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Jessica Holtzman-Rich

LITR 630
Online Assignment Written Component
June 23, 2014
Introduction
The online lesson I have created for my fifth graders addresses International Reading
Association Standards (IRA), International Educational Technology Standards for Students
(NETS*S), the Kentucky Teacher Standard #6 (KTS6), and Common Core State Standards in
English Language Arts (CCSS). During a 70-minute class period, students will have an
opportunity to evaluate six different websites and discuss with their tablemates whether the
websites are opinionated, factual or neutral in content, as well as consider possible answers to
other important higher order thinking questions. In addition, students will write in both their
composition notebooks and on a shared Google document. Each component of the online lesson
is designed to help students learn and improve the necessary strategies and skills needed to
function in the 21st century and beyond.
International Reading Association Standards
The online lesson I created recognizes the fact that the face of literacy is changing and is
not limited to print text. Asking my students to evaluate six websites meets IRA Standard 1.2
which states that Candidates understand the historically shared knowledge of the profession and
changes over time in the perceptions of reading and writing development, processes, and
components. The online lesson offers a varied instructional approach in that it provides students
time to work independently, in small group settings, and with the whole class. Not only will they
be reading information online, but they will also be viewing a YouTube video and evaluating the
visuals, organization, and use of hypertext on each website, which appeals to many different
types of learning types. In these ways the lesson also meets IRA Standard 2.2, Candidates use

appropriate and varied instructional approaches, including those that develop word recognition,
language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading-writing connections. The lesson
further meets this standard because at the end of the lesson, students are to respond to the
following question in their composition notebooks: Should tigers be kept as pets? Why or why
not? When writing a response, each student is also encouraged to include some of the quotes that
their classmates gathered and posted on the shared Google document. Doing this last step
directly connects the reading to the writing and strengthens the relevancy of the lesson. By
exposing my students to the six different websites, the lesson is also meeting IRA Standard 2.3,
Candidates use a wide range of texts (e.g., narrative, expository, and poetry) from traditional
print, digital, and online resources. At the end of the lesson each student will have viewed a
range of online sitesfrom a persuasive website to an informative website to a YouTube video
that was clearly created for entertainment purposes. Finally, the lessons written component,
which asks each student to form his/her own opinion about a controversial issue based on the
information presented in the websites, helps meet IRA Standard 4.2, Candidates use a literacy
curriculum and engage in instructional practices that positively impact students' knowledge,
beliefs, and engagement with the features of diversity. Not only does the content of each website
present a different viewpoint about keeping tigers as pets, but the diverse content also serves to
build student awareness on the subject, as well as possibly influence and/or challenge each
students initial opinion and/or belief about the subject.
National Educational Technology Standards for Students
The online activity that I created requires students to work together and make decisions.
First, they must view the websites. Second, they must discuss as a group how opinionated and/or
factual each website is based on its content. Third, they must discuss the authors purpose of

each site, as well as answer a number of other related questions. Next, they must collect quotes
from each website to prove how each author (or website) is delivering opinionated, neutral, or
informative messages to its online audience. These quotes are then to be added to a shared
Google document, an easily accessible document that the students can use when completing the
last part of the lesson. In all of these ways, the following NETS*S standards are being addressed:
2a, Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others employing a variety of digital
environments and media; 3c, Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use
information from a variety of sources and media; and 4c, Collect and analyze data to identify
solutions and/or make informed decisions.
Kentucky Teacher Standard 6
My online lesson also meets KTS 6 which states the following: The teacher demonstrates
the implementation on technology and uses it to support instruction; access and manipulate
data; enhance professional growth and productivity; communicate with colleagues, parents and
the community; and conduct research. The use of the Weebly supports instruction and is being
used to achieve a number of learning objectives. Because it is online, both the lesson and the data
gathered by the students can be shared with colleagues, parents and the community. It would
even be possible to invite more people (colleagues, parents, and members of the community) to
participate in the online lesson activities, add relevant quotes on the Google document, and
complete the Polldaddy poll and survey. This additional date would not only enhance the lesson
but could be used as a great conversation starter during a follow-up lesson. More specifically, my
lesson meets KTS 6.1, Uses available technology to design and plan instruction; 6.2 Uses
available technology to implement instruction that facilitates student learning; and 6.3 Integrates
student use of available technology into instruction. My lesson invites students to use the

available technology (chrome books, websites, and Google docs) in order to hone their reading
and writing skills and broaden their literacy competencies. The websites are current, engaging,
and purposeful. The lesson also moves the teacher into the role of facilitator so that the students
and teacher can work together and enjoy a collaborative experience.
Common Core State Standards
Finally, the online lesson I have created specifically addresses Common Core State
Standards in reading, writing, and speaking and listening. The lesson asks students to evaluate
six different websites, so the following reading standard is being met: Integrate and evaluate
content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as
in words. The lesson cannot be completed without the use of the Internet and also requires
students to work together. For these reasons, the following two writing standards are being met:
(6) Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and
collaborate with others; and (8), Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital
sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while
avoiding plagiarism. Finally, the lesson asks students to discuss the websites with one another
and work together to gather quotes on a google document, which meets the following speaking
and listening standard: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and
formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
How the Lesson Connects to the Literature
My online lesson connects and is supported by the literature for many reasons. First,
research has shown that, without question, the use of information and communication
technologies (ICTs) should be incorporated into everyday practice (Carroll, 2011), and my
lesson incorporates technology. Secondly, my lesson is using technology in a purposeful and

meaningful way. When going through my online lesson, one will see that the lesson requires
students to read online websites, critically evaluate each in order to distinguish fact from opinion,
recognize bias, determine authors purpose, and discuss and communicate their answers with
their tablemates, all of which support the following 21st century online reading skills that Leu
(2011) identifies:
Online reading comprehensionconsists of a process of problem-based inquiry across
many different online information sources, requiring several recursive reading practices:
(a) reading online to identify important questions (b) reading online to locate information,
(c) reading online to critically evaluate information, (d) reading online to synthesize
information, (e) and reading online to communicate information (Leu, 2011).
Thirdly, my lesson addresses the following concern: Students are often taught to
navigate the Web and use online sources without being taught to comprehend the process of
information selection or evaluate the quality of the content presented and think metacognitively
about their seeking strategies (Kymes, 2005). One of the goals of my lesson is to teach students
how to evaluate websites which is very different from reading print text. When students read
conventional print text, they can be fairly confident that the information is more accurate than
what they find on the Web, as the publishing and editing processes of traditional print text often
incorporate more rigorous review procedures (Henry, 2006, p. 620). When reading online,
students are overloaded with finding relevant and meaningful sources and then synthesizing
often-competing points of view. Within an online reading experience, good online readers use
strategies to locate, evaluate, and synthesize recursively (Drew 2012).
Finally, my lesson stresses the importance of the research process. Rather than putting all
the emphasis on the product, my lesson focuses on one of the many steps of the research process,
Far too often, kids tend to focus on the final product. Teachers need to focus on the importance

of the research processnot the end result (Henry, 2006), which is exactly what my lesson
does.
How the Lesson Demonstrates an Understanding of the TPACK Model
Traditionally speaking, in order to be a good teacher, teachers need content knowledge
(CK) and pedagogy knowledge (PK). They must understand the content they are to teach and
must also know the best way to teach it (Davies, 2011). In the 21st century, however, CK and
PK is not enough. Technology knowledge (TK) is a crucial part of the formula. Traditionally
speaking, in order for learning to take place, there needs to be three intertwined cordsthe
teacher, the student and a medium. It is only together that they form an effective rope or learning
experience (Caroll (2011). Similarly, effective teaching in the 21st century also requires a three
cord rope, only with this rope the three intertwined cords consists of a strong and knowledgeable
integration of pedagogy, content, and technology. To be an effective teacher, it is best that these
three knowledge centerspedagogy, content, and technologynot be separated. When
designing my online lesson, my goal was to achieve a happy union of these three knowledge
centers in order to facilitate a learning experience for my students.
As far as content knowledge goes, I am in my element. I may be considered a Digital
Immigrant to my students, but I am certainly not a Literacy Immigrant. This is because, while
my students may have grown up with technology, they certainly do not have the skills that they
need to locate, analyze, synthesize and evaluate information online. In fact, todays students
typically use technology primarily for social pursuits (i.e., communication and entertainment) but
not necessarily for academic learning (Davies, 2011). It is my job to teach them these skills.
Also in regards to content, I know that students need literacy skills that include the New
Literacies that Leu and many others have referenced in their research.

Pedagogically, I know that my students need, among many other things, collaborative,
engaging and meaningful experiences, as well as lessons that will eventually lead to a gradual
release of responsibility. As a teacher, I know I need to model my instruction, differentiate my
teaching approaches, and accommodate different types of learning. When designing my online
lesson, I tried to hit on all of these pedagogically sound principles. The integration of technology
only adds to what is already a good formula, for the impact of the teachable moment is
increased when engagement and interest is high. ICT often enables the engagement of all of a
learners senses, a rich and lively environment in which to practice, learn, and master concepts
on the way to mastery (Carroll, 2011).
In addition to content and pedagogy knowledge, as a teacher I must have technology
knowledge (TK). However, this type of knowledge is more complicated because our
understanding of how technology and literacy are linked is still evolving. Essentially, it is a
moving target (Leu, 2006). In addition, technology integration in the classroom is widely
misunderstood by educators. We now know, without question, that the use of information and
communication technologies (ICTs) should be incorporated into everyday practice (Carroll,
2011). However, many teachers are using technology in their classroom (as they are mandated
to do), but they are misusing it in that they are not using the technology to accomplish learning
goals (Davies, 2011).
TPACK is acquired when teachers additionally gain technology knowledge (TK): when
they effectively and appropriately integrate technology into the learning process (Davies, 2011).
Teachers need to understand that the available technologies can advance student literacy
development, if used well and in the right way, and that it is central to learning and
languageengagement (Carroll, 2011). In my lesson, the use and integration of technology is

directly connected to my learning objectives (or targets). In addition, the learning objectives are
focused on the strategies and skills students need in order to function in the 21st century and
beyond. Therefore, I believe the lesson effectively and appropriately integrates technology into
the learning process. When combined with the content and pedagogy knowledge, my lesson
achieves an understanding of the TPACK model. My lesson also demonstrates my understanding
of the TPACK model because it is a result of the integration of specific International Reading
Association Standards and Kentucky Teacher Standard 6 (PK), the National Educational
Technology Standards for Students (TK) and the Common Core State Standards (CK).
Conclusion
My online lesson requires my students to both practice and apply literacy skills in an
online context. My lesson also uses a variety of approaches which recognizes the different types
of learners in my classroom. At the end of the two day lesson, my students will have completed
some independent and small group work; written in both their composition notebooks and on a
shared Google document; read, discussed, and selected quotes from six websites; and, as a group,
distinguished factual websites from opinionated ones and determined the purpose of each
website. Finally, my lesson uses technology to foster both collaboration and autonomy. By
embedding the lesson onto a Weebly page, there is the convenience of having all of the
information in one place making it easily accessible for the students when they are working
together as a group. After completing the survey and poll, the students can view the results and
feel that their individual opinions matter, while at the same time, feel part of a collective group.
Similarly, when adding their comments to the google doc, they can feel that they are
accomplishing something together.