)iduals use both ty(es o' re(resentation/ the
better they are able to re'lect on and recall knowledge. Teachers usu*
ally (resent new knowledge in linguistic 'ormK that is/ they either talk
to students about new content or ask them to read about new con*
tent. When teachers branch out to hel( students use nonlinguistic
re(resentation as well/ the e''ects on achie)ement are strong.
McRE-Ps research on nonlinguistic re(resentation su((orts the
'ollowing generalizations9
1. ! )ariety o' acti)ities (roduce nonlinguistic re(resentation.
These are outlined in more detail in the classroom
7. The (ur(ose o' nonlinguistic re(resentation is to elaborate on
4onlinguistic Re(resentation :"
5ased on these 'indings/ we ha)e 'i)e recommendations 'or class*
room (ractice9
1. Use gra(hic organizers to re(resent knowledge.
7. Ha)e students create (hysical models o' the knowledge.
3. Ha)e students generate mental (ictures o' the knowledge they
are learning.
8. Use (ictures or (ictogra(hs to re(resent knowledge.
<. Ha)e students engage in kinesthetic acti)ities re(resenting the
Technology (lays an ob)ious role in 'acilitating the creation o'
gra(hic organizers and hel(ing to generate mental (ictures and
(ictogra(hs. !ccording to MarzanoPs original meta*analysis B1;;:C/
using gra(hic re(resentations had one o' the highest im(acts on stu*
dent achie)ement/ with an a)erage e''ect size o' 1.78. !nother de)el*
o(ing role o' technology includes kinesthetic acti)ities. 4ew hard*ware
and so'tware that reQuire the user to res(ond to and gi)e in'ormation
through (hysical sensations are currently in the beta test (hase/
which is the last stage o' testing that a com(any engages in be'ore
introducing a new commercial (roduct. n one such case/ Foysticks are
being de)elo(ed that react to a childPs answers to a com(uter*based
game. %or i' the child tries to (lace the let*ter h in the
incorrect (lace in al(habetical order/ the Foystick will gently (ush back
on his or her hand. This technology has been around 'or years in the
training o' (ilots/ surgeons/ and astronautsK it is now making its way
into the classroom. 4intendo has already launched a )ideo game
console called Wii that 'inally allows kines*thetic learners to 'ully a((ly
their strengths to )ideo games. The con*sole controller 'uses the
'amiliarity o' a remote control with the so(histication o' motion*sensing
technology. This 5luetooth in(ut de)ice allows 'or 'ull*range
mo)ement. %or in a tennis game/ it ser)es as a racket you
swing with your arm. n a dri)ing game/ it ser)es as your steering
wheel. n addition to its (ointing and motion*sensing abilities/ the Wii
remote also includes a s(eaker and rumble 'eature. tPs only a matter
o' time be'ore educators will be able to le)erage this technology.
#ther o' using kinesthetic
:: Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
acti)ities with technology include -ego?-ogo robotics and science
(robeware/ such as tem(erature/ light/ and sound (robes.
n this cha(ter/ we look at si. categories o' technology that can
hel( teachers (ro)ide and hel( students create mental (ictures and
(ictogra(hs9 )ord processing applications0 spreadsheet applications0
organi(ing and brainstor"ing soft)are0 data collection tools0 "ulti"e.
dia applications0 and ,eb resources'
Word Processing .--lications
Word (rocessing so'tware allows students to augment their written
te.t with )isual elements such as cli( art and (hotos. This strategy is
es(ecially hel('ul when working with emergent readers and English
language learners/ who bene'it (articularly 'rom )isual cues BHill T
%lynn/ 722=C. !dding (ictures to notes also has been shown to
im(ro)e studentsP understanding and retention o' new content BMar*
zano/ 1;;:C.
HerePs an illustration. Ms. 5yers/ a kindergarten teacher who is
hel(ing her students learn the sound o' the letter d0 brings u( a word
(rocessing document on a com(uter (roFector/ changes the ty(e to
7=*(oint +entury @othic Ba 'ont that young readers 'ind )ery legibleC/
and asks her students to think o' words that start with the DdE sound.
!s students res(ond/ she ty(es a list o' words/ adding bold and
underline 'ormatting to the letter d' Ms. 5yers then goes back and
shows them how to insert cli( art. $he e.(lains e)erything she does9
DTo add a drawing to each word/ Pm going to (lace my cursorOthatPs
the blinking line that you seeOin 'ront o' each word. Then Pm going to
go to Dnsert.E +an anyone tell me what the word insert would start
withR @ood/ the letter i' Who sees the ca(ital letter + u( here in my
menuR ThatPs rightK itPs the 'ourth word in that row.E
Ms. 5yers continues cueing her students as she goes through the
ste(s o' adding cli( art. Bn this case/ her cli( art comes 'rom www.
cli( While the kindergarten students will not necessarily be
able to insert cli( art on their own 'or a while/ they are seeing their
teacher model the (rocess. $he lets )arious students choose the cli(
art that she (astes beside each word/ and this way/ she uses
(ictogra(hs to hel( her students remember words that begin with the
DdE sound. When they are 'inished/ the list looks like %igure <.1.
4onlinguistic Re(resentation :;
(igure 5.1
@ra(hics*Enhanced 4otes9 The -etter $ound D,E
*lip art i"ages A 7??B &upiteri"ages *orporation'
Ms. 5yers can now (rint the document and (ut co(ies in stu*dentsP
take*home 'olders/ on the bulletin board/ on each studentPs desk/ on
her classroom Web site/ or any other (lace where the stu*dents will
see the words and (ictures and get a nonlinguistic reminder o' the
sound o' the letter d'
This techniQue is easily used with u((er elementary students to
hel( them remember (rocesses or new )ocabulary words. ! 8th grade
teacher teaching about the li'e stages o' butter'lies might encourage
her students to (re(are 'or a Quiz by creating a study guide 'eaturing
both (ictures o' the stages and a 'ew descri(ti)e words. The
beginning stages o' one studentPs study guide is shown in %igure <.7.
S-readsheet Soft8are
#ne o' s(readsheet so'twarePs (rimary (ur(oses is to enable users to
easily create gra(hs and charts 'rom data entered. !lthough s(read*
sheet so'tware is most o'ten used in business settings/ it can be a
)aluable classroom tool 'or creating nonlinguistic re(resentation o'
#ne e''ecti)e way to use s(readsheet so'tware in this manner
comes 'rom ,a)id Warlick Bhtt(9??da)idwarlick.comC/ an educational
technology consultant and s(eaker. n an acti)ity he demonstrates
;2 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(igure 5.'
E.cer(t 'rom a @ra(hics*Enhanced $tudy @uide9
The -i'e +ycle o' a 5utter'ly
*lip art i"ages A 7??B &upiteri"ages *orporation'
'or teachers/ he begins by accessing data 'rom the U.$. @eological
$ur)ey Bhtt(9??neic.usgs.go)?neis?gis?Qed.ascC that show seismic
acti)ity in the (ast 32 days9 Bsee %igure <.3C. Most (eo(le look at this
and can make little sense o' these strings o' numbers. Warlick then
re'ormats the data and (astes them into Microso't E.cel/ (lotting the
data on an [A scatter (lot. ' youPd like to 'ollow along with his illus*
tration/ here are the ste(s to take9
1. With the Web (age o(en/ go to the Edit menu on your Web
browser. $elect !ll/ and co(y and (aste the data into a Microso't Word
7. n Word/ make sure all the data are still selected BEdit W $elect
!ll i' notC and under Table/ click +on)ert W Te.t to Table. Make sure
that $e(arate Te.t at o(tion is selected to se(arate at +ommas. Then
click #K. Aou should now ha)e a table with the 'ollowing headings9
,ate/ TimeUT+/ -atitude/ -ongitude/ Magnitude/ and ,e(th.
3. $elect the columns that show the ,ate/ TimeUT+/ Magnitude/
and ,e(th. Right*click on these and ,elete +olumns. This remo)es
the e.traneous material 'or this (articular acti)ity/ lea)ing only the
latitude and longitude data.
8. The goal is to (lot these coordinates on an EF (lane/ but lati*
tude and longitude are in the o((osite (laces to do this. n other
words/ i' you lea)e column order as it is/ youPll create a sideways ma(
4onlinguistic Re(resentation ;1
(igure 5.%
Un'ormatted $eismic ,ata ,ownloaded
'rom the U.$. @eological $ur)ey
722=?23?7"/2;92=92:.</*3.8:"/13<.877/8.;/ 87
722=?23?7"/2<9739<;.=*72.":"/*=;.87:/<.3/ <;
722=?23?7"/279<297".</37.<1=/131.":;/<.3/ 8"
722=?23?7"/21912933.2/ ".1=:/*38.7=1/<.3 /12
722=?23?7"/2292898:.2/*1<.<:".*1"7.<1"/<.2/ 3<
722=?23?7=/7291=9<2.7/<1.1<;/1";.81"/8.;/ 8:
722=?23?7=/1;97293:.=/33.;7"/128/87:/8.=/ 3
722=?23?7=/1:9719<=."/37.31=/181."81/8.=/ 12
722=?23?7=/1=9139<<.8m1:/8"=/177.331/8."/ "
722=?23?7=/139279<3.2/7;.878/182.2<2/8.</ 3<
722=?23?7=/2;988923.;/*7:.:8=/*1"".777/8.;/ <;
722=?23?7=/2;93"9<".;/7".821/ <<.:;</ 8.=/1:
722=?23?7=/2<98;9<3.1/*13.<71/*"=.;;7/8."/ 7"
722=?23?7=/2<9189<3.1/*13.<71/*"=.;;7/8."/ 3"
722=?23?7=/2797893".8/ 8.113/*":.=1;/ 8."/ 3"
722=?23?7=/2791893".8/1;.2;8/*=8.:71/8.8/ 3<
o' the world. $o select the -atitude column/ +ut the column/ and then
select Paste +olumns to (aste it to the right o' the -ongitude column.
<. $elect !ll again and +o(y the entire table. B5oth o' these com*
mands are 'ound under the Edit menu.C
=. 4ow/ itPs time to get the s(readsheet so'tware in)ol)ed. #(en a
new Microso't E.cel document/ and select Edit W Paste to (aste the
data into a s(readsheet.
". +lick on the +hart Wizard button on the $tandard toolbar Bit
looks like a three*dimensional bar gra(hC and select the [A B$catterC.
Ty(e in a title 'or your chart/ then click %inish.
The com(leted chart should look something like %igure <.8.
! teacher who 'ollows these ste(s will ha)e changed what was
initially a meaningless string o' numbers into a nonlinguistic
;7 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(igure 5.*
@ra(h o' the EarthPs %ault -ines +reated in Microso't E.cel
re(resentation o' that data. $tudents will be able to see the (lot (oints
o' the data and can begin to answer the 'ollowing Questions9
Which line re(resents the eQuatorR
Which line re(resents the (rime meridianR
Where are the !leutian slands o' !laskaR
Where are the 'ault lines o' +ali'orniaR
How are the maFor (lots showing at the 1<2*degree longitude
mark related to natural disasters that ha)e been on the news latelyR
This a((roach is ada(table to a wide )ariety o' lessons in which
you want to hel( students make sense o' data that initially seem con*
'using or o)erwhelming/ such as longitudinal weather records or
com(ounding interest o)er time.
The newest member o' the ns(iration so'tware 'amily/ ns(ire*
,ata/ allows students to enter data/ then organize and sort it using
nonlinguistic symbols and (ictures in the Plot 0iew. There are se)eral
o(tions9 0enn diagrams/ stack gra(hs/ and (ie charts. $tudents can
label the material in )arious ways/ a((ly color schemes to indicate
di''erent data categories/ and sort by label/ color/ and (lot ty(e.
4onlinguistic Re(resentation ;3
rgani2ing and >rainstorming Soft8are
@ra(hic re(resentations ser)e as mnemonic de)ices that 'acilitate the
classi'ication/ organization/ storage/ and recollection o' in'orma*tion
into and out o' long*term memory. This is es(ecially true 'or stu*dents
with learning styles that 'a)or )isual 'orms o' learning. #rganizing and
brainstorming so'tware gi)e teachers and students ways to create a
)ariety o' descri(ti)e (atterns to build conce(tual understanding o'
e)erything 'rom new )ocabulary words to com(le. systems. n this
way/ teachers are addressing the classroom recom*mendation o'
using gra(hic organizers with their students.
ns(iration/ Microso't 0isio/ +ma(Tools/ $martTools Bused with
$mart5oardsC/ and e)en the Microso't Word ,rawing toolbar can all
be used to organize ideas and re(resent curricular conce(ts. Aou
might start by using words and (hrases in a (attern organizer and
then add to them with )isual/ audible/ and mo)ing de(ictions. n this
section/ we demonstrate the )alue o' the si. common ty(es o' (attern
organizers9 conce(tual?descri(ti)e Bcombined 'or our gen*
eralization?(rinci(le/ time*seQuence/ e(isode/ and (rocess?cause*
Conce-tual?Descri-ti"e Pattern rgani2ers
Teachers can combine conce(tual and descri(ti)e (attern organiz*ers
in many ways and to many ends/ including teaching 'acts and
characteristics about a (erson/ (lace/ thing/ e)ent/ or )ocabulary
word. This (attern ty(e is more o(en*ended than the others and easy
to create with students during classroom discussions. Aou can 'ind
some in ns(irationPs Tem(lates 'older. $ee/ 'or
the 0ocabulary Word tem(late located under -anguage !rts and the
$u((orting dea tem(late located under Thinking $kills.
%igure <.< shows a descri(ti)e (attern organizer 'or learning the
)ocabulary word "ne"onic' tPs a modi'ication o' the 0ocabulary
Word tem(late 'ound in Kids(irationPs Reading and Writing !cti)ities
'older/ created by a <th grade teacher and his students to model how
he wanted them to create their own descri(ti)e (attern around
)ocabulary words. The students started the acti)ity with words and
then inserted images to dee(en the learning and rein'orce knowledge
;8 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(igure 5.5
+once(tual?,escri(ti)e Pattern #rganizer +reated
with Kids(irationPs 0ocabulary Word Tem(late
*lip art i"ages A 7??B &upiteri"ages *orporation'
:enerali2ation?Princi-le Pattern rgani2ers
!s their name suggests/ generalization?(rinci(le (attern organizers
work es(ecially well in mathematics and science subFects. To illus*
trate/ Ms. $cottPs algebra students ha)e been using Quadratic eQua*
tions 'or some time/ and she e.(ects them to understand the
eQuationsP a((lications. %or a homework assignment/ she (ro)ides an
algebra (rinci(le and asks her students to make a (attern orga*nizer
with at least three di''erent a((lication 5ecause the
students ha)e (re)iously worked with these mathematical (rinci(les
and ha)e already demonstrated their a((lications/ no additional direct
instruction is necessary. #ne o' her studentsP organizers a((ears in
%igure <.=.
6ime-Se/uence Pattern rgani2ers
! time*seQuence (attern organizer is terri'ic 'or teaching students
historical (rogression. $ay that Mrs. +am(bell/ a secondary social
studies teacher/ wants her students to understand the (ace and
e)ents o' the D$(ace RaceE that started with $(utnik in 1;<" and
4onlinguistic Re(resentation ;<
(igure 5.5
@eneralization?Princi(le Pattern #rganizer +reated
with the Microso't Word #rganization +hart
ended with the !(ollo*$oyuz mission in 1;"<. $he guides students in
using ns(iration to create a $(ace Race Time $eQuence like the one
in %igure <.". $he tells them to show both $o)iet and U.$. missions
and to incor(orate symbols 'or the di''erent ty(es o' s(ace missions.
!lternati)ely/ Mrs. +am(bell could ask students to create a simi*lar
time*seQuence (attern organizer using the Word ,rawing tools. #ne
technical hint she gi)es is to use the grid at ,raw W @rid W $na(
obFects to grid and ,raw W @rid W ,is(lay gridlines on screen. Mrs.
+am(bell also ad)ises her students to use the cli( art search located
within Word at nsert W Picture W +li( !rt so that they can be sure the
images they select and use are not co(yright*restricted.
$-isode Pattern rgani2ers
E(isode (attern organizers such as the one in %igure <.: are use'ul
'or de(icting com(le. e)ents where many di''erent (eo(le/ (laces/
times/ and (rocesses all contribute to the o)erall conce(t. This ty(e o'
gra(hic organizer also contains a time*seQuence (attern within it. #ur is an e.tension o' Mrs. +am(bellPs $(ace Race assign*ment.
$he chooses one o' the best time*seQuence organizers and uses it as
(art o' a new e(isode (attern organizer as a way o' discussing
;= Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(igure 5.#
Time*$eQuence Pattern #rganizer +reated in ns(iration
*lip art i"ages A 7??B &upiteri"ages *orporation'
the many 'actors in)ol)ed with the $(ace Race. Mrs. +am(bell cre*
ates the organizer seen in %igure <.: in ns(iration/ then uses %ile W
Trans'er to Word Processor to (lace it in Microso't Word. ,uring
class/ she (roFects this organizer on screen and hy(erlinks the time*
seQuence to the e(isode (attern organizer in Microso't Word by using
nsert W Hy(erlink W Place in This ,ocument W $(ace Race Time
Process?Cause-$ffect Pattern rgani2ers
The 'inal in %igure <.;/ is a (rocess?cause*e''ect (attern
organizer. Here/ a high school ad)isor o(ens a discussion o' goals
with 'reshmen (artici(ating in a grou( counseling session. The ad)i*
sor uses the organizer to communicate the im(ortance o' sound (lan*
ning (ractices and encourages the 'reshmen to make their own
customized organizers. The )isual hel(s students connect the deci*
sions they make in high school to e)ents later in li'e by allowing them
to see (ossible cause*and*e''ect relationshi(s at a glance. The orga*
nizer not only s(arks discussion but guides it as well.
4onlinguistic Re(resentation ;"
(igure 5.4
E(isode Pattern #rganizer +reated in ns(iration
#aunch photograph courtes$ of the 4/S/ Digital +"age *ollection'
(igure 5.&
Process?+ause*E''ect Pattern #rganizer
+reated in Microso't Word
;: Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
Data Collection 6ools
Technology has come a long way in (ro)iding the tools that allow stu*
dents to go beyond re(etiti)e calculations/ hand gra(hing/ and
sketching. TodayPs digital (robes and digital microsco(es 'eature
(hotogra(hy and )ideo 'unctions that enable students to acQuire
in'ormation and imagesOsome o' which are ty(es o' nonlinguistic
re(resentationO'or analysis/ synthesis/ and e)aluation.
#b)iously/ (robes and microsco(es are use'ul tools in science
class/ but all subFects can use (arts o' these tools to enhance the cur*
riculum. %or instance/ language arts and social studies classes might
make use o' digital sco(esP (hotogra(hy and )ideo 'unctions in dra*
matic (roductions/ anthro(ological in)estigations/ and reenact*ments.
Music classes might use sound (robes to analyze music.
Mathematics classes might use (robe data to illustrate (ractical o' gra(hing eQuations. E)en so/ letPs use two science to(ics
to illustrate the use o' these two related technologies9 'irst/ how stu*
dents can use digital (robes to com(are the tem(eratures and lumi*
nosity o' incandescent and com(act 'lorescent light bulbs/ and
second/ how students can use digital microsco(es to e.amine both
crystal (atterns and triops/ tiny (rehistoric crustaceans that are
among the oldest li)ing s(ecies on the Earth.
#' course/ to in)estigate the tem(erature and luminosity o' light
bulbs/ students could also use the naked eye or standard thermome*
ters and sto(watches/ both o' which were Dhigh*techE at one time. The
ne.t ste( would be to use gra(h (a(er and colored (encils to cre*ate
gra(hs that incor(orate obser)ational data. Then/ they might (resent
this in'ormation by using a ruler to draw a large/ a((ro.imate gra(h on
a (iece o' (oster board. These a((roaches are certainly soundK
indeed/ many o' us learned by these )ery methods. $till/ it is easy to
see that modern technology has a lot to add in terms o' e''i*ciency/
accuracy/ analysis/ and (resentation. -ikewise/ students could
obser)e crystals or trio(s with a magni'ying glass/ but a digital
microsco(e greatly enhances this acti)ity. TodayPs technology allows
us to take still (ictures/ insert digital labels/ record )ideo cli(s/ and use
the resulting images in a (resentation. The method is 'ast/ easy/ and
(roduces (ro'essional looking results.
4onlinguistic Re(resentation ;;
Digital Probes
%or Fust about any science measurement that you can think o'/ you
can collect data with a digital (robe. Usually when you (urchase
(robeware/ it comes with so'tware 'or data logging/ analyzing/ and
gra(hing. #nce students ha)e learned the 'undamentals o' gra(hing/
they can ski( the boring/ mistake*(rone (rocess o' data entry and the
time*consuming routine o' creating hand*drawn gra(hs and get right
to higher*le)el (roblem sol)ing and thinking. 0endors such as 0er*
nier/ Pasco/ H#5#/ and %ourier s(ecialize in di''erent areas/ such as
wireless B5luetoothC data trans'er/ long*term data logging/ and all*in*
one elementary multi(robes/ but all o' them allow the user to collect
data and (ut them into a gra(hic 'orm 'or 'urther analysis/ thereby
'ollowing the classroom recommendation o' using (ictures or (icto*
gra(hs to re(resent in'ormation.
HerePs an o' incor(orating digital (robes into a lesson.
Mr. Ena(ayPs :th grade students are in the middle o' a science inQuiry
in)estigation. Mr. Ena(ay hel(s his students use 0ernier (robes to
com(are di''erent ty(es o' light bulbs. B0ernier has two )ersions o'
their data*logging so'tware9 an elementary )ersion called -ogger -ite
and a )ersion 'or older students called -ogger Pro'C -ast year/ his stu*
dents used thermometers and gra(hed the data by hand. t was an
inaccurate and slow (rocess. He is ho(ing things will go more
smoothly this year with the schoolPs new (robes.
Mr. Ena(ay e.(lains to his students that com(act 'luorescent and
incandescent light bulbs (roduce light 'rom electricity in di''erent
ways. They each emit a s(eci'ic amount o' light/ called lu"inosit$0
which is measured in lumens?m
or lux. They each last 'or an a((ro.i*
mate amount o' time/ measured in hours o' use. The heat that both
bulbs generate is measured in degrees +elsius (er second.
Mr. Ena(ayPs students use the (robes to collect luminosity and
heat data simultaneously/ The accom(anying -ogger Pro so'tware
gra(hs these data instantly Bsee %igure <.12C. When students add
these data to other data/ such as (rice and the manu'acturerPs rated
(ower/ they get a good idea o' how the bulbs com(are and/ thus/
which one is the better buy. With digital (robes/ they can also mea*
sure luminosity and heat o)er time. $tudents sa)e their gra(hs 'or
later use in a (resentation.
122 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
Mr. Ena(ay obser)es that by using (robes/ his students s(end
much less time calculating and re(resenting data/ which is on the
lower le)el o' 5loomPs ta.onomy/ and more time working at the
higher le)els9 analyzing and e)aluating the gra(hic (atterns to decide
the short* and long*term (ros and cons o' using each ty(e o' light
(igure 5.19
-ight 5ulb -uminosity and Tem(erature +om(arison +reated with
0ernier -ogger Pro
n 0ernierPs elementary*'riendly so'tware a((lication/ -ogger -ite/
the inter'ace has large/ easy*to*read buttons/ which hel( young stu*
dents to see the data. Ms. +obb/ a kindergarten teacher/ uses a digital
(robe and -ogger -ite to hel( her students understand the conce(t o'
insulation. $he begins by asking them why they think that their mit*
tens and glo)es kee( their hands warm in the winter. $ome students
hy(othesize that the mittens themsel)es are warm. To test this theory
Oand to demonstrate the conce(t o' insulationOMs. +obb takes a
reading o' the classroomPs tem(erature by setting the (robe on her
desk. While the numerical degrees might not be meaning'ul/ the
students are able to see the line that re(resents the tem(erature/
4onlinguistic Re(resentation 121
and they will be able to obser)e the line 'alling or rising as the tem*
(erature changes. Ms. +obb then (laces the (robe inside an em(ty
mitten. The students obser)e that nothing changes. Howe)er/ when a
)olunteer comes u( and (laces his hand in the mitten with the (robe
still in (lace/ the students see that the tem(erature begins to rise.
They now ha)e a better understanding that it is the hand inside a mit*
ten that actually creates heat/ and the mitten contains that heat. 5y
using the so'tware/ Ms. +obb (resents her kindergarteners with a
)i)id/ nonlinguistic (icture o' the data that they can understand with*
out ha)ing to deci(her numbers and degrees.
Digital =icrosco-es
Most microsco(e manu'acturers make a microsco(e that can e.(ort
images to a com(uter. Howe)er/ the most )ersatile digital micro*
sco(es are those that can be used both in a traditional/ mounted
con'iguration and as a handheld 'ield sco(e. Unlike traditional micro*
sco(es/ digital sco(es ha)e the built*in ca(acity to take (ictures/
mo)ies/ and time*la(se images. $ome ty(es also can (roFect
onscreen images/ such as (ages in a book or magazine articles/
when theyPre (lugged into a com(uterPs U$5 (ort 'or data trans'er and
(ower. $co(e )endors and manu'acturers such as Pro$co(e/ Konus/
Ken*!*0ision/ Prime Entertainment/ and $calar sell )arious models o'
hand*held and mountable digital U$5 sco(es. These usually come
with their own (ro(rietary so'tware/ which is com(atible with many
image*)iewing (rograms standard to the most common com(uter
o(erating systems.
Teachers can ha)e students use digital microsco(es both during
their in)estigations and a'terward to create diagrams and gra(hics 'or
studentsP analyses and (resentations. %igure <.11 shows (ictures o'
microsco(ic to(az crystals taken with a Pro$co(e. With the unaided
eye/ itPs im(ossible to tell their crystal sha(e/ and they donPt make
good s(ecimens 'or a ty(ical microsco(e because they ha)e an
une)en sur'ace and would not 'it on a microsco(e slide. Howe)er/
with a digital sco(e/ you can take magni'ied (ictures o' their une)en
sur'ace. This allows you to 'ind crystals that e.hibit a (er'ect natural
sha(e. While une)en 'ormation conditions and im(urities cause many
o' the crystals to de'orm/ you can 'ind a 'ew that 'orm Fust right. +an
you 'ind the he.agonal crystals in these (icturesR
127 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(igure 5.11
Pictures o' To(az +rystals Taken with a
Pro$co(e ,igital Microsco(e
,igital sco(es also (ro)ide a way to (roduce )ideo cli(s o' li)e
microsco(ic s(ecimens. %igure <.17 shows another image ca(tured
with a Pro$co(e9 the 'irst 'rame in a )ideo cli( documenting a trio(
swimming in a Petri dish. Trio(s/ tiny creatures that date back to the
Triassic Period/ li)e in intermittent (ond en)ironments. They hatch/
breed/ and die within ;2 days/ and their eggs can last 'or decades
waiting 'or a strong rain to 'ill the (ond.
(igure 5.1'
0ideo mage o' a Trio( Taken
with a Pro$co(e ,igital Microsco(e
4onlinguistic Re(resentation 123
%inally/ many digital sco(es allow students to create time*la(se
mo)ies. %igure <.13 shows a 'rame 'rom a time*la(se mo)ie docu*
menting (lant growth/ created by Mr. %uglestadPs science students at
$tillwater &unior High $chool in $tillwater/ Minnesota. ProFects that
in)ol)e monitoring changes o)er time and recording data rein'orce the
science skills o' obser)ation. !nd with digital sco(es/ students can
ca(ture (henomena that might otherwise go unnoticed.
(igure 5.1%
%rame o' a Time*-a(se Mo)ie on Plant @rowth
Special thanks to Still)ater &unior 2igh and science teacher Pete Guglestad'
#ne o' the most e''ecti)e 'orms o' nonlinguistic re(resentation is
multimedia. $ince teachers 'irst started showing reel*to*reel 'ilms in
their classrooms/ countless educators ha)e obser)ed that mo)ies and
)ideos hel( engage students in content. Today/ we can take that
engagement much 'urther by shi'ting multimedia learning 'rom some*
thing thatPs teacher*directed to something thatPs teacher*'acilitated.
Research indicates that multimedia has the most e''ect on student
128 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
learning when the student is the creator B$iegle T %oster/ 7222C.
!lthough PowerPoint (resentations and mo)ies are great teaching
aids and do lead to higher le)els o' student engagement/ the most
engaging learning comes 'rom ha)ing the student create the (resen*
tation or mo)ie themsel)es as a (art o' the learning (rocess. Many
belie)e that the mo)ie*editing tools that ha)e become ubiQuitous in
schools are leading to a new Ddigital literacy/E in which students need
to know the language o' camera angle/ colors/ soundtrack/ and 'onts
in much the same way that they need to know the grammar o' written
and s(oken language. @eorge -ucas B722<C likens this e)ol)ing liter*
acy to the onset o' reading and writing in the general (o(ulation that
'ollowed the in)ention o' the (rinting (ress.
t is essential that students understand the signi'icance o' co(y*right
and 'air use/ and this is es(ecially im(erati)e when they engage in
multimedia (roFects. $tudents should know/ 'or that according
to $ection 8.7.3 o' +onsortium o' +ollege and Uni)ersity Media +entersP
Gair 9se Guidelines for Educational Multi"edia B1;;=C/ they should not
sam(le more than 12 (ercent or 32 seconds o' the song. $tudents should
be aware o' these guidelines/ but also should be introduced to o(en*
access sources that ha)e more rela.ed laws regarding student use. %or
instance/ they can go to www.'ree(lay* and download entire
songs 'ree o' charge 'or an educa*tion*related mo)ie. Web sites such as
htt(9??creati) hel( students and teachers to locate audio/
)ideo/ images/ te.t/ and educational resources 'or their (roFects.
Multimedia is a combination o' single mediums/ such as )ideo/
audio/ and interacti)ity. @enerally/ we can think o' multimedia in the
classroom as (roFects that include at least two o' the 'ollowing9 audio/
)ideo/ gra(hics/ animations/ and te.t. Thus/ multimedia (ro*Fects
might include (resentations/ animations/ and mo)ies created in the
so'tware a((lications such as ns(iration/ PowerPoint/ iMo)ie/ and
Mo)ie Maker. These ty(es o' (roFects hel( students create a men*tal
image o' the conce(ts and themes they are trying to learn. Think back
to a memorable (roFect you did in school. ,id it in)ol)e some sort o'
imagery or )isual aidsR !s we ha)e stated be'ore/ knowledge
connected with nonlinguistic re(resentation is remembered more
dee(ly than with linguistic 'orms alone.
4onlinguistic Re(resentation 12<
The ad)ancement o' (resentation technology is one o' the most (ow*
er'ul inno)ations in educational technology. With some creati)ity/ a
com(uter/ a (roFector/ and (resentation so'tware/ students can cre*ate
(resentations that ri)al those o' (ro'essionals. !lthough Power*Point
is not the only so'tware used 'or classroom (resentations/ it is by 'ar
the most dominant. 5rowse these Web sites to get some ideas about
student and teacher (resentations9
6 &e''erson +ounty $choolsOPowerPoint +ollection
This is a large collection o' KI17 student and teacher PowerPoint (re*
sentations in all subFects.
6 ProFect*5ased -earning with Multimedia
Here/ youPll 'ind 'ree education (resentation resources 'rom Microso't.
6 Educational PowerPoint Tem(lates
This is a collection o' (resentation tem(lates 'or elementary to(ics.
These tem(lates are good 'or students and teachers Fust learning to
create multimedia (resentations.
6 PowerPoint in the +lassroom
This is a 'un/ color'ul Web site with two cartoon characters to guide
you Bor your studentsC through the basics o' PowerPoint.
6 Keynote User Ti(s
This site has themes/ ti(s/ links/ troubleshooting/ and other cool stu''
'or !((lePs Keynote (resentation so'tware.
6 Keynote Theme Park
This is an ideal Web site 'or 'inding 'ree theme downloads/ recom*
mended links/ news/ and ti(s.
12= Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
6 Hy(er$tudio Tutorial\tethree?21*
Hy(er$tudio is an alternati)e multimedia*authoring so'tware a((lica*
tion. This site (ro)ides Dhow toPsE and 'or Hy(er$tudio.
!s students begin a multimedia (roFect/ too o'ten their 'irst ste( is
to launch the so'tware and begin to ha(hazardly/ i' enthusiastically/
create something. Presentations/ and mo)ies e)en more so/ reQuire
signi'icant (lanning and organization. #therwise/ students can get
carried away in the 'un as(ects o' (roduction and not (ay enough
attention to the content/ resulting in a DPowerPointlessE (resenta*tion.
Remember/ content is what itPs all about. @ood (resentations should
'ollow the same ste(s as mo)iemaking/ which we will discuss later in
this section.
$tudents should begin a PowerPoint (roFect Fust as they would
any other research (roFect and should only mo)e into the (resenta*
tion so'tware after they ha)e com(leted their background research/
(lanning/ and dra't writing. B!n e.ce(tion to this guideline is when the
obFecti)e o' the lesson is to learn a (articular PowerPoint skill.C n
general/ students should try and answer the tried and true Questions
o' )ho0 )hat0 )here0 )hen0 )h$0 and ho)' !s they del)e dee(er into
the whys and hows o' a (roFect/ they (ractice (roblem sol)ing and
analysis/ and use other higher*le)el thinking skills. #' course/ the
teacherPs res(onsibility is to re'ine these Questions based on the new
content/ studentsP learning goals/ and the ty(e o' (roFect being
%or teachers (re(aring students to engage in a multimedia (ro*
Fect/ de)elo(ing the scoring rubric is a critical ste(. When you are
ada(ting or creating a multimedia (roFect rubric/ ask yoursel' se)eral
Questions9 How long do you really want the studentsP (resentations to
beR How much com(uter s(ace is a)ailableR Who is the audienceR
Which so'tware is com(atibleR Here are some s(eci'ic items to con*
sider in a (roFect rubric9
1. +ontent accuracy
7. -ength o' (resentation Bnumber o' slidesC
3. $lide layout Be.g./ amount o' te.t and number o' gra(hics/ titles/
sounds/ animationsC
8. 5ackground gra(hics a((ro(riate 'or audience and theme
4onlinguistic Re(resentation 12"
<. $o'tware reQuirements Be.g./ Huicktime/ &a)a/ %lash/ Windows
Media PlayerC
=. %ile size Bcom(ressing (ictures will hel( a lot with thisC
". $torage and deli)ery reQuirements
:. +olor schemes
When (lanning/ it is (re'erable to build*in enough time 'or e)ery
student to (resent his or her (roFect 'or the entire class. With so much
to teach/ time is always a concern/ and we realize that you may not be
able to allow all o' your students to (resent in each unit. ! good
com(romise is to randomly select a small number o' (resentersO
(erha(s three to 'i)e students (er assignment. #' course/ students
who do not (resent must still turn in a digital or (rinted co(y o' their
(roFect. !lternately/ you could ask all students to (resent a short*ened
)ersion o' their (resentation. This way/ all students (ractice creating
(roFects and learn more about the communication skills reQuired to
%igure <.18 shows an o' a student*created slide 'or a (re*
sentation on Martin -uther King &r.Ps in'luence on !merican society.
Most o' the slides in this (resentation do not contain as many
ty(es o' multimedia as this one/ nor should they. Howe)er/ this slide is
a good o' how sound/ )ideo/ te.t/ and imagery can be com*
bined in an e''ecti)e (resentation. 4otice how the slide has a title/
tem(late/ and logo. t also has hy(erlinked sound and )ideo. The
sound and )ideo 'iles are sa)ed in the same 'older as the PowerPoint
'ile/ with hy(erlinks attached to the words DWatch the $(eechE and
D-isten to the $(eech.E !lso/ notice how the te.t has been (laced o)er
areas o' the images that are not critical but ha)e been shadowed to
maintain the imagesP original look and allow 'or enough contrast to
read the te.t. This shadowing is done by (utting the te.t in a te.tbo./
changing the te.t color to contrast with the background/ highlighting
the te.tbo./ and choosing %ormat W Te.t 5o. W +olors and -ines W
Bchoose a colorC W Trans(arency Z <2J W #K.
!s children/ many o' us made animations. We used a tablet o' (a(er
and drew stick 'igures/ making slight changes in the stick 'iguresP
(ositions on each (age. Then we Quickly 'li((ed through the (ages
12: Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(igure 5.1*
$lide in a PowerPoint Multimedia Presentation
#icense for photos of Martin #uther 3ing &r' granted b$ +ntellectual Properties Manage"ent0 /tlanta0
Georgia0 as exclusive licensor of the 3ing Estate' Photo of the March on ,ashington reproduced )ith
per"ission of /P,ide ,orld Photos'
and watched our rudimentary animation. Whether it is our stick 'ig*ure
'li(books or an animated mo)ie like Pi.arPs !he +ncredibles0 all
animations share basic beginnings. Here are three Quality online
resources that will hel( you and your students learn more about
6 Webmonkey 'or Kids
This site has in*de(th tutorials in @% animation/ dHTM-/ and %lash.
6 !nimation %actory
This site has tutorials 'rom !nimation %actory by &u(iterimages and a
collection o' royalty*'ree animated cli( art on the nternet. t 'eatures
more than 822/222 animations/ )ideo backgrounds/ PowerPoint tem*
(lates/ backdro(s/ and Web gra(hics.
4onlinguistic Re(resentation 12;
6 !nimation ns(irations
This is a sto(*motion animation tutorial 'rom !((le Education.
Here is one o' the sim(lest way to teach students to animate.
E.(lain to your class that they will animate their ideas by creating a
series o' (rogressing diagrams/ and ask them to begin by drawing a
te"plate fra"e as the starting (oint 'or the scene they want to ani*
mate. BAou may ha)e noticed that the background scenery in old car*
toons doesnPt change much. This is because those cartoons were
made using a tem(late 'rame.C This 'rame can be drawn in any so't*
ware (rogram that will generate a (icture/ such as Word/ PowerPoint/
or Photosho(. 4e.t/ e.(lain to students that they can add/ subtract/ or
modi'y images within the tem(late 'rame using co(y/ (aste/ and rotate
commands as well as other drawing tools/ such as those 'ound in the
,rawing toolbar in Word. Ha)e students sa)e the 'rame they create
by number and scene Bunless there is only one sceneC. Then ask
students to sa)e their modi'ied 'rame as the ne.t 'rame in the series
and continue animating until all o' the 'rames are com(lete. %inally/
they should sa)e the edited )ersion in a mo)ie 'ormat/ using
mo)iemaking so'tware such as iMo)ie or Windows Mo)ie Maker. '
your class does not ha)e access to this s(ecialized so'tware/ they
could create sim(le animated mo)ies using Fust the animation and
loo(ing 'eatures in PowerPoint.
n %igure <.1</ you can see some student*created 'rames 'or an
animation demonstrating a chemical reaction in which concentrated
sul'uric acid dehydrates sucrose to (roduce carbon and water. 4otice
the slidesP seQuential titling and how the student drew the beaker and
reaction chamber once and then rotated and mo)ed these elements in
subseQuent slides. Each slide is one 'rame o' the animationK when
connected together in a series/ they create the illu*sion o' mo)ement.
Toon5oom !nimation nc. creates so'tware that aids in learning
animation (rocesses. #ther a((roaches to animation include using
still images/ time*la(se (hotogra(hy/ and mani(ulated obFects/ such
as (a(er cut*outs/ (u((ets/ or clay 'igures BclaymationC. 4ot sur(ris*
ingly/ the creati)e and kinesthetic as(ects o' animation o' mani(u*
lated obFects can be (articularly engaging 'or young students.
112 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(igure 5.15
%rames 'or an !nimation
+onsider the o' a 1st grade teacher who will conclude a unit
on the !mazon Rain'orest by assessing studentsP understanding o'
the rain'orestPs animals and their habitat. $he announces that the
class will be creating a claymation mo)ie/ and that each student will
be using clay to create two animals that li)e in the !mazon Rain*
'orest. The teacher goes on to hel( the students to look u( each ani*
malPs eating habits/ determine which le)el o' the rain'orest it li)es in
Be.g./ in the cano(y/ at ground le)elC/ and 'ind three interesting 'acts
about it. Then/ the class turns this in'ormation into a mo)ie scri(t.
When 'ilming begins/ each student (laces his or her animals on the
correct backdro( and (oses them in )arious (ositions as the teacher
takes a series o' (ictures. The students are also in)ol)ed in recording
the scri(t narration/ rein'orcing the skills o' reading aloud 'luently.
When all o' the (ictures ha)e been taken and the narration has been
recorded/ the teacher demonstrates how the images can be com*
bined into an animated mo)ie with sound o)erlaid. %igure <.1= shows
!udraPs anteater/ a 'rame 'rom the 1st gradersP 'inished claymation
4onlinguistic Re(resentation 111
(igure 5.15
%rame 'rom a +laymation Mo)ie
Special thanks to Steve !ro"l$'
=o"ies and 7ideo
We a((roach using mo)ies and )ideo as a 'orm o' nonlinguistic re(re*
sentation 'rom two (ers(ecti)es9 using them for instruction and using
them as instruction. The 'irst case is the o' using a streaming
)ideo or ,0, to engage learners and build background knowledge.
We ha)e discussed this use o' mo)ies in earlier sections o' this book
Bsee +ha(ter 8Ps discussion o' multimedia/ (age ::C. The 'ollowing o' how Mrs. Robinson/ a middle school science teacher/
integrates mo)ies into her instruction on writing in the con*tent area
also demonstrates this 'unction/ but in a slightly di''erent way.
%irst/ Mrs. Robinson modi'ies a story*writing rubric using Rubi*
$tar. $he then attaches the com(leted rubric to a list o' astronomy
)ocabulary terms that students ha)e been learning. $he gi)es stu*
dents the assignment to write a story using at least 12 o' the 'ollowing
astronomy terms in correct conte.t9
esca(e )elocity gra)ity ionos(here
magnetos(here meteoroid (ressure
radiation reaction engine rotation
satellite thrust weight
geosynchronous orbit
117 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
!'ter Mrs. Robinson gi)es students the rubric and list o' )ocabu*
lary words/ she asks them to read the terms care'ully/ think about
what each one means/ and think about how they could incor(orate the
terms into their stories according to the standards set by the rubric.
The ne.t thing she does sur(rises students and heightens their
interest in the assignment. Mrs. Robinson adds a third element to the
assignment9 a nonlinguistic re(resentation in the 'orm o' a music
)ideo. $he tells the students to get com'ortable/ turns down the lights/
and (roFects the music )ideo o' the 1;:3 song DMaFor Tom B+oming
HomeCE by Peter $chilling Bins(ired by ,a)id 5owiePs 1;=; hit D$(ace
#ddityEC 'rom a 'ree downloaded )ersion she 'ound on the nternet at
www.) $ome*times she
shows a student*made music )ideo o' 5owiePs original song/ 'ound at
htt(9??) Bsearch9 Da$drea"ing to David Bo)ieC. 5y
the time the brie' )ideo is o)er/ Mrs. RobinsonPs stu*dents ha)e
generated mental (ictures that gi)e the )ocabulary con*te.t. 4ow they
ha)e (lenty o' creati)e ideas and are well (re(ared to use the
)ocabulary terms in their stories.
The second way mo)ies are used in the classroom in)ol)es stu*
dents actually creating the mo)ies themsel)es to demonstrate their
knowledge and skills. @enerally/ students enFoy the challenge/ cre*
ati)ity/ and collaboration that go into creating mo)ies/ and research
shows that students ha)e a higher le)el o' understanding and reten*
tion when they learn with media and technology BRee)es/ 1;;:K
$iegle T %oster/ 7222C. Aou also can use the mo)ies they create o)er
and o)er again as 'or other students. The section on Web
resources/ beginning on (age =7/ includes some great o'
student*created mo)ies. 5ut 'irst/ letPs take a look at the ste(s stu*
dents should 'ollow to create their own mo)ies. Please note that these
ste(s are additional to other assignment reQuirements/ such as those
set in a (roFect rubric.
Ste- 1< Writing the scri-t. The scri(t consists o' the e.act words
that the student actors will read or s(eak. To be sure o' the timing/ the
actors should read the scri(t aloud and time it. Remind them to allow
time 'or (auses or transitions between ideas.
Ste- '< Storyboarding. The (ur(ose o' the storyboard is to gi)e
students an idea o' the images/ settings/ and (ro(s they will need 'or
the mo)ie. Tell them that as they read their scri(ts/ they might decide
4onlinguistic Re(resentation 113
that Da (icture is worth a thousand words.E nstead o' describing
something dramatic/ why not show itR
!t this (oint/ students should trans'er the scri(t to the lines on the
storyboard/ breaking it into sections dictated by the images that
should accom(any the lines. n the bo. 'or each section/ students
might describe or draw a (icture that reminds them o' the image they
want at that (oint in the mo)ie. ' they are using still images/ they
should notate where those images are stored on the com(uter/ or
note that they need to take the (icture. ' they use Web sites/ they
should write the sitePs UR-. %igure <.1" shows two 'rom a
student*mo)ie storyboard. 4ote that the students ha)e titled the
scene/ numbered each shot/ and included the rele)ant lines 'rom the
scri(t/ along with ti(s 'or 'ilming and editing.
(igure 5.1#
Ste- %< Shooting the "ideo. n the classroom/ this ste( in)ol)es
resource allocation. Most classrooms ha)e a limited number o' still
and )ideo cameras a)ailable. 5e'ore issuing a camera to students/
re)iew their scri(ts and storyboards 'or com(letion and )eri'y that they
ha)e conducted at least one 'ull (ractice s(eaking their lines with
(ro(s. !lso/ i' students (lan to shoot still (ictures/ they should ha)e all
needed materials. ' they (lan to ha)e a )oiceo)er e''ect in their
mo)ies/ they should record the s(oken words on camera be'ore*hand.
t is easier to im(ort a )ideo cli( and se(arate the audio during the
editing (rocess.
118 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
Here are some ti(s on recording )ideo to (ass along to students9
5egin recording three to 'i)e seconds be'ore the actor starts
talking. Aou might need this s(ace during the editing (rocess.
Use a tri(od to kee( the camera steady.
Use a digital micro(hone rather than the one on the camera.
This will im(ro)e the sound Quality. ! cli(*on micro(hone works well.
t is not necessary to shoot the )ideo seQuentially. ' you are
using di''erent scenes/ you can shoot all the )ideo in one scene
be'ore mo)ing to the ne.t/ e)en i' the scenes you shoot arenPt in the
same order as the mo)ie.
%e"e"ber- E)ery time the )ideo camera sto(s recording/ the
)ideo so'tware makes a new )ideo cli(.
Ste- *< Im-orting the "ideo and images. m(orting the )ideo
into iMo)ie BMacintoshC or Mo)ie Maker BWindowsC is as sim(le as
con*necting the digital )ideo camera to the com(uterPs %irewire or
U$5 (ort and launching either iMo)ie or Mo)ie Maker. ' your students
are using a di''erent Windows )ersion/ they will need to ha)e a )ideo
edit*ing so'tware (rogram like !dobe Premiere. %ollow your so'twarePs
ste(s 'or im(orting )ideo.
Ste- 5< 7ideo editing. 4ow is the time to re'er back to the story*
board. $tudents should ha)e a collection o' )ideo cli(s/ still images/
and audio cli(s on a com(uter. They might also want to use the com*
(uterPs micro(hone to Dlay downE an audio track that will (lay under a
series o' still or )ideo images. $tudents should collaborate in the
editing (rocess. %eedback 'rom others is (articularly )aluable
because/ in studentsP minds/ their story is well told/ but as others see
the )ideo with 'resh eyes/ itPs more likely they will be able to (oint out
(arts that are con'using or scenes that seem to be missing. #nce the
cli(s are in the correct order/ students might need to edit indi)idual
cli(s/ remo)ing unwanted sections. They should edit all cli(s be'ore
adding the transitions between them.
#nce the mo)ie is rough*edited/ students can add a title at the
beginning and credits at the end. Remind them in the assignment
guidelines to cite sources in the credits. This is great o((ortunity to
teach or re)iew (ro(er citation 'ormats. #ne good re'erence site is
hosted by ,uke Uni)ersity -ibraries at
4onlinguistic Re(resentation 11<
cite?worksYcited.htm. t has o' )arious kinds o' citations in
!P!/ M-!/ +hicago/ Turabian/ and +$E 'ormats. !s (re)iously men*
tioned/ it is im(ortant to both model and monitor co(yright com(liance.
Ste- 5< .dding music. 4ow students will add a((ro(riate music.
While students will want to use their own +,s or music they ha)e
obtained online/ it is im(ortant to model ethical beha)ior. 5ecause the
mo)ies they are creating are 'or educational (ur(oses/ they may
incor(orate co(yrighted music/ (ro)ided that they (urchased this
music legally and limit the selected cli(s to no more that 32 seconds
or 12 (ercent o' the songPs 'ull length/ whiche)er is less. Aou might
want to direct students to use the sound cli(s in the mo)iemaking
so'tware or go to www.'ree( and 'ind the style and
length o' music that meets the needs o' their mo)ie. !ll the music at
%ree(laymusic is co(yright*'ree/ but students should still cite the
source in the credits.
Ste- #< Sa"ing and sharing the mo"ie. 4ow students should
make sure they ha)e sa)ed their mo)ie in its 'inal 'orm. This usually
in)ol)es condensing all the se(arate (ieces into one mo)ie 'ile. !t this
(oint/ they are ready to share the mo)ie with the class/ the school/ the
community/ and maybe e)en the wider world )ia the nternet/ as
mentioned in +ha(ter 3Ps discussion o' (ro)iding recognition.
Web +esources
-etPs look again at the use o' multimedia for instruction rather than as
instruction. McRE-Ps meta*analysis/ / !heor$.Based Meta./nal$sis of
%esearch on +nstruction BMarzano/ 1;;:C discusses s(eci'ic teaching
strategies and the e''ect sizes on student achie)ement. Marzano
'ound that Dthe use o' com(uter simulation as the )ehicle with which
students mani(ulate arti'acts (roduced the highest e''ect size o' 1.8<
Bn Z 1C/ indicating a (ercentile gain o' 83 (ointsE B(. ;1C.
There are great com(uter simulations a)ailable on the Web/ some
'or 'ree and others by subscri(tion. #ne outstanding o' a 'ree
simulation resource is the 4ational -ibrary o' 0irtual Mani(ula*ti)es
Bhtt(9??nl) This site (ro)ides scores o'
interacti)e &a)a a((lications. $tudents select 'rom a matri. organized
by content area Bnumbers and o(erations/ algebra/ geome*try/
measurement/ and data analysis and (robabilityC and by grade
11= Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
le)el B(reKI7/ 3I</ =I:/ and ;I17.C %igure <.1: shows an o'
an algebra simulation 'or high school students.
(igure 5.14
$imulation 'rom the 4ational -ibrary
o' 0irtual Mani(ulati)es
%eproduced courtes$ of the M/!!+ /ssociation0 9tah State 9niversit$'
Each simulation at this site also includes a link to the national stan*
dards it addresses/ a teacher?(arent guide/ and instructions 'or the
Elementary students will lo)e the multimedia simulations 'ound on Bwww.iknowthat.comC. This site has interacti)e
multimedia a((lications 'or (reKI= language arts/ mathematics/ sci*
ence/ social studies/ the arts/ and (roblem sol)ing. ' a subscri(tion*
based site is an o(tion/ E.(lore-earning Bwww.e.(lorelearning.comC
is a great source 'or simulations. t o''ers a catalog o' modular/ inter*
acti)e simulations/ called gizmos/ in mathematics and science 'or
teachers and students in grades =I17. #ne is the Dmouse
geneticsE gizmo in %igure <.1;. n this simulation/ students breed
D(ureE mice with known genoty(es that e.hibit s(eci'ic 'ur and eye
colors/ and thus learn how traits are (assed on )ia dominant and
4onlinguistic Re(resentation 11"
recessi)e genes. They can store mice in )irtual cages 'or 'uture
breed*ing and get statistics on 'ur and eye color e)ery time a (air o'
mice breeds. They can use Punnett sQuares to (redict results. While
itPs true that students can read about genoty(es in a te.tbook/ using a
simulation like this one allows them to see the e''ects o' genetics o)er
122 generations in less than two minutes.
(igure 5.1&
E.(lore-earningPs Mouse @enetics @izmo
%eproduced courtes$ of Explore#earning'
Here are some other Quality Web resources that can su((ort
nonlinguistic re(resentation9
6 is $outh +arolina ET0Ps educational Web (ortal/ a col*
lection o' 'un/ interacti)e Web sites 'or KI17 students. The site is
searchable by both subFect and grade le)el and has su((ort
resources 'or teachers and (arents.
6 $ur)i)ing E)erest
This interacti)e site by 4ational @eogra(hic allows students to e.(lore
the conditions that climbers must endure while scaling Mount E)erest.
$treaming )ideo 'rom each stage in the climb gi)es students
eyewitness )iews o' the climb.
11: Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
6 nteracti)e Mathematics !cti)ities www.cut*the*
&a)a*based mathematics games are categorized by disci(line. This
site is )ery a((ro(riate 'or high school and e)en college students. n
addition to algebra and geometry/ there are games 'or logic/ calculus/
(robability/ and more.
6 +lay !nimation in PowerPoint
+ombining claymation and PowerPoint is an engaging and (ower'ul
way 'or students to create meaning'ul electronic (resentations. This
online multimedia (resentation (ro)ides a ste(*by*ste( tutorial 'or
creating sto(*motion clay animations and bringing them to li'e in
6 ,igiTales9 The !rt o' Telling ,igital $tories
5ernaFean PorterPs ,igiTales Web site (ro)ides tools and to
hel( teachers and students begin the (rocess o' digital storytelling. !
section on e)aluating student (roFects includes rubrics and scoring
6 #ur Time-ines
This 'ree Web resource allows students to create a timeline o' a (er*
son within the conte.t o' e)ents that ha((ened during his or her li'e*
time. +ategories o' e)ents include historical e)ents/ technological
ad)ances/ and disasters.
6 i+an %ilm %esti)al
The $an %ernando Education Technology TeamPs i+an %ilm %esti)al
(age is (ossibly the best online collection o' student*created mo)ies/
(roduced under the guidance o' Marco Torres/ an !((le ,istin*
guished Educator and 722< +ali'ornia Teacher o' the Aear.
$UMM!RV4@ !4,
4#TE T!K4@
he instructional strategy su""ari(ing and note taking 'ocuses on
enhancing studentsP ability to synthesize in'ormation and distill it into a
concise new 'orm. Here/ teachers work on hel(ing students
se(arate im(ortant in'ormation 'rom e.traneous in'ormation and state
the in'ormation in their own words.
McRE-Ps research on summarizing su((orts the 'ollowing
1. To e''ecti)ely summarize/ students must delete some in'orma*
tion/ substitute some in'ormation/ and kee( some in'orma*tion.
7. To e''ecti)ely delete/ substitute/ and kee( in'ormation/ stu*
dents must analyze the in'ormation at a 'airly dee( le)el.
3. 5eing aware o' the e.(licit structure o' in'ormation is an aid to
summarizing in'ormation.
5ased on these 'indings/ we ha)e three recommendations 'or class*
room (ractice9
172 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
1. Teach students the rule*based summarizing strategy.
7. Use summary 'rames.
3. Teach students the reci(rocal teaching strategy.
4ote taking is similar to summarizing in that it enhances studentsP
ability to organize in'ormation in a way that ca(tures the main ideas
and su((orting details/ hel(ing students to (rocess in'ormation.
!lthough note taking is one o' the most use'ul study skills a student
can culti)ate/ teachers rarely teach it e.(licitly as a skill in itsel'.
McRE-Ps research on note taking su((orts the 'ollowing
1. 0erbatim note taking is (erha(s the least e''ecti)e way to take
7. 4otes should be considered a work in (rogress.
3. 4otes should be used as study guides 'or tests.
8. The more notes that are taken/ the better.
5ased on these 'indings/ we ha)e three recommendations 'or class*
room (ractice9
1. @i)e students teacher*(re(ared notes.
7. Teach students a )ariety o' note*taking 'ormats.
3. Use combination notes.
Technology/ in the 'orm o' ty(ewriters and word (rocessors/ has
been (laying a role in note taking 'or many years. 4ow/ howe)er/ the
so(histication o' the so'tware a)ailable can turn it into true learning
e.(eriences. Technology can sca''old/ or (ro)ide su((ort/ while
students are learning the summarizing (rocess. t can also (ro)ide
collaborati)e summarizing e.(eriences that 'acilitate reciprocal
teaching/ a )ery structured 'ormat 'or hel(ing students to teach each
other de)elo(ed by Palincsar and 5rown B1;:8/ 1;:<C. n this section/
we show you how )ord processing applications0 organi(ing and
$ummarizing and 4ote Taking 171
brainstor"ing soft)are0 "ulti"edia0 ,eb resources0 and co""unica.
tion soft)are hel( to sca''old and organize the summarizing and note*
taking (rocesses.
Word Processing .--lications
! word (rocessor is a com(uter a((lication used to (roduce (rint*able
material. These run the gamut 'rom the robust Microso't Word to the
'ree @oogle ,ocs and $(readsheets (rogram. !ll (ro)ide teachers a
way to strengthen summarizing and note taking.
#ne classroom recommendation 'or teaching students to summarize
in the classroom is to use rule*based summarizing. This strategy (ro*
)ides students with a (rocess to a((ly as they summarize and gi)es
them a structure to guide them when attem(ting what can otherwise
be a con'using task. %igure =.1 shows the ste(s 'or rule*based
summa*rizing that/ with slight modi'ications/ a((ly to both younger
and older students.
Aou can use the Track +hanges 'eature in Microso't Word to both
demonstrate rule*based summarizing and ha)e students (ractice the
(igure 5.1
Rule*5ased $ummarizing
1.Take out the material that is not im(ortant to understanding.
7.Take out words that re(eat in'ormation.
3.Re(lace a list o' things with a word that describes the things in the list
Be.g./ use the word trees 'or el"0 oak0 and "apleC.
8.%ind a to(ic sentence. ' you canPt 'ind a to(ic sentence/ write one.
1.,elete tri)ial material that is unnecessary to understanding.
7.,elete redundant material.
3.$ubstitute su(erordinate terms 'or more s(eci'ic terms Be.g./ use fish
'or trout0 sal"on0 and halibutC.
8.$elect a to(ic sentence or in)ent one i' it is missing.
177 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(rocess. %irst/ o(en Word and go to Tools W Track +hanges to acti)ate
the 'eature. To be sure the Track +hanges o(tions are set correctly/
go to Tools W #(tions. 4ow click on the Track +hanges tab. 5e sure to
select $trikethough ne.t to the word ,eletions. Aour 'inished #(tions
window should look like the illustration in %igure =.7. When done/
click #K and close the o(tions window.
(igure 5.'
Track +hanges #(tion $creen in Microso't Word
Microsoft@ product screen shot:s; reprinted )ith per"ission fro" Microsoft *orporation'
HerePs how Ms. $anborn/ a "th grade science teacher/ uses the
Track +hanges 'eature to show her students how to summarize a
selection 'rom their te.tbook. $he begins by selecting a (assage 'rom
her te.tbook and ty(ing it into a blank Word document. !'ter sa)ing
the document/ she acti)ates Track +hanges as weP)e e.(lained and
begins a((lying the summarizing rules. !s Ms. $anborn 'inds a sen*
tence that is redundant/ she highlights it and (resses the delete key.
!s you see in %igure =.3/ that section a((ears crossed out. Aou can
also see where she sim(li'ies the terms Dcontinents and tectonic
(latesE to Dland sur'aces.E
$ummarizing and 4ote Taking 173
(igure 5.%
Microso't Word ,ocument $howing Tracked +hanges
5y modeling the (rocess 'or her students using the word (rocessor/
Ms. $anborn is able to show them how to summarize the te.t in a way
that makes it easier 'or them to understand the content.
!nother use'ul 'eature in Word that many teachers donPt know
about is the !uto$ummarize tool. t does e.actly what the name sug*
gests9 takes a selection o' te.t and (ro)ides a summary. -etPs use the
same e.cer(t 'rom %igure =.3 to show how !uto$ummarize works.
%irst/ we take the e.cer(t and (aste it into a new Word document.
4ow we go to Tools W !uto $ummarize. The resulting screen gi)es us
a choice o' 'our di''erent summary o(tions9 B1C Highlight the key
(ointsK B7C insert an e.ecuti)e summary at the to( o' the documentK
B3C insert an e.ecuti)e summary in a new documentK or B8C hide
e)erything e.ce(t the e.ecuti)e summary without lea)ing the docu*
ment. The 'irst o(tionOhighlighting the key (ointsOis a (articularly
good teaching tool. %igure =.8 shows the highlighted key in'ormation
selected by the !uto$ummarize tool.
(igure 5.*
Microso't Word ,ocument $howing
!uto$ummarize Mark*U(
178 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
$tudents can use !uto$ummarize to summarize/ o' course/ but it
has other a((lications in the writing (rocess. %or a'ter a
student has com(leted a rough dra't/ he or she can use the !uto*
$ummarize tool to see i' Word identi'ies the same main (oints that
the student intended. ' the com(uter and the author disagree on the
main (oints/ this might indicate a need 'or re)ision.
3ote 6a)ing
#ne o' the classroom recommendations 'or note taking is to use a
)ariety o' 'ormats. ! 'ormat that has a strong im(act is combination
notes/ which em(loy outlining/ webbing/ and (ictogra(hs in addition
to words. @ra(hic re(resentation has been shown to (roduce a (er*
centile gain o' 3; (oints in student achie)ement BMarzano/ 1;;:/
(. "8C. n the combination notes 'ormat/ students begin with an
in)erted ! on their (a(er. They record 'acts and notes on the le't side
o' the (age/ use drawing or other nonlinguistic re(resentations on
the right/ and then write a one* or two*sentence summary under the
bar o' the !' n %igure =.<Ps you see combination notes used
during a 1st grade classPs discussion o' the (arts o' a com(uter. The
'our (arts o' the com(uter the teacher discussed are listed on the le't
side/ a drawing o' the 'our (arts is on the right/ and therePs a short
sentence at the bottom to summarize the discussion.
t is relati)ely sim(le to create combination notes using the draw
tools in Word. n the multimedia section that comes later in this
(igure 5.5
+ombination 4otes +reated in Microso't Word
$ummarizing and 4ote Taking 17<
cha(ter/ we show how combination notes are e)en easier to create
using PowerPoint.
Remember that one o' the generalizations 'rom McRE-Ps research
on note taking is that the more notes taken/ the better/ and one o' the
recommendations 'or classroom (ractice is that students should be
taught a )ariety o' note*taking 'ormats. Word (rocessing a((lications
hel( students to take notes Quickly and with automatic 'ormatting.
HerePs an Mr. Er)in/ a high school history teacher/
wishes to ha)e his U.$. History students take notes as they watch a
'ilm on 0ietnam (rotesters. He checks out a la(to( cart 'rom the
schoolPs library and asks his students to use a word (rocessing (ro*
gram to take notes in an in'ormal outline. The 5ullets button in
Microso't Word/ 'or makes it easy to create these in'ormal
outlines. !s students ty(e their notes/ they can increase bullet
indention by using the Tab key and can decrease indention by hitting
$hi't L Tab. !n e.cer(t 'rom one o' Mr. Er)inPs studentsP notes might
look something like this9
$tudent Protesters
Many (eo(le 'elt strongly that the U.$. should not be in the war.
+ollege students were es(ecially o((osed/ as their age grou( was most
likely to be dra'ted.
Kent $tate is (robably the best*known student (rotest.
+rosby/ $tills/ 4ash/ and Aoung9 D#hio.E
rgani2ing and >rainstorming Soft8are
The 'eatures in organizing and brainstorming so'tware su((ort dis*
tinct ways o' enhancing summarizing and note taking.
Using summary 'rames is one o' the e.(licit recommendations 'or
classroom (ractice. $ummary 'rames are a series o' Questions that the
teacher asks students/ designed to highlight the critical elements o'
s(eci'ic kinds o' in'ormation and te.ts. *lassroo" +nstruction !hat ,orks
(resents si. ty(es o' summary 'rames9 narrative0 topic.restriction.
illustration :!.%.+;/ definition0 argu"entation0 proble"solution0 and
conversation BMarzano et al./ 7221/ (. 3<C. ns(iration is a great tool to
enhance your use o' each. +onsider the o' Mr. Hernandez/
17= Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
whose biology class will be watching a )ideo on monotremes Begg*
laying mammalsC. To hel( his studentsP summarize the )ideo/ he
decides to use a definition 'rame. ! de'inition 'rame asks the 'ollowing
What is the term to de'ineR
What is the general category to which the term belongsR
What are the characteristics that set this a(art 'rom other ele*
ments in the setR
What are some ty(es o' the item being de'inedR
Using ns(iration/ he creates a tem(late that each student can
download to his or her la(to( Bsee %igure =.=C. !s the students watch
the )ideo/ they add in'ormation to 'ill in sections o' this de'inition 'rame
(igure 5.5
,e'inition %rame Tem(late +reated in ns(iration
Mr. Hernandez com(letes his (lans9 %ollowing the )ideo/ the stu*
dents will meet in (airs to com(are their de'inition 'rames and make
re)isions as needed. TheyPll use these re)ised de'inition 'rames to
re)iew 'or the test at the end o' the week/ and then (lace the docu*
ments in the teacherPs dro( bo. on the ser)er 'or e)aluation and a
,uring class/ Mr. Hernandez 'inds that some o' his students are
ha)ing di''iculty 'illing out the section o' the tem(late on di''erent ty(es
o' monotremes. He decides to use a second ty(e o' summary
$ummarizing and 4ote Taking 17"
'rame/ the topic.restriction.illustration :!.%.+; 'rame to hel( them. The
T*R* 'rame (resents students with these three guiding Questions9
What is the general to(ic or statementR
What in'ormation does the author gi)e that narrows or restricts
the to(ic or statementR
What does the author gi)e to illustrate the to(ic or
Mr. Hernandez gi)es the students who are ha)ing di''iculty in 'ind*
ing di''erent ty(es o' monotremes a section o' the te.tbook on mono*
tremes. Using the T*R* 'ramePs guiding Questions/ the students are
able to determine di''erent ty(es o' monotremes and com(lete the
HerePs another Mr. Winslow is teaching his =th graders a
unit titled DPollution9 tPs a ,irty Word.E !'ter a short lecture about
di''erent ty(es o' (ower (lants/ he shows some )ideos he has down*
loaded 'rom United $treaming that de(ict the (ollution 'rom coal*'ired
(lants. He also shows a short )ideo o' the nuclear disaster at
+hernobyl. The class sees the (ollution 'rom coal (lants/ but stu*
dents also see the (ossible (roblems with nuclear (ower (lants. To
hel( his students summarize their thinking/ Mr. Winslow chooses to
use a proble"solution 'rame. The (roblem?solution 'rame directs
students to look at an issue through the lens o' these 'i)e guiding
1. What is the (roblemR
7. What is a (ossible solutionR
3. What is another (ossible solutionR
8. What is another (ossible solutionR
<. Which solution has the best chance o' succeedingR
Mr. Winslow uses a tem(late 'rom ns(irationPs tem(late library9
%ile W #(en Tem(late W Thinking $kills W Problem $ $hown
in %igure =."/ this tem(late guides students as they work in grou(s to
de'ine the (roblem and (ro(ose (ossible solutions. t gi)es them a
clear structure 'or looking at the (roblem and hel(s them see that
(ossible solutions might lead to unintended conseQuences.
17: Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(igure 5.#
Problem?$olution Tem(late +reated in ns(iration
3ote 6a)ing
Most teachers insist that their students take notes. !'ter all/ how will
students study i' they donPt ha)e good notesR Un'ortunately/ too 'ew
students really understand what it means to take good notes. The
classroom recommendations 'or note taking include using a )ariety o'
note*taking 'ormats and gi)ing students teacher*(re(ared notes.
ns(iration has a large number o' tem(lates that are terri'ic aids to
teachers and students in the note*taking (rocess.
Recall Ms. $im(son/ the 12th grade language arts teacher who used
PowerPoint and )ideos as ad)ance organizers to begin a unit on &ohn
$teinbeckPs !he Grapes of ,rath. $he then assigned a 'ew cha(*ters o'
the book 'or weekend reading. When the students return to school on
Monday/ she has them sit in base grou(s Bsee more on base grou(s in
+ha(ter "Ps discussion o' coo(erati)e learningC and discuss the character
traits o' the main character/ Tom &oad. $he wants their discussion to
'ocus on the traits that she thinks $teinbeck intention*ally de)elo(ed/ so
she uses ns(iration to (ut together some notes to guide the base grou(
con)ersations. $ome students are more com*'ortable dealing with te.t
than with gra(hics/ so a'ter Ms. $im(son
$ummarizing and 4ote Taking 17;
creates the ns(iration document/ she clicks %ile W Trans'er to Word
Processor and is able to gi)e students both a gra(hic and an outline
)ersion o' her teacher*(re(ared notes. %igure =.: illustrates how Ms.
$im(son wants her students to 'ocus on the traits o' (ragmatism/
kindness/ and being Quick to anger. $he also guides the students to
'ind s(eci'ic o' each trait throughout the book.
(igure 5.4
+haracter Trait 4ote*Taking Tem(late +reated in ns(iration
4ot only can students create summaries and notes o' multimedia
content/ they can also use multimedia to enhance and (resent their
summaries and notes. %or instance/ three high school students use a
wiki to collaborate on a (roFect where they create a DteaserE 'or a
mo)ie about the li'e o' &ulius +aesar. They all take their notes se(a*
rately during class/ but using the wiki/ they combine and summarize
their notes to create their scri(t. WePll discuss this 'urther in
the u(coming section on communication so'tware.
When students e.(erience multimedia/ they sometimes get
caught u( in the entertainment 'actor and neglect the critical analysis
132 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
o' the content necessary to create use'ul notes they can use 'or
'urther study. When teachers introduce multimedia into their class*
rooms/ they must ensure that students stay 'ocused on distinguish*ing
tri)ial content 'rom essential content/ coalescing minor (oints into
maFor themes/ and (ersonalizing their notes based on their learning
The same is true when students create multimedia summaries9
They are o'ten tem(ted to 'ocus on (resentation rather than sub*
stance. #b)iously/ s(ending lots o' time selecting 'onts and back*
ground colors is not time well s(entK identi'ying and analyzing the
essential com(onents o' the content is. #n the (lus side/ using multi*
media to summarize and take notes is 'un/ which engages students in
the content.
%or students might inter)iew their grand(arents about a
historical e)ent or era they li)ed through. This is a tried and true
lesson that teachers ha)e used 'or many years/ but with technology
enhancements/ it has become the ty(e o' (roFect that (arents archi)e
with their 'amily kee(sakes.
HerePs a more s(eci'ic illustration. Mr. Medina assigns his middle
school social studies students to inter)iew senior citizens at a nearby
assisted li)ing 'acility about the ci)il rights mo)ement. $tu*dents
)ideota(e the inter)iews and watch them with their grou(s when they
are back in class. ,uring the )iewings/ they take notes/ dis*cuss the
inter)iews/ and summarize the inter)iews and sort them by common
themes. Then they create a Dnews broadcastE about the ci)il rights
mo)ement/ using cli(s o' actual inter)iew 'ootage. 5ecause each
grou( has only three minutes 'or their news broadcast/ itPs essential
that students a((ly their summarizing skills to create a (roduct that is
concise yet thorough.
n another Mrs. +ho wishes to combine mo)iemaking
and the conversation summary 'rame 'or a character education les*
son 'or her =th grade students. Her students work in grou(s o' three
to )ideota(e a non)iolent bullying scene/ then e.change the ta(es
and go through the ste(s o' a con)ersation 'rame9
1. How did the characters greet each otherR
7. What Questions or to(ic was insinuated/ re)ealed/ or re'erred toR
3. How did their discussion (rogressR
$ummarizing and 4ote Taking 131
8. What was the conclusionR
Using this summary 'rame/ the class is better able to analyze e.actly
what constitutes DbullyingEK they later use their de'inition to create
agreed*u(on rules 'or how to treat each other and other schoolmates.
!nother great way to use multimedia to summarize and take notes
is with PowerPoint*based combination notes. This two*column 'ormat
links essential conce(ts on the le't with multimedia enhance*ments on
the right o' a PowerPoint slide. !long the bottom o' the slide/ an
o)erall statement summarizes the combination notes. %ig*ures =.;
and =.12 show a teacherPs assignment and tem(late.
(igure 5.&
@uidelines 'or a PowerPoint +ombination
4otes !ssignment
*lip art i"ages A 7??B &upiteri"ages *orporation'
%igure =.11 shows an o' a studentPs use o' combination
notes to summarize the book !he 5utsiders by $. E. Hinton. !lthough
the images/ sound/ and )ideo that the student selected might not
seem like ones you would choose/ the student chose that
are (ersonally meaning'ul. This is es(ecially im(ortant because the
137 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(igure 5.19
+ombination 4otes Tem(late +reated in PowerPoint
*lip art i"ages A 7??B &upiteri"ages *orporation'
(igure 5.11
+ombination 4otes +reated in PowerPoint
Photograph b$ #es *hatfield :leslieHchatfieldI$ahoo'co'uk;'
*lip art i"ages A 7??B &upiteri"ages *orporation'
$ummarizing and 4ote Taking 133
notes ser)e as a (ersonalized tool to hel( him study and remember
the themes in the book.
4ote that the students are using an argu"entation 'rame 'or
themes. The 'our elements they ha)e to address are e)idence/ claim/
su((ort/ and a Quali'ier 'or their theme/ using the 'ollowing Questions9
1. Evidence- What in'ormation does the author (resent that leads
to a claimR
7. *lai"- What does the author assert is trueR What basic state*
ment or claim is the 'ocus o' the in'ormationR
3. Support- What or e.(lanations su((ort the claimR
8. Dualifier- What restrictions on the claim or e)idence counter to
the claim is (resentedR
n this the claim is that the lowest and highest social classes
are Fust as ca(able o' noble or malicious acts.
Web +esources
Many teachers and students see summarizing and note taking as indi*
)idual acti)ities/ and o'ten they are. Howe)er/ there are ways to sum*
marize and take notes collaborati)ely/ and there se)eral Web sites
that 'acilitate this9
6 4ote$tar
4ote$tar allows students to take in'ormation 'rom the Web/ organize
it/ and automatically create citations in either M-! or !P! style.
Teachers can also establish (roFects and assign indi)idual students
sections o' the (roFect to com(lete. This site is designed 'or students
in grades 8I17.
6 @oogle ,ocs and $(readsheets
This 'ree resource is an online word (rocessor and s(readsheet edi*
tor that can be shared by multi(le users. t (ro)ides a way 'or stu*
dents to work on (a(ers and notes together.
6 Think%ree
138 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
$imilar to @oogle ,ocs and $(readsheets/ Think%ree is a 'ree o''ice
suite a)ailable online. Users can collaborate to (re(are documents/
s(readsheets/ and (resentations.
6 ThinkTank
,esigned 'or grades 3I:/ ThinkTank allows students to use online
tools to zero in on a (roFect to(ic. The site is organized as a kind o'
narrati)e 'rame in that it uses a series o' Questions to (rom(t users as
they de)elo( the (roFect. This site also allows integration with
4ote$tar as students begin work on their (roFect.
6 +ornell 4otes
Many schools use +ornell 4otes as a school or districtwide strategy.
This site/ 'rom the -earning Toolbo./ (ro)ides a good tutorial on mak*
ing +ornell 4otes.
6 Rochester nstitute o' Technology
The Rochester nstitute o' Technology has a )ery strong resource
(age designed to hel( students/ es(ecially at the high school le)el/
with summarizing and note*taking strategies. The section on D0erbal
+ues to #rganizationE would be es(ecially hel('ul to students in
thinking about nonlinguistic re(resentation in combination notes.
6 $ummary %rames''su((ort?$choolm(ro)ement?docs?
Townshi( High $chool in !rlington Heights/ llinois/ has a )ery com*
(lete resource 'or understanding and using summary 'rames.
6 Education Re'orm
This site (ro)ides a number o' good and resources 'or note
taking/ reci(rocal teaching/ and summarizing strategies.
$ummarizing and 4ote Taking 13<
Communication Soft8are
!lthough e*mail and grou( 'olders on a ser)er can certainly su((ort
summarizing and note taking/ there are new tools that (ro)ide much
more intuiti)e and seamless ways 'or students to collaborate as they
take notes and summarize. +ollaborati)e Web*based tools such as
wikis and blogs allow grou(s to share resources/ edit Web (ages/ and
easily 'ind and categorize in'ormation by means o' Dtags/E or short
descri(tors o' resources. n this section/ we show the role that wikis
and blogs can (lay in collaborati)e summarizing and note taking.
Mr. $immons/ a 12th grade English teacher/ is wra((ing u( his classPs
study o' $hakes(earePs &ulius *aesar. %or a 'inal (roFect/ which will
ser)e to assess his studentsP understanding o' the (lay/ he asks stu*
dents to make a short mo)ie trailerOa (re)iew*style ad)ertisementO
'or a mo)ie about the li'e o' &ulius +aesar. 5e'ore gi)ing the assign*
ment/ he creates a rubric by modi'ying RubistarPs Multimedia criteria
and grading on the Qualities o' )oice/ soundtrack/ economy/ histori*cal
accuracy/ and enticement. The assignment 'ollows9
+reate a teaser BtrailerC 'or an imaginary mo)ie about the li'e o' &ulius
+aesar. Aou can use li)e motion/ clay animation/ cut*out animation/ or drawn
animation. Aour mo)ie needs to include )oiceo)er narration/ a soundtrack/
and scenes 'rom +aesarPs li'e as de(icted in $hakes(earePs (lay. Aou may
work inde(endently or in sel'*selected grou(s o' u( to three (eo(le. $ee our
class Web site to access the rubric 'or more detailed in'or*mation about this
! grou( o' studentsO&ake/ $hantel/ and ,ionOdecide to do a
li)e*action trailer. The 'irst thing they need to do is combine the
indi)id*ual notes that they took throughout the classPs study o' the (lay
into a collecti)e set o' notes. 4e.t/ theyPll need to summarize these
collec*ti)e notes into the beginning o' a scri(t 'or their (roFect. They
decide to use the Peanut 5utter Wiki Bhtt(9??(bwiki.comC to hel( them
P5Wiki has a number o' easy*to*understand tutorials to hel( the
students Quickly learn how to create and (ersonalize a wiki. %ollow*
ing the guidelines a)ailable/ &ake creates the wiki Bhtt(9??caesar.
(bwiki.comC and co(ies and (astes his notes 'rom )arious lectures
13= Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
onto a (age that he creates and names +aesar5io. He also 'inds a
(ic*ture o' a bust o' +aesar on the Wiki(edia Web site and co(ies it to
his (age. $hantel and ,ion read his (osted notes and co(y and (aste
some o' their own/ resulting in a collaborati)e (age o' 'acts about &ul*
ius +aesar.
n the wiki that &ake began/ $hantel creates three new (ages9
Resources/ !ssignment/ and $toryboard. $he also adds a sidebar 'or
easy na)igation. #n the Resources (age/ she links to Wiki(edia and
her own account/ which contains her sa)ed Web links that
she has tagged as D+aesar.E This allows the grou( to easily share
resources as they write their scri(t. 4e.t/ ,ion (osts the original
assignment 'rom Mr. $immons so that they all can stay 'ocused on the
to(ic. He also co(ies and (astes Mr. $immonsPs rubric on a se(arate
4ow/ to the (roFect itsel'. $hantel suggests that they 'irst ty(e a
scri(t and then work on the storyboard. &ake agrees/ so all three stu*
dents begin to edit and sha(e their trailerPs scri(t. The students are
able to work on the scri(t se(arately 'rom home/ together during their
lunch hour or study hall/ and either indi)idually or collabor*ati)ely in
the school media center be'ore and a'ter school. The wiki ser)es as a
common area 'or them to take notes/ summarize in'orma*tion/ and
(lan and carry out their (roFect. ' Mr. $immons or any mem*ber o' the
grou( wishes to see changes made throughout the (rocess/ they are
a)ailable 'or )iewing in the DhistoryE o' each wiki (age/ along with an
indication o' who sa)ed each change. Most wikis/ including P5Wiki/
ha)e this 'eature.
5e'ore assigning this (roFect/ Mr. $immons had taught his stu*
dents the si. di''erent summary 'rames that are discussed in detail in
*lassroo" +nstruction !hat ,orks BMarzano et al./ 7221C. To hel(
them summarize their teaser/ he suggests that they use a narrati)e
sum*mary 'rame. This/ he e.(lains/ will work well 'or the (lay because
it will guide them through Questions that commonly relate to 'iction
and hel( them identi'y the characters/ setting/ initiating e)ent/ inter*nal
res(onse/ goal/ conseQuence/ and resolution o' the (lay. %or their
trailer/ &ake/ $hantel/ and ,ion decide to omit the conseQuence and
resolution so that it wonPt Dgi)e awayE the end o' the mo)ie.
$ummarizing and 4ote Taking 13"
5logs (ro)ide a )ery e''ecti)e way to im(lement the strategy o' recip.
rocal teaching' This highly structured 'orm o' (eer teaching has 'our
com(onents9 B1C summarizing/ B7C Questioning/ B3C clari'ying/ and
B8C (redicting. !'ter the students ha)e read a section inde(endently/
one student su""ari(es the in'ormation 'or the class. #ther mem*
bers o' the class or the teacher may hel( during this (rocess. The stu*
dent then asks Cuestions to the class in order to highlight im(ortant
sections o' the te.t. Then the same student asks classmates to clarif$
con'using in'ormation. %inally/ the student asks 'or predictions about
what will 'ollow the (assage they Fust read.
The reci(rocal teaching 'ormat can be used not Fust with reading
and 'ace*to*'ace con)ersation/ but also with Web*based educational
mo)ies and blogs. %or Ms. Holt/ a 8th grade teacher/ wishes
to em(loy reci(rocal teaching as her students are learning about di'*
'erent 'orms o' energy. 5logs (ro)ide the means 'or students to use
the strategy o' reci(rocal teaching but allow time 'or more in*de(th
con)ersation that can e.tend beyond the allotted time in the class*
room. Ms. Holt logs on to 5rainP#P/ and the entire class watches the
short/ %lash*based mo)ie Gor"s of Energ$. !s they are watching/ she
ty(es the )ocabulary terms 'rom the mo)ie on a blog9 potential0
kinetic0 che"ical0 electrical0 light0 "echanical0 ther"al0 and nuclear'
$he then selects &onah to lead the classPs discussion on the blog.
&onah signs on to the blog and begins by su""ari(ing what he
understood 'rom the mo)ie9 that energy can come 'rom a )ariety o'
(laces/ and that (otential energy is stored energy while kinetic energy
in)ol)es motion. He then ty(es in some Cuestions about each o' the
ty(es o' energy 'or his classmates to answer. 5y the ne.t day/ they
res(ond with their understanding and come u( with se)eral
o' each ty(e o' energy. They are able to read these together as a
class using a (roFector. Ms. Holt is thrilled with the le)el o' con*
)ersation that her students are ha)ing.
#n the second day/ discussion leader &onah asks for clarification
on nuclear energy. This seems con'using 'or all/ so they watch that
segment o' the Gor"s of Energ$ )ideo again. Ms. Holt also clari'ies
nuclear energy by (osting on the blog and recei)es numerous Da*haUE
res(onses. %inally/ &onah "akes the prediction that they will ne.t
learn about which 'orms o' energy are sa'er and chea(er. He notices
13: Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
that one o' the )ideos related to Gor"s of Energ$ on 5rainP#P is
Gossil Guels0 so he also "akes the prediction that they will be learning
about how 'ossil 'uels are used to create energy.
The blog ser)es as an archi)e o' class discussions 'or later re)iew
and as a (art o' their assessment. Ms. Holt shares the blogPs Web
address with (arents/ who enFoy getting a (eek at the con)ersations
taking (lace in the classroom.
+##PER!T0E -E!R44@
he instructional strategy o' cooperative learning 'ocuses on ha)*
ing students interact with each other in grou(s in ways that enhance
their learning. When students work in coo(erati)e grou(s/ they make
sense o'/ or construct meaning 'or/ new knowledge by interacting with
others B&ohnson/ &ohnson/ T $tanne/ 7222.C !s Thomas %riedman
notes in !he ,orld +s Glat B722<C/ we are li)ing in a time when
learning and inno)ation are increasingly global. To be (re*(ared 'or
the 'ast*(aced/ )irtual work(lace that they will inherit/ todayPs students
need to be able to learn and (roduce coo(erati)ely.
McRE-Ps research on coo(erati)e learning su((orts the 'ollowing
1. #rganizing grou(s based on ability le)els should be done
7. +oo(erati)e learning grou(s should be rather small in size.
3. +oo(erati)e learning should be used consistently and sys*
tematically but should not be o)erused.
182 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
5ased on these 'indings/ we ha)e 'our recommendations 'or class*
room (ractice9
1. Use a )ariety o' criteria to grou( students.
7. Use in'ormal/ 'ormal/ and base grou(s.
3. Kee( the grou(s to a manageable size.
8. +ombine coo(erati)e learning with other classroom struc*
t is hel('ul to use in'ormal grou(s 'or short/ im(rom(tu acti)ities
that take no longer than a 'ew minutes. There are a )ariety o' struc*
tures teachers might use/ and many are as sim(le as announcing/
D4umbered heads togetherE or DTurn to someone sitting ne.t to you.E
%or 'ormal grou(s/ howe)er/ teachers should intentionally design
assignments to include these 'i)e basic com(onents9
1. Positive interdependence Bsink or swim togetherC
7. pro"otive interaction Bhel(ing each other to learn/
a((lauding e''orts and successC
3. +ndividual and group accountabilit$ Beach o' us has to contribute
to the grou( achie)ing its goalC
8. +nterpersonal and s" skills Bcommunication/ trust/
leadershi(/ decision making/ con'lict resolutionC
<. Group processing Bre'lecting on how well the team is 'unctioning
and how to 'unction e)en betterC
Base groups are long*term grou(s/ created to (ro)ide students
with su((ort throughout a semester or school year. 5ase grou(s hel(
build trust/ camaraderie/ and teamwork/ and they are use'ul 'or
checking homework and com(leting tasks and other routines. They
also can be used 'or (lanning and (artici(ating in acti)ities like 'ield
Technology can (lay a uniQue and )ital role in coo(erati)e learn*
ing by 'acilitating grou( collaboration/ (ro)iding structure 'or grou(
tasks/ and allowing members o' grou(s to communicate e)en i' they
are not working 'ace to 'ace. t can hel( us realize the ho(e o' schools
as (laces that ser)e students anytime/ anywhere and 'acilitate their
growth into li'elong learners. $tudies show that there is a modest
+oo(erati)e -earning 181
increase in e''ect size when students use technology collaborati)ely
BUrQuhart T Mc)er/ 722<C. n this section/ we show how "ulti"edia0
,eb resources0 and co""unication soft)are can 'acilitate
coo(erati)e learning.
$tudent*created multimedia is a natural en)ironment 'or coo(erati)e
learning. +reating a )ideo is a com(le. task that reQuires many roles
and res(onsibilities. 5y nature/ both multimedia (roFects and coo(*
erati)e learning grou(s reQuire attention to detail in the (lanning (ro*
cess. When these ty(es o' acti)ities go astray in the classroom/ it is
o'ten due to inadeQuate u(*'ront (re(aration. !s we discussed in
+ha(ter 8Ps 'ocus on ad)ance organizers/ rubrics hel( students
understand what is e.(ected o' them and how their (artici(ation will
be e)aluated. While this is im(ortant in any learning acti)ity/ it is
es(ecially im(ortant in coo(erati)e learning acti)ities. %igure ".1
shows a rubric that Ms. #rtiz/ a middle school teacher/ distributes to
her students at the beginning o' a two*week mo)ie (roFect about the
li)es o' 'amous mathematicians. 4otice that in this she is
ha)ing her students work in 'ormal coo(erati)e grou(s. To 'ollow the
classroom recommendation 'or coo(erati)e learning/ in other les*sons
she will want to )ary the grou(ing to include indi)idual work/ (airs/
base grou(s/ and in'ormal grou(s.
!'ter introducing the (roFect and (ro)iding the students with a
(roFect rubric/ Ms. #rtiz turns her attention to student roles and
res(onsibilities. The class works in small grou(s o' three or 'our to
create short mo)ies 'ocused on curricular to(ics. $he creates a chart
like the one shown in %igure ".7 as an ad)ance organizer to guide
stu*dents in the (rocess and assigns each student two or three o' the
res(onsibilities. $ome o' the tasks reQuire Fust one student/ while
other roles/ such as researchers/ Fournalists/ and actors/ reQuire mul*
ti(le students. The students are allowed to work on the (roFect e)ery
other class (eriod 'or two weeks/ with homework assigned 'or their
basic com(utation work.
!t the end o' the two weeks/ the students )iew each othersP mo)*
ies and take notes as necessary. Together/ they learn about Pythago*
ras/ Euclid/ %ibonacci/ Pascal/ !rchimedes/ and 5anneker/ and about
how the work that these men did relates to our use o' mathematics
187 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(igure #.1
Rubric 'or a +oo(erati)e Multimedia ProFect
Multimedia ProFect9 +urriculum Mo)ie
Teacher9 Ms. #rtiz
$tudent 4ame9
C.6$:+@ * % ' 1
+ontent +o)ers to(ic in de(th ncludes essential ncludes essential +ontent is minimal
with details and knowledge about the in'ormation about the #R there are se)eral $ubFect to(ic. $ubFect knowl* to(ic but there are 'actual errors.
knowledge is edge a((ears to be 1I7 'actual errors.
e.cellent. good.
Rough ,ra't Rough dra't is ready Rough dra't is ready Rough dra't not ready Rough dra't not ready
'or re)iew on due 'or re)iew on due 'or re)iew on due 'or re)iew on due
date. $tudent shares date. $tudent shares date. $tudent (ro* date. $tudent does
dra't with a (eer and dra't with a (eer and )ides 'eedback and?or not (artici(ate in
makes edits based on (eer makes edits. edits 'or (eer. re)iewing dra't o'
'eedback. (eer.
#rganization +ontent is well orga* +ontent is logically Headings or bulleted There is no clear or
nizedK headings or organized 'or the lists grou( material/ logical organizational
bulleted lists grou( most (art. but the o)erall orga* structure/ Fust lots o'
related material. nization o' to(ics 'acts.
a((ears 'lawed.
$toryboard $toryboard includes $toryboard includes $toryboard includes #ne or more reQuired
all reQuired elements all reQuired elements all reQuired elements. elements are missing
as well as a 'ew addi* and one additional 'rom the storyboard.
tional elements. element.
#riginality Product shows a Product shows some Product uses other Product uses other
large amount o' original thought. (eo(lePs ideas Bgi)ing (eo(lePs ideas but
original thought. Work shows new creditC/ but there is does not gi)e them
deas are creati)e ideas and insights. little e)idence o' orig* credit.
and in)enti)e. inal thinking.
!ttracti)eness $tudent makes $tudent makes good $tudent uses )ideo/ $tudent uses )ideo/
e.cellent use o' use o' )ideo/ gra(h* gra(hics/ sounds/ gra(hics/ sounds/
)ideo/ gra(hics/ ics/ sounds/ and and e''ects/ but occa* and e''ects/ but these
sounds/ and e''ects e''ects to enhance to sionally these detract o'ten distract 'rom
to enhance the the (resentation. 'rom the (resentation the (resentation
(resentation. content. content.
+oo(erati)e -earning 183
(igure #.'
@rou( Roles in a +oo(erati)e Multimedia ProFect
+ole +ole or 6as) Descri-tion Student 3ameAsB
Researcher Will research the to(ic and meet with a teacher in that
B7C content area to be sure in'ormation is accurate.
$cri(twriter Will take the research (ro)ided by the researchers and
B7C write a scri(t 'or the mo)ie. BThe teacher must
a((ro)e a storyboard be'ore the scri(t is 'inalized. !
content area teacher will re)iew the 'inal dra't o'
scri(t 'or accuracy. C The scri(t will be in (lay 'ormat
and will indicate all resources needed and the
settings where the action takes (lace.
&ournalist Will (ro)ide any on*camera inter)iews with e.(erts.
B1 or 7C &ournalists will use the (ro)ided research to write
inter)iew Questions that will get additional in'ormation
needed 'or the mo)ie.
Tech E.(ert Will (ro)ide hel( with all technology Be.g./ iMo)ie/
B1 or 7C @arage5and/ and @ra(hic+on)erterC.
ProFect Will work with the team to build a (roFect timeline and
+oordinator then will monitor all (roFect acti)ities. Res(onsible 'or
B1C coordinating resources with other teams. BRemember
that other teams will be using the )ideo cameras.C
+amera #(erator Will be res(onsible 'or checking out/ using/ and
B1 or 7C (ro(erly returning )ideo cameras and tri(ods.
!ctor Will use the (ro)ided scri(t to bring the mo)ie to li'e.
Bas neededC !ctors should be e.(ressi)e and show a((ro(riate
e.citement but stay within the scri(t.
today. n this way/ the students are not only working together in coo(*
erati)e grou(s to create the mo)ies/ but are actually (artici(ating in
coo(erati)e teaching.
Web +esources
+oo(erati)e learning is not so much learning to coo(erate as it is
coo(erating to learn BWong T Wong/ 1;;:C. Ra(id ad)ances in net*
work in'rastructure and bandwidth in our schools ha)e made this
188 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
a((roach more 'easible than e)er. 4ow students can collaborate
through the Web with other students in their school/ subFect e.(erts/
and multiuser game (layers. They can e)en collaborate across the
Web*enabled collaborati)e learning has e)ol)ed dramatically 'rom
its initial use as a sim(le way 'or students to look u( in'ormation
together on Web sites. !s we discuss in the u(coming section on
communication so'tware/ the Web has become much more than an
electronic re'erence bookK today/ itPs a thri)ing medium 'or collabora*
tion in business/ education/ and our (ersonal li)es.
#ne o' the best*known and most success'ul Web collaborations is
the &!$#4 ProFect Bwww.Fason(roFect.orgC/ an organization 'ocused
on engaging students in hands*on scienti'ic disco)ery. &!$#4Ps
standards*based E.(editions curricula are geared to students in
grades 8I;. With the hel( o' multimedia tools and nternet broadcast*
ing technology/ (artici(ating students become (art o' a )irtual
research community/ accom(anying real researchers in real time as
they e.(lore e)erything 'rom oceans to rain'orests to (olar regions to
)olcanoes. The li)e e.(edition broadcasts are a)ailable )ia KU 5and
satellite dish and )ia the 4ational @eogra(hic +hannel. Regional
&!$#4 network sites ty(ically o''er access/ at their own locations/ to
the li)e E.(edition broadcasts. $tudents can also take ad)antage o'
all o' the online acti)ities a)ailable through Team &!$#4 #nline.
The Web gi)es students access to e.(erts in nearly any subFect
area/ 'rom 4obel Prize winners to best*selling authors to #lym(ic ath*
letes. There are many D!sk an E.(ertE Web sites de)oted s(eci'ically
to answering student Questions. #ne such is the Question
section o' the 4ational $cience ,igital -ibrary 'ound at htt(9??nsdl.
org?asknsdl. !lternati)ely/ students can corres(ond )ia e*mail with
e.(erts 'rom uni)ersities or industries as (art o' a (articular (roFect.
There is nothing Quite like getting e.(ert ad)ice straight 'rom the (ro*
'essionals in the 'ield. %or instance/ a student who has a Question
about wind turbines might contact the 4ational Wind Technology
+enter at www.nrel.go)?wind?nwtc.htmlK the site administrator will
route that Question to an actual mechanical engineer who does cut*
ting*edge research on wind energy. The engineer will re(ly directly to
the student using the e*mail address submitted with the Question.
+oo(erati)e -earning 18<
+ommunication with students in other cities/ states/ and countries
broadens the (ers(ecti)e o' students and challenges them to learn
about other cultures/ languages/ and issues throughout the world. The
e.(ansion o' global telecommunication networks has made this
(ossible in e)en some o' the worldPs most remote regions. $tudents
can use e*mail to collaborate with students in other classes in your
school/ or they can corres(ond and collaborate with Dkey(alsE Be*mail
(en (alsC 'rom 'ar away. There are many o' Web sites that
'acilitate corres(ondence and (roFect*based learning between
students and other communities. Monitored to ensure e''ecti)e com*
munications 'or educational (ur(oses/ these sites are Fust as sa'e as
traditional (ostcard*ty(e (roFects. Here are some o' the best9
6 eP!-$
This is the nternetPs largest community o' collaborati)e classrooms
engaged in cross*cultural e.changes/ (roFect sharing/ and language
6 Key(als +lub nternational
! 'ree (lace 'or young (eo(le/ teachers/ and students to locate and
corres(ond with other youth and students/ the ser)ice (ro)ides an
easy*to*use inter'ace and database to Quickly locate and contact a
student or a class 'rom around the world.
6 ntercultural E*mail +lassroom +onnections BE++C
E++ is dedicated to hel(ing teachers connect with other teachers to
arrange intercultural e*mail connections between their students. !lso/
E++*4TER@E4 hel(s teachers and their classrooms create
intergenerational (artnershi(s with )olunteers o)er age <2.
WebHuests are inQuiry*oriented acti)ities that allow students in a
class or 'rom multi(le locations to work together to learn about a
(articular subFect or to tackle a (articular (roFect or (roblem.
18= Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
WebHuests are designed to use learnersP time well/ to 'ocus on using
in'ormation rather than looking 'or it/ and to su((ort learnersP think*ing
at the le)els o' analysis/ synthesis/ and e)aluation B,odge T March/
1;;<C. ! well*designed WebHuest task is (ractical/ engaging/ and
elicits student thinking. t (ro)ides a goal to channel student energies
and also clari'ies the teacherPs learning obFecti)es. Here are some
Web sites that will hel( you 'ind or design e''ecti)e WebHuests9
6 $an ,iego $tate Uni)ersityPs WebHuest
This is the original WebHuest site. t is still among the best resources
'or learning about WebHuests/ 'inding e.em(lary models/ and creat*
ing WebHuests.
6 WebHuest Taskonomy
Here/ youPll 'ind a ta.onomy o' the 17 most common ty(es o' Web*
Huest tasks.
6 ! WebHuest !bout WebHuests
This UR- links to an e.ercise thatPs a use'ul introduction to the
WebHuest conce(t. ,esigned 'or educators working in teams/ it
(rom(ts you to e.amine 'i)e WebHuests 'rom 'our di''erent (oints o'
)iew. There are se)eral )ersions o' the e.ercise tailored to teachers in
di''erent grade le)els and subFects.
6 Teacher WebHuest @enerator
This is an interacti)e WebHuest wizard that allows you to select 'rom
a )ariety o' themed (ages and 'ill in the 'orm with your in'ormation.
The WebHuest is stored on the TeacherWeb site and can be edited
using your (assword. $tudents can )iew the (age using the direct
6 nstant ProFects
This is a great site 'or creating WebHuests/ (ort'olios/ and teacher
Web sites/ and itPs all 'ree.
+oo(erati)e -earning 18"
!n e.cellent o' a WebHuest designed to be a
coo(erati)e learning e.(erience is Tom MarchPs Searching for *hina ( t is a scenario
in which the United $tates go)ernment assembles a s(ecial 'act*
'inding team that will tra)el to +hina and return with an accurate and
in'ormed conce(t o' the country/ its (eo(le/ and their culture. nstead
o' send*ing only di(lomats or (oliticians/ the go)ernment 'orms a team
that includes (eo(le 'rom )ery di''erent backgrounds so that the 'acts
they 'ind will be enriched by di''ering (ers(ecti)es. This WebHuest
incor(orates many o' the 'undamentals o' collaborati)e learning/ such
as (ositi)e interde(endence/ indi)idual and grou( accountabil*ity/
inter(ersonal and small*grou( skills/ and grou( (rocessing. ! use*'ul
collaboration rubric 'or the (roFect is a)ailable at htt(9??edweb.
Web Site Creation
5uilding a Web site can be a )ery enriching collaborati)e e.(erience
'or students. %or Mrs. +o. in Williamsburg/ 0irginia/ teaches
her students to work in teams to build a Web site in 'our (hases. The
main goal is 'or students to de)elo( a multi(age Web site based on
their research o' a city. The (roblem the students sol)e 'ocuses on
how to attract businesses/ tourists/ and new residents to the city. The
students ha)e an authentic audience/ as they e*mail the 'inished
(roduct to their chosen cityPs +hamber o' +ommerce. The 'i)e (hases
o' the (roFect are as 'ollows9
Phase 9 Research a city.
