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CAPITOLUL 6

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,$&21680$725,/25

Obiective
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fundamentelor acestuia;
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prezentarea principalelor revendicri ale consumatorilor privind


produsele agroalimentare.

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Consumatorul este persoana fizic ce cumpr de pe pia m L


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YkQ]DUH

GH

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ntregul

e autentice, consumatorului trebuie s i se subordoneze


profesionalism al productorului de bunuri, al

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Exist ns o serie de motive pentru care consumatorul apare


defavorizat n raporturile sale cu RIHUWDQ LL GH EXQXULL VHUYLFLLFXP
ar fi1:
n plan economic: resursele consumatorului sunt evident mai
reduse dect cele de care dispune agentul economic;

Dinu V.  6WDQGDUGL]DUHD L FHUWLILFDUHD SURGXVHORU (G (FRQRPLFm %XFXUHWL


1999

3URWHF LDFRQVXPDWRULORU

vQ SODQ LQIRUPD LRQDO DJHQWXO HFRQRPLF FXQRDWH PDL PXOWH

despre produsul su dect consumatorul acestuia;


n plan juridic:DJHQWXOHFRQRPLFFXQRDWHPDLELQHOHJLOHFDUH
guverneaz rela LLOH FRPHUFLDOH L VH IRORVHWH GH HOH FX DMXWRUXO
consilierilor juridici, pe cnd consumatorul poate c ignor chiar
LH[LVWHQ DXQHLOHJLