Sunteți pe pagina 1din 6

8QLWj

,//$9252


6RQR /XLJL%DUGLKRRWWRDQQLHDELWRD&RVHQ]D/DPDWWLQDYDGRD VFXROD D SLHGL R FRQ OD


ELFLFOHWWDSHUFKpODVFXRODqYLFLQD&RPLQFLDPRDOOHRWWRHPH]]RHLRYDGRYLDGDFDVDDOOHRWWRH
GLHFL 'RSR OD VFXROD D PH]]RJLRUQR H PH]]R YDGR D FDVD D PDQJLDUH ,O SRPHULJJLR IDFFLR L
FRPSLWLHVWRFRQLPLHLDPLFL*XDUGROD79RYDGRGDLQRQQL

0LFKLDPR$QWRQLD&DVWHOOLVRQRVSRVDWDPDQRQKRDQFRUDILJOL ,RVRQRLQIHUPLHUD HPLR
PDULWRODYRUDLQXQDJHQ]LDWXULVWLFD
2JQLJLRUQRPLDO]RDOOHVHWWHPHQR XQ TXDUWR3ULPDSUHSDURLOFDIIqHIDFFLDPRFROD]LRQH
LQVLHPH 3RL YHUVR OH VHWWH H PH]]D SRUWR PLR PDULWR DOODJHQ]LD LQ PDFFKLQD H GRSR YDGR
DOORVSHGDOH'LVROLWRODYRURGDOOHRWWRDOOHTXDWWURFRQXQDEUHYHSDXVDSHULOSUDQ]R0DQJLRDOOD
PHQVD0LRPDULWRLQYHFHSUDQ]DTXDVLVHPSUHGDVXDPDGUHFKHDELWDYLFLQRDOVXRXIILFLR
'RSRLOODYRURIDFFLRODVSHVD HYDGR DSUHQGHUHPLRPDULWR$UULYDWD ILQDOPHQWH D FDVD PL
ULSRVRXQSRHSRLSUHSDURODFHQD
7DOYROWDIDFFLRDQFKHLOWXUQRGLQRWWH
0LR PDULWR ODYRUD VSHVVR DQFKH GL VHUD ID WUDGX]LRQL H VFULYH OHWWHUH LQ LQJOHVH H WHGHVFR D
FOLHQWLVWUDQLHULGHOVXRXIILFLR
$QFKLRQHOWHPSROLEHURPLRFFXSRGLOLQJXHRJQLJLRYHGuIUHTXHQWRXQFRUVRGLVSDJQROR
9(5%(/(5()/(;,9(
ULSRVDUVLDVHRGLKQL

DO]DUVL

PLULSRVR
WLULSRVL

VLULSRVD

DVHWUH]L

RFFXSDUVLGL

 DVHRFXSDGH

LQWHUHVVDUVLGL

 DVHLQWHUHVDGH

LQIRUPDUVLGL

 DVHLQIRUPDGHVSUH

LQFRQWUDUVL

 DVHvQWkOQL

FLULSRVLDPR

WURYDUVL

 DVHDIOD

YLULSRVDWH

VHQWLUVL

 DVHVLP L

VLULSRVDQR
9HUEHOHUHIOH[LYHLWDOLHQHVHOHFWHD] ODWLPSXULOHFRPSXVHDX[LOLDUXO(66(5(
PLVRQRRFFXSDWRDPDPRFXSDW

&2081,&$5(
$FKHRUD

WLDO]L

ODPDWWLQD

'LVROLWR

PLDO]R

VLDO]D

YHUVROH

YLDO]DWH

FLDO]LDPR

GRSROH

VLDO]DQRL

VLDO]DQR

IUDOHHOH

IDFFLR

ODGRFFLD

IDFFLDPR

JLQQDVWLFD

IDQQR

ODVSHVD

&2081,&$5(
&KHFRVD

DOOH

IDL

ODPDWWLQD

3ULPD

ID

GLPDWWLQD

SRL
HGRSR

IDWH
IDQQR

LEDPELQL

LO

UDJD]]L

GL
QHO

SRPHULJJLR

FROD]LRQH

LOSUDQ]R
LODYRULGLFDVD
LFRPSLWL

ODVHUD
GLVHUD

XQSRGLVSRUW
XQDWUDGX]LRQH
ODFHQD
XQFRUVRGL


,OPLRQRPHq/RUHQ]D5HJDKRYHQWDQQLHVRQRVWXGHQWHVVDGLDUFKLWHWWXUD
$ELWR DG $VWL H VWXGLR DOOXQLYHUVLWj GL 7RULQR 2JQL PDUWHGu JLRYHGu H YHQHUGu YDGR D
7RULQR FRQ LO WUHQR SHUFKp QRQ KR OD PDFFKLQD 3DUWR YHUVR OH RWWR H D 7RULQR SUHQGR LO WUDP R
ODXWREXV
$PH]]RJLRUQRPDQJLRTXDOFRVDLQFLWWjHULWRUQRDFDVDGRSROHOH]LRQL
4XDOFKHYROWDPLLQFRQWURD7RULQRFRQDOWULVWXGHQWLHGRUPRGDXQDPLFD
0LLQWHUHVVRDQFKHGLDUUHQGDPHQWRHLOPHUFROHGuPDWWLQDODYRURTXDOFKHRUDQHOORVWXGLRGL
XQ DUFKLWHWWR TXL DG $VWL &RVu KR OD SRVVLELOLWj GL LPSDUDUH TXDOFRVD H GL JXDGDJQDUH XQ SR q
SURSULRXQDEXRQDVROX]LRQH

6RQR &DUOR &DUXVR KR  DQQL H YLYR FRQ PLD PRJOLH D %RORJQD GRYH VRQR DQFKH QDWR
6LFFRPH L QRVWUL GXH ILJOL VRQR JLj JUDQGL H QRQ DELWDQR SL D FDVD QRVWUD DQFKH PLD PRJOLH KD
ULFRPLQFLDWRDODYRUDUHIDOLQVHJQDQWHDOOLFHRHGqPROWRFRQWHQWD
/DPDWWLQDSRUWRPLDPRJOLHDVFXRODLQPDFFKLQDHSRLYDGRLQXIILFLR6RQRLQJHJQHUHHPL
RFFXSRGLHOHWWURQLFD
,OSUDQ]R"+RXQDSDXVDGLODYRURPROWREUHYHGDOOXQD DOOHGXHHQRQYDGRD FDVDSHUFKp
PLDPRJOLHKDVFXRODILQRDOOXQDHPH]]D
0ROWLYDQQRDPDQJLDUHTXDOFRVDTXLLQFHQWUR,OPLRFROOHJDSHUHVHPSLRYDTXDVLVHPSUH
DOOD WUDWWRULD TXL YLFLQR GRYH VL LQFRQWUD FRQ DOWUL FROOHJKL PDQJLD EHQH H VSHQGH SRFR 0D LR GL
VROLWRSUHQGRVRORTXDOFRVDDOEDU
3UHIHULVFRPDQJLDUHODVHUDDQFKHSHUFKpPLDPRJOLHFXFLQDPROWREHQH



4XDOqODWXDSURIHVVLRQH"&RVDIDL QHOODYLWD "