Phase 9 +reate a multimedia (resentation about that city.
Phase 9 +reate a multi(age Web site 'or that city.
Phase 09 Present a (ro(osal to the rest o' the class 'ocused on
increasing the cityPs tourism/ drawing new residents/ and bringing in
new businesses.
Phase 09 +ontact the cityPs +hamber o' +ommerce to announce
the Web site creation and seek 'eedback.
%igure ".3 is an illustration o' Phase 09 the te.t o' e*mail message
sent by one o' the student team leaders to the -ondon +hamber o'
+ommerce. Aou can browse the grou(Ps Web site at www.'reewebs.
18: Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(igure #.%
Element o' a +oo(erati)e Web $ite +reation ProFect
,ear -ondon +hamber o' +ommerce/
am M@rou( -eaderPs 4ameN/ a student at 5erkeley Middle $chool in Williamsburg/
0irginia/ U$!. #)er a three*week time (eriod/ my team and ha)e studied -ondon and
made a PowerPoint (resentation about the city. We are beginning to create a Web site on
-ondon as an assignment. We ha)e thought o' some creati)e ways to con)ey im(ortant
in'ormation. thought you might like to see a dra't o' the Web site we are creating.
We ha)e tried to make the site interesting and eye catching/ and we ha)e
included some incen*ti)es 'or (eo(le to return to the site. We ho(e to
launch it at htt(9??www.' as soon as it is com(leted.
Part o' our class assignment is to ask e.(erts on the city we are studying 'or 'eedback
on the Web site we are creating. We ho(e that you will be able to (artici(ate and look at
our Web site design. ha)e included e)erything as an attachment. Microso't Publisher is
the so'tware you will need to run the Web site. Please let us know what modi'ications we
can make and what results we should e.(ect.
Thanks so much. We ho(e to hear 'rom you soon.
M$igned 4ameN
#)er the (ast decade/ it has become easier and easier to make
Web sites. Today/ there are many 'ree and ine.(ensi)e so'tware (ro*
grams 'or Web site creation. Here are a 'ew9
6 iWeb
,esigned 'or Macintosh o(erating systems/ iWeb (ro)ides a way to
create Web sites and blogsOcom(lete with (odcasts/ (hotos/ and
mo)iesOand get them online 'ast. !n array o' Web tem(lates makes
design a sim(le matter o' dragging and dro((ing.
+oo(erati)e -earning 18;
6 Microso't #''ice Publisher
Publisher hel(s you create (ro'essional*looking Web sites that are
customized 'or your needs. Publisher (ro)ides enhanced 'eatures 'or
creating/ editing/ (ublishing/ and u(dating Web sites.
6 T#Web*home
This is easy*to*use so'tware that enables indi)iduals without (ree.*
isting Web designing skills to Quickly create a Web site or a blog.
6 $ite$(inner
This is another sim(le*to*use yet (ower'ul drag*and*dro( editor 'or
Quickly creating so(histicated Web sites without the need to know
HTM- or another (rogramming language. Use one o' the included
tem(lates to get started/ or begin with your own design.
6 +ool Page
,esigned 'or Windows o(erating systems/ this Web (age design tool
allows you to create a (age sim(ly by dragging and dro((ing obFects
into a layout. 5y (ushing a (ublish button/ you can automatically
u(load your site to the nternet.
Collaborati"e rgani2ing
$tudents and teachers can collaborate o)er the Web by logging on to
sites that allow them to share and edit calendars/ bookmark and share
Web links/ and create online learning communities. These Web
resources are o'ten re'erred to as DWeb 7.2E or the DRead?Write WebE
because users are able to collaborate and share in'ormation online.
Shared calendars. With shared calendars/ students can work
'rom home or 'rom )arious locales within the school and still orga*nize
the acti)ities within their grou(.
1<2 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
E)en better/ students can (ro)ide teachers with access to these
shared calendars 'or (rogress monitoring. Here are some o' the more
(o(ular calendar*hosting sites9
6 AahooU +alendar
With a 'ree AahooU account/ you can set u( a grou( calendar with
many use'ul 'eatures.
6 @oogle +alendar
With a 'ree @oogle account/ you can set u( a grou( calendar with lots
o' user*'riendly 'eatures.
6 +alendars 4et
This is a 'ree/ interacti)e Web calendar*hosting ser)ice/ where you
and anyone you choose can (ost e)ents that will be )isible and (rint*
able by whome)er you choose/ or e)eryone.
Shared boo)mar)ing. 5e'ore the Web su((orted the Quick and
easy sharing o' Web links/ many teachers used to log onto each com*
(uter in a com(uter lab and bookmark the sites they wanted students
to go to 'or a (roFect. !lthough this ke(t the students on task with the
a((ro(riate Web sites/ it was )ery time consuming 'or the teacher.
4ow all a teacher has to do is bookmark her best resources on a
social bookmarking site and make one link to it that stays on the com*
(uters all year. $tudents can use the teacher site at home or at school
without ha)ing to remember a lot o' UR-s. %or coo(erati)e learning
(roFects/ students can set u( their own social bookmarking sites to
categorize BtagC Web sites and share them with others in their grou(.
Here are some o' the more (o(ular social bookmarking Web sites9
With you can kee( your 'a)orite Web sites/ music/ books/
and more in a (lace where you can always 'ind themK share your
'a)orites with students and colleaguesK and disco)er new and inter*
esting things by browsing (o(ular and related items.
+oo(erati)e -earning 1<1
6 5linklist
5linklist lets students im(ort and manage bookmarks/ create watch
lists to see what others in their grou( are disco)ering online/ and 'ol*
low the wisdom o' the grou( memberPs most selected resources.
6 Kaboodle
With Kaboodle/ users can DcollectE anything 'ound on the Web/ 'rom
(hotos to blogs/ with one clickK com(are and share e)erything on one
(ageK and disco)er interesting things on (ages o' like*minded users.
Course management. n addition to blogs and wikis discussed in
earlier sections/ teachers can create online learning communities 'or
their students through Web*enabled course management system
B+M$C (rograms. These ser)ices allow teachers to securely share
resources/ 'acilitate online discussions/ and (ost in'ormation. $tu*
dents share ideas/ communicate as a grou(/ and learn collecti)ely.
Many uni)ersities use these ser)ices regularly. We list some common
online ser)ices here9
6 Moodle
This is a 'ree +M$Oan o(en source so'tware (ackage designed to
hel( educators create e''ecti)e online learning communities.
6 The @lobal $choolhouse$H?
The @lobal $choolhouse is the original )irtual meeting (lace where
educators/ students/ (arents/ and community members can collabo*
rate/ interact/ de)elo(/ (ublish/ and disco)er learning resources.
6 5lackboard
The 5lackboard !cademic $uite enables institutions to access any
learning resource at any time 'rom any (lace.
1<7 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
Web-$nabled =ulti-layer Simulation :ames
The ad)ent o' multi(layer com(uter games has o(ened a new a)enue
o' interaction9 allowing indi)iduals to interact with other indi)iduals
simultaneously through a com(uter game inter'ace. The di''erence
between these Web*enabled games and ty(ical multi(layer com(uter
games is that the Web*enabled ones allow human*to*human interac*
tion through a simulated com(uter inter'ace o)er the nternet rather
than si"ulating that interaction through arti'icial intelligence within the
game (rogram. n other words/ the inter'ace/ surroundings/ char*
acters/ situations/ and challenges are simulated/ but the interactions
are human to human and real. !s the idea o' coo(erati)e learning
re)ol)es around the conce(t o' students interacting with each other
'or a common (ur(ose in learning/ itPs logical to conclude that well*
designed multi(layer com(uter games would lend themsel)es to
'acilitating coo(erati)e learning/ (ro)ided that they are used (ro(*erly
B-obel/ 722=C. ndeed/ according to Kriz and Eberle B7228C/ D@aming
simulation is an interacti)e learning en)ironment that makes it
(ossible to co(e with com(le. authentic situations that are close to
reality. !t the same time/ gaming simulation re(resents a 'orm o'
coo(erati)e learning through teamworkE B(. =C.
Re)olution Bhtt(9?? is an e.cel*lent o' a simulation game designed 'or collaborati)e learn*ing. !
multi(layer 3, game/ Re)olution can be (layed o)er the Web or
within a networked en)ironment. Partici(ants na)igate the s(ace o' a
town/ interact with other (layers and towns(eo(le/ and ha)e the
o((ortunity to act in and react to )arious e)ents that 'oreshadow the
coming o' the !merican Re)olution. t includes a narrati)e com(o*nent
to draw the (layers into a world o' actual historical e)ents. Players
also im(ro)ise their own stories based on the resources a)ailable to
them and on the choices they make in real time as the game un'olds.
5ecause the game is networked/ (layers collaborate/ debate/ and
com(ete/ all within a simulation that maintains historical sus(ension o'
disbelie' with gra(hic and beha)ioral accuracy.
Here are some other great games designed to educate collabor*
ati)ely/ along with recommended team*building e.ercises and rubrics
'or collaborati)e work9
6 @irls nc. Team U(
+oo(erati)e -earning 1<3
This is an elementary (roblem*sol)ing game in which a team o' girls/
each o' whom has a uniQue ability/ needs to sol)e s(atial (uzzles.
6 +i)ilization'eatures.c'm
$id MeierPs +i)ilization is one o' the most success'ul strategy game
series e)er created. This game lets multi(le (layers match wits
against historyPs greatest leaders as they em(loy e.(loration/ con*
struction/ di(lomacy/ and conQuest to build and rule an em(ire to
stand the test o' time.
6 5uilding Homes o' #ur #wn
This is an interacti)e teaching tool 'or middle and high school. The
simulation (resents a macro )iew o' the entire home*building (ro*
cess/ 'rom site selection to 'inal sale. $tudents collect in'ormation/
sol)e (roblems/ and make choices as they build a 3, home.
6 &igsaw +lassroom
This is the o''icial Web site o' the Figsaw classroom/ a coo(erati)e
learning techniQue that reduces con'lict among schoolchildren/ (ro*
motes better learning/ im(ro)es student moti)ation/ and increases
enFoyment o' the learning e.(erience.
6 The Uni)ersity o' Wisconsin/ $tout'de)?rubrics.shtml
$e)eral rubrics related to coo(erati)e learning are a)ailable here.
6 4!$! +oo(erati)e -earning Rubric
This is an e.cellent/ ready*to*use rubric on coo(erati)e learning.
Communication Soft8are
4ow more than e)er/ technology allows students to collaborate on
(roFects without the constraints o' time or geogra(hy. 5ecause we
ha)e already discussed blogs and wikis at length/ we will not go into
them in detail here/ but as our (re)ious ha)e illustrated/
1<8 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
both blogs and wikis (ro)ide the means 'or students to communicate
and share ideas as they work coo(erati)ely.
What we will 'ocus on in this section is on how a teacher might
(air instant messaging and 0oice o)er P B0oPC with the a'ore*
mentioned communication so'tware to e.(and 'ormal coo(erati)e
learning e.(eriences. +ombining 0oP with sites that 'acilitate user*
content sharingOsuch as instant messaging 'or Quick chats/ blogs 'or
discussions/ wikis 'or collaborati)e note taking/ @oogle +alendar 'or
sharing dates/ and 'or sharing Web resourcesO'acilitates
(ower'ul collaboration at any time o' day and 'rom any geogra(hical
HerePs an illustration. Think back to +ha(ter =Ps o' the
three high school students who were combining their notes on Pea*
nut 5utter Wiki to create a teaser 'or a mo)ie about &ulius +aesar.
The wiki allowed &ake/ $hantel/ and ,ion to collecti)ely summarize
their notes and dra't a scri(t. 4ow/ they are ready to make some
decisions about when and where to 'ilm and who will (lay which role.
They decide to log onto $ky(e a ser)ice that
allows multi(le users to talk 'or 'ree/ regardless o' location/ through
their com(uter. !'ter creating $ky(e accounts and installing a
Webcam 'or the micro(hone/ they agree to meet )irtually at "922 the
ne.t e)ening. $hantel is able to (artici(ate 'rom her la(to(/ e)en
though she is in another state )isiting relati)es. !s the con)ersation
takes (lace/ they add notes to $ky(ePs chat 'eature about who has
which res(onsibilities. They are able to sa)e the chat 'or 'uture re'er*
ence. They also can send links to each other as they talk/ allowing
e)eryone to see the same resources at the same time. %inally/ they
create a (roFect calendar using @oogle +alendar Bhtt(9??calendar.
google.comC so that e)eryone can see due dates and meeting times.
%or more in'ormation about user*content sharing on the Web and
the im(act that it is ha)ing on education/ you may want to read 5ryan
!le.anderPs 722= article DWeb 7.29 ! 4ew Wa)e o' nno)ation 'or
Teaching and -earningRE
RE4%#R+4@ E%%#RT
eo(le attribute success to di''erent sources9 to their own innate
abilities/ to the assistance o' others/ to luck/ and to e''ort. #' these
(ossible attributions/ the 'ourth/ effort0 is the wisest choice 'or
someone who intends to achie)e success or maintain it/ as it is the
only one within an indi)idualPs control. Ha)e you e)er heard the say*
ing that Dsuccess comes in cansK 'ailure in canPtsER ts originator must
ha)e recognized that e''ort is the most im(ortant 'actor in achie)e*
ment. Research shows that the le)el o' belie' in sel'*e''icacy (lays a
strong role in moti)ation 'or learning and achie)ement B$chunk/
7223C. The instructional strategy o' reinforcing effort enhances stu*
dentsP understanding o' the relationshi( between e''ort and achie)e*
ment by addressing their attitudes and belie's about learning.
McRE-Ps research on rein'orcing e''ort su((orts the 'ollowing
1. 4ot all students realize the im(ortance o' belie)ing in e''ort.
7. $tudents can learn to o(erate 'rom a belie' that e''ort (ays o''
e)en i' they do not initially ha)e this belie'.
1<= Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
5ased on these 'indings/ we ha)e two recommendations 'or class*
room (ractice9
1. E.(licitly teach students about the im(ortance o' e''ort.
7. Ha)e students kee( track o' their e''ort and achie)ement.
Technology makes it easier 'or students and teachers to track the
e''ects o' e''ort and 'acilitates more immediate 'eedback. n this sec*
tion/ we show how spreadsheet soft)are and data collection tools su(*
(ort the instructional strategy o' rein'orcing e''ort by hel(ing
students to chart the relationshi( between e''ort and achie)ementO
one o' the classroom recommendations.
S-readsheet Soft8are
The research tells us that not all students realize the im(ortance o'
e''ort. Many attribute their success or 'ailure to e.ternal 'actors. Many
o' us ha)e heard a struggling mathematics student say some*thing
like/ DPm Fust not good at math. My mom wasnPt good at math either.E
When a student makes a connection between academic suc*cesses
with 'actors outside o' his or her controlOthings like heredity/ gender/
or raceOitPs easy to de)elo( a de'eatist attitude. !'ter all/ why bother
i' you know that you Fust arenPt ca(able because o' your genesR
$ome students also see 'riends who are success'ul and attribute
their success to outside 'actors. They might e)en ha)e the miscon*
ce(tion that (eo(le o' a certain background e.cel in a (articular cur*
ricular area. 5y relying on a stereoty(e/ these students ignore the
e''ort other students (ut into doing well. The research indicates/
howe)er/ that students can change their belie's and make a connec*
tion between e''ort and achie)ement.
#ne easy way to hel( students make the connection between
e''ort and achie)ement is by using a s(readsheet like Microso't E.cel.
The 'irst ste( in the (rocess is to 'ind or create a rubric that gi)es stu*
dents a clear idea o' what e''ort looks like. %igure :.1 shows an e''ort
rubric created by Ms. Powell/ a <th grade teacher.
Rein'orcing E''ort 1<"
(igure 4.1
E''ort Rubric
C.6$:+@ * D Proficient % D =eets Standard ' D $merging 1 D 3ot .cce-table
+lass 4otes take neat notes/ kee( take neat notes/ kee( take notes/ but they o'ten do not take
them neatly organized them neatly organized are messy or unorga* notes or do not kee(
in a binder/ and re'er in a binder/ and usu* nizedK use them notesK almost ne)er
to them e)ery day ally re'er to them o'ten occasionally when re'er to notes when
when doing class when doing class doing class work and doing class work and
work and homework. work and homework. homework. homework.
!ttention (ay attention in (ay attention in (ay attention in class am o'' task more
class/ listen care'ully class/ listen to the most o' the time. ' than "2J o' the time/
to the teacherPs Ques* teacherPs Questions/ am called on/ o'ten not listening to
tions/ and 'ocus on and 'ocus on the class know the Question the instruction. ' am
the class work at least work :2I;<J o' the teacher is asking. called on/ usually
;<J o' the time. time. 'ocus on the class donPt know the Ques*
work "2I:2J o' the tion/ and donPt 'ocus
time. on the class work.
Partici(ation ask at least 7 Ques* ask 1 Question (er ask 1I 8 Questions rarely ask Questions
tions a day and )olun* day and )olunteer 1 (er week and o''er to or )olunteer answers.
teer at least 7 answers answer (er day when answer Questions 1I8
a day when o''ered the o''ered the o((ortu* times (er week/ but
o((ortunity/ e)en i' nity/ but usually only only when Pm certain
Pm not sure my when Pm certain o' o' being right.
answers are right. being right.
Homework attem(t all (roblems attem(t all (roblems attem(t most home* miss many home*
on e)ery homework on homework 8 nights work (roblems but not work assignments and
assignment/ e)en i' (er week/ e)en i' those that seem di''i* ski( many answers/
think some o' my think some o' my cult or con'using. (articularly those
answers might be answers might be miss se)eral home* (roblems that a((ear
incorrect. re'er to incorrect. usually work assignments long or di''icult.
class notes while re'er to class notes each week and occa* almost ne)er re'er to
doing homework while doing sionally use notes class notes when
homework. o'ten when doing doing homework.
$tudying begin studying 'or a begin studying 'or a begin studying 'or a study 'or the test the
test as soon as it is test 3I< days be'ore test 7 days be'ore the night be'ore only.
announced. study the test. study class test. study class study class notes
class notes 'or at least notes 'or <I12 min* notes 'or <I12 min* sometimes and do not
12 minutes (er day utes (er day e)ery day utes each day/ and do attem(t (ractice
e)ery day until the until the test/ and not attem(t (ractice (roblems.
test/ and attem(t 7I3 attem(t 1I7 (ractice (roblems.
(ractice (roblems. (roblems.
1<: Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
!'ter Ms. Powell re)iews the rubric with her students and is sure
they all ha)e an understanding o' each category/ she asks them to log
on to the class network and o(en a blank s(readsheet that she cre*
ated ahead o' time Bsee %igure :.7C.
(igure 4.'
E''ort?!chie)ement $(readsheet Tem(late
+reated in Microso't E.cel
To set u( an e''ort?achie)ement s(readsheet like his/ 'ollow these
1. n Microso't E.cel/ ty(e the categories in the 'irst column and
label the ne.t 'our columns BWeek 1 through Week 8C. !dd rows 'or
Total E''ort and @rades.
7. %ormat the s(readsheet to (er'orm automatic calculations by
clicking on the Total E''ort cell 'or DWeek 1E and ty(ing Z$UMB5795"C.
This tells the s(readsheet to add all the numbers in the cells 'rom 57
through 5".
3. +o(y that cell and (aste it into the Total E''ort columns 'or Week
7/ Week 3/ and Week 8.
!s Ms. PowellPs students begin their 'our*week unit on decimals/
they also begin a (roFect on e''ort and achie)ement/ using the e''ort
rubric to assess themsel)es honestly on their (re(aration 'or their
weekly mathematics test. Each %riday/ right be'ore they take their test/
students o(en their s(readsheets and enter their rubric scores 'or the
a((ro(riate week. The 'ollowing Monday/ when they get their
Rein'orcing E''ort 1<;
mathematics tests back/ they enter their grades into their s(read*
sheets. %igure :.3 shows one studentPs s(readsheet a'ter the 'inal
(igure 4.%
+om(leted E''ort?!chie)ement $(readsheet
With their com(leted s(readsheets o(en on their la(to(s/ the
students 'ollow Ms. PowellPs instructions to highlight the rows 'or Total
E''ort and @rade and to go to nsert W +hart to select the chart style
that they think will make the best sense o' the data. ! 'ew stu*dents
select a column chart similar to %igure :.8.
5y looking at the chart/ students can clearly see the relation
between their e''ort and grades they earned on their tests. #' course/
this e.ercise alone wonPt change all o' Ms. PowellPs studentsP thinking
about e''ort and achie)ement. $tudents need consistent and system*
atic e.(osure to teaching strategies like this one in order to really
gras( the im(act that e''ort can ha)e on their achie)ement.
HerePs another method to consider. Mr. Rodriguez/ another <th
grade teacher/ notices that some o' his students are not doing as well
as he would like in mathematics. !t times/ they donPt e)en seem to be
trying. With a unit on gra(hing coming u(/ Mr. Rodriguez sees an
o((ortunity to 'ocus on rein'orcing e''ort. He announces to his stu*
dents that as (art o' their gra(hing unit/ they are going to use
Microso't E.cel to gra(h their e''ort against Quiz and homework
scores 'or a two*week (eriod. To hel( students rate their e''ort more
(recisely/ he also distributes a rubric he 'ound on Rubric Machine
1=2 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
(igure 4.*
E''ort?!chie)ement +hart +reated in Microso't E.cel
Bwww.landmark*( by searching on
the word De''ort.E !s they track their e''ort and scores/ Mr. Rodri*guezPs
students begin to recognize that when they work harder and in
s(eci'ic ways/ they earn better grades on their Quizzes and home*
work checks/ and do better o)erall in mathematics class. With his
guidance/ they begin to set obFecti)es to im(ro)e in certain areas by
increasing or re'ocusing their e''orts. 5y (aying attention to the
learning e.(ectations on the rubric/ they see a relationshi( between
e''ort and achie)ement.
Try using s(readsheet so'tware to clari'y this relationshi( with your
students. E)en )ery young students can/ 'or kee( track o'
how o'ten they studied a 'amily o' mathematics 'acts and com(are
that 'reQuency to how Quickly and accurately they are able to recall
the answers during a Quiz Bsee %igure :.<C.
!'ter analyzing this chart/ Mr. RodriguezPs students might set an
obFecti)e to (ut more e''ort into their studying 'or Quizzes/ as it ob)i*
ously (ays o'' in higher scores. n addition/ Mr. Rodriguez could cre*
ate a more detailed chart that shows student (er'ormance keyed to
s(eci'ic mathematics standards. %or instance/ i' a student is doing
Rein'orcing E''ort 1=1
(igure 4.5
+hart +om(aring E''ort to $cores
+reated in Microso't E.cel
well in all areas e.ce(t estimating/ Mr. Rodriguez and the student
might set an obFecti)e designed to im(ro)e the studentPs ability to
Data Collection 6ools
! (ower'ul way to con)ince students that e''ort is truly tied to
achie)ement is to show them dataOnot Fust data on themsel)es/ but
also combined data on grou(s that they associate themsel)es withK
'or <th grade students/ social studies students/ and incom*
ing 'reshmen. When students see that others ha)e 'aced many o' the
same di''iculties they 'ace and ha)e o)ercome these obstacles and
achie)ed goals with strong e''ort and good attitude/ they too can see
the connection between e''ort and achie)ement. n this way/ teachers
are 'ollowing the classroom recommendation o' e.(licitly teaching the
im(ortance o' e''ort. When students ha)e well*known or (ersonal
stories 'rom which to learn/ e''ort is rein'orced/ and students begin to
take more res(onsibility 'or their own success.
1=7 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
Without the enhancement o' technology/ rein'orcing e''ort in
schools is o'ten done through indi)idual teacher comments or by col*
lecting and sharing )ignettes/ testimonials/ and obser)ations 'rom the
learning community. %or one elementary school uses a
bulletin board near the main o''ice. The title o' the bulletin board is
D+aught in the !ct o' Trying Hard/E and on it are the collected stories
o' students (utting 'orth a strong e''ort to achie)e. Maintaining this
bulletin board not only rein'orces e''ort but also (ro)ides recogni*tion
Bsee +ha(ter 3C.
4ow letPs look at how technology could enhance this initiati)e. The
'aculty and sta'' obser)ational data/ which were the basis 'or the
bulletin board/ could be collected online/ through the schoolPs Web
site. The school might dedicate a section o' its Web site to showing
these rein'orcing e''ort and reassuring students that they
too can succeed i' they kee( trying. $tudent success stories like these
are more meaning'ul and more relatable than stories o' larger*than*li'e
heroes. This is (articularly im(ortant 'or high school students who can
grow more and more discouraged by their (ercei)ed 'ail*ures/ gi)e u(/
and ultimately dro( out o' school.
Aou and others in your school might carry out more 'ormal data
collection with online sur)eys/ such as those mentioned in the cha(*
ters 'ocusing on setting obFecti)es B+ha(ter 1C and (ro)iding 'eed*
back B+ha(ter 7C. This technology allows you to use a standard e''ort
rubric and incor(orate it into a sur)ey that will gi)e you insight into the
character o' your students and (ro)ide data you can use to encourage
students to try hard and to underscore the connection between e''ort
and achie)ement.
+onsider this Mr. Ekuban is charged with managing
'reshman orientation at his high school/ and he wants to ensure that
the new ;th graders a((reciate the role that e''ort (lays in achie)e*
ment. Using an original rubric based on one he located on Rubi$tar
Bhtt(9??rubistar.8teachers.orgC/ he designs a 'ree sur)ey with $ur)ey
Monkey Bwww.sur)eymonkey.comC to collect anonymous e''ort data
and stories 'rom the schoolPs Funiors and seniors in the 4ational Honor
$ociety. Mr. Ekuban then shares the sur)ey data with the incoming
'reshmen to show them the ways in which students like them ha)e
o)ercome di''iculties and achie)ed with strong e''ort and good
attitude. !n e.cer(t o' his sur)ey and some o' the data it gener*ated
are shown in %igures :.= and :.".
Rein'orcing E''ort 1=3
(igure 4.5
$ur)ey on E''ort +reated with $ur)ey Monkey
%eproduced courtes$ of Surve$Monke$'co"'
(igure 4.#
$ur)ey Results 'rom $ur)ey Monkey
%eproduced courtes$ of Surve$Monke$'co"'
1=8 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents !cQuire and ntegrate -earningR
!s you might sus(ect/ these data also alerted Mr. Ekuban to com*
mon success 'actors uniQue to his school. This awareness hel(ed him
show his students the relationshi( between e''ort and achie)ement.
! sur)ey like this is good 'or more than Fust collecting o)erall e''ort
data. Aou might also use it with s(eci'ic (roFects/ such as sci*ence
'airs/ research (a(ers/ or other class (roFects/ to show students what
it takes to do that (roFect well.
I7. Which Strategies Will ,el-
Students Practice0 +e"ie80
and .--ly Learning?
'ter the classroom e.(erience o' acQuiring and integrating new skills
knowledge/ students need time to (ractice/ re)iew/ and a((ly this new
learning so that they can make it (ermanent. ,uring this (hase o' the
learning (rocess/ students clear u( any con'usion and misconce(tions
they might ha)e 'ormed. They (er'ect their (er*'ormance to eliminate
errors. They also may a((ly their new skills by engaging in a (roFect. Part
0 'ocuses on the categories o' strategies that hel( students to
accom(lish these tasks9 identif$ing si"ilarities and differences B+ha(ter
;CK ho"e)ork and practice B+ha(ter 12CK and
generating and testing h$potheses B+ha(ter 11C.
,E4T%A4@ $M-!RTE$
!4, ,%%ERE4+E$
sking students to identif$ si"ilarities and differences in the content
they are learning hel(s them restructure their understanding o' that
content. ,uring the (rocess/ they make new connections/ e.(eri*ence
'resh insights/ and correct misconce(tions. These com(le. rea*
soning (rocedures lead students to dee(er understanding.
McRE-Ps research on identi'ying similarities and di''erences su(*
(orts the 'ollowing generalizations9
1. Presenting students with e.(licit guidance in identi'ying simi*
larities and di''erences enhances their understanding o' and
ability to use knowledge.
7. !sking students to inde(endently identi'y similarities and di'*
'erences enhances their understanding o' and ability to use
3. Re(resenting similarities and di''erences in gra(hic or sym*
bolic 'orm enhances studentsP understanding o' and ability to
use knowledge.
1=: Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
8. denti'ication o' similarities and di''erences can be accom*
(lished in a )ariety o' ways and is a highly robust acti)ity.
5ased these 'indings/ we ha)e 'i)e recommendations 'or classroom
1. Teach students to use com(aring/ classi'ying/ meta(hors/ and
analogies when they identi'y similarities and di''erences.
7. @i)e students a model o' the ste(s 'or engaging in the (rocess.
3. Use a 'amiliar conte.t to teach students these ste(s.
8. Ha)e students use gra(hic organizers as a )isual tool to re(re*
sent the similarities and di''erences.
<. @uide students as they engage in this (rocess. @radually gi)e
less structure and less guidance.
Technology 'acilitates the (rocess o' identi'ying similarities and
di''erences by hel(ing to create gra(hic organizers 'or com(aring/
classi'ying/ creating meta(hors/ and creating analogies. n this cha(*
ter/ we show how to use the 'ollowing resources to hel( students
identi'y similarities and di''erences9 )ord processing applications0
spreadsheet applications0 organi(ing and brainstor"ing soft)are0 and
data collection tools'
Word Processing .--lications
@ra(hic organizers are a time*tested way o' re(resenting similarities
and di''erences/ and we discuss them at length in the u(coming sec*
tion on organizing and brainstorming so'tware Bsee (age 1";C. 5ut
what i' you donPt ha)e ns(iration or Kids(irationR 4o (roblem. Aou
can show your students how to use the Microso't Word ,rawing
toolbar to draw diagrams/ charts/ or other tem(lates to com(are and
classi'y items or illustrate meta(hor or analogy. B!nd by doing so/ you
will be 'ollowing two o' the classroom recommendations 'or this
strategy9 ha)ing students use gra(hic organizers as a )isual tool to
re(resent the similarities and di''erences/ and guiding students as
they engage in this (rocess.C !uto$ha(es (ro)ides a )ariety o' lines/
basic sha(es/ and connectorsOe)erything you need to create the
denti'ying $imilarities and ,i''erences 1=;
gra(hic organizers we describe. Aou can e)en 'ind a 0enn diagram in
!uto$ha(es/ or you can draw it by clicking ,iagram under the nsert
menu. Aou can make this gra(hic organizer more com(le. by adding
additional o)erla((ing circles to com(are more categories than the
traditional 0enn diagram does. Aou can also select 'rom se)eral dia*
gram ty(es/ changing your gra(hic organizer 'rom a 0enn diagram to
a target/ radial/ cycle/ or (yramid design. 5y enlarging the circles and
using te.t to add words to the diagram/ you will be able to
re'lect the similarities and di''erences o' any conce(t.
+reating classi'ication tables and tem(lates is (ossibly the best
way to use a word (rocessor to su((ort identi'ying similarities and
di''erences. Remember that classi'ying is the (rocess o' grou(ing
things into de'inable categories on the basis o' their attributes. Word
(rocessors make this easy. n the shown in %igure ;.1/ Ms.
%isher gi)es her students a list o' geogra(hy terms. $tudents de'ine
the key categories they 'eel are best to grou( the items/ then co(y
and (aste the terms into the chart they create. The co(y and (aste
'eatures o' any word (rocessor allow students to classi'y terms again
and again/ based on new category de'initions. $tudents can classi'y
(igure &.1
@eogra(hy +lassi'ication Table +reated in Microso't Word
1"2 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
terms by ele)ation and then classi'y again based on geogra(hy terms
that relate most strongly to water or land. Throughout the (rocess/
students )iew the terms in new ways.
%igure ;.7 shows a second Here/ Mr. !ndrews takes his
literature studentsP work with classi'ication to a more abstract le)el
in order to build their understanding o' di''erent literary genres. He
(resents students with a list o' titles they ha)e read in class and the
categories o' 5lue/ Pur(le/ Red/ and Aellow/ which/ he e.(lains/ will
re(resent 'our categories that the students will de'ine 'or them*
sel)es. Then he begins the classi'ication acti)ity by asking students
to suggest common themes among these books. They also brain*
storm other classi'ication (ossibilities/ such as grou(ing the books
by genre/ time (eriod/ or another characteristic Be.g./ short and long/
easy and hard/ male authors and 'emale authorsC. $tudents then work
indi)idually to create their own categories and classi'y the books in
the list by (lacing them in the a((ro(riate category. 4ote that stu*
dents engage in this acti)ity a'ter ha)ing read and studied the books/
meaning they are identi'ying similarities and di''erences in a 'amiliar
conte.t/ which is in line with one o' the classroom recommendations.
(igure &.'
5ook +lassi'ication Table +reated in Microso't Word
denti'ying $imilarities and ,i''erences 1"1
Throughout the acti)ity/ the students must return to their catego*
ries/ reconsider them/ and think about the books and categories in
new ways. They also must think about their classi'ication rationales
and how they will de'end their choices. The acti)ity concludes with Mr.
!ndrews asking his students to e.change their com(leted charts and
see i' others can identi'y the classi'ication criteria theyPre using. Try
this yoursel' with the in %igure ;.7. +an you 'igure it outR The
student who created this used 5lue to indicate books with a
theme o' re)engeK Pur(le to indicate books where the main characters
deal with indi)idual )s. society con'lictK Red to indicate books dealing
with race eQuality and relationsK and Aellow to indicate books that
contain Dcoming o' ageE themes.
