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Classwork: Comparison between Mitosis and Meiosis

Group__405____Name Marcelo Patricio Isassi A01194128


Andrea Villarreal A01194398
Introduction to the activity:
The cell is the basic unit of life. It can form unicellular organisms, or join with other cells to form
multicellular organisms. The maintenance and reproduction of these organisms depend on two
processes of cellular division: mitosis and meiosis.
The process of mitosis occurs in somatic or body cells. It is responsible for the production of new
cells that substitute damaged or dead cells, as well as for the production of new cells during growth
and development. For example, every minute, millions of red blood cells must be produced to
replace those that die.
Meiosis is the process of cell division that is present exclusively in cells that will become gametes,
cells responsible for reproduction of the organism. The principle function of meiosis is to produce
gametes that are genetically different from each other and contain half the number of chromosomes
so that during fertilization, that offspring will have the complete number of chromosomes and will be
different from the parents. Therefore, meiosis allows genetic recombination that permits variations
within the same species and assures the evolutionary success of the species.

Materials required
Copy of the activity
Access to internet

Instruction/steps
Part 1: The cell cyle
1. Draw a diagram of the cell cycle indicating each of its stages, as well as the divisions within
each stage. Describe the major activity that occurs in each stage.

Part II: Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis


1.

2.

Use your ebook to fill in the following table:


Characteristics of
comparison
Type of cell that it occurs
in

Mitosis

Meiosis I

Meiosis II

Somatic

Sexual

Sexual

Total number of cells


produced

Presence of genetic
variation

No

Yes

Yes

Type of cells produced


(haploid or diploid)

Diploid

Haploid

Haploid

Importance of the
process

To have new
cells, generation
of new tissue.

Genetic Variation

Impact if the process fails

Cancer

Genetic Variation

Down Syndrome
Chromosomal
Diseases

Down Syndrome
Chromosomal
Diseases

Based on the information in the above table and your eBook, answer the following
questions:
a. What would happen if mitosis did not occur?
-You wouldnt be able to repair tissue.
-Your body would heal slower.

b.

What would be the consequences if meiosis did not occur?


-We wouldnt be able to adapt.
-We wouldnt be able to reproduce.

c.

What would be the effects on evolution of the species if there was no genetic variation?
-Everybody would be the same.
-We wouldnt be able to adapt.

Part III: Define the following terms:


a. Apoptosis: Apoptosis is a naturally occurring programmed cell death, that occurs when
a cell cannot complete mitosis, or in response to external signals.
b. Cell cycle: The Cell Cycle is an orderly set of stages that occur between the time a cell
divides and the time the resulting daughter cells divide.

c.

Crossing over: Crossing over means that the chromatids held together by a centromere
are no longer identical.

d. Cytokinesis: division of the cytoplasm


e. Mitosis: division of the nucleus in somatic cells.

f.

Meiosis: process in which 4 daughter cells are created. (sexual cells)

g. Genetic recombination: process where the genes are combined to produce a new cell.
h. Haploid number: half the number of chromosomes.
i.

Diploid number: is the full number of chromosomes. (2)

j.

Homologous chromosome: two pairs of chromosomes.

k.

Independent assortment: occurs because there are various ways for chromosomes to
line up in metaphase I of meiosis I

l.

Interphase: The cell prepares to divide; it grows bigger, the number of organelles
doubles, and the amount of DNA doubles

m. Nondisjunction: is the failure of paired chromosomes or chromatids to separate during


cell division.
n. Ovogenesis: Meiosis in the female is called ovogenesis.

o. Sister chromatid: Genetically identical chromatids.

p. Somatic cell: any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.

q. Spermatogenesis: Meiosis in the male


r.

Synapsis: When homologues line up side by side at equator.

s.

Zygote: a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum.

t.

Gamete: a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of
the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.

Evaluation
Evaluation criteria
Contents of the
report

The report contained


a diagram of the cell
cycle, the
comparative table
completed and all
the questions
answered.
All of the questions
were answered
correctly according
to the information
asked for in the
comparison table.

The report contained


a diagram of the cell
cycle, the
comparative table
incomplete and not
all the questions
answered.
None of the
questions were
answered correctly
according to the
information asked for
in the comparison
table.
At least 10 of the
vocabulary terms
were completed
correctly.
Did not follow
teachers
instructions with
respect to format
and content.

vocabulary

All 20 of the
vocabulary terms
were completed
correctly.

The report contained


a diagram of the cell
cycle, the
comparative table
was incomplete, and
all the questions
answered.
Some of the
questions were
answered correctly
according to the
information asked for
in the comparison
table.
At least 15 of the
vocabulary terms
were completed
correctly

Report format

Followed teachers
instructions with
respect to format
and content.

Followed teachers
instructions with
respect to format but
not content.

Analysis of the
information