6RQRLQVHJQDQWH)DFFLROLQVHJQDQWH

LOPLRFROOHJD LPLHLFROOHJKL

TXDOFRVD

ODPLDFROOHJD OHPLHFROOHJKH

&2081,&$5(
&RPH

YDL

YD
DQGDWH

TXDOFKHFRVD

DOFXQHFRVH

TXDOFKHYROWD

DOFXQHYROWH

TXDOFKHJLRUQR

DOFXQLJLRUQL


VFXROD

&L

YDGR

7RULQR
DO

ODYRUR

DOO

XQLYHUVLWj

SLHGL

FRQODLQ

ELFLFOHWWD

DQGLDPR

PRWRFLFOHWWD
PDFFKLQD

DJHQ]LD

PHWURSROLWDQD

RVSHGDOH
DOOR

VWXGLR

LQ

XIILFLR

FRQLOLQ

WUHQR

FRQOLQ

DXWREXV

WUDP

EDQFD

DHUHR

IDEEULFD
YDFDQ]D

&2081,&$5(
'RYH

WLLQFRQWUL


FRQL

WXRL

FROOHJKL

VLLQFRQWUD

6XRL

DPLFL

YLLQFRQWUDWH

YRVWUL

FRQRVFHQWL
SDUHQWL

&LLQFRQWULDPR

FDVDQRVWUD

DO

EDU
ULVWRUDQWH

DOOD

PHQVD
WUDWWRULD

LQ

FLWWj
FHQWUR


0L FKLDPR *LDFRPR &DQGROLQL H VRQR RSHUDLR /DYRUR LQ IDEEULFD TXL D 8GLQH PD YLYR LQ
SURYLQFLDHRJQL JLRUQRYDGRVX H JLLQWUHQR+RTXDVLXQRUDH PH]]R GL YLDJJLR /D PDFFKLQD q
SL FRPRGD FHUWR 0D FRQ LO SUH]]R GHOOD EHQ]LQD FRVWD WURSSR )LQLVFR GL ODYRUDUH DOOH VHWWH H
DUULYR D FDVD YHUVR OH QRYH SHUFKp GD TXL D FDVD PLD QRQ Fq XQD OLQHD GLUHWWD PD D 3DOPDQRYD
ELVRJQD FDPELDUH WUHQR 6H SHUGR OD FRLQFLGHQ]D ULWRUQR DQFRUD SL WDUGL H TXDQGR DUULYR PLD
PRJOLH GRUPH JLj OHL OD PDWWLQD VL DO]D PROWR SUHVWR SHUFKp FRPLQFLD D ODYRUDUH DO SDQLILFLR JLj
DOOHVHL0DDOOXQDILQLVFHHGqVXELWRDFDVDFRQLEDPELQL


/DYRUR DO &RPXQH GL )LUHQ]H GDOOH RWWR DOOH GXH VHQ]D SDXVD &RQ TXHVWRUDULR GL ODYRUR
FRQWLQXDWR PL WURYR PROWR EHQH SHUFKp DOOH GXH H PH]]R VRQR JLj D FDVD &RQ LO WUDIILFR FKH Fq
PLRPDULWRHGLRSUHIHULDPRODVFLDUHODPDFFKLQDDFDVDGXUDQWHLOJLRUQRDQFKHSHUFKpDELWLDPRLQ
XQ TXDUWLHUH QRQ ORQWDQR GDO FHQWUR H FL VRQR EXRQL PH]]L SXEEOLFL ( LQROWUH QRQ VL WURYD PDL XQ
SDUFKHJJLR
$UULYDWD D FDVD PDQJLR TXDOFRVD LQVLHPH D PLR PDULWR 0LFKHOH $EELDPR XQ SLFFROR
QHJR]LRGLYHVWLWLSHUEDPELQLQHOFHQWURVWRULFR0LRPDULWRFLODYRUDWXWWRLOJLRUQR FRQXQDSDXVD
GLGXHRUHSHULOSUDQ]R,RFLYDGRSHUTXDOFKHRUDGLVROLWRGDOOHFLQTXHLQSRLTXDQGRPLVRQR
ULSRVDWDXQSR/DVHUDQRQVLDPRPDLDFDVDSULPDGHOOHQRYH4XDQGRDUULYRSUHSDURODFHQDPD
TXDOFKH YROWD DQGLDPR D PDQJLDUH IXRUL FL LQFRQWULDPR FRQ DOFXQL DPLFL H FL GLYHUWLDPR XQ SR
9LYHUHFRVuPLSLDFH

