Sunteți pe pagina 1din 3



In my hunger after ten days of rigorous dieting I saw visions of ice cream--mountains of creamy, luscious
ice cream, dripping with gooey syrup and calories.

Pride--boundless pride--is the bane of civilization.


"We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in
the streets, we shall fight in the hills, we shall never surrender." (Winston Churchill)

"Words, words, words." (Hamlet)



"To actually see inside your ear canal--it would be fascinating, wouldn't it?"
(Letter from Sonus, a hearing-aid company, quoted in "Rhetorical Questions We'd Rather Not
Answer," The New Yorker, March 24, 2003)

"Aren't you glad you use Dial? Don't you wish everybody did?"
(1960s television advertisement for Dial soap)

"Sir, at long last, have you left no sense of decency?" (Joseph Welch, The Army-McCarthy Hearings)


"Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden,
meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty."
-- John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address

"...and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
-- Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address


Knowledge always desires increase: it is like fire, which must first be kindled by some external agent, but
which will afterwards propagate itself. --Samuel Johnson

"I don't think there's anything certainly more unseemly than the sight of a rock star in academic robes.
It's a bit like when people put their King Charles spaniels in little tartan sweats and hats. It's not natural,
and it doesn't make the dog any smarter."
-- Bono, 2004 Commencement Address at The University of Pennsylvania


In Kings I Have a Dream speech, he refers to the Gettysburg Address when he says Five score years


"Lord, what fools these mortals be!"

(William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream)

"What a grand thing, to be loved! What a grander thing still, to love!"

(Victor Hugo)


These books weigh a ton.

"Ladies and gentlemen, I've been to Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan, and I can say without hyperbole that
this is a million times worse than all of them put together."
(The Simpsons)


Saying that choosing one candidate over another means choosing the absolute end of our
freedom, happiness, money, etc.

The Three Appeals of Argument

Aristotle postulated three argumentative appeals: logical, ethical, and emotional. Strong arguments
have a balance of all of three, though logical is essential for a strong, valid argument. Appeals,
however, can also be misused, creating arguments that are not credible.


Logical appeal is the strategic use of logic, claims, and evidence to convince an audience of a certain

When used correctly, logical appeal can contain the following elements...

Stong, clear claims

Reasonable qualifiers for claims

Warrants that are valid

Clear reasons for claims

Strong evidence (facts, statistics, personal experience, expert authority, interviews,

observations, anecdotes)

Acknowledgement of the opposition


Not surprisingly, emotional appeals target the emotions of the reader to create some kind of connection
with the writer. Since humans are in many ways emotional creatures, this type can be a very powerful
strategy in argument. For this same reason, however, emotional appeal is often misused...sometimes
to intentionally mislead readers or to hide an argument that is weak in logical appeal. A lot of visual
appeal is emotional in nature (think of advertisements, with their powerful imagery, colors, fonts, and

When done well, emotional appeals...

Reinforce logical arguments

Use diction and imagery to create a bond with the reader in a human way

Appeal to idealism, beauty, humor, nostalgia, or pity (or other emotions) in a balanced way

Are presented in a fair manner


Ethical appeal is used to establish the writer as fair, open-minded, honest, and knowledgeable about
the subject matter. The writer creates a sense of him or herself as trustworthy and credible.

When used correctly, the writer is seen as...

Well-informed about the topic

Confident in his or her position

Sincere and honest

Understanding of the reader's concerns and possible objections

Humane and considerate