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Studii gemelare i de adopie n

genetica comportamentului genetica comportamentului


Conf. univ. dr. Andrei C. Miu
Laboratorul de Neurotiine Cognitive
Departamentul de Psihologie
Universitatea Babe-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca
2013
Genetica comportamentului
Studiul influenelor genetice i de mediu asupra diferenelor
interindividuale n comportament
Perspectiva behaviorist: totul se nva!
Francis Galton (1822-1911): trsturi continue, corelaie, aplicaii
sociale ale geneticii (eugenie)
Al doilea rzboi mondial i abuzurile nazitilor cu politicile eugenice Al doilea rzboi mondial i abuzurile nazitilor cu politicile eugenice
Heston (1966): schizofrenia e parial determinat genetic (contra
psihanaliz)
1953, descoperirea structurii ADN de ctre James Watson i Francis
Crick
1960, prima carte de Behavior Genetics (Fuller & Thompson)
1970, nfiinarea Behavior Genetics Association i a jurnalului
Behavior Genetics
1990-prezent, secvenierea genomului
Give me a dozen healthy
infants, well-formed, and my
own specified world to bring
them up in and Ill guarantee
to take any one at random and
train him to become any type
of specialist I might select
doctor, lawyer, artist,
merchant-chief, and yes, even merchant-chief, and yes, even
beggar-man and thief,
regardless of his talents,
penchants, tendencies,
abilities, vocations, and race of
his ancestors.
(John B. Watson,
Behaviorism, 1925)
Primul studiu gemelar
Hermann Siemens (1924): orice trstur
heritabil va fi mai concordant
(asemntoare) la gemeni identici dect la
gemeni non-identici gemeni non-identici
A corelat numrul de nevi de la gemeni
identici (0.4) i non-identici (0.2) i a comparat
corelaiile
Gemeni
Ce aflm de la gemeni?
Gemeni monozigoi (MZ) (4:1000) vs. dizigoi (DZ) (16:1000 la African-Americani;
8:1000 la europeni; 2:1000 la japonezi & chinezi)
Ex. 1: depresie (Kendler et al., 1992)
Perechi MZ1 (40%), MZ2 (50%), MZ3 (30%)
Perechi DZ1 (20%), DZ2 (30%), DZ3 (10%) Perechi DZ1 (20%), DZ2 (30%), DZ3 (10%)
_____________________________________
MZ (medie) = 40%; DZ (medie) = 20%
Heritabilitatea (h
2
): (40%-20%)*2 = 40%
Ex. 2: fumat din adolescen (Boomsma et al., 1994): MZ (medie) = 90%, DZ (medie) =
70%
Mediul comun: MZ (medie) - h
2
= 90% 40% = 50% sau DZ (medie) - h
2
/2 = 70% - 20%
= 50%
Limite ale studiilor gemelare
Medii postnatale comparabile?
Reprezentativi?
Corelaii gene mediu (dublul avantaj)
Studii de adopie
Heston (1966): incidena schizofreniei la copii
adoptai
Din 47 de copii adoptai de la mame cu
schizofrenie, 5 au avut schizofrenie i 3 au avut o schizofrenie, 5 au avut schizofrenie i 3 au avut o
alt boal mintal cronic
Din 45 de copii adoptai de la mame fr
schizofrenie, nici unul nu a avut aceast boal
Goodwin (1974): rat mai mare de alcoolism
la copii adoptai de la prini alcoolici
Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart
Bouchard et al., Science, 1990
Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart
Tellegen et al., JPSP, 1988
Psychologists have been surprised by the evidence
that being reared by the same parents in the same
physical environment does not, on average, make
siblings more alike as adults than they would have
been if reared separately in adoptive homes. been if reared separately in adoptive homes.
Bouchard et al., 1990