YLFLQRDOFHQWUR
ORQWDQRGDOFHQWUR

QRQVRQRPDL

VH
VHKRWHPSR
TXDQGRDUULYR

'DGRPDQLEHQ]LQDSLFDUD
PDODPDJJLRUSDUWHGHJOLLWDOLDQLSUHIHULVFHDQFRUDODPDFFKLQD

LRSUHIHULVFR

QRLSUHIHULDPR

ILQLUH

WXSUHIHULVFL

YRLSUHIHULWH

FDSLUH

ORURSUHIHULVFRQR

SXOLUH

OXL
OHL

SUHIHULVFH

LQFHQWUR

QHOFHQWURVWRULFR

QHLJLRUQLIHVWLYL

LQFLWWj

QHOODJUDQGHFLWWj

QHJOLDQQLSDVVDWL

LQ,WDOLD

QHOO,WDOLDFHQWUDOH

QHOOHSURVVLPHVHWWLPDQH

&2081,&$5(

&DSLVFL
&DSLVFH
&DSLWH

EHQH

LOWHGHVFR

6u

ORFDSLVFR

IUDQFHVH
OLQJOHVH

PROWREHQH
1RQRQ

FDSLDPR

LWDOLDQR
,WXRL

EDPELQL

6XRL

ILJOL

YRVWUL

DPLFL

FDSLVFRPR

ORVSDJQROR
VYHGHVH

EHQH

FDSLVFRPR

DEEDVWDQ]DEHQH

&2081,&$5(
4XDQGR

GLODYRUDUH

ILQLVFL

)LQLVFR

DOOH

ILQLVFH

VWXGLDUH

YHUVROH

ILQLWH

IDUHLOPLOLWDUH

)LQLDPR

LO

ILQLVFRQR

IDUHJOLHVDPL

)LQLVFRQR

LQ


0LFKLDPR3LHUR)RUQDFLDULKRDQQLGDXQDQQRKRODPDWXULWjHFHUFRODYRUR6RQRXQR
GHL WDQWL JLRYDQL LWDOLDQL GLVRFFXSDWL 1RQ q IDFLOH PD LR PL VRQR XQ SR RUJDQL]]DWR 'XUDQWH OD
JLRUQDWDVRQRVHPSUHLQJLUR
0L DO]R DOOH VHWWH IDFFLR OD GRFFLD SUHQGR XQ FDIIq H YDGR D FRPSUDUH LO JLRUQDOH SHU
JXDUGDUH JOL DQQXQFL 3DVVR DQFKH DOOXIILFLR FROORFDPHQWR H PL LQIRUPR VH Fq TXDOFKH SRVVLELOLWj
6H WURYR TXDOFRVD WHOHIRQR R FL YDGR 0D VRQR VHPSUH ODYRUL SHU SRFKL JLRUQL $ PH]]RJLRUQR H
PH]]RWRUQRDFDVDDELWRDQFRUDFRQLPLHLJHQLWRULHSUDQ]LDPRWXWWLLQVLHPH
,OSRPHULJJLRGzOH]LRQLGLPDWHPDWLFDRIDFFLRTXDOFKHVHPSOLFHODYRUHWWR
)UDTXDWWURPHVLYDGRPLOLWDUHHSRLYHGLDPR

2FFDVLRQLSHUJLRYDQL
&(5&+,$02JLRYDQLDPERVHVVLDQFKHVHQ]DHVSHULHQ]D
LQWHUHVVDWLVHWWRUHLQIRUPDWLFD0LODQR
7,32*5$),$FHUFDUDJD]]RWXWWRIDUH
7HOHIRQDUHRUHSDVWL
&(5&+,$02VWXGHQWHSHUOH]LRQLGLQJOHVHWHU]DPHGLD
7HOHIRQDUH

5LFHUFDGLSHUVRQDOH
&203$*1,$WHDWUDOHFHUFDWHFQLFROXFLSHU
SURJUDPPD]LRQHWRXUQpHHVWLYD7HOHIRQDUHRUDULRXIILFLRGD
OXQHGLGDOOHRUHDO
&21,8*,DQ]LDQLFHUFDQRGRQQDWXWWRIDUHILVVDUHIHUHQ]LDWD
7HOHIRQDUH
&$6$GLFXUDSULYDWDYLFLQDQ]H0LODQRULFHUFDSHU
DVVXQ]LRQHLPPHGLDWDLQIHUPLHULHSURIHVVLRQDOLRJHQHULFL
6FULYHUHD&RUULHUH+0LODQRRWHOHIRQDUHDOOR
RUHXIILFLR


6RQRYHQXWDTXLD5DYHQQDQHOO RWWDQWDWUH GRSRODPRUWHGLPLRPDULWR'D DOORUDYLYR
FRQLPLHLILJOL0DWWHR5DIIDHOODH*LXOLDGLHDQQLHKRULFRPLQFLDWRDODYRUDUH3ULPDGHO
PDWULPRQLRSHUDOFXQLDQQLPLVRQRRFFXSDWDGLSXEEOLFLWjPDRUDODYRURLQEDQFD
/DPDWWLQDSRUWR*LXOLDDOODVLORHJOLDOWULYDQQRLQELFLFOHWWDDVFXROD
3RLYDGRLQEDQFDHODYRURILQRDOOH3HUIRUWXQDKRWURYDWRXQDVLJQRUDFKHVLRFFXSDGHOOD
FDVDHGHLEDPELQLPHQWUHLRVRQRLQEDQFDSXOLVFHHPHWWHDSRVWRODFDVDIDODVSHVDFXFLQDHYDD
SUHQGHUH*LXOLDDOODVLOR'RSROXQDHPH]]DTXDQGRLEDPELQLVRQRULWRUQDWLGDVFXRODPDQJLDQR
WXWWLLQVLHPH
1HO SRPHULJJLR L UDJD]]L IDQQR L FRPSLWL YDQQR D IDUH XQ SR GL VSRUW D FDVD GL DPLFL R
JXDUGDQROD79
,RODVHUDGRSRLOODYRURSUHIHULVFRVWDUHFRQLEDPELQLHSRLTXDQGRGRUPRQRVRQRWURSSR
VWDQFD SHU DQGDUH GD TXDOFKH SDUWH 6ROR RJQL WDQWR YDGR IXRUL FRQ TXDOFKH FROOHJD PD DOWULPHQWL
FRQ WUH EDPELQL XQD FDVD H LO ODYRUR SHU XQD GRQQD GHOOD PLD HWj q GLIILFLOH DYHUH DOWUL FRQWDWWL
3HUFLzQRQFRQRVFRDQFRUDPROWDJHQWHTXLD5DYHQQD

PHQWUHYHUE

GXUDQWHDUWLFROVXEVWDQWLY

PHQWUHVRQRLQEDQFD
GXUDQWHLOJLRUQR


+R VHVVDQWRWWR DQQL H GDO  VHWWDQWD  DELWR VROD TXL QHOOD FLWWj YHFFKLD 0LR ILJOLR &DUOR
DELWDD0LODQRFRQODVXDIDPLJOLD+DSRFRWHPSRPDWHOHIRQDVSHVVR
/DPLDJLRUQDWD"PROWRPRQRWRQD
2JQLPDWWLQDSUHVWRIDFFLRODVSHVDQHLQHJR]LTXLDOODQJRORPHWWRDSRVWRODFDVDSUHSDUR
LOSUDQ]RSRLQRQKRSLPROWRGDIDUHHDVFROWRYROHQWLHULODUDGLR
,O SRPHULJJLR RJQL WDQWR YDGR D WURYDUH OD PLD DPLFD 0DULD FKH DELWD GDOODOWUD SDUWH GHOOD
FLWWjHSUHQGLDPRLOFDIIqLQVLHPHRDQGLDPRDLJLDUGLQLSXEEOLFL0DGLVROLWRVWRDFDVDOHJJRXQD
ULYLVWDRXQEXRQOLEURRJXDUGROD79LOWHOHJLRUQDOHSHUVHQWLUHOHQRWL]LHLILOPGDPRUHTXDOFKH
EXRQILOPJLDOORRXQRSHUDVXOWHU]RSURJUDPPD
0DSHUORSLYDGRDOHWWRSUHVWR
, PLHL YLFLQL GL FDVD LQYHFH VRQR WXWWL PROWR RFFXSDWL YDQQR YLD OD PDWWLQD H ULWRUQDQR OD
VHUD(KVRQRJLRYDQLORUR0DVRQRDQFKHPROWRJHQWLOLVD"$LXWDQRVHKRELVRJQRGLTXDOFRVDVH
QRQ PL VHQWR EHQH FKLDPDQR LO PHGLFR YDQQR D SUHQGHUH OH PHGLFLQH H IDQQR OD VSHVD 6SHVVR
VXRQDQRRWHOHIRQDQRSHUVDSHUHFRPHVWR
4XDQGRSDUWRQRSHUOHYDFDQ]HODVFLDQRTXLOHORURFKLDYL

QRVWURYRVWURILJOLR

LOORURILJOLR

3RVHVLYXO

QRVWUDYRVWUDILJOLD

ODORURILJOLD

vQWRWGHDXQD

ORUR

LQRVWULYRVWULILJOL

LORURILJOL

DUWLFRO

OHQRVWUHYRVWUHILJOLH

OHORURILJOLH

DYHUHWHPSRGLIDUH

DQGDUHDSUHQGHUH

DYHUHGDIDUH
FqGDIDUH

FHUFDUHGLIDUH

YHQLUHDWURYDUH

ODSRVVLELOLWjGL

FRPLQFLDUHDORYRUDUH

ILQLUHGL

FRQWLQXDUHDVWXGLDUH

HVWH

vQVR LW

GH

+RELVRJQRGLXQPHGLFR
%LVRJQDFKLDPDUHLOPHGLFR

&2081,&$5(
'LFKHFRVD

WLRFFXSL

QHO

WXR

WHPSROLEHUR"

0LRFFXSR

GL

PXVLFD

VLRFFXSD

6XR

YLRFFXSDWH

YRVWUR

&LRFFXSLDPR

VSRUW
OLQJXH

VLRFFXSDQR

ORUR

6LRFFXSDQR

SROLWLFD
VWRULD
DUFKLWHWWXUD
ILORVRILD
DUUHGDPHQWR
DUWHPRGHUQD
DUWHDQWLFD
GDQ]D
IRONORUH
SLWWXUD
MD]]
DUFKHRORJLD
PRELOLDQWLFKL

1829,25$5,',/$92523(59,9(5(0(*/,2
/HWWHUHDOO(XURSHR
6LVDFKHLQPROWHJUDQGLFLWWjLWDOLDQHLQDOFXQHRUHGHOJLRUQRLOWUDIILFRqYHUDPHQWHFDRWLFR
HVLUHVWDEORFFDWLSHUVWUDGDSHUPROWLVVLPRWHPSR(TXHVWRSHUFKpODJHQWHDOPDWWLQRYDDOODYRUR
LQ PDFFKLQD LQ DXWREXV LQ WUDP GRSR PH]]RJLRUQR YD D FDVD D SUDQ]R QHOOH SULPH RUH GHO
SRPHULJJLRULWRUQDLQXIILFLRRLQIDEEULFDHODVHUDULWRUQDDFDVD
 YHUDPHQWH DVVXUGR IDUH VX H JL TXDWWUR YROWH DO JLRUQR OD VWHVVD VWUDGD 3HQVLDPR
DOOHQHUJLDEXWWDWDYLDDOOLQTXLQDPHQWRDOQHUYRVLVPRFKHWXWWRTXHVWRSRUWD
0DSHUFKpQRQODVFLDPRGDSDUWHOHQRVWUHWUDGL]LRQLHQRQDGRWWLDPRDQFKHLQ,WDOLDSHUWXWWL
ORUDULR XQLFR FRQWLQXDWR ODYRUR GDOOH  H PH]]R DOOH  H PH]]R FRQ XQD EUHYH SDXVD H SRL WXWWL D
FDVD" &RVu JLj IDQQR LQ ,WDOLD JOL LPSLHJDWL GHL 0LQLVWHUL GL PROWL &RPXQL H XIILFL SXEEOLFL H FRVu
ODYRUDQRWXWWLJOLHXURSHLFRQPROWHFRQVHJXHQ]HSRVLWLYHSHULQHUYLODPELHQWHHOHFRQRPLD
5LQR9HJOLD
 YHUR JOL DOWUL HXURSHL KDQQR ORUDULR XQLFR FRQWLQXDWR PD SHUFKp DGRWWDUH DQFKH QRL
TXHVWD EDUEDULH" /R VWUHVV GHO WUDIILFR WHUULELOH" 3UHQGLDPR ODXWREXV &HUWR 0ROWLVVLPL HXURSHL
VRQR D FDVD JLj DOOH FLQTXH PD D PH]]RJLRUQR PDQJLDQR LQ IUHWWD H PDOH  QHL SXE EDU H QHOOH
PHQVHHDOOHVHLGLVHUD JXDUGDQR JLjOD79$QFKHTXHVWRqVWUHVV(LOWUDIILFRFDRWLFRVXOOHVWUDGH
HXURSHH GDO FHQWUR DOOD SHULIHULD QRQ Fq GDOOH VHWWH LQ SRL PD GDOOH TXDWWUR H PH]]R DOOH FLQTXH
$QFKHTXHVWRqVWUHVV,RSUHIHULVFRIDUHXQDOXQJDSDXVDSHULOSUDQ]RHODYRUDUHODVHUD
*LDQQL)DUVLD