$o 'ar/ weP)e looked at some that engage students in
sorting and classi'ying. 4ow letPs look at how students might work on
the related skill o' recognizing and creating analogies/ which reQuire
students to identi'y a similarity between two elements.
Mr. Purcell uses word (rocessing so'tware/ a la(to(/ and a (roFec*
tor with his elementary class to create and dis(lay an D!nalogy o' the
,ayE thinking (uzzle Bsee %igure ;.3C.
(igure &.%
!nalogy o' the ,ay Puzzle +reated in Microso't Word
*lip art i"ages A 7??B &upiteri"ages *orporation'
1"7 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
He starts the year with teacher*created (rimarily sim*
(le ones such as this9
Hot is to +old as 4ight is to
Hard is to as High is to -ow.
!s students get better at sol)ing the analogy com(arisons o)er a
(eriod o' months/ Mr. Purcell allows indi)idual students to take o)er
the !nalogy o' the ,ay acti)ity and create a new (uzzle 'or each day.
BHe does (ro)ide one*on*one hel( i' it is needed.C Mr. Purcell also
uses this o((ortunity to 'amiliarize those students who donPt ha)e
home access to technology with some easy o(erational tasks. !rtis*tic
students Band teachers tooC can use the ,rawing tools o' a word
(rocessor to create illustrati)e gra(hics. The nternet is also a great
resource 'or gra(hics to add to analogy (uzzles. Those in %igure ;.3
were acQuired 'rom www.cli( With this acti)ity/ Mr. Purcell is
'ollowing the classroom recommendations o' modeling this strategy
'or his students by guiding them through the (rocess o' creating anal*
ogies and gradually allowing them more and more inde(endence
a((lying the strategy on their own.
S-readsheet Soft8are
$(readsheet so'tware 'acilitates the com(arison o' data/ making it an
ideal tool to use with students to hel( them identi'y similarities and
$(readsheet tem(lates can hel( teachers in the (rimary grades
im(lement this strategy. %or Ms. -iPs 7nd graders are study*
ing the (lanets o' the Milky Way/ including their sizes/ masses/ and
gra)itational (ulls. To clari'y the conce(t o' gra)itational (ull/ Ms. -i
wants her students to gras( how their weightOa 'unction o' gra)ityO
would )ary on the (lanets in our solar system/ including the dwar'
(lanet/ Pluto. $he begins her (lanning by researching how to calcu*
late onePs weight on the )arious (lanets. BTwo such resources that
address this are www.'!2:"<8<2.html and www.
teacher)ision.'*(lan?3<3.html.C $he 'inds
that making these calculations is a matter o' multi(lying onePs weight
on Earth by the gra)ity o' the other (lanet in relation to the EarthPs
denti'ying $imilarities and ,i''erences 1"3
gra)ity. ' EarthPs gra)ity is 1/ the relati)e gra)ity o' the other (lanets
and the moon are as 'ollows9
Earth9 1 The moon9 .1"
0enus9 .; Mars9 .3:
Mercury9 .3: &u(iter9 7.3:
$aturn9 .;7 Uranus9 .:;
4e(tune9 1.13 Pluto9 .2"
5ecause Ms. -i wants her 7nd graders to 'ocus on the di''erences o'
the gra)itational (ulls rather than the mathematics o' multi(lying
decimals/ she creates a tem(late in E.cel that automatically calcu*
lates the childPs weight on the (lanets when the child enters his or her
weight. %igure ;.8 shows the s(readsheet tem(late.
-etPs take a closer look at how this tem(late works. Ms. -i enters a
'ormula 'or each cell 'rom 57 through 511. $he 'irst clicks on cell 57/
which is MercuryPs row. Then in the 'ormula bar/ she ty(es the 'or*
mula Z51].8/ telling the so'tware to multi(ly whate)er )alue that is
ty(ed into 51 Bthe childPs weightC by .8/ and to (lace this (roduct in
cell 57. When she clicks in cell 53/ she ty(es the 'ormula Z51].;/ tell*
ing the so'tware to multi(ly the )alue in 51 by .;. $he continues in this
way until each cell 'rom 57 through 511 has a 'ormula 'or calculating
the childPs weight on that (articular (lanet.
4ow all the student has to do is enter his or her weight in cell 51/
and the s(readsheet will automatically calculate the weight on the
di''erent (lanets. ' Ms. -i has already created a chart using the +hart
(igure &.*
+om(arison $(readsheet Tem(late +reated
in Microso't E.cel9 My Weight on ,i''erent Planets
1"8 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
Wizard/ the chart also will u(date automatically. %igures ;.< and ;.=
show the s(readsheet with a childPs weight o' <2 (ounds and the
resulting chart.
(igure &.5
+om(leted +om(arison $(readsheet9
My Weight on ,i''erent Planets
(igure &.5
+om(arison +hart +reated in Microso't E.cel9
My Weight on ,i''erent Planets
With the bar gra(h/ students ha)e a nonlinguistic re(resentation o'
their weights on di''erent (lanets. Ms. -i goes on to use these data to
talk with her students about the similarities and di''erences in the
(lanetsP sizes/ masses/ and gra)itational (ulls. 5y com(aring the di'*
'erences/ students begin to analyze the di''erences in (lanetary sizes
and other characteristics that could a''ect their weight.
denti'ying $imilarities and ,i''erences 1"<
n another school/ Mrs. -okken/ a 12th grade science teacher/
uses E.cel to show similarities and di''erences with older students. n
her class/ students ha)e been collecting data on sunrise and sunset
times 'or cities across the world 'rom The
learning goal is 'or students to see how a locationPs latitude a''ects the
length o' its days during )arious time s(ans throughout the year. !'ter
they collect selected citiesP sunrise and sunset times 'or one month/
the students work collaborati)ely in grou(s o' three to enter the data
into a s(readsheet. The ne.t ste( is to subtract the sunrise time 'rom
the sunset time in order to 'ind the length o' each day/ but be'ore they
can do that/ they must 'irst re'ormat the times into mili*tary time. To do
this/ they select cells 53 to @17 by clicking into 53 and dragging
across the cells diagonally to @17. They then right*click Bwith a P+C or
+ontrol*click Bwith a MacC and chose %ormat +ells. Here/ they choose
+ustom and h9mm Bto 'orgo an !.M. or P.M. dis*(layC then #K Bsee
%igure ;.".C.
(igure &.#
+om(arison +hart +reated in Microso't E.cel9
$unrise and $unset Times in 0arious +ities
4ow they need to insert rows to create s(ace to dis(lay the calcu*
lated lengths o' each cityPs days. To do this/ they click in the row
beneath the sunset time 'or each day and nsert W Row. 4e.t/ they
instruct E.cel to subtract the sunrise time 'rom the sunset time to 'ind
the length o' the day. Mrs. -okken (ro)ides these instructions9
1"= Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
1. +lick into the blank cell beneath MelbournePs !ugust 7 sunset time Bin
this case/ cell 5<C.
7. n the 'ormula bar abo)e the gra(h/ ty(e in the 'ormula Z58I53. Aou are
instructing E.cel to 'ind the di''erence between the )alues o' 58 and 53
and to (lace the answer in the selected cell/ 5<. Then click Enter or
3. The di''erence o' 12 hours and 18 minutes B12918C should a((ear in cell
5<. This was the length o' the day on !ugust 7/ 722</ in Melbourne/
8. +ontinue clicking into the a((ro(riate cells and ty(ing the 'ormula in
order to 'ind the length o' day 'or each city 'or each day listed. !lterna*
ti)ely/ de(ending on your com'ort le)el/ you can a((ly the same 'ormula
across a row by clicking into a row that has a 'ormula B5<C and dragging
the L sign across the row.
5y 'ollowing Ms. -okkenPs instructions/ the students (roduce
charts that look like the in %igure ;.:.
(igure &.4
+om(arison +hart $tage 79
Rows nserted and ,ay -engths +alculated
The instructions continue9
5.n the blank cells in +olumn !/ label the cells with the date. %or
in cell !</ ty(e D!ugust 7E. E.cel will automatically re'ormat the date
based u(on the de'ault settings.
denti'ying $imilarities and ,i''erences 1""
=. 5ecause you no longer need the sunrise and sunset times/ you can hide
those cells. To do this/ select a row to hide/ such as Row 3/ and click on
Window and Hide/ or right*click B+ontrol*click on a MacC and choose
Hide. ! row can be unhidden by clicking on the bold line that re(resents
the hidden row and dragging down or by right*clicking between the two
rows B+ontrol*click on a MacC and choosing Unhide.
!t this (oint/ the gra(hs look like the one in %igure ;.;.
(igure &.&
+om(arison +hart $tage 39
,ates Re'ormatted and Times Hidden
5ack to the instructions9
". Aou also can hide the -atitude row or +ut and Paste it below the rest o'
the in'ormation/ as it will not be included in the gra(h.
:. $elect the data to gra(h/ that is/ the names o' the cities/ the dates/ and
the length o' days 'or each date. Aou can select multi(le rows by holding
down the +ontrol button.
;. +lick on the +hart Wizard icon. t looks like a red/ yellow/ and blue bar
12. The +hart Wizard will ask you to choose a chart ty(e. Think about which
charts work best with which ty(es o' data. ! (ie chart/ 'or is not
use'ul 'or this ty(e o' data. E.(eriment with a 'ew charts to see which
works best. %or this lesson/ we will make a scatter (lot/ so select $catter.
11. E.(eriment with Rows and +olumns to determine the best way to de(ict
the trends. n this demonstration/ the user chooses +olumns.
17. -abel your gra(h D-ength o' ,ay.E -abel the [ and A i' desired.
13. Aou now ha)e the o(tion o' showing a small )ersion o' the chart on the
same (age as the data or on its own (age as a larger (icture. +lick
%inish when you are done.
1": Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
The 'inished charts look similar to the in %igure ;.12.
(igure &.19
+om(leted +om(arison +hart9 $catter Plot $howing
the 0ariation in ,ay -ength 'or the Month o' !ugust
With the charts set u(/ Mrs. -okken and her students can use
them as tools 'or content analysis. Here are some Questions she asks9
What (redictions can you make about how the gra(h will look in
Why is HuitoPs length o' day una''ected by the change in seasonsR
Why do you think Miami shows only a small changeR
What are some reasons why the icons re(resenting 5uenos !ires and
Mel*bourne are nearly su(erim(osedR
s there a date when all cities will generally be on the same lineR ' so/ on
which lineR #n which dateR When will this reoccurR
n this note the e.tent to which technology 'acilitates the
(rocesses o' analyzing the similarities and di''erences/ e.(laining the
trends 'ound/ and (redicting 'uture (atterns. +onsider how di''icult
and im(ractical this acti)ity would ha)e been without technology.
denti'ying $imilarities and ,i''erences 1";
rgani2ing and >rainstorming Soft8are
Kids(iration B'or grades (reKI<C and ns(iration B'or intermediate and
older studentsC are great tools to hel( you sca''old learning e.(e*
riences 'or your students. 5y 'irst ensuring that students are com'ort*
able using gra(hic organizer models and tem(lates in (airs/ grou(s/
or indi)idually/ you can more easily (rogress to student*created
gra(hic organizers. Use o' gra(hic organizers hel(s students )isually
(ortray connections and e.(erience new and dee(er insights about
the content.
#ne o' the sim(lest but most e''ecti)e ways to hel( students com*
(are two or more items is to use the 0enn diagram tem(late located in
the Thinking $kills 'older o' ns(iration tem(lates and in the More
!cti)ities 'older o' Kids(iration tem(lates. %igure ;.11 shows one o'
the 0enn diagrams Mrs. +raig hel(s her 3rd graders create during a
lesson 'ocused on broadening and e.(anding their knowledge o' the
similarities and di''erences between the United $tates and England.
!'ter com(aring traditional 'oods/ they com(are holidays/ and then
historical e)ents o' both countries. 4e.t/ the students go on to create
indi)idual diagrams to com(are another category they 'ind (erson*ally
!nother tem(late similar to a 0enn diagram is ns(irationPs +om*
(arison tem(late/ used in %igure ;.17 and 'ound in the Thinking $kills
'older. Aou should also look at the 5ook +om(arison tem(late in the
(igure &.11
0enn ,iagram +reated in ns(iration
1:2 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
-anguage !rts 'older. 5ook +om(arison allows students to track and
)isualize in'ormation about literary works/ including similarities and
di''erences in authorsP li)es and styles and in the worksP themes/
tone/ mood/ and messages to the reader. %igure ;.17 shows how Mr.
AoungPs high school students use this tem(late to com(are the e(ic
(oem Beo)ulf with &ohn @ardnerPs no)el Grendel.
(igure &.1'
-iterature +om(arison +reated
with ns(irationPs +om(arison Tem(late
Aounger students with minimal writing skills or students who best
remember 'acts (resented through nonlinguistic re(resentation Bsee
+ha(ter 3C also bene'it 'rom organizing and brainstorming so't*ware.
Kids(iration and ns(iration include hundreds o' gra(hics and symbols
'or students to use. ' the desired gra(hic is not (art o' an e.isting
symbol library/ students can use the $ymbol Maker tool in Kids(iration
or create a custom symbol library using gra(hics 'rom the nternet or
(hotos taken with a digital camera. $tudents o' all ages can also use
their )oices to record thoughts and ideas about similarities and
di''erences. %igure ;.13 shows a com(arison that a 7nd grader
created with Kids(irationPs +om(arison tem(late/ 'ound in the More
!cti)ities 'older.
&ust as organizing and brainstorming so'tware 'acilitates com(ar*
ison/ it also works 'or classi'ication. $e)eral classi'ication tem(lates
are a)ailable/ and custom tem(lates are easy to create. %igure ;.18
shows the !nimal +lassi'ication tem(late/ 'ound in Kids(irationPs
denti'ying $imilarities and ,i''erences 1:1
$cience 'older. $tudents can search through the so'twarePs gra(hics
library to 'ind the animals that 'it in each classi'ication category.
(igure &.1%
@ra(hics*Enhanced +om(arison +reated
with Kids(irationPs +om(arison Tem(late
(igure &.1*
!nimal +lassi'ication +reated with
Kids(irationPs !nimal +lassi'ication Tem(late
Teachers can e.(and this acti)ity by asking students to use the
writing 'eature o' Kids(iration and ns(iration to brainstorm how these
animals are alike and di''erent. The more similarities and di''er*ences
students can describe/ the stronger their knowledge o' animals
1:7 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
#ne 'inal seen in %igure ;.1</ shows a more ad)anced
use o' Kids(iration 'eaturing the +lassi'ying deas tem(late 'ound in
the More !cti)ities 'older. n science class/ Mrs. 4elson gi)es her 3rd
grade students a list o' words and asks them to use the three titles 'or
their categories and sort the words. %or each word/ the students key
in an e.(lanation o' why the word belongs in that (articular category.
(igure &.15
Word +lassi'ication +reated with
Kids(irationPs +lassi'ying deas Tem(late
Data Collection 6ools
+om(aring and classi'ying usually reQuires data. Many tools are
a)ailable to hel( students de'ine characteristics in order to identi'y
similarities and di''erences. -etPs look at how an elementary teacher
might combine this instructional strategy with the strategy o'
nonlinguistic re(resentation Bsee +ha(ter <C during a science lesson
on density by using data collection tools to measure the mass and
)olume o' )arious obFects.
Mrs. Wesolowski wants to teach her <th grade class the conce(t
o' density as a characteristic o' materials. Her goals are to make sure
all her students understand that density is how much mass is (acked
denti'ying $imilarities and ,i''erences 1:3
into a certain )olume/ and to dis(el common misconce(tions about
the relationshi( between )olume and mass. %or instance/ most stu*
dents think that larger obFects are always more massi)e and )ice
)ersa. They also tend to think that materials ha)e all o' the same
characteristics or all di''erent characteristics. Mrs. WesolowskiPs goal
is to ha)e her students understand the (ossible combinations o'
similarities and di''erences in material characteristics.
$he decides to guide her students through a set o' three density
e.(eriments by inde(endently )arying )olume/ mass/ and density. To
measure mass/ theyPll be using a digital scale instead o' a traditional
balance. The obFects students need to measure all ha)e small
masses/ and the 'ine accuracy the digital scale (ro)ides allows them
to ca(ture minute but signi'icant di''erences in mass 'or their calcula*
tions. The students are also able to connect the digital scale to a com*
(uter by U$5 cable to take multi(le measurements.
Mrs. Wesolowski gi)es her students a s(readsheet tem(late to
multi(ly length by width by height to calculate )olume and then di)ide
mass by )olume to get the density in grams (er cubic centime*ter
C. !'ter leading her class through a science inQuiry (lan*ning
(rocess/ including making some (redictions/ she guides her students
through three e.(eriments9
1. $tudents collect and calculate )olume/ mass/ and density data
on a rectangular s(onge. Then they soak the same s(onge in melted
wa. and let the wa. harden. $tudents again collect the data and
calcu*late density. 5y kee(ing the )olume the same but changing the
mass Bwith the wa.C/ they are able to see that density is de(endent on
the concentration o' mass.
7. $tudents use scissors to trim a rectangular s(onge until its
mass eQuals that o' a 1cm
density cube on the digital scale. BThese
cubes are a)ailable 'rom science education su((ly retailers.C #nce
the masses are eQualized/ students again collect data and calculate
the density o' both obFects. 5y kee(ing the mass the same but )ary*
ing the )olume/ students can see that density also is de(endent on
3. 4ow that the students ha)e used data collection to calculate
density and com(are obFects/ they see that density is related to both
mass and )olume inde(endently. n a third e.(eriment/ they combine
the 'irst two e.(eriments. Using red and blue -ego building blocks
1:8 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
that are identical in sha(e and size/ they construct one all*red cube
and one all*blue cube/ making the blue cube larger than the red one.
!gain the students collect )olume and mass data/ and then calculate
)olume with the s(readsheet. $ome students are sur(rised to 'ind that
the densities o' the two cubes are the same. Then they realize that
density is a characteristic o' the material B(lasticC. E)en i' the both the
mass and )olume are di''erent/ the ratio o' mass to )olume is the
same. The di''erent colors o' the cubes underscore the idea that
obFects can look di''erent in many ways but still ha)e the same
!s you can see/ in this lesson/ technology is the key to accurate
com(arisons. t also 'acilitates Quick com(utations so the students
can 'ocus on the density conce(ts. 4ow letPs look at an o'
how obser)ational data collection 'acilitates identi'ying similarities and
di''erences through classi'ication.
Mr. 5rewer gi)es his 8th grade students a matri. 'or classi'ying
Dbugs.E He doesnPt tell them about the )arious categories they might
use/ such as insect Be.g./ beetlesC/ arachnid Be.g./ s(idersC/ and myria*
(od Be.g./ centi(edesCK he will introduce these categories later/ a'ter
the students ha)e had a chance to think critically about the charac*
teristics that will hel( them identi'y similarities and di''erences nec*
essary to classi'y bug s(ecimens.
With this organizer distributed/ Mr. 5rewer now (ro)ides the stu*
dents with an assorted collection o' bug s(ecimens encased in (las*
tic/ which he 'ound at his science education su((ly retailer. Using a
Pro$co(e/ his students )iew magni'ied images o' the s(ecimens and
use the matri. to classi'y them. !t 'irst/ students categorize by all sorts
o' traits/ such as color/ size/ and eye sha(e. E)entually/ with some
guidance 'rom Mr. 5rewer/ students see that number o' legs/
antennae/ and body segments are im(ortant de'ining characteristics.
$ome students also subcategorize the s(ecimens by the (resence o'
wings/ 'angs/ and both wings and 'angs. !s %igure ;.1= shows/ these
students rearrange their matri. into three categories/ using the
obser)ational data Bmagni'ied (icturesC and the actual category
To combine this acti)ity with the strategy o' homework and (rac*tice
Bsee +ha(ter 12C/ Mr. 5rewer has his students )isit
)ic.go).au?bugs?catcher? to take ad)antage o' the huge
denti'ying $imilarities and ,i''erences 1:<
bug collection o' the Museum 0ictoria in !ustralia. The Web site
allows his students to conduct similar acti)ities by (laying an inter*
acti)e game called Bug *atcher'
(igure &.15
+lassi'ication Matri. o' D5ugsE
%eaturing #bser)ational ,ata
Photographs b$ /lan 2enderson' %eproduced courtes$ of Museu" Jictoria'
,ata collection (robeware is also )ery use'ul 'or identi'ying simi*
larities and di''erences because its com(uter inter'ace allows stu*
dents to Quickly create all sorts o' gra(hical re(resentations 'or
com(arison. !n o' this is an e.(eriment led by Mr. Mc@uire.
!'ter teaching his !lgebra class to calculate and gra(h the slo(e o' a
line/ he uses a motion detector (robe connected to a com(uter to hel(
the students a((ly their knowledge/ using the 'eedback 'rom the
com(uter gra(hing (rogram tied to the motion detector.
The students are reQuired to try and match their mo)ements with
gra(hical re(resentations o' (osition )ersus time. !s they mo)e/ a line
(lots in real time/ o)erlaying the (lot they are trying to match. !'ter
some (ractice/ they are to identi'y the similarities and di''er*ences in
their mo)ements com(ared to the gra(hical (lot. This
1:= Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
shows them how motion can be re(resented gra(hically in a )ery
realistic and 'un way.
%igure ;.1" shows how one o' Mr. Mc@uirePs students needs to
mo)e to match the gra(hical (lot. To get the gra(h to go u(/ he or she
needs to mo)e toward the detector and )ice )ersa. Mr. Mc@uire also
uses the strategy o' generating and testing hy(otheses Bsee +ha(ter
11C by ha)ing students (ractice with the detector and then (redict
what the (lot will be i' they mo)e a certain way.
(igure &.1#
@ra(hing Motion E.(eriment Using
0ernier -ogger Pro and Microso't Word
H#MEW#RK !4, PR!+T+E
o"e)ork and practice gi)e students a chance to re)iew and a((ly
what they ha)e learned.
!s an e.tension o' the classroom/ homework (ro)ides o((ortuni*
ties 'or students to dee(en their understanding o' the content and to
gain (ro'iciency with their skills. ,es(ite these bene'its/ homework is
not without contro)ersy. The (ractices recommended in this section
can hel( teachers and students get the most out o' homework and
a)oid some o' the (it'alls.
McRE-Ps research on homework su((orts the 'ollowing general*
1. The amount o' homework assigned to students should be di'*
'erent 'rom elementary to high school.
7. Parental in)ol)ement in doing homework should be ke(t to a
3. The (ur(ose o' homework should be identi'ied and articulated.
8. ' homework is assigned/ it should be commented u(on.
1:: Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
5ased on these 'indings/ we ha)e three recommendations 'or class*
room (ractice9
1. Establish and communicate a homework (olicy.
7. ,esign homework assignments that clearly articulate (ur*(ose
and outcome.
3. 0ary a((roaches to (ro)iding 'eedback.
Ha)ing students (ractice a skill or conce(t enhances their ability
to reach the e.(ected le)el o' (ro'iciency. Multi(le e.(osures to
material hel( students dee(en their understanding o' content and
become (ro'icient with skills. Ty(ically/ students need about 78 (rac*
tice sessions with a skill in order to achie)e :2*(ercent com(etency
BMarzano et al./ 7221/ (. ="C. 5ecause it is easy 'or errors to sli( in
when students are (racticing/ teachers should gi)e 'eedback as
Quickly as (ossibleOideally/ early in the (ractice sessions/ be'ore
students internalize erroneous (rocesses and knowledge.
McRE-Ps research on (ractice su((orts the 'ollowing generaliza*
1. Mastering a skill or (rocess reQuires a 'air amount o' 'ocused
7. While (racticing/ students should ada(t and sha(e what they
ha)e learned.
5ased on these 'indings/ we ha)e three recommendations 'or the
1. !sk students to chart their s(eed and accuracy.
7. ,esign (ractice assignments that 'ocus on s(eci'ic elements
o' a com(le. skill or (rocess.
3. Plan time 'or students to increase their conce(tual under*
standing o' skills or (rocesses.
Homework and Practice 1:;
Technology 'acilitates homework and (ractice by (ro)iding a
wealth o' resources 'or learning outside o' the classroom/ making it
easy 'or students to work on collaborati)e homework assignments
and (ro)iding Ddrill and (racticeE resources that hel( students re'ine
their skills.
n this cha(ter/ we look at the categories o' technology that enrich
a classroomPs homework (rogram9 )ord processing applications0
spreadsheet applications0 "ulti"edia0 ,eb resources0 and
co""unica.tion soft)are'
Word Processing .--lications
Most (eo(le think o' word (rocessing so'tware as a one*trick (ony9
Aou use it to ty(e (a(ers and that is it. Howe)er/ the )aried tools in
word (rocessing a((lications make it much more than an electronic
n other sections o' this book/ we discuss many o' the tools a)ail*
able in Microso't Word/ which is one o' the most common word (ro*
cessing so'tware (roducts. #ne o' the tools in Word that we ha)enPt
yet touched on is its research ca(ability. !lmost e)ery teacher knows
to send student researchers to search engines like @oogle or AahooU/
but 'ar 'ewer know that students can also search within Word. +lick*
ing on Tools W Research brings u( a research window on the right
side o' a Word document. %rom this window/ students can search the
Encarta dictionary/ a thesaurus/ the Encarta Encyclo(edia/ e-ibrary/
and more.
#ne real ad)antage to using this tool rather than o(ening a
browser (rogram and using a search engine is that the search results
tend to be more 'ocused than those generated by a general*(ur(ose
search engine. %or younger students and other 'ledging researchers/
this can be a signi'icant bene'it. $tudents who search 'rom within a
Word document are less likely to be sent on Dwild goose chasesE or to
be di)erted 'rom the assignment by the WebPs many distractions.
HerePs an illustration o' how students might use Word 'or
research. Ms. Thom(son is teaching her <th graders about the Holo*
caust. %or the unitPs 'inal (roFect/ she o''ers students a choice o' to(*
ics/ some o' which are student*generated/ and a choice o' 'ormats9 a
PowerPoint (resentation/ an iMo)ie/ or a standard re(ort.
1;2 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
Emma decides to do a re(ort/ as she has already created a
PowerPoint and an iMo)ie 'or (re)ious units. !s she works on her
re(ort on her home com(uter/ she comes across the word persecu.
tion in a te.t shePs reading. !lthough Emma knows she has heard this
word be'ore/ she isnPt certain o' its meaning/ so she accesses the
Word research tool 'rom her o(en document and looks it u(. The
de'inition (ro)ided hel(s a little/ but she still isnPt sure that she
com(letely gets the wordPs meaning. $o Emma clicks on the thesau*
rus link in the research tool and reads some o' the synonyms 'or (er*
secution9 bull$ing0 harass"ent0 and discri"ination' The combination
o' the de'inition and the synonyms gi)es Emma a good idea o' what
the word means.
!'ter she 'inishes the 'irst dra't o' her re(ort/ Emma checks the
grade le)el o' her writing/ as Ms. Thom(son has taught her to do/
using the Word s(elling and grammar tool Bsee +ha(ter 7/ (age 83C.
$he sees that her %lesch*Kincaid grade*le)el rating is only 8.;. Emma
knows that she can increase the so(histication o' her writing by using
some o' the new )ocabulary words the class has been learning/
changing some o' the adFecti)es to more descri(ti)e ones that she
recognized in the Word thesaurus/ and combining some o' the short
sentences she has a tendency to use. !s a 'inal check o' her re(ort/
she uses the !uto$ummarize tool Bsee +ha(ter =/ (age 173C to see i'
the com(uter gi)es her a summary that really says what she is trying
to e.(ress.
S-readsheet Soft8are
Whether itPs on a home com(uter/ classroom la(to(/ or school lab
com(uter/ using s(readsheets 'or homework and (ractice is ty(ically
about students using data to master conce(ts and skills. $tudents can
(ractice by calculating/ mani(ulating/ and dis(laying data to gain
dee(er understanding.
HerePs an Ryan Turnage teaches (hysical education and is
a 'ootball coach at +aroline High $chool. His colleague/ Mrs. 5aker/
teaches algebra. Mrs. 5aker asks +oach Turnage to hel( moti)ate some
o' the (layers to (ractice their data analysis skills. 5ecause he is in
charge o' the 'ootball teamPs strength and conditioning (rogram/ he
decides to ha)e his (layers track their workouts9 how much weight they
are li'ting and the number o' re(etitions they are doing at
Homework and Practice 1;1
each session. ! com(uter lab is located Fust across 'rom the locker
room/ so a'ter each workout/ he has his (layers o(en a s(readsheet
to enter their data. +oach Turnage also has them correlate the data
with their heart rate/ which he has them take in the com(uter lab as
they wait 'or the com(uters to boot u(. %inally/ the (layers sa)e their
s(readsheets to a central ser)er 'older 'or later use. !t the end o' the
season/ the (layers and coaches can check the (rogress o' each
(layerPs workouts/ and the (layers gra(h these data in Mrs. 5akerPs
algebra class.
!'ter the students become com'ortable using s(readsheet
so'tware/ Mrs. 5aker has them use s(readsheets to dee(en their
understanding o' (arabolic 'unctions. !s (art o' her unit on gra(hing
Quadratic eQua*tions/ she gi)es her students standard homework
assignments 'ocused on sol)ing (arabolic 'unctions and hand*
gra(hing. 4e.t she brings tech*nology back into the mi./ instructing
students to enter the answers to their homework (roblems into
s(readsheets. They enter the x*)alue and the (arabolic 'unction into
an E.cel s(readsheet/ allowing the (ro*gram to calculate the $*)alues.
Then they create an [A scatter (lot with a smooth trend line to dis(lay
the (arabolic gra(h. %inally/ the students (ractice making di''erent
(lots by changing constant )alues. n order 'or the gra(hs to be
com(arable/ only one constant is changed at a time/ and the scale o'
the gra(hs is held constant. Her E.cel s(readsheet instructions 'ollow9
1. Enter x*)alues 'rom I8 to L8. Enter the 'unction in the adFoining cell to
direct it to 'ill in the $*)alue. %or i' the 'irst x*)alue is in cell !7/
the 'unction $ K Lx
M Nx M = would be entered in cell 57 like this9
Z:]B!7^7CL8]!7L<. n other words/ you are telling E.cel to take the )alue
that you ty(e into cell !7/ increase it by a (ower o' two/ and multi*(ly by
eight. Then you are telling E.cel to multi(ly the )alue ty(ed in !7 by 'our.
%inally/ E.cel will add those two Quantities to < and (ut the answer in cell
7. %ill in the rest o' the cells in column 5 to calculate the rest o' the $*)alues.
Use the 'unction you (laced in 57 by (asting it into the other 5 cells.
E.cel will change the 'ormulas automatically by re(lacing the x*)alue with
the !*column )alues !3/ !8/ !</ and so on/ in the 'ormula.
3. Highlight the data and choose nsert W +hart and select [A B$catterC.
8. $elect $catter with data (oints connected by smooth lines.
The students Quickly make many (arabolic gra(hs by changing
one constant )alue at a time. B%igure 12.1 shows a 'ew.C This would
ha)e taken much longer i' students had to hand*gra(h all o' the
1;7 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
)ariations. With the aid o' technology/ the students are able to see
many trans'ormations o' the (arabolic (lot. This leads to a discus*sion
on how these sha(es can be a((lied in real*li'e situations/ such as in
architectural design.
(igure 19.1
Parabolic @ra(hing Practice !cti)ities
+reated in Microso't E.cel
+learly/ using and creating multimedia reQuires a high degree o'
technology accessibility. $ome schools check out com(uters and
eQui(ment to students/ while others schools enFoy the bene'its o' one*
to*one la(to( (rograms in which students ha)e a la(to( assigned to
them 'or the whole year. ' they do not ha)e a 'amily com*(uter to use/
they can use their school la(to(. When access is not a (roblem/
multimedia homework is an o((ortunity to dee(en under*standing and
gain (ro'iciency. Practicing with multimedia allows stu*dents to sha(e
the e.(erience to their indi)idual learning style and increase their le)el
o' understanding to mastery.
Well*made so'tware allows teachers to choose which learning
obFecti)es the student needs to (ractice/ has so(histicated and
Homework and Practice 1;3
seamless multimedia to kee( the learner engaged/ and (ro)ides
immediate 'eedback and sca''olding in order to hel( the student
understand and (ractice the conce(t. 4ew so'tware titles emerge so
o'ten that instead o' listing s(eci'ic ones here/ we ha)e listed regu*
larly u(dated resources that recognize the best educational so't*ware.
6 E,,E !wards
$(onsored by +om(utE,/ the Education $o'tware Re)iew !wardBDthe
E,,EsEC recognizes inno)ating so'tware 'or education. +ategories
include Early -earning/ Early Elementary/ U((er Elementary/ Middle
$chool/ High $chool?Post*$econdary/ nternet Tools/ Educational
Websites/ and Teacher Producti)ity Tools.
6 5E$$E !wards
$imilar to the E,,Es/ the 5E$$Es recognize the 5est Educational
$o'tware. +ategories include Early Elementary and U((er Elemen*
tary. These awards are s(onsored by +om(utE,.
6 !echnolog$ & #earningPs !wards o' E.cellence?ReadersP +hoice !wards
n e)ery ,ecember issue/ the magazine !echnolog$ & #earning
identi*'ies the best so'tware and hardware in the categories o'
+urriculum and ,ata ManagementK -anguage !rtsK Math?$cienceK
Multidisci(*linaryK Presentation?Producti)ityK $ocial $ciences and -i'e
$killsK Teacher Resources?Pro'essional ,e)elo(mentK Tools 'or
+ommuni*cationK +ollaboration/ and $ystem ManagementK +urriculum
$o't*wareK and Educator Tools. n addition/ !&# recognizes Dtried and
trueE so'tware used by (ro'essionals.
6 e$chool4ews ReadersP +hoice !wards
This award is decided u(on by nominations 'rom readers o' e$chool*
4ews. +ategories include Multimedia +reation Tools/ Math $o'tware/
ProFectors and nteracti)e Whiteboards/ $chool $cience $o'tware/
and $chool Reading $o'tware/ among many others.
1;8 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
6 +odE !wards
This annual award/ s(onsored by the $o'tware T n'ormation ndus*try
!ssociation/ recognizes so'tware in )arious industries/ education
included. #ne o' the categories is DEducation 4ewcomer !ward/E 'or
which users can nominate new outstanding educational so'tware.
6 ,isco)ery EducationPs The Parent +hannel
,isco)ery Education com(iles its educational so'tware re)iew by
testing so'tware with children and (arents. The (roducts selected 'or
the list are well designed and encourage students as they learn. Each
re)iew (ro)ides a detailed syno(sis o' a((ro(riate age/ content/ and
n addition to learning fro" multimedia such as educational games
and interacti)e simulations/ students can learn )ith multime*dia by
creating their own (roFects at home or at school to de)elo( their
understanding and (ractice skills.
When students create multimedia (roFects like those discussed in
+ha(ter </ they undertake many o' the (roFectPs tasks outside o'
class. !'ter (lanning their scri(ts and storyboards/ students can
search their homes and neighborhoods 'or imagery to incor(orate )ia
)ideo. This creates more o((ortunities 'or creati)ity than the ty(*ical
classroom and school o''er.
!nother o' creating multimedia 'or homework and (rac*
tice is teacher or student construction o' PowerPoint games. $tu*
dents create a game using hy(erlinks and action buttons in
PowerPoint. -ike any multimedia (roFect/ the game needs to be well
(lanned be'ore the actual PowerPoint design begins. $arah
@rabowski -odick created such a PowerPoint game while com(leting
her student teaching 'or the Uni)ersity o' @eorgia. $he wanted her
mathematics students to learn basic gra(hing skills using the +arte*
sian coordinate system/ so she created a game called 5attle@ra(h
Bsee %igure 12.7C/ based on the 5attleshi( board game/ in which stu*
dents customize the game or (lay it directly. The game uses x. and $*
coordinates to (lace shi(s on a gra(hical ocean. ! (layer also uses x.
and $.coordinates to try to locate and hit the o((osing (layerPs shi(s.
Homework and Practice 1;<
E)en students without home access to com(uters can (lay the game
as it can be (rinted out in hard co(y 'orm. 5attle@ra(h is a)ailable
online at htt(9??
(igure 19.'
5attle@ra(h PowerPoint @ame
%eproduced courtes$ of Sarah Grabo)ski #odick0 MEd'
Web +esources
Web resources allow students to (ractice conce(ts and skills re(eat*
edly 'rom their homes/ during a study (eriod0 or e)en as an anchor
acti)ity in a di''erentiated classroom. #nline educational games ha)e
an inherent a((eal and generate immediate 'eedback that allows a
student/ (arent/ and teacher to monitor (rogress toward mastery.
#nline games hel( teachers meet the classroom recommendations o'
)arying methods o' (ro)iding 'eedback/ hel(ing students to 'ocus on
(articular skills. The games also (ro)ide an incenti)e 'or students to
chart their s(eed and accuracy/ another o' the recommendations.
+onsider this Mrs. MetzPs 3rd grade class is learning
about acids/ bases/ and the (H scale. !lthough the students do se)*
eral related e.(eriments and acti)ities at school/ Mrs. Metz wants to
1;= Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
ensure that they will remember the material when the unit is com*
(lete. $e)eral weeks a'ter the close o' the unit/ she asks them to go
through the tutorial and acti)ities on the Kitchen +hemistry P5$ Voom
Web site Bsee the descri(tion o' this resource on (age 1;:C.
!t the end o' the tutorial is a section to (rint out a reward certi'i*
cate. To con'irm that her students com(leted the acti)ities/ Mrs. Metz
asks them to either (rint the reward certi'icate and hand it in/ or sa)e
the certi'icate as a screen shot and e*mail it to her. -ater/ she will use
a 5rainP#P Quiz to test 'or retention.
n another a 1st grade class is working on short )owel
sounds/ but some students are ready 'or more challenging work. #ne
o' their teacherPs 'a)orite resources 'or building reading skills is the
$tar'all Web site9' which is a great resource 'or (ro*
)iding 'ocused (ractice time on a (articular skillOone o' the class*
room recommendations. ,uring this (articular class session/ all Mrs.
MetzPs students go to the -earn to Read section o' the Web site.
$ome do the short*)owel acti)ities while others concentrate on long
)ow*els and consonant blends. Each )owel sound links to a
corres(onding e*book where students can click on un'amiliar words
and hear them Ds(oken.E $tudents can also (lay a game designed to
hel( build their knowledge o' s(eci'ic )owel sounds. The )ariety o'
acti)ities and 'le.*ible (resentation style means each student is able
to work on skills that best meet his or her needs/ and the teacher is
able to di''erenti*ate instruction during (ractice sessions.
Here are some other recommended Web sites to use 'or home*
work and (ractice9
6 55+ $killswise
This resource 'rom the 55+ includes a 4umbers section and a Words
section. Within these sections are conce(t areas containing skill*
shar(ening worksheets/ games/ and Quizzes a((ro(riate 'or grades
3I:. !mong the conce(ts co)ered are (unctuation/ 'ractions/ su'*
' and multi(lication.
6 4ational -ibrary o' 0irtual Mani(ulati)es
This resource 'rom Utah $tate Uni)ersity contains many )irtual
mani(ulati)es to hel( students in grades (reKI17 better understand
Homework and Practice 1;"
mathematics conce(ts. $ome o' the mani(ulati)es include base
blocks/ geoboards/ algebra tiles/ algebra balance scales/ and )arious
6 E.(lore-earning
E.(lore-earning contains gizmosO)irtual learning a((aratusesO'or
secondary*le)el mathematics and science conce(ts. !mong the
gizmos a)ailable are ones that address how tides work/ the multi(li*
cation o' mi.ed numbers/ and (hotosynthesis. !lthough E.(lore*
-earning is a subscri(tion*based site/ a 'ree 'i)e*minute trial (eriod
allows a site )isitor to e.(lore the resource. Each gizmo is 'ollowed by
assessment Questions to check 'or understanding.
6 5rainP#P
5rainP#P contains hundreds o' short/ %lash*based mo)ies on nearly
e)ery curricular area9 English/ social studies/ mathematics/ science/
health/ and technology. Each mo)ie is 'ollowed by a 12*Question Quiz
that can be (rinted out or e*mailed to a teacher. This is a subscri(tion*
based site/ but many mo)ies are a)ailable 'or 'ree.
This resource contains skill*building games 'or students in elemen*
tary and middle school. $ome skills addressed include using correct
(unctuation/ building s(eed with mathematics 'acts/ and labeling
ma(s o' continents and the United $tates.
6 Wizards T Pigs
This is a game designed to hel( young students (ractice identi'ying
alliteration/ rhyming/ and 'ree )erse.
6 %lashcard E.change
This resource allows teachers and students to generate custom )ir*
tual 'lashcards and access 'lashcards others ha)e created. Teachers
1;: Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
can create study guides 'or students or allow students to create their
own. $tudents can (lay DmemoryE with the card stack/ and they can
also (lay a game designed to hel( build their knowledge o' )owel
6 Mousercise
This resource hel(s students to learn and (ractice mouse control.
ncluded are acti)ities to introduce (ull*down menus/ radio buttons/
scroll bars/ and co(ying?(asting.
6 -e)er Tutorial
This tutorial takes students through the (arts o' the le)er and the
three ty(es o' le)ers. Each minilesson is 'ollowed by a brie' Quiz.
6 Kitchen +hemistry
This acti)ity teaches students basic 'acts about acids and bases/ then
allows them to conduct )irtual e.(eriments by Dmi.ingE substances to
test 'or acidity and carbonation.
6 Hurricane $trikeU
This simulation 'rom the Uni)ersity +or(oration 'or !tmos(heric
Research in 5oulder/ +olorado/ takes students through tutorials about
hurricanes and hel(s them a((ly what theyP)e learned to make
decisions as a hurricane a((roaches.
6 $tellarium
This 'ree (lanetarium 'or your P+ allows students to see the night sky
'rom any location at any date s(eci'ied. $tudents can watch constella*
tions mo)e across the sky in 'ast s(eed to get an idea o' how the
night sky changes with the seasons. $tudents can also DzoomE to
(lanets and other celestial bodies.
6 nstant ProFects
Homework and Practice 1;;
This resource includes a tem(late to hel( teachers easily create class
Web sites. Teachers can (ost homework assignments that are acces*
sible at any time.
Communication Soft8are
+ha(ter 7Ps discussion o' (ro)iding 'eedback co)ered how to use the
Microso't Word Track +hanges and nsert +omments 'eatures to gi)e
'eedback on student writing. !lthough these tools are an ideal way to
let a 'ew authors edit a (iece o' writing 'or (eer re)iew/ there can be
com(licating 'actors. To edit a document collaborati)ely/ all students
must either ha)e access to a shared 'older Bwhich may not be (ossi*
ble away 'rom schoolC or must e*mail the document to other grou(
members. Editing a document )ia e*mail can be con'using and cum*
bersome with a large grou(Oo'ten resulting in one )ersion o)erwrit*
ing another or multi(le )ersions o' one document. n these
circumstances/ another o(tion is to select communication so'tware
designed to 'acilitate collaboration.
HerePs an ! grou( o' students in a high school 'amily?
consumer sciences class agree to (er'ect their reci(e 'or $teak au
Poi)re as a 'inal (roFect. %irst/ they will (ractice making the dish indi*
)idually at home/ and then they will com(are reci(es and results.
What they need is a way to share their reci(e adFustments. They
decide to use Writeboard Bhtt(9??writeboard.comC/ one o' se)eral ser*
)ices that allow multi(le users to edit a document )ia the Web in a
manner similar to a wiki. Users can com(are di''erent )ersions o' their
(age and see changes made/ much like the 'ormat o' Track +hanges
in Word. !s you can see in %igure 12.3/ highlighted te.t and gray
strikethroughs indicate the changes between the 'ourth and
)ersions o' the studentsP reci(e.
The Writeboard ser)ice can be combined with other 'ree ser)ices
o''ered by the com(any 3"signals/ such as 5ack(ack +hecklist and
+am('ire +hatroom. 5ack(ack Bwww.back(ackit.comC allows students
to make indi)idual or shared (ages to organize notes/ Web sites/ to*
do lists/ and more. There is e)en a calendar 'eature to hel( with
(roFect (lanning. +am('ire'irenow.comC is an online grou(
chat tool. t allows students to collaborate between classrooms/
schools/ or e)en countries. +am('ire chatrooms are (assword*
(rotected so that students can instant*message sa'ely.
722 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
(igure 19.%
$creen $hot o' Writeboard $howing
+hanges 5etween 0ersions
%eproduced courtes$ of 8Bsignals'
!s the grou( gets closer to their 'inal they decide to use
5ack(ack to organize their to*do list so that e)eryone can easily
access their u(coming res(onsibilities Bsee %igure 12.8C.
(igure 19.*
5ack(ack To*,o -ist
%eproduced courtes$ of 8Bsignals'
Homework and Practice 721
4ote that one ste(Oasking a 'ellow studentPs grandmother i' they
can use her china on the day o' the 'inalOhas already been com*
(leted and checked o''.
!s these illustrate/ using communication so'tware 'acil*
itates the organization o' grou( homework. This ty(e o' user editing
and sharing on the Web is so di''erent 'rom the (re)iously Dread*onlyE
Web that educational technologists o'ten re'er to these tools as DWeb
7.2.E Here are some other Web resources that o''er similar ser)ices9
6 @oogle ,ocs
@oogle ,ocs works much like Writeboard but has a Microso't WordI
like inter'ace that will be 'amiliar to users.
6 Aour,ra't
Aour,ra't has a )ery sim(le inter'ace/ sometimes re'erred to as
DWA$WA@E B(ronounced Dwizee wigEC/ which stands 'or DWhat Aou
$ee s What Aou @et.E Windows Microso't Word users will instantly
recognize the inter'ace. Aou can insert a (icture or e)en a %lash com*
(onent. There is no sign*inK you are sim(ly gi)en two )ersions o' a
Web address that contains your document. The 'irst is a read*only
)ersion/ and the second can be edited by you or anyone with whom
you share the UR-. +urrently/ Aour,ra't does not include a Track
+hanges 'eature.
6 &ot$(ot
&ot$(ot allows users to simultaneously edit documents. The inter*'ace
is clean and easy to use. n)ited users can drag (aragra(hs to di'*
'erent areas o' the document and edit te.t. %ormatting o(tions are
)ery basic/ and currently there is no method 'or kee(ing track o'
changes/ although this might change gi)en the sitePs recent acQuisi*
tion by @oogle. This resource is ideal 'or li)e/ collaborati)e note
@E4ER!T4@ !4,
lthough we most o'ten think about generating and testing h$pothe.
ses in the conte.t o' science conce(ts/ this strategy is a((licable to all
content areas. When students generate and test hy(otheses/
they are engaging in com(le. mental (rocesses/ a((lying content
knowledge like 'acts and )ocabulary/ and enhancing their o)erall
understanding o' the content.
McRE-Ps research on generating and testing hy(otheses su((orts
the 'ollowing generalizations9
1. The generating and testing o' hy(otheses can be a((roached
in an inducti)e or deducti)e manner.
7. Teachers should ask students to clearly e.(lain their hy(oth*
eses and their conclusions.
5ased on these 'indings/ we ha)e two recommendations 'or class*
room (ractice9
@enerating and Testing Hy(otheses 723
1. Make sure students can e.(lain their hy(otheses and
7. Use a )ariety o' structured tasks to guide students through
generating and testing hy(otheses.
The si. tasks that teachers can use to hel( students generate and
test hy(otheses are B1C systems analysis/ B7C (roblem sol)ing/ B3C his*
torical in)estigation/ B8C in)ention/ B<C e.(erimental inQuiry/ and
B=C decision making.
1. n a s$ste"s anal$sis0 students study the (arts o' a system/
such as the ecosystem/ and make (redictions about what would
change i' one or more (arts/ such as a certain s(ecies o' animal/ were
altered or remo)ed.
7. When students proble" solve0 they look at )arious solutions
gi)en the obstacles and restraints (osed by the (roblem.
3. n a historical investigation0 students construct hy(otheses
about historical e)ents 'or which there is no agreed*u(on resolution.
8. $tudents in)ol)ed in invention e.amine a need/ then work to
create a solution to the need.
<. Experi"ental inCuir$ o'ten ha((ens naturally when students
obser)e a (henomenon/ make an in'ormed hy(othesis about why or
how that e)ent ha((ened/ and set u( an e.(eriment to test their
=. %inally/ when students are in)ol)ed in decision "aking0 they
de'ine criteria and a((ly weight to the )arious criteria to decide which
choice makes the most sense.
Technology can (lay a )ital role in generating and testing hy(oth*
eses because new de)elo(ments in (robeware and interacti)e
a((lets allow students to s(end more time interpreting the data rather
than gathering the dataOa (rocess that can be tedious and error
(rone. n this section/ we show how the 'ollowing technologies
signi'icantly enhance the classroom (ractice o' generating and test*
ing hy(otheses9 spreadsheet soft)are0 data collection tools0 and ,eb
resources' 4ote that within each o' these we (resent/ the
teacher is em(loying one o' the si. (rocesses associated with
728 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
generating and testing hy(otheses. When teachers )ary the (ro*
cesses in their classrooms/ they are 'ollowing the classroom recom*
mendation that their students be engaged in di''erent ty(es o'
hy(othesis generation.
S-readsheet Soft8are
!lthough the (rimary so'tware 'or s(readsheets is Microso't E.cel/
online collaborati)e s(readsheet so'tware (rograms such as @oogle
$(readsheets and wiki+alc are becoming more widely used. Using
s(readsheets to generate and test hy(otheses is already common in
science class/ with students making in'ormed (redictions/ collecting
data/ analyzing the data 'or (atterns/ and re)ising their original
hy(othesis or coming u( with a new one. 5ut what about s(readsheet
uses in other subFectsR
E)en though setting u( a s(readsheet is worthy technology skill
'or students to learn/ content*area teachers donPt want to use class
time teaching students how to create s(readsheetsK they want to use
s(readsheets to hel( students learn the content. -etPs look at an o' a teacher*created interacti)e s(readsheet that achie)es
this (ur(ose. We should note that by calling the s(readsheet interac.
tive0 we mean that the students will be able to mani(ulate it/ consider
gra(hical (atterns/ and test their (redictions by recei)ing Quick 'eed*
back on multi(le scenarios. To hel( students meet the districtPs eco*
nomics benchmark in the social studies standards/ Mrs. #mar sets a
learning obFecti)e 'or her <th grade class to understand sa)ings/
in)estments/ and interest rates. Her goal is not to teach students
about the mathematics or gra(hing skills in)ol)edK those are second*
ary learning outcomes in her subFect. nstead/ she wants students to
learn that com(ounding interest and sa)ing money can lead to strong
earnings o)er time. -ater/ she will ha)e her students a((ly this new
knowledge to an understanding o' how sa)ings and in)estments a''ect
the nationPs economy.
With her goal set/ Mrs. #mar designs an interacti)e s(readsheet
that will show students the results o' sa)ings and in)estment o(tions.
$he gi)es her students a scenario in which they ha)e inher*ited
X12/222 'rom a long*lost relati)e. $he assigns students to small
grou(s to discuss what they would do with the money and e.(lains
@enerating and Testing Hy(otheses 72<
three (lans they should consider 'or making money 'rom an
1. $(end X;/222 o' the money right away but sa)e the remaining X1/222 in
a ty(ical sa)ings account that earns 8 (ercent annual interest. ,e(osit
another X1/222 o' your own money into the account each year 'or 32
years. Make a (rediction o' how much money you would earn on your
total in)estment o' X32/222 o)er 32 years.
7. n)est the whole X12/222 in a Dsa'eE 'und 'rom $tandard T PoorPs <22
mutual 'und inde. that earns an a)erage o' : (ercent (er year. 4o 'ur*
ther in)estments are made/ but no money can be taken out o' the
account 'or 32 years. Make a (rediction o' how much money you would
earn on your one time in)estment o' X12/222 a'ter 32 years.
3. n)est in a more un(redictable (ort'olio o' di)ersi'ied stocks 'rom the ,ow
&ones ndustrial !)erage/ which has historically earned an a)erage o' 17
(ercent (er year. Make a (rediction o' how much money you would earn
on your one time in)estment o' X12/222 a'ter 32 years.
!'ter students ha)e re)iewed the three (lans/ Mrs. #mar distrib*
utes a la(to( com(uter to each small grou(. $he asks them to locate
their class 'older on the schoolPs network dri)e and o(en the s(read*
sheet document that she has created and sa)ed 'or this acti)ity. When
the students o(en the document/ they see a tem(late that looks like
%igure 11.1.
(igure 11.1
nteracti)e $a)ings and n)estment $(readsheet
+reated in Microso't E.cel
72= Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
5e'ore the students begin mani(ulating data/ Mrs. #mar gi)es them a
brie' e.(lanation o' in)estment risk and (rom(ts them to dis*cuss the
(lan o(tions in their grou(s and 'ill in their (redictions 'or all three (lans/
regardless o' which (lan they 'a)or. Then she asks each student to
choose a (lan and Quickly takes a )isual (oll o' the classPs (re'erences
'or later com(arison. 4e.t she tells them to 'ill in the amounts in the Aear
2 row. They can choose the scenario )alues o' X1/222/ X12/222/ and
X12/222 'or Plans !/ 5/ and +/ or they can make u( their own amounts.
5ecause the s(readsheet is interacti)e/ any )alue will (roduce results to
com(are to studentsP initial (redictions. !ll they ha)e to do is (ut numbers
in the 'irst row. The interacti)e 'ormu*lation o' the s(readsheet does the
rest/ 'illing in the table and ma(*(ing data on a chart/ as shown in %igures
11.7 and 11.3.
(igure 11.'
nteracti)e $a)ings and n)estment $(readsheet9 ProFections
@enerating and Testing Hy(otheses 72"
Using the teacher*created interacti)e s(readsheet/ students can
com(are their (redictions to actual results without s(ending lots o'
)aluable time doing calculations or designing s(readsheets. They can
enter many di''erent monetary amounts and see the results in an
instant. This hel(s them see (atterns/ such as e.(onential growth. !
mathematics teacher might decide to use the same lesson to 'ocus on
the com(ounding (ercentage calculations and e.(onential (atterns. n
either case/ the teacher is using technology to ma.imize instruc*tional
time and meet learning obFecti)es. This s(readsheet acti)ity allows
students to gain a dee(er understanding o' in)estment basics and
reQuires them to use their critical thinking skills to (redict out*comes.
$tudents generate and test hy(otheses in )ery little time and gain
)aluable e.(erience that they can a((ly to 'uture economic
hy(otheses. When Mrs. #mar asks her students to (resent their 'ind*
ings/ she is 'ollowing the classroom recommendation o' ensuring that
students can articulate their hy(otheses.
(igure 11.%
nteracti)e $a)ings and n)estment +hart9 ProFections
How did Mrs. #mar create her interacti)e s(readsheetR $he
began by testing her own hy(otheses to see what scenarios would
work best. Then she (ut multi(le 'ormulas in the cells at the fx (rom(t
that would calculate the di''erent interest rates and totals/ as seen in
%igure 11.8.
$he did not ha)e to (rogram a 'ormula into each cell through row 37.
#nce she had (rogrammed the 'irst cells B5</ +</ and ,<C she Fust
72: Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
(igure 11.*
nteracti)e $a)ings and n)estment $(readsheet $tage 19
+ell %ormula Programming 'or +om(ounding nterest
highlighted the cellPs 'ormula by (lacing her mouse at the bottom right
corner o' the cell and dragging to highlight the column down to cell 37/
as shown in %igure 11.<. This co(ies the 'ormula 'ormat in all the cells
with the correct column and row designation.
4e.t/ she entered 'ormulas Be.g./ fxZB538W2/ 538*32222/ DX2EC to
show how much was earned on the total in)estments by taking the
total earned in row 38 and subtracting the in)ested money Beither
X32/222 or X12/222C 'or each o' the three (lans Bsee %igure 11.=C.
@enerating and Testing Hy(otheses 72;
(igure 11.5
nteracti)e $a)ings and n)estment $(readsheet $tage 79
+ell %ormula +o(y Programming 'or +om(ounding nterest
(igure 11.5
nteracti)e $a)ings and n)estment $(readsheet $tage 39
+ell %ormula Programming 'or Totals Earned
712 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
%inally/ she inserted some numbers and created a line*gra(h
chart. Then she highlighted the numbers and chart when students
entered amounts in the 'irst row. Mrs. #mar does allow her students
to sa)e their own s(readsheets 'rom the tem(late and add any color
schemes they like. %or more in'ormation on how to 'ormulate cells
and create tem(lates/ go to htt(9??o''ice.microso' and 'ollow
the sitePs Hel( and How*to links.
Data Collection 6ools
+ollecting data usually answers some Questions and generates new
ones. Ty(ically/ students research a (roblem/ 'orm a hy(othesis/ and
collect data to con'irm/ deny/ or re)ise their last hy(othesis. This cycle
o' inQuiry can be re(eated many times. Using data collection tools
enables students to see the bigger (icture and recognize (at*terns. !s
we noted in +ha(ter <Ps 'ocus on nonlinguistic re(resenta*tion/ digital
(robes and microsco(es 'acilitate analysis/ synthesis/ and (roblem
sol)ing. 5y and large/ science teachers are the most likely to use
(robes and digital microsco(es/ but resource'ul teach*ers in all
subFects can incor(orate these tools in ways that will enhance the
curriculum. %or art students could use a light intensity (robe
to e.amine the inter(lay o' light and color in great works o' art/ and
history students could use a digital microsco(e to record detailed
images 'rom an archeological and gain 'urther insight into
an ancient culture.
4ow letPs look more closely at what we mean when we say that a
data collection tool can enhance learning. Mrs. $chwartzPs middle
school science class has heard rumors that their community gets acid
rain'all. s this trueR $tudents would like to know. The class decides to
research acid rain as (art o' their studies in chemical reac*tions and
meteorology. They 'ind that Dacid rainE is acidic rain/ snow/ 'og/ and
dew. ,istilled water has a neutral (H o' ". -iQuids with a (H less than
" are acidic/ and those with a (H greater than " are basic. D+leanE or
un(olluted rain has a moderately acidic (H o' <.=/ because carbon
dio.ide and water in the air react together to 'orm carbonic acid that
combines with the moisture in the air. 5ased on these 'acts/ the
students decide to 'ind out i' their rain is more acidic than normal and
'ocus on what this might mean 'or their local en)ironment.
@enerating and Testing Hy(otheses 711
Mrs. $chwartz hel(s her students de)ise a (lan to use a U$5
connectable data (robe to collect (H readings 'rom )arious water
sources in the community to com(are with the <.= (H o' normal rain
water. 5e'ore they begin collecting data/ students (redict the (H o' the
)arious sources. %igure 11." shows their (redictions.
(igure 11.#
,igital Probe !cti)ity9 Water (H Predictions
!'ter collecting data with a digital (H (robe 'rom the )arious sam*
(les/ students Quickly create a chart like the one in %igure 11.:. When
they com(are the data to their (redictions/ students are sur(rised 'ind
that the (H o' their rain is e)en more acidic than (redicted. They also
are (uzzled by the di''erences among their )arious water sources. %or
instance/ why was the (ond water so much more acidic than the ri)er
waterR !nd what does this mean 'or the li'e that de(ends on these
watersR The data collection tool allows Mrs. $chwartzPs class to
gather and gra(h data Quickly and accurately/ lea)ing more time 'or
analysis and synthesis. Their 'indings lead to 'urther hy(otheses and
more inQuiry.
,ata collection tools are not always (robes. The nternet is a huge
data collection tool. To e.(and their inQuiry to a larger scale/ Mrs.
$chwartzPs students could share and com(are their data online
through collaborati)e (roFect Web sites such as the @lobal $chool*
house Bwww.globalschoolnet.orgC or the +ollaboratory ProFect
Bhtt(9??collaboratory.nunet.netC. $haring and com(aring data 'rom
717 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
other localities gi)es students enough in'ormation to generate and test
hy(otheses concerning the nation and other (arts o' the world.
(igure 11.4
,igital Probe !cti)ity9 Water (H +om(arison +hart
!s a side note/ this (er'ectly illustrations how technologi*
cal a((lications hel( teachers to combine the instructional strategies
that a''ect student achie)ement. How many o' the nine instructional
strategies does this acti)ity 'eatureR 5y our count/ at least 'our9
1. denti'ying similarities and di''erences/ when students com*(are
their data.
7. 4onlinguistic re(resentation/ when students (resent these data
as a gra(h.
3. @enerating and testing hy(otheses/ when students (redict the
(H le)els o' water sam(les based on sam(le source and the (ro.imity
o' industry.
8. Using Questions/ cues/ and ad)ance organizers/ when the stu*
dents and teacher discuss what (H is and why itPs im(ortant to know
the (H le)els o' the water they use.
Web +esources
Web resources and gaming so'tware/ in the 'orm o' interacti)e a((lets
and simulations/ allow students to use background knowl*edge/ make
decisions/ and see the outcome o' their hy(otheses/ o'ten
@enerating and Testing Hy(otheses 713
in )irtual situations that would be im(ossible or 'inancially un'easi*ble
in real li'e. $imulation so'tware also can (ro)ide incredibly engag*ing
learning en)ironments/ resulting in increased moti)ation and retention
in learning.
+onsider the o' ,a)e Mc,i)itt/ a high school history
teacher at #ak Hill High $chool in +on)erse/ ndiana/ who decided to
use a historically accurate World War multi(layer strategy game to
hel( his students better understand the (olitical and economic causes
and conditions that led to the war. Muzzy -anePs Making His*tory9 The
+alm and the $torm Bsee %igure 11.;C is a)ailable at www. making* and includes 'eatures s(eci'ically designed to 'acilitate
classroom use.
(igure 11.&
$creen $hot o' Making History Multi(layer $trategy @ame
%eproduced courtes$ of Mu(($ #ane Soft)are +nc'
Each student takes on the role o' a country leader and makes (ol*
icy decisions about di(lomacy/ economics/ domestic matters/ and
military actions to achie)e that countryPs goals. !ctually/ ,a)e Mc,i)itt
set u( an e.(eriment9 using the game in one class and
718 Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
teaching another class the same material using more traditional
methods. Those students using the simulation so'tware not only
recorded higher test scores but alsoOand (erha(s more im(or*tantO
showed o)erwhelming enthusiasm while learning the material.
D-eadersE o' the di''erent countries were o)erheard in hallways and
between classes strategizing and (lanning.
Aou can read about Mr. Mc,i)ittPs e.(eriences on $erious @amers
$ource Bhtt(9??'eatures?'eatureY2<1=2=.(h(C
and on his blog at htt(9??da)idmcdi)itt.word( His blog includes
student Quotes on the e.(erience/ data 'rom test scores/ and his own
(ers(ecti)e as the teacher. Aou can also read more in Muzzy -anePs May
;/ 722=/ (ress release at detail.(h(RidZ";.
n the list o' resources that 'ollows/ we also include a 'ew so'tware
a((lications that can be ordered online.
6 $mog +ity
This resource engages students in a systems analysis by allowing
them to set (arameters 'or weather/ (o(ulation/ and emissions/ and
then showing them the )ariable e''ects on a cityPs ozone le)els.
6 4!$! $+ence %iles Problem 5oard
This resource 'rom 4!$! has a rich in'rastructure to guide teachers
and students through (roblem*sol)ing acti)ities. #lder (roblem boards
are te.t*based/ while newer ones ha)e %lash com(onents/ but both
ha)e e.cellent acti)ities. $tudents sol)e DcasesE while learning critical
thinking and (roblem*sol)ing skills. ncluded are resources to hel(
teachers directly instruct the (roblem*sol)ing (rocess as stu*dents
sol)e the mystery.
6 4#0! 5uilding 5ig
This resource hel(s students learn about bridges/ domes/ skyscra(*
ers/ dams/ and tunnels. n each acti)ity/ students a((ly what they
ha)e learned to sol)e (roblems related to a 'ictional cityPs needs by
deciding which structure is best 'or each situation.
@enerating and Testing Hy(otheses 71<
6 Plimoth PlantationPs Aou !re the Historian
This )ery in*de(th historical in)estigation hel(s students use (ri*mary
sources in order to distinguish 'act 'rom lore about the 'irst
Thanksgi)ing. $tudents acti)ely in)estigate remaining sources that 'rom 1=71 in order to make hy(otheses about what actually
6 Primary!ccess
Aou can incor(orate this resource into a historical inQuiry to hel(
students use (rimary*source images to create mo)ies about a histori*
cal e)ent. $imilar to other mo)ie*editing so'tware/ Primary!ccess
sca''olds the storytelling (rocess 'or students.
6 5y Kids 'or Kids9 How to n)ent
This Web site introduces children to the in)ention (rocess/ including
thinking about how to sol)e (roblems and 'inding out i' someone else
has already had the same idea.
6 n)ention Web Resources
This site is a )ast collection o' in)ention resources including Web*
Huests and )arious historical links about in)entions.
6 ,arwin Pond
,arwin Pond is an e.(erimental inQuiry game that allows students to
create and e)ol)e DswimmersE by tweaking such characteristics as
their color/ s(eed o' swimming/ and number o' Foints in legs. #nce the
swimmers are created/ the student can watch to see what ha((ens or
continue to modi'y the en)ironment and make (redictions about the
e''ect the changes will ha)e.
6 Practicing with the +ata(ult
71= Which $trategies Will Hel( $tudents Practice/ Re)iew/ and !((ly -earningR
This e.(erimental inQuiry game allows students to adFust a cata(ultPs
height/ (roFectile )elocity/ launch angle/ and other 'actors. The stu*
dent must (redict how the )ariables will a''ect the cata(ultPs ability to
land a hit on a building.
6 Voo Matchmaker
This resource 'rom the Minnesota Voo hel(s students learn about the
decisions that zookee(ers need to make in order to control diseases
while kee(ing the genetic (ool di)erse.
6 WindwardU
This game hel(s students learn about weather and wind (atterns
across the worldPs oceans and then asks them to use that knowledge
to na)igate a shi( around the world.
6 Hurricane $trikeU
This simulation 'rom the Uni)ersity +or(oration 'or !tmos(heric
Research in 5oulder/ +olorado/ takes students through tutorials about
hurricanes and hel(s them a((ly what theyP)e learned to make
decisions as a hurricane a((roaches.
6 E.(lore-earning
Using the interacti)e mani(ulati)es known as gizmos/ students can
generate and test hy(otheses on a number o' subFects9 the genetic
makeu( o' mice/ balancing chemical eQuations/ com(aring and order*
ing 'ractions/ and estimating (o(ulation sizes/ to name Fust a 'ew.
Planning for 6echnology
sing technology 'or technologyPs sake isnPt a good a((lication o'
instructional time or 'unding/ and it is unlikely to im(ro)e stu*dent
achie)ement. t is essential that teachers design a Quality lesson (lan
'irst and then select the most a((ro(riate technologies to su(*
(ort that lesson.
6he (our Planning 1uestions
n the ntroduction/ we discussed the 'our (lanning Questions 'or
1. What will students learnR
7. Which strategies will (ro)ide e)idence o' student learningR
3. Which strategies will hel( students acQuire and integrate
8. Which strategies will hel( students (ractice/ re)iew/ and a((ly
Aour lesson design should al)a$s begin here.
71: !((endi.
What Will Students Learn?
To answer Huestion 1/ you must look to your state standards and
district*le)el benchmarks or indicators. Which content standards and
indicators are you going to address with this lessonR !'ter 'ind*ing
your answer/ determine the technology standards and indicators that
com(lement the content standards. $ome districts ha)e s(eci'ic/ sel'*
de)elo(ed technology standards/ but most districts use stan*dards
aligned with the 4ational Educational Technology $tandards 'or
$tudents B4ET$*$C/ de)elo(ed by the nternational $ociety 'or
Technology in Education B$TEC. The com(lete 4ET$*$ document is
online at htt(9??*netss.html. n
addition to the student technology standards/ $TE and 4+RE- de)el*
o(ed an achie)ement rubric 'or the 4ET$*$ standards. This docu*
ment is online at*17rubric.(d'.
The (rimary instructional strategy identi'ied 'or the 'irst (lanning
Question is setting objectives' !s the teacher/ your task is to think
about how you will determine and acti)ate your studentsP (rior
knowledge. How will students (ersonalize their learning goalsR !re
you going to create an online sur)eyR ,o you need to reser)e a com*
(uter lab or mobile cartR
Which Strategies Will Pro"ide $"idence
of Student Learning?
4ow that you ha)e selected your content standards and benchmarks
and ha)e identi'ied the technology standard or standards you are
going to address/ it is time to consider the teaching strategies that will
let you know that your students ha)e mastered or are mastering the
content. The instructional strategies most rele)ant to this Ques*tion
are providing feedback and providing recognition'
!t this (oint in the (lanning (rocess/ it is im(ortant to determine
how your students will demonstrate their learning. The way students
will demonstrate learning shouldnPt be an a'terthoughtK it should dri)e
the lesson design. %or i' you ha)e determined that stu*dents
will be doing a (resentation on a to(ic/ what will the rubric 'or the
(resentation look likeR Will the (resentation be a three* or 'our*(erson
coo(erati)e (roFect/ (air work/ or indi)idual workR Will it in)ol)e a
PowerPoint (resentation or a student*created )ideoR s there an
online WebHuest that meets your learning goalsR !nswers to
Planning 'or Technology 71;
these Questions begin to sha(e the lesson and hel( you select the
right technologies to su((ort the lesson.
Which Strategies Will ,el- Students
.c/uire and Integrate Learning?
The teaching strategies most rele)ant to Huestion 3 are cues0 Cues.
tions0 and advance organi(ers; nonlinguistic representation;
su""ari(.ing and note taking0 cooperative learning; and reinforcing
effort' tPs at this stage o' the (lanning (rocess that many teachers 'ind
technology most (ower'ul. What will your ad)ance organizer look likeR
What summary 'rame or 'rames will be most a((ro(riateR !re you
going to use a combination notes tem(lateR How can you use
technology to rein'orce your studentsP e''ortR What Web resources are
most a((ro*(riate to hel( students acQuire knowledgeR !re there
)ideos on United $treaming that you should download in ad)anceR
!re there any E.(lore-earning gizmos you might useR ,o you want to
book*mark sites on indi)idual com(uters or set u( a site on
the Web to organize and share your bookmarksR
!lso note that it is during this (hase in the (lanning (rocess that
the (ower o' using technology to di''erentiate instruction is most e)i*
dent. Teachers di''erentiate instruction by modi'ying the de(th or
com(le.ity o' content/ the (rocesses by which students learn/ the
content itsel'/ and the (roducts students are e.(ected to create/
based on considerations o' learning styles/ interests/ and skill le)els
BTomlinson T Eidson/ 7223C. ! teacher who incor(orates technology
greatly e.(ands the (ool o' resources/ means o' instructional (resen*
tation and su((ort/ and modes o' (roduct creation a)ailable to stu*
dents/ and is thus better eQui((ed to meet )arying student needs' %or )isual learners and aural learners might be more engaged
by a 5rainPo( mo)ie on balancing algebraic eQuations/ while
kinesthetic learners might connect better to the same in'orma*tion by
DhandlingE )irtual mani(ulati)es at the 4ational -ibrary o' 0irtual
Mani(ulati)es. $tudents in both grou(s might watch or listen Fust once
be'ore going on to e.(lore the content at a more so(histi*cated le)el
with the hel( o' an E.(lore-earning gizmo/ or they might watch or
listen multi(le times. They might re(lay the entire mo)ie or sound 'ile
or Fust certain segments.
772 !((endi.
Which Strategies Will ,el- Students
Practice0 +e"ie80 and .--ly Learning?
The strategies identi'ied under Huestion 8 are ho"e)ork and prac.
tice0 identif$ing si"ilarities and differences0 and generating and
testing h$potheses' Remember that (ractice should be 'ocused and
that stu*dents need to (ractice a new skill 78 times on a)erage to
reach :2*(ercent mastery. What are the multi(le ways you are going
to (ro)ide 'or students to (ractice a new skillR !re there Web sites
students can access 'rom home that will hel( with (racticeR s it
a((ro(riate in this lesson to use ns(iration to com(are and contrastR
+an students cre*ate analogies to dee(en their understanding o' the
to(icR !re there simulations a)ailable online to allow students to
generate and test hy(otheses about the to(icR
. 6em-late for Lesson
Planning 8ith 6echnology
To hel( teachers (lan 'or technology e''ecti)ely/ we ha)e de)elo(ed
the McRE- Technology $olutions BMT$C -esson Plan Tem(late/
shown in %igure !.1.
+om(lete the MT$ -esson Plan Tem(late as you address the 'our
(lanning Questions. The answer to O,hat kno)ledge )ill students learn1P
(ro)ides the brie' lesson descri(tion/ district content stan*
dard?benchmark addressed/ and 4ET$*$ standard addressed. The
answer to O,hich strategies )ill provide evidence that students have
learned that kno)ledge1P should go in the assessment method bo.. The
answers to the third and 'ourth Questions/ O,hich strategies )ill help
students acCuire and integrate the kno)ledge1P and O,hich strate.gies
)ill help students practice0 revie)0 and appl$ the kno)ledge1P go in both
the technology resources needed and (rocedure
&e'' ,a)idson/ a "th grade teacher/ used combination notes to
teach mitosis in his science class. %igure !.7 is his com(leted MT$
-esson Plan 'or that unit. The lesson culminated with an assignment
'or students to create their own combination notes*style PowerPoint
(resentation on the to(ic9 a slide 'eaturing at least 'i)e 'acts/ two
downloaded (ictures/ a )oice recording e.(laining one o' the (ic*
tures/ a mo)ie or animation/ and a two*sentence written summary.
Planning 'or Technology 771
(igure ..1
McRE- Technology $olutions BMT$C -esson Plan Tem(late
$ubFect area9
@rade le)el9
-esson title9
>rief lesson descri-tion
District content standard?benchmar) addressed
3$6S-S technology standard addressed
6echnology resources needed Ahard8are and soft8areB
.ssessment method
777 !((endi.
(igure ..'
-esson Plan +reated with the MT$ -esson Plan Tem(late
4ame9 &e'' ,a)idson
$ubFect area9 -i'e $cience
@rade le)el9 "th grade
-esson title9 Mitosis +ombination 4otes
>rief lesson descri-tion
The students use their te.tbook/ the nternet/ outside resources/ and notes to get background knowledge about the (ro*
cess o' mitosis. The students then use PowerPoint to (resent this in'ormation in multimedia 'ormat Busing mo)ie cli(s/
animations/ sounds/ )oice/ and (icturesC. Each student (resents his or her PowerPoint (anels to the class.
District content standard?benchmar) addressed
1. BcC Use a((ro(riate tools/ mathematics/ technology/ and techniQues to gather/ analyze/ and inter(ret data.
7.BbC +onduct research.
BeC Possess technical skills9 Read?write?(resent. Use technology BPowerPoint/ nternet/ search toolsC.
8.Understand that the cell is the basic unit o' li'e.
BcCUnderstand the role o' cell di)ision/ re(roduction/ and heredity 'or all li)ing things.
BdC,i''erentiate between ase.ual and se.ual re(roduction in (lants and animals.
3$6S-S technology standard addressed
1. 5asic o(erations and conce(ts
3. Technology (roducti)ity tools
<. Technology research tools
6echnology resources needed Ahard8are and soft8areB
+om(uters with nternet access/ micro(hones/ s(eakers?head(hones
PowerPoint so'tware Bwith (re(ared tem(lateC/ multimedia so'tware BReal Player #ne/ Windows Media Player/ etc.C
ntroduction9 The students com(leted the unit on +ells and Parts o' a +ell (rior to this lesson.
They also ha)e e.(erience using combination notes.
!cti)ity9 The students use outside resources along with their notes and te.tbook to 'ind in'ormation
about mitosis and cell di)ision/ (resented in te.t/ )oice/ (ictures/ and mo)ie?animation 'orm. 4e.t/
students (lace this in'ormation/ in the 'orm o' combination notes/ in a PowerPoint (resentation.
Technology ntegration9 The students use a teacher*designed PowerPoint tem(late to (resent their in'ormation. The stu*
dents will 'ind their in'ormation using the nternet and search engines in addition to their normal resources Bbooks
and notesC. This wider range o' resources will allow each student to (resent di''erent in'ormation/ e.(osing the
class as a whole to )arious takes on the to(ic. The students will also use a micro(hone to insert recordings o'
their )oice into their PowerPoint (resentations to e.(lain (articular (ictures or 'acts. They will use head(hones to
listen to their )oices during the recording (rocess and to 'ind other sounds that will hel( e.(lain their in'ormation.
.ssessment method
$tudents will be assessed using a rubric based on a 12 (ointI< (ointI1 (oint scale. +riteria will include
B1C use o' color?'ormatting so that the slide is attracti)e and legibleK B7C Quality and com(leteness o' the content
(resented Bsee content standard?benchmarkCK B3C use o' (icture?mo)ies?animation to con)ey key (ointsK
B8C (artici(ationK B<C Quality and clarity o' the sketched out?written rough dra't.
Planning 'or Technology 773
+ights and Permissions
TodayPs technology makes it easier than e)er 'or students to co(y and
use digital content/ including co(yrighted material. B%ortunately/
teachers can use the same technology to identi'y when (lagiarism has
taken (lace by searching 'or e.act words on the Web.C t is im(or*tant
'or teachers to model and monitor adherence to co(yright laws and to
demonstrate best (ractices 'or being a (art o' Ddigital citizen*shi(.E We
encourage you to teach your students about 'air use and co(yright
laws. %or more in'ormation/ see DTechnology T -earningPs +o(yright
and %air Use @uidelines 'or Teachers/E a)ailable at www. +lick on Hot To(ics W +o(yright.
Internet Safety
Throughout this book we ad)ocate instructional use o' blogs/ wikis/ e*
mail/ instant messaging/ and other 'orms o' technologies that some
consider ina((ro(riate in a school setting. $ome o' the obFections
arise 'rom legitimate concern about student sa'ety. Aes/ there are
nternet (redators. Aes/ it is (ossible that students will go o'' to(ic
while chatting. Aes/ there are nternet sites that are ina((ro(riate 'or
kidsOand 'or most adults/ 'or that matter.
!s we see it/ schools ha)e two choices9 to ban any 'orm o' online
communication that might (resent a (otential danger/ or to teach
a((ro(riate and ethical use o' the technology. t is our o(inion that
schools should be (roacti)e rather than reacti)e in this area/ which is
why we ad)ocate the second choice. ' schools ban online technol*
ogies/ they are also banning )aluable teaching tools. n addition/
teachers lose the o((ortunity to engage students in much*needed
con)ersations about kee(ing sa'e online. These con)ersations need
to occur because students will use these technologies (ersonally/
whether schools ban them or not. The nternet e.ists outside o' the
walls o' your classroomK your students need and deser)e your guid*
ance in this area.
+hild (redators are nothing new. We teach our students at an
early age how to react i' a stranger a((roaches them on the way
home 'rom school. We teach our students about a((ro(riate and
ina((ro(riate touch. We do this because we acknowledge that there
are inherent dangers in the world/ and our children are more likely to
778 !((endi.
be sa'e i' we arm them with knowledge. The com(lication when it
comes to educating our children about the dangers inherent in the
nternet is that we adults donPt understand the online world Quite as
well as we understand walking to and 'rom school/ going to the (ark
to (lay with 'riends/ and answering the door when (arents arenPt at
home. 5ecause most o' us donPt ha)e a blog or an instant message
account/ we donPt know how they work or what (ur(ose they might
ser)e. Here are some good resources to get you started9
Blogs0 ,ikis0 Podcasts0 and 5ther Po)erful ,eb !ools for
*lass.roo"s by Will Richardson
*lassroo" Blogging- / !eacherQs Guide to the Blogosphere by
,a)id Warlick
%edefining #iterac$ for the 76st *entur$ by ,a)id Warlick
$chools can (lay a much*needed role in nternet sa'ety by (ro)id*
ing rules 'or online beha)ior and then by monitoring those acti)ities.
&ust as we teach students ne)er to gi)e out (ersonal in'ormation on
the (hone/ we should teach them that that there are some things that
are ina((ro(riate 'or them to re)eal online. &ust as we teach students
to scream and run away i' a stranger a((roaches them in the (ark/ we
should teach them to close an online chat window and re(ort ina(*
(ro(riate con)ersations to an adult. &ust as students must learn that it
is wrong to be a bully on the (layground or to (ass hurt'ul notes/ they
must learn that cyber*bullying is wrong and wonPt be tolerated. They
also need to know why and how to 'orward any ina((ro(riate
messages to the (ro(er authorities.
The set*u( o' a classroom or com(uter lab goes a long way in
hel(ing to monitor a((ro(riate and ina((ro(riate online beha)ior.
+om(uter screens should be )isible to the teacher. !rranging com*
(uter workstations in a ring against the outer walls o' a lab or class*
room with the screens 'acing the center o' the room is much more
conduci)e to monitoring than setting u( rows o' com(uters with many
o' the screens hidden 'rom the teacherPs )iew. $tudents need to know
that when they log into their com(uter/ there is an electronic record o'
their transaction that can be traced back to them/ both at school and
at home.
Planning 'or Technology 77<
%inally/ while 'iltering (rograms are generally e''ecti)e/ there will
still be ina((ro(riate sites that might make it to the screen. Teach your
students that i' they inad)ertently come to an ina((ro(riate site/ they
should click the window closed and tell an adult. ' they re(eatedly
Dinad)ertentlyE come to an ina((ro(riate site/ they will be held
accountable. This is really no di''erent 'rom a situation like mid*dle
school students bringing ina((ro(riate material to school in their
!dam/ K. P. B7221C. *o"puteri(ed scoring of essa$s for anal$tical )riting assess.
"ents- Evaluating score validit$' $eattle/ W!9 4ational +ouncil on Measure*ment
in Education. BER+ ,ocument Re(roduction $er)ice 4o. E, 8<:7;=C
!le.ander/ 5. BMarch?!(ril 722=C. Web 7.29 ! new wa)e o' inno)ation 'or teaching
and learningR Educause. Retrie)ed !(ril 7</ 722=/ 'rom htt(9??www.educause.
!nderson/ -. W./ T Krathwohl/ ,. R. BEds.C. B7221C. / taxono"$ for learning0 teach.
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based classroo" practices' ,en)er/ +#9 Mid*continent Research 'or Education
and -earning.
5lack/ $. B7221/ MayC. !sk me a Question. /"erican School Board &ournal0 6LLB<C/
5rabec/ K./ %isher/ K./ T Pitler/ H. B7228/ %ebruaryC. 5uilding better instruction9
How technology su((orts nine research*(ro)en instructional strategies.
#earning and #eading )ith !echnolog$0 86B<C/ =I11.
+holmsky/ P. B7223C. ,h$ gi("os )ork- E"pirical evidence for the instructional
effectiveness of Explore#earningQs interactive content' +harlottes)ille/ 0!9
E.(lore-earning. Retrie)ed March 1</ 722=/ 'rom htt(9??www.e.(lorelearning.
Re'erences 77"
+ochran/ ,./ +onklin/ &./ T Modin/ $. B722"/ %ebruaryC. ! new 5loom9 Trans'orming
learning. #earning and #eading )ith !echnolog$0 8NB<C/ 77I7<.
+onsortium o' +ollege and Uni)ersity Media +enters. B1;;=C. Gair 9se Guidelines
for Educational Multi"edia' Washington/ ,+9 !uthor. !)ailable9 htt(9??www.
,odge/ 5./ T March/ T. B1;;<C. ,hat is a ,ebDuest1 Retrie)ed !(ril 7=/ 722=/ 'rom
%ico/ M. B722</ &une 1C. Honoring studentPs )oices. EducatorQs eRine' Retrie)ed
March 1"/ 722=/ 'rom htt(9??!rticle. FhtmlR
%riedman/ T. -. B722<C. !he )orld is flat- / brief histor$ of the t)ent$.first centur$.
4ew Aork9 %arrar/ $traus/ and @irou..
@oodwyn/ 5. B1;;;/ &uneC. m(ro)ing teaching Quality9 ssues T (olicies MPolicy
brie'N. ,en)er/ +#9 Mid*continent Research 'or Education and -earning.
Retrie)ed !(ril 12/ 722=/ 'rom htt(9??,%?Policy5rie's?
Hal)erson/ R. B722<C. What can KI17 school leaders learn 'rom )ideo games and
gamingR +nnovate0 6B=C. Retrie)ed March 18/ 722=/ 'rom htt(9??www.
Hattie/ &. !. B1;;7C. Measuring the e''ects o' schooling. /ustralian &ournal of Educa.
tion0 8SB1C/ ;.
High schools (lug into online writing (rogram9 MA!ccessU boosts end*o'*year scores.
B7223/ 4o)ember 1C. District /d"inistrator0 8<B11C. Retrie)ed March 18/ 722=/
'rom htt(9??'mR(Z<"7
Hill/ &./ T %lynn/ K. B722=C. *lassroo" instruction that )orks )ith English language
learners. !le.andria/ 0!9 !ssociation 'or $u(er)ision and +urriculum
Hom &r./ H. -./ T Mur(hy/ M. ,. B1;:3/ 4o)emberC. -ow need achie)ersP (er'or*
mance9 The (ositi)e im(act o' a sel'*directed goal. Personalit$ and Social
Ps$cholog$ Bulletin0 660 7"<I7:<.
&ohnson/ ,. W./ &ohnson/ R. T./ T $tanne/ M. 5. B7222C. *ooperative learning "eth.ods-
/ "eta.anal$sis. Minnea(olis/ M49 Uni)ersity o' Minnesota. Retrie)ed May 8/ 722=/
'rom htt(9??*o(*methods.html
Klo('er/ E. B&uly?!ugust 722<C. Playing to learn9 $tate*o'*the*art com(uter games
go to school. /ccess #earning' Retrie)ed March 18/ 722=/ 'rom htt(9??www.*FulYaug2<
Kriz/ W./ T Eberle/ T. B7228C. Bridging the gap- !ransfor"ing kno)ledge into action
through ga"ing and si"ulation' Proceedings o' the 3<th +on'erence o' the
nternational $imulation and @aming !ssociation B$!@!C. Munich/ @ermany.
Kulik/ &. !./ T Kulik/ +. +. B1;::C. Timing o' 'eedback and )erbal learning. %evie) of
Educational %esearch0 =L0 ";I;".
-obel/ &. B722=C. Multi(layer com(uter gaming simulations 'acilitating coo(erati)e
learning. T in Education/ Trinity +ollege ,ublin. !)ailable9 htt(s9??www.cs.\lobelF?(ort'olio?literatureYre)iew?literatureYre)iewYFonathanYlobel. (d'
-ucas/ @. B722</ 4o)ember 1"C. @eorge -ucas and the new world o' learning
MPodcastN. Edutopia %adio Sho)' Retrie)ed !ugust 7:/ 722=/ 'rom htt(9??www.
77: Re'erences
Marzano/ R. &. B1;;:C. / theor$.based "eta.anal$sis of research on instruction'
!urora/ +#9 Mid*continent Research 'or Education and -earning. Retrie)ed
%ebruary "/ 722=/ 'rom htt(9??
Marzano/ R. &./ T Kendall/ &. $. B722"C. !he ne) taxono"$ of educational objectives
B7nd ed.C. Thousand #aks/ +!9 +orwin.
Marzano/ R. &./ Pickering/ ,. &./ T Pollock/ &. E. B7221C. *lassroo" instruction that
)orks- %esearch.based strategies for increasing student achieve"ent.
!*dria/ 0!9 !ssociation o' $u(er)ision and +urriculum ,e)elo(ment.
Mize/ +. ,./ T @ibbons/ !. B7222C. More than in)entory9 E''ecti)e integration o'
instructional technology to su((ort student learning in KI17 schools. BER+
,ocument Re(roduction $er)ice 4o. E, 888<=3C
Page/ M. $. B7227/ $ummerC. Technology*enriched classrooms9 E''ects on students
o' low socioeconomic status. &ournal of %esearch on !echnolog$ in Education0
8NB8C/ 3:;I82;.
Palincsar/ !. $./ T 5rown/ !. -. B1;:8C. Reci(rocal teaching o' com(rehension*
'ostering and com(rehension*monitoring acti)ities. *ognition and +nstruction0
6B7C/ 11"I1"<. !)ailable9 htt(9??www.gar'ield.library.u(;;3?
Palincsar/ !. $./ T 5rown/ !. -. B1;:<C. Reci(rocal teaching9 !cti)ities to (romote
reading with your mind. n T. -. Harris and E. &. +oo(er BEds.C/ %eading0 think.
ing0 and concept develop"ent- Strategies for the classroo"' 4ew Aork9 The +ol*
lege 5oard.
Prensky/ M. B7222C. Digital ga"e.based learning' 4ew Aork9 Mc@raw*Hill.
Ree)es/ T. B1;;:C. !he i"pact of "edia and technolog$ in schools9 %esearch
report for !he Bertels"ann Goundation' !thens/ @!9 The Uni)ersity o' @eorgia.
Retrie)ed March 32/ 722=/ 'rom htt(9??\tree)es?edit=;22?
Ringsta''/ +./ T Kelley/ -. B7227C. !he learning return on our education technolog$
invest"ent- / revie) of findings fro" research' $an %rancisco9 WestEd RTE+.
Russell/ &./ T $orge/ ,. B1;;;C. Training 'acilitators to enhance technology integra*
tion. &ournal of +nstruction Deliver$ S$ste"s0 68B8C/ =.
$chacter/ &. B1;;;C. !he i"pact of education technolog$ on student achieve"ent-
,hat the "ost current research has to sa$' $anta Monica/ +!9 Milken E.change
on Education Technology.
$chacter/ &./ T %agnano/ +. B1;;;C. ,oes com(uter technology im(ro)e student
learning and achie)ementR How/ when/ and under what conditionsR &ournal
of Educational *o"puting %esearch0 7?B8C/ 37;I383.
$chunk/ ,. H. B7223C. $el'*e''icacy 'or reading and writing9 n'luence o' modeling/
goal setting/ and sel'*e)aluation. %eading & ,riting Duarterl$0 6<0 1<;I1"7.
$edensky/ M. B722</ May <C. +om(uters now grading studentsP writing9 Essay*
grading so'tware increasingly being used on e)erything 'rom routine (a(ers to
@M!T essay. Retrie)ed %ebruary =/ 722=/ 'rom htt(9??s'*bin?
$iegle/ ,./ T %oster/ T. B7222/ !(rilC. E''ects o' la(to( com(uters with multimedia
and (resentation so'tware on student achie)ement. Pa(er (resented at the
meeting o' the !merican Education Research !ssociation B!ER!C/ 4ew
#rleans/ -!.
Re'erences 77;
$Quire/ K. B7221C. Re'raming the cultural s(ace o' com(uter and )ideo games.
Massachusetts +nstitute of !echnolog$. Retrie)ed March 18/ 722=/
'rom htt(9??*)ision.html
$urowiecki/ &. B7228C. !he )isdo" of cro)ds- ,h$ the "an$ are s"arter than the
fe) and ho) collective )isdo" shapes business0 econo"ies0 societies0 and
nations. 4ew Aork9 ,oubleday.
Tomlinson/ +. !./ T Eidson/ +. +. B7223C. Differentiation in practice- / resource guide
for differentiating curriculu"0 grades 3>=' !le.andria/ 0!9 !ssociation 'or
$u(er)ision and +urriculum ,e)elo(ment.
Tseng/ +. H. B7228/ !ugustC. Pu(ilsP using o' multimedia ad)ance organizer and
learning retention. n 0. Usko) BEd.C/ Proceedings of *o"puters and /dvanced
!echnolog$ in Education0 3auai0 2a)aii' +algary/ +anada9 !+T! Press. !rticle
a)ailable 'or (urchase at htt(9??www.acta('YProceeding.
UrQuhart/ 0./ T Mc)er/ M. B722<C. !eaching )riting in the content areas. !le.andria/
0!9 !ssociation o' $u(er)ision and +urriculum ,e)elo(mentK and !urora/ +#9
McRE-. H. +./ +onnell/ M. -./ T @ray/ &. B7227C. / Cuantitative s$nthesis of
recent research on the effects of teaching and learning )ith technolog$ on
student outco"es' 4a(er)ille/ -9 4orth +entral Regional Educational
-aboratory. !)ailable9
Wong/ H. K./ T Wong/ R. T. B1;;:C. 2o) to be an effective teacher- !he first da$s
of school. Mountain 0iew/ +!9 Harry K. Wong Publications/ nc.
+eferenced Products
!dobe Photosho(_ is a registered trademark o' !dobe $ystems ncor(orated.
!dobe Premiere` is a trademark o' !dobe $ystems ncor(orated.
!M` is a trademark o' !merica #nline/ nc. B!#-C.
!((leworks_ is a registered trademark o' !((le nc.
5ack(ack` is a trademark o' 3"signals --+.
5lackboard !cademic $uite` is a trademark o' 5lackboard_ nc.
5rain$torm 'or Windows` is a trademark o' 5rainstorm $o'tware -td.
+am('ire` is a trademark o' 3"signals --+.
+lass!ct_ is a registered trademark o' the -& @rou( -T,.
Edu@ameU` is a trademark o' Eduware ncor(orated.
E.cel_ is a registered trademark o' Microso't +or(oration.
%lash_ is a registered trademark o' !dobe $ystems ncor(orated.
%rontPage_ is a registered trademark o' Microso't +or(oration.
@arage5and` is a trademark o' !((le nc.
@mail` is a trademark o' @oogle nc.
@oogle $(readsheets` is a trademark o' @oogle nc.
@ra(hic+on)erter` is a trademark o' -emke $o'tware @M5H. Hotmail_
is a registered trademark o' Microso't +or(oration. Hy(er$tudio_ is a
registered trademark o' Knowledge !d)enture/ nc. i+hat` is a
trademark o' !((le +om(uter nc.
iMo)ie_ is a registered trademark o' !((le nc.
732 Re'erences
ns(iration_ is a registered trademark o' ns(iration $o'tware/ nc.
ns(ire,ata_ is a registered trademark o' ns(iration $o'tware/ nc.
iWeb_ is a registered trademark o' !((le nc.
&a)a_ is a registered trademark o' $un Microsystems/ nc.
Keynote_ is a registered trademark o' !((le nc.
KidPi._ $tudio ,elu.e is a registered trademark o' Ri)erdee( nteracti)e -earning
Kids(iration_ is a registered trademark o' ns(iration $o'tware/ nc. -ogger
-ite_ is a registered trademark o' 0ernier $o'tware T Technology. -ogger
Pro_ is a registered trademark o' 0ernier $o'tware T Technology. -ycos_ is
a registered trademark o' -ycos/ nc.
Microso't #''ice_ is a registered trademark o' Microso't +or(oration. Microso't
#''ice Publisher_ is a registered trademark o' Microso't +or(oration. Microso't
#''ice_ is a registered trademark o' Microso't +or(oration. Microso't 0isio_ is a
registered trademark o' Microso't +or(oration.
Microso't Word_ is a registered trademark o' Microso't +or(oration.
Microso't Word_ Macintosh_ is a registered trademark o' Microso't +or(oration.
Mo)ie Maker_ is a registered trademark o' Microso't +or(oration.
MA !ccessU` is a trademark o' 0antage -earning.
Pro$co(e` is a trademark o' 5odelin Technologies.
PowerPoint_ is a registered trademark o' Microso't +or(oration.
HuickTime Pro_ is a registered trademark o' !((le nc.
Real Player #ne` is a trademark o' Progressi)e 4etworks/ nc.
$M!RT deas` is a trademark o' $M!RT Technologies/ nc.
$martTools_ is a registered trademark o' $M!RT Technologies/ nc.
$tar#''ice +alc` is a trademark o' $un Microsystems/ nc. $tar#''ice
Writer` is a trademark o' $un Microsystems/ nc. $ur)ey Monkey_ is
a registered trademark o' $ur)
The Print $ho(_ ,elu.e is a registered trademark o' 5roderbund nc.
0isual Mind` is a trademark o' Mind Technologies.
wiki+alc` is a trademark o' ,aniel 5ricklin.
Wiki(edia_ is a registered trademark o' the Wikimedia %oundation/ nc.
Windows Media_ is a registered trademark o' Microso't +or(oration.
Writeboard` is a trademark o' 3"signals --+.
AahooU_ is a registered trademark o' AahooU nc.
4ote- %igures are indicated with an italicized f 'ollowing the (age number.
!;/ :3
achie)ement/ student
e''ect size and/ =I"
e''ort and/ 1<</ 1<=I1<;/ 1<:f0
1<;f0 1=2f0 1=3f
'eedback and/ 81
gra(hic re(resentations and/ :"
instructional strategies im(acting/
technology and/ 3
ad)ance organizers. See also cues/
Questions/ and ad)ance organizers
de'inition/ ;f0 "3
gra(hic/ "<I"=
in'ormation retention and/ :7
multimedia tools as/ :7I:</ :<f
organizing and brainstorming docu*
ments as/ ";/
:1f rubrics as/ "=I
"" ty(es o'/ "<
word (rocessing documents as/
analogies/ 1"1I1"7/ 1"1f
animation/ 12"I112/ 111f
!((leworks/ 1:
!((lying 5loomPs Ta.onomy/ "<
argumentation 'rames/ 17</ 133
D!sk an E.(ert/E 188
assessments. See also
classroom BstudentC res(onse
systemsK 'eedback
(re*assessment/ 7"I7:/ 7:f0
7;f ty(es o'/ 3;
!tomic -earning/ 18
at*risk students/ 3
audio e*mail/ ==I="
auditory learners/ ";
!usubel/ ,a)id/ "3
!uto$ummarize tool/ 173I178/ 173f
5ack(ack +hecklist/ 1;;/ 722I721/
722f 5attle@ra(h/ 1;8I1;</ 1;<f
55+ $killswise/ <7/ 1;=
benchmarks/ 1</ 71/ 71:
5E$$E !wards/ 1;3
blogs/ 38I3"/ <3I<8/ <<f0 13"/
778 5loomPs ta.onomy
multi(le*choice Questions and/ 8<
nonlinguistic re(resentation and/
o)er)iew and re)isions o'/ 3I8/ 8f
technology used with/ 8
Web sites using/ "<
bookmarking/ shared/ 1<2I1<1
5rabec/ Kathy/ 11
5rainP#P/ <7/ :</ 1;"
737 nde.
D5uilding 5etter nstructionE B5rabec/ communication so'twareO:continued;
%isher/ and PitlerC/ 11 'or homework and (ractice/
5uilding Homes o' #ur #wn/ 1<3 1;;I721/ 722f
bulletin boards/ 1=7 'or (ro)iding 'eedback/ <3I<:/ <<f
5y Kids 'or Kids9 How to n)ent/ 71< 'or (ro)iding recognition/ ==I=;
'or setting obFecti)es/ 33I3:
+! Bcom(uter*assisted instructionC/ 3 'or summarizing and note taking/
calendars/ shared/ 18;I1<2 13<I13:
+am('ire +hatroom/ 1;;I722 as technology genre/ 11
cause*e''ect (attern organizers/ ;=/ ;"f com(arisons. See similarities and
certi'icates o' recognition/ =7/ =7f0 di''erences
=<I== +om(endium o' $tandards9 +ontent
charts. See s(readsheet so'tware Knowledge BMcRE-C/ 7;I32/ 31f
+i)ilization / 1<7I1<3 com(uter*assisted instruction B+!C/ 3
classi'ication tables/ 1=;I1"1/ 1=;f0 1"2f com(uters/ <2I<1/ 1;7
*lassroo" +nstruction !hat ,orks- conce(tual (attern organizers/ ;3/ ;8f
%esearch.Based Strategies for constructi)ist classrooms/ 3
+ncreasing Student /chieve"ent contracts/ learning/ 1;I72/ 1;f
BMarzano/ Pickering/ and PollockC/ con)ersation 'rames/ 17</ 132I131
1/ =I" +ool Page/ 18;
*lassroo" +nstruction !hat ,orks Bwork* coo(erati)e learning
sho(C/ 1 collaborati)e organizing/ Web*
classroom (ractice recommendations based/ 18;I1<1
coo(erati)e learning/ 182 communication so'tware 'or/
cues/ Questions/ and ad)ance orga* 1<3I1<8
nizers/ "8I"</ "" de'inition/ ;f0 13;
e''ort/ rein'orcing/ 1<= generalizations about/ 13;
'eedback/ (ro)iding/ 81I87/ 83 grou( roles in/ 181/ 183f
homework and (ractice/ 1:: grou( structures 'or/ 182
hy(otheses/ generating and testing/ key(als and/ 18<
723 (lanning (rocess and/ 71;
nonlinguistic re(resentation/ recommendations 'or/ 182
:"I:: rubrics and/ <2/ 181/ 187f
note taking/ 172 simulation games/ multi(layer/ and/
obFecti)es/ setting/ 1"I1: 1<1I1<3
recognition/ =2/ =1 WebHuests and/ 18<I18"
similarities and di''erences/ identi'y* Web resources and/ 183I188
ing/ 1=: Web site creation and/ 18"I18;/
summarizing/ 11;I172 18:f
classroom BstudentC res(onse systems co(yright and 'air use issues/ :3/ 128/
'or (ro)iding 'eedback/ 8<I8;/ 8=f0 11</ 773
8"f0 8:f +ornell 4otes/ 138
'or (ro)iding recognition/ =2/ =1 course management system B+M$C (ro*
+lay !nimation in PowerPoint/ 11: grams/ 1<1
claymation/ 12;I112/ 111f0 11: +reati)e +ommons/ :3I:8
cli( art/ :: cues/ "3/ "". See also cues/ Questions/
+M$ Bcourse management systemC (ro* and ad)ance organizers
grams/ 1<1 cues/ Questions/ and ad)ance
+odE !wards/ 1;8 organizers
cogniti)e system/ < de'inition/ ;f0 "3
combination notes/ 178I17</ 178f0 generalizations about/ "3I"8
131I133/ 131f0 137f with multimedia tools/ :7I:</ :<f
communication so'tware organizing and brainstorming so't*
'or coo(erati)e learning/ 1<3I1<8 ware 'or/ ""I:7/ ":f0 :1f0 :7f
de'inition/ 17f (lanning (rocess using/ 71;
cues/ Questions/ and ad)ance
recommendations 'or/ "8I"<
s(readsheet so'tware 'or/ "=I""
custom gra(hics/ 77I73
+ut The Knot/ <7
,arwin Pond/ 71<
data collection tools
de'inition/ 17f
'or generating and testing hy(othe*
ses/ 712I717/ 711f0 717f
'or identi'ying similarities and di'*
'erences/1:7I1:=/ 1:<f0 1:=f
'or nonlinguistic re(resentation/
;:I123/ 122f0 127f0 1;3f
'or (ro)iding 'eedback/ 88I<2/ 8=f0
8"f0 8:f
'or (ro)iding recognition/ =2I=1
'or rein'orcing e''ort/ 1=1I1=8/
'or setting obFecti)es/ 7<I7;/ 7:f0
as technology genre/ 11
,a)idson/ &e''/ 772
decision making/ 723
de'inition 'rames/ 17</ 17=/ 17=f
descri(ti)e (attern organizers/ ;3/
,igiTales9 The !rt o' Telling ,igital
$tories/ 11:
digital microsco(es/ ;:/ 121I123/ 127f0
digital (robes
lesson using/ ;:/ 711/
717f multi(le*subFect uses o'/ ;:
o)er)iew/ ;;I121/ 122f
,isco)ery EducationPs The Parent
+hannel/ 1;8
document tem(lates/ 72
,rawing tools/ 1:/ ;</ 1=:I
1=; ,reamAard/ ="I=:/ =;
e*cards/ =<I==
E,,E !wards/ 1;3
Education Re'orm/ 138
e''ect size/ "I:/ "f0 :f0 :"/ 11</
181 e''ort/ rein'orcing
with data collection tools/ 1=1I1=8/
de'inition/ ;f generalizations
about/ 1<< (lanning
(rocesses and/ 71;
recommendations 'or/ 1<=
nde. 733
e''ort/ rein'orcingO:continued;
with s(readsheet so'tware/ 1<=I1=1/
1<"f0 1<:f0 1<;f0 1=2f0 1=1f
success and/ 1<<
enstruction/ 8<I8;/ 8=f0 8"f0 8:f
KWH- charts and/ 1;
(en (als and/ 18<
'or (ro)iding 'eedback/ <=I<"
recognition and audio/ ==I="
'or setting obFecti)es/ 3"I3:
'or sur)ey assignments / 7"
English language learners/ ::
eP!-$/ 18<
e(isode (attern organizers/ ;</ ;"f
e$chool4ews ReadersP +hoice !wards/
E$-/ ::
essential Bhigher*orderC Questions/
"8I"</ ":/ ":f
E.cel. See Microso't E.cel e.(erimental
inQuiry/ 723 E.(lore-earning/ <1I<7/ 11=I
11"/ 11=f0
1;"/ 71=
e.(ository ad)ance organizers/ "<I"=
'air use. See co(yright and 'air use issues
Gair 9se Guidelines for Educational
Mul.ti"edia/ 128
'eedback/ (ro)iding
achie)ement and/ 81
with communication so'tware/
<3I<:/ <<f
with data collection tools/ 88I<2/
8=f0 8"f0 8:f
de'inition/ ;f generalizations
about/ 81 (lanning (rocess
and/ 71: recommendations
'or/ 81I87
time sensiti)ity o'/ 87/ 88/ 1::
)ideo multimedia (roFects 'or/
with Web resources/ <2I<7
with word (rocessing a((lications/
87I88/ 83f0 88f
'iltering (rograms/ 77<
%isher/ Kim/ 11
%lashcard E.change/ 1;"I1;: %lesch*
Kincaid Readability $cale/ 83I88/
88f0 1;2
%lickr/ =8
%or the 5est !nswers/ !sk Tough
Huestions B0alenzaC/ "<
'rames. See summary 'rames
738 nde.
%riedman/ Thomas/ 13;
%rom Tri)ial Pursuit to Essential Hues*
tions and $tandards*5ased -earning
BMcKenzieC/ "<
games/ online
'or homework and (ractice/
1;8I1;</ 1;<f
'or (ro)iding 'eedback/ 87/ <2I<7
simulations/ <2I<7/ 11<I11:/
1<1I1<3/ 717I71=/ 713f
generalization (attern organizers/ ;8/
@irlsnc. Team U(/ 1<7
gizmos B)irtual mani(ulati)esC/ <1/
11<I11=/ 1;"
@lobal WRTe$ BWriters and Readers
ncor(orating Technology in $ocietyC/
="I=:/ =;
@oal Plan tem(lates Bns(irationC/
73/ 78f
goals/ setting/ 3/ 1"I1:. See also
obFec*ti)es/ setting
@oal $etting tem(lates Bns(irationC/
78/ 7<f
@oogle ,ocs and $(readsheets/
133/ 722I721/ 728
@oogle 0ideo/ :3
grading so'tware/ 8;I<2
gra(hic ad)ance organizers/ "<I"=
gra(hic image e.(ortation/ 78I7<
gra(hic organizers/ :"/ 1=:I1=;/ 1";
gra(hic re(resentations/ ;3/ 178.
See also nonlinguistic re(resentation
gra(hs/ 1:=/ 1:=f0 1;1I1;7/ 1;7f
greeting card ser)ices/ =<I==
grou(s/ =2/ 182. See also coo(erati)e
Hattie/ &ohn/ 81
High $chool #nline +ollaborati)e
Writing/ <<I<=
historical in)estigation/ 723
homework and (ractice
communication so'tware 'or/
1;;I721/ 722f
com(uters and Fudgment*'ree (rac*
tice/ <2I<1
de'inition/ ;f0 1:"
generalizations about/ 1:"/ 1::
multimedia 'or/ 1;7I1;</ 1;<f
(lanning (rocess and/ 772
recommendations 'or/ 1::
s(readsheet so'tware 'or/ 1;2I1;7/
homework and (racticeO:continued;
Web resources 'or/ 1;<I1;;
word (rocessing a((lications 'or/
Hurricane $trikeU/ 1;:/ 71=
hy(otheses/ generating and testing
with data collection tools/ 712I717/
711f0 717f
de'inition/ ;f0 727
generalizations about/ 727
(lanning (rocess and/ 772
recommendations 'or/ 723
with s(readsheet so'tware/ 728I712/
72<f/ 72=f0 72"f0 72:f0 72;f
tasks 'or/ 723
Web resources 'or/ 717I71=/ 713f
i+an %ilm %esti)al/ 11:
E++ Bntercultural E*mail +lassroom
+onnectionsC/ 18< <1/ 11=/ 1;"
M Binstant messagingC/ <3/ <"/ 1<3
'or creating ad)ance organizers/ ";/
'or identi'ying similarities and di'*
'erences using/ 1";/ 1";f0 1:2f
'or note taking/ 17:I17;/ 17;f 'or
setting obFecti)es/ 72/ 71f0 77/
'or summary 'rames/ 17<I17:/
17=f0 17:f
ns(ire,ata/ ;7
instant messaging BMC/ <3/ <"/ 1<3
nstant ProFects/ 1;:I1;;
instructional (lanning. See (lanning
instructional strategies/ o)er)iew/ =I;/
:f0 ;f0 13f. See also specific na"es of
instructional strategies
nstructor $ummary re(orts/ 8=I8"/
nteracti)e Mathematics !cti)ities/
ntercultural E*mail +lassroom +onnec*
tions BE++C/ 18<
nternational $ociety 'or Technology in
Education B$TEC/ 71:
The nternet !rchi)e/ :3
nternet sa'ety/ 773I77<
in)ention/ 723
n)ention Web Resources/ 71<
$TE Bnternational $ociety 'or Technol*
ogy in EducationC/ 71:
iWeb/ 18:
&!$#4 ProFect/ 188
&igsaw +lassroom/
1<3 &ot$(ot/ 721
Fournals/ online BblogsC/ 38I3"/ <3I<8/
<<f0 13"/ 778
Foysticks/ :"
Fudgment*'ree (ractice/ <2I<1
Kendall/ &ohn $./ 8
key(als/ 18<
Key(als +lub nternational/ 18<
'or creating ad)ance organizers/ ";
'or cues and Questions/ ":/ ":f
'or identi'ying similarities and di'*
'erences/ 1";/ 1:2I1:1/ 1:1f0
'or setting obFecti)es/ 72/ 77/
77f0 73
0ocabulary Word tem(lates/ ;3I;8/
kinesthetic learners/ ";/ :"I::/ 12;
Kitchen +hemistry/ 1;=/ 1;: 11"
knowledge domains/ <
KWH- charts and tem(lates/ 1:I1;/ 1;f0
71I77/ 77f
-andmark ProFect Rubric 5uilder/ <2
-andmark ProFect Rubric Machine/ 37
learning contracts/ 1;I72/ 1;f learning
styles/ 3/ ";/ :"I::/ ;3/ 12; lesson
(lan tem(lates/ 772I777/ 771f0
-e)er Tutorial/ 1;:
linguistic knowledge/ :=
literacy/ digital/ 128
-odick/ $arah @rabowski/ 1;8
-ogger -ite/ ;;I121
-ogger Pro0 ;;I122/ 122f0
1:=f -ucas/ @eorge/ 128
March/ Tom/ 18"
Marzano/ Robert &./ 8/ =/ :"/ 11<
Math Playground/ <1
Mc,i)itt/ ,a)e/ 713I718
McKenzie/ &amie/ "<
McRE- BMid*continent Research 'or
Education and -earningC/ research o'
com(uter*assisted instruction
B+!C/ 3
instructional strategies/ =I"/ "f0 12
note taking/ 17<
McRE-Ps +om(endium o' $tandards9
+ontent Knowledge/ 7;I32
nde. 73<
McRE- Technology $olutions BMT$C
-esson Plan Tem(late/ 772I777/
771f0 777f
mental images/ :=/ :". See also
nonlinguistic re(resentation
meta*analysis/ =/ :"/ 11< metacogniti)e
system/ < microsco(es/ digital/ ;:/
121I123/ 127f0
Microso't E.cel tem(lates com(arison
s(readsheets/ 1"3I1":/
1"3f0 1"8f0 1"<f0 1"=f0 1""f0 1":f
e''ort tracking with/ 1<=I1<:/ 1<"f0
1<:f0 1<;f0 1=2f0 1=1f
gra(hs 'or homework and (ractice/
1;1I1;7/ 1;7f
interacti)e s(readsheets/ 72<f/ 72=f0
72"f0 72:f0 72;f
Microso't #''ice Publisher/ 18:I18;
Microso't PowerPoint
'or animation (roFects/ 12;/ 11:
'or certi'icates o' recognition/ =7/
'or combination notes/ 131I133/
131f0 137f
games created with/ 1;8
in'ormation retention and/ :7 'or
(resentations/ 12<I12"/ 12:f
Microso't Word
!uto$ummarize tool/ 173I178/
,rawing tools/ 1:/ ;</ 1=:I1=;
%lesch*Kincaid Readability $cale in/
83I88/ 88f0 1;2
research ca(abilities/ 1:;
Track +hanges 'eature in/ 87I83/
83f0 171I173/ 177f0 173f
'or Web (age creation/ 1; Mid*
continent Research 'or Education
and -earning. See McRE-
moti)ation/ student/ 3/ =3/ 1<< Mouse
@enetics @izmo/ 11=I11"/ 11"f
Mousercise/ 1;:
mo)ies B)ideosC
co(yright issues and/ 128/ 11<
digital sco(es creating time*la(se/
123/ 123f
media galleries 'eaturing/ =<
(lanning and organization/ 12=
recording ti(s/ 113I118
as student*created (roFects/ :8/ 128/
subscri(tion*based resource 'eatur*
ing/ <7
'or summarizing/ 132I131
73= nde.
mo)ies B)ideosCO:continued;
su((orting instruction/ 111I117
)ideo cli(s/ :3I:8/ 127/ 127f0 113
'or animations/ 12"I112/ 111f
content vs' entertainment/ 17;I132
'or coo(erati)e learning/ 181I183/
co(yright issues and/ :3/ 128
'or cueing and Questioning/ :2/
:7I:</ :<f
de'inition/ 17f0 128
'or homework and (ractice/1;7I1;</
'or nonlinguistic re(resentation/
'or (ersonalized recognition/ =1I=7/
(lanning and organization/ 12=I12"/
'or (resentations/ 12<I12"/ 12:f
student*created (roFects using/
'or summarizing/ 132I131 as
technology genre/ 11
multisensory en)ironments/ 3
music downloads/ 128/ 11<
MA !ccessU/ 8;
narrati)e ad)ance organizers/ "<I"=/
""/ :8
narrati)e 'rames/ 17</ 13=
4!$! +oo(erati)e -earning Rubric/ 1<3
4!$! $+ence %iles Problem 5oard/ 718
4ational Educational Technology $tan*
dards 'or $tudents B4ET$*$C/ 71:
national education standards/ 7;I32
4ational -ibrary o' 0irtual
Mani(ulati)es/ 11<I11=/ 11=f0 1;=I1;"
4ational $cience ,igital -ibrary/ 188
4ational Wind Technology +enter/ 188
newsletters/ electronic?e*mail/ 3"I3:
4ew Ta.onomy o' Educational #bFec*
ti)es/ 8I<
4iles/ Rae/ <
4intendo/ :"
nonlinguistic knowledge/ :=
nonlinguistic re(resentation
animations as/ 12"I112/ 111f
co(yright issues and/ 128
data collection tools 'or/ ;:I123/
122f0 127f0 1;3f
data downloading/ :;I;1/ ;1f0 ;7f
de'inition/ ;f0 :=
generalizations about/ :=
nonlinguistic re(resentationO
instructional o'/ :8
mo)ies?)ideos as/ 111I11< with
multimedia tools/ 123I11<
organizing and brainstorming so't*
ware 'or/ ;3I;"/ ;8f0 ;<f0 ;=f0 ;"f
(lanning (rocess using/ 71;
(resentations/ multimedia/ 12<I12"/
recommendations 'or/ :"I::
simulations as/ 11<I11: s(readsheet
so'tware 'or/ :;I;7/ ;1f0
student learning e''ecti)eness with/
Web resources 'or/ 11<I11:
word (rocessing a((lications 'or/
::I:;/ :;f
4orthwest Regional Education -abora*
tory9 $cience nQuiry Model/ 37
4ote$tar/ 133
note taking
communication so'tware 'or/
de'inition/ ;f
generalizations about/ 172
multimedia and combination notes
'or/ 131I133/ 131f0 137f
organizing and brainstorming so't*
ware 'or/ 17:I17;/ 17;f
recommendations 'or/ 172
Web resources 'or/ 133I138
word (rocessing a((lications 'or/
"=/ 178I17</ 178f
4#0! 5uilding 5ig/ 718
obFecti)es/ setting
with data collection tools/ 7<I7;/
7:f0 7;f
de'inition/ ;f
generalizations about/ 1"
with organizing and brainstorming
so'tware/ 72I7</ 71f0 77f0 78f0 7<f
(lanning (hase 'or/ 1<
recommendations 'or/ 1"I1: rubrics
and/ 32I33/ 33f0 38f0 3<f Web
resources and/ 7;I33/ 31f0 33f0
38f0 3<f
with word (rocessing a((lications/
1:I72/ 1;f0 72f
organizing and brainstorming so'tware
'or cues/ Questions/ and ad)ance
organizers/ ""I:7/ ":f0 :1f0 :7f
de'inition/ 17f
organizing and brainstorming
'or nonlinguistic re(resentation/
;3I;"/ ;8f0 ;<f0 ;=f0 ;"f
'or setting obFecti)es/ 72I7</ 71f0
77f0 78f0 7<f
'or identi'ying similarities and di'*
'erences/ 1";I1:7/ 1";f0 1:2f0
1:1f0 1:7f
'or summarizing/ 17<I17:/ 17=f0
17:f as technology genre/ 11
organizing tem(lates/ 71I7</ 71f
#ur Time-ines/ 11:
(attern organizers/ ;3I;"/ ;8f0 ;<f0
;=f0 ;"f
Peanut 5utter Wiki/ <=/ 13<I13= (eer
e)aluations and recognition/ <2/
(eer teaching/ 172/ 13"
(ercentile gain/ "I:/ "f0 :f
Pickering/ ,ebra/ =
(icture galleries/ =3I=<
(ictures and (ictogra(hs/ ::I:;/ :;f.
See also nonlinguistic re(resentation
(lanning Questions
'or instructional strategies/ ;I12/
12f0 71"I772
learning a((lication/ 1=<
learning 'ocus/ 1<
learning integration/ "1
matri. with instructional strategies
and technology categories/ 13f
student learning e)idence/ 3;
Plimoth PlantationPs Aou !re the Histo*
rian/ 718I71<
(oetry com(etitions/ ="I=:
Pollcat/ 7=
Pollock/ &ane E./ =
DPowerPointlessE (resentations/ 12=
PowerPoint BMicroso'tC. See Microso't
(ractice/ ;f0 <2I<1/ 1::. See also
home*work and (ractice
Practicing with the +ata(ult/ 71< (re*
assessments/ 7"I7:/ 7:f0 7;f
(redators/ child/ 773I77<
(resentations/ multimedia/ 12<I12"/
Primary!ccess/ 71<
(rinci(le (attern organizers/ ;8/ ;<f The
Print $ho( ,elu.e/ =7 (roblem?solution
'rames/ 17</ 17"/ 17:f (roblem sol)ing/
(rocess (attern organizers/ ;=/ ;"f
nde. 73"
Pro'iler Pro/ 7=
Pro$co(es/ 121/ 127f
Questions. See also cues/ Questions/
and ad)ance organizersK (lanning
analytic/ ";
de'inition/ ;f0 "3
essential Bhigher*orderC/ "8I"</ ":/
multi(le*choice 'or classroom
res(onse systems/ 8<
'or online sur)eys/ 7=
Quizzes/ online/ <2I<7
Ra(id%ire tool/ :1/ :1f readability
statistics/ grade*le)el/
83I88/ 88f0 1;2
Reci(es8$uccess/ 18
reci(rocal teaching/ 172/ 13"
recognition/ (ro)iding
with communication so'tware/
with data collection tools/ =2I=1/
de'inition/ ;f0 <;
generalizations about/ <;I=2
with multimedia tools/ =1I=7/ =7f
(lanning (rocess and/ 71:
recommendations 'or/ =2
Web resources 'or/ =7I==
research tools/ 1:;I1;2
retention/ in'ormation/ :7/ ;3
Re)olution/ 1<7
Rochester nstitute o' Technology/ 138
Rubi$tar/ 31I37/ 33f0 111
Rubrics 'or Web -essons/ 31
rubrics Bscoring guidesC
as ad)ance organizers/ "=I""
'or coo(erati)e learning (roFects/
181/ 187f0 1<3
e''ort/ 1<<I1<:/ 1<"f
'or (ro)iding 'eedback/ <2
'or multimedia (roFects/ 12=I12"/
'or setting obFecti)es/ 7;/ 32I33/ 33f0
38f0 3<f
Russell/ &ames ,./ 3
sa'ety/ nternet/ 773I77<
sco(es/ digital/ ;:/ 121I123/ 127f0
123f scoring guides. See rubrics
scri(t writing/ 117
Searching for *hina BWebHuestC/ 18"
sel' system/ <
73: nde.
showcases/ Web/ =3I=<
similarities and di''erences/ identi'ying
content understanding and/ 1=" with
data collection tools/ 1:7I1:=/
1:<f0 1:=f
de'inition/ ;f
generalizations about/ 1="I1=:
with organizing and brainstorming
so'tware/ 1";I1:7/ 1";f0 1:2f0
1:1f0 1:7f
(lanning (rocess and/ 772
recommendations 'or/ 1=:
s(readsheet so'tware 'or/ 1"7I1":/
1"3f0 1"8f0 1"<f0 1"=f0 1""f0 1":f
with word (rocessing a((lications/
1=:I1"7/ 1=;f0 1"2f0 1"1f
simulations/ <2I<7/ 11<I11:/ 1<1I
1<3/ 717I71=/ 713f
18; $ky(e/ 1<8
slides/ 12;/ 112f
$mog +ity/ 718
so'tware recognition awards/ 1;3I1;8
$orge/ ,ennis H./ 3
sound com(onents/ 73
s(readsheet so'tware
'or creating ad)ance organizers/
de'inition/ 17f
'or generating and testing hy(othe*
ses/ 728I712/ 72<f/ 72=f0 72"f0
72:f0 72;f
'or homework and (ractice/ 1;2I
1;7/ 1;7f
'or identi'ying similarities and di'*
'erences/ 1"7I1":/ 1"3f0 1"8f0
1"<f0 1"=f0 1""f0 1":f
'or nonlinguistic re(resentation/ :;I
;7/ ;2f0 ;1f0 ;7f
'or rein'orcing e''ort/ 1<=I1=1/ 1<"f0
1<:f0 1<;f0 1=2f0 1=1f
as technology genre/ 11
online access and sources 'or/
organizing tem(lates and/ 71
(lanning and knowledge o'/ 1</ 71:
setting obFecti)es using/ 32
technology/ 1I7/ 71:
$tar'all Web site/ 1;=
$tellarium/ :8I:</ :<f0 1;:
storyboarding/ 117I113/ 113f
student*centered en)ironments/ 3
student res(onse systems. See class*
room BstudentC res(onse systems
success/ 1<</ 1<=. See also
achie)e*ment/ student
communication so'tware 'or/
generalizations about/ 11;
organizing and brainstorming so't*
ware 'or/ 17<I17:/ 17=f0 17:f
recommendations 'or/ 11;I172
rule*based/ 171I177/ 171f
Web resources 'or/ 133I138
word (rocessing a((lications 'or/
171I178/ 171f0 177f0 173f
summarizing and note taking/ ;f0 11;/
133I138/ 71;. See also note takingK
$ummary %rames BWeb siteC/ 138
summary 'rames
lesson 132I131/ 133/
13= ty(es o'/ 17<I17:/ 17=f0 17:f
$urowiecki/ &ames/ =2
$ur)ey Monkey/ 7=/ 7"/ =1/ 1=7I
1=3/ 1=3f
sur)eys/ online
'or (ro)iding recognition/ =2I=1 'or
rein'orcing e''ort/ 1=7I1=8/ 1=3f
'or setting obFecti)es/ 7<I7;/ 7:f0 7;f
$ur)i)ing E)erest/ 11"
systems analysis/ 723
Teaching 5logs/ 3=
Te!chnology Web Portal 'or Educators/
technology/ o)er)iew
coo(erati)e learning and/ 182I181
genres?categories o'/ 11/ 17f
im(lementation o'/ and bene'its/
matri./ 13f
!echnolog$ & #earningQs !wards o'
E.cellence?ReaderPs +hoice !wards/
testing/ com(uter*assisted/ 8;I<2
/ !heor$.Based Meta./nal$sis of
%esearch on +nstruction BMarzanoC/
=/ 11<
Think%ree/ 133I
138 ThinkTank/ 138
time*la(se mo)ies/ 123/ 123f time*
seQuence (attern organizers/
;8I;</ ;=f
Toon5oom !nimation/ nc./ 12;
to(ic*restriction*illustration BT*R*C
'rames/ 17</
17" T#Web/ 18;
Track +hanges tool/ 87I83/
83f0 171I173/ 177f0 173f
Tseng/ +hien*Hsun/ :7
Turnage/ Ryan/ 1;2
United $treaming/ :3
The Uni)ersity o' Wisconsin/ $tout/ 1<3
U.$. @eological $ur)ey and data down*
loading/ :;I;1/ ;1f0 ;7f
0alenza/ &oyce/ "< )andalism/
online/ <8 0antage -earning/
8;I<2 0enn diagrams/ 1=;/
1";/ 1";f
0ernier data logging so'tware/ ;;I122/
122f0 1:=f
)ideo cli(s
digital microsco(es creating/ 127/
im(orting/ 113
online resources 'or/ :3I:8
)ideo con'erencing/ <"I<:/ ="I=;
)ideos. See mo)ies B)ideosC )irtual
mani(ulati)es BgizmosC/ <1/
11<I11=/ 1;"
)isual cues/ ::. See also nonlinguistic
)isual learners/ ";/ ;3
0oice o)er P B0oPC/ 1<3
)oiceo)ers/ 113
Warlick/ ,a)id/ <2/ :;
Web logs BblogsC/ 38I3"/ <3I<"/ <<f0
13"/ 778
WebHuests/ 18<I
18" Web resources
'or coo(erati)e learning/ 183I1<3
de'inition/ 17f
'or (ro)iding 'eedback/ <2I<7
'or generating and testing hy(othe*
ses/ 717I71=/ 713f
'or homework and (ractice/
'or nonlinguistic re(resentation/
'or (ro)iding recognition/ =7I==
sa'ety and/ 773I77<
nde. 73;
Web resourcesO:continued;
'or setting obFecti)es/ 7;I33/ 31f0
33f0 38f0 3<f
'or summarizing and note taking/
as technology genre/ 11
Web sites. See also Web resources
Microso't Word documents as Web
(ages/ 1;
recognition showcases on/ =3I=<
'or rein'orcing e''ort/ 1=7 student*
created/ 18"I18;/ 18:f
Web $ur)eyor/ 7=
DWhat Aou $ee s What Aou @etE
BWA$WA@C/ 721
Wii/ :"
wikis/ <8I<=/ 13<I
13= Wikis(aces/ <=
WindwardU/ 71=
!he ,isdo" of *ro)ds B$urowieckiC/ =2
Wizards T Pigs/ 1;"
word (rocessing a((lications
'or creating ad)ance organizers/
de'inition/ 17f
'or (ro)iding 'eedback/ 87I88/ 83f0
'or homework and (ractice/
'or identi'ying similarities and di'*
'erences/ 1=:I1"7/ 1=;f0 1"2f0 1"1f
'or nonlinguistic re(resentations/
::I:;/ :;f
'or note taking/ "=/ 178I17</ 178f 'or
setting obFecti)es/ 1:I72/ 1;f0 72f 'or
summarizing/ 171I178/ 171f0
177f0 173f
as technology genre/ 11
worksho(s/ teaching/ 1
!he ,orld +s Glat B%riedmanC/ 13;
Writeboard/ 1;;/ 722f
WA$WA@ BDWhat Aou $ee s What Aou
@etEC/ 721
Aour ,ra't/ 721
Voo Matchmaker/ 71=
!bout the !uthors
Howard Pitler is the $enior
,irector o' Educational Tech*
nology 'or Mid*continent
Research 'or Education and
-earning BMcRE-C in ,en)er/
+olorado. ,r. Pitler was a high
school and middle school
teacher 'or 12 years and an
elementary and middle school
(rinci(al 'or 1< years. While
he was the (rinci(al o' -P#u)erture +om(uter Technology Magnet
Elementary in Wichita/ Kansas/ his school was named an !((le ,is*
tinguished Program/ one o' %edbookPs DTo( 122 $chool in !merica/E
and one o' P* Maga(inePs DTo( Wired $chools in !merica.E He holds
a doctorate and an educational s(ecialist degree in Educational
!dministration and a masterPs degree in Musical Per'ormance 'rom
Wichita $tate Uni)ersity/ and a bachelorPs degree in Music Education
'rom ndiana $tate Uni)ersity. ,r. Pitler was named 4ational ,istin*
guished Princi(al in 1;;" and is currently an !((le ,istinguished
!bout the !uthors 781
Elizabeth R. Hubbell is a $enior Educational Technology +onsultant at
McRE-/ where she 'acilitates worksho(s and (ro)ides consulting
ser)ices in the areas o' technology integration 'or schools and dis*
tricts across the United $tates. Ms. Hubbell has nine years o' e.(eri*
ence as a teacher/ with a background in Montessori education. $he
holds a masterPs degree in n'ormation and -earning Technologies
'rom the Uni)ersity o' +oloradoI,en)er and a bachelorPs degree in
Early +hildhood Education 'rom the Uni)ersity o' @eorgia. Ms.
Hubbell was one o' 'our national 'inalists in !echnolog$ & #earningPs
7223 Ed Tech -eader o' the Aear/ and she has ser)ed on the ad)isory
board o' P5$ Teacher$ource.
Matt Kuhn is a $enior Educational Technology +onsultant 'or McRE-.
5e'ore coming to McRE-/ he was an education (rograms manager
with the 4ational Renewable Energy -aboratory B4RE-C/ where he
educated teachers/ students/ and consumers about renewable energy
science and technology/ and recei)ed 4RE-Ps Technology Trans'er
!ward 'or #utstanding Public n'ormation. Mr. Kuhn holds a masterPs
degree in $cience Education 'rom the Uni)ersity o' ,en)er and a
bachelorPs degree in !ircra't Engineering Technology 'rom Embry*
Riddle !eronautical Uni)ersity. He has taught science in grades =I17/
has been an assistant (rinci(al/ and is listed in ,hoQs ,ho /"ong
/"ericaQs !eachers0 "th and ;th editions. 5e'ore becom*ing an
educator/ Mr. Kuhn worked as an engineer and o''icer in the U.$.
!rmy Reser)e.
Kim Malenoski is a -ead +onsultant 'or McRE-Ps Educational Technol*
ogy team. Her 'a)orite (art o' the Fob is mentoring teachers one on
one as they integrate technology in lessons. Ms. Malenoski holds a
masterPs degree in nstructional Technology 'rom 4ational Uni)ersity
at $an ,iego and a bachelorPs degree in Education with a minor in
Mathematics 'rom the Uni)ersity o' 4orthern +olorado. $he taught
elementary and middle school 'or se)en years be'ore she became a
national trainer and (roFect manager 'or an educational so'tware
com(any. $he also s(ent time with the +olorado ,e(artment o' Edu*
cation/ working with districts on technology (lanning/ grants/ and
(olicy de)elo(ment.
787 !bout the !uthors
Mid*continent Research 'or Education and -earning BMcRE-C is a
,en)er*based non(ro'it education and research organization. %or
more than 82 years/ McRE- has been dedicated to hel(ing educators
use research to im(ro)e student achie)ement.
McRE- o''ers in*de(th (ro'essional de)elo(ment in connection
with this book/ both 'ace to 'ace and online. %or more in'ormation/
(lease )isit or send an e*mail to edtech>
w w w. a s c d . o r g ? l e a r n m o r e
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Association for #upervision
and Curriculum Development
Aleandria, 1irginia 2#A
'id-continent %esearch for
Education and 3earning
Denver, Colorado 2#A
What are the best ways to incor(orate
technology into the curriculumR
What kinds o' technology will su((ort (articular learning tasks and
obFecti)esR !nd how does a teacher ensure that technology use will
enhance instruction and not be a distraction or a disconnected add*onR
AouPll 'ind the answers here.
This book builds on the landmark *lassroo" +nstruction !hat ,orks by
linking each o' the nine categories o' e''ecti)e instructional strategies with
educational technology a((lications and resources. !uthors Howard Pitler/
Elizabeth R. Hubbell/ Matt Kuhn/ and Kim Malenoski share research*based
recommendations 'or (ractice and clari'y how to use both new and 'amiliar
technologies to
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%A54HM%T 45#V drawn 'rom actual lesson (lans/ (roFects/ and (roducts. n
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P# HM5##&#H technology*enhanced lessons aligned with national standards.
Technology can bring a world o' in'ormation into the classroom and increase
teachersP ability to indi)idualize instruction and engage students.
9sing !echnolog$ )ith *lassroo" +nstruction !hat ,orks is the key you need to
seize this o((ortunity and take your e''ecti)e teaching (racticesOand
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O!hrough practical guidance and anecdotes that put the reader right in the
classroo" ' ' ' the authors consistentl$ "ake the points of )h$ and ho)
teachers should use "odern technological tools to transfor" and
energi(e their practice' Perhaps this bookQs "ost po)erful contribution to
the field is the fact that it provides such a )ide variet$ of resources and
then sho)s to )hich strategies those resources best appl$'P
ORobert &. Marzano/ author o' *lassroo" +nstruction
!hat ,orks- %esearch.Based Strategies for +ncreasing Student /chieve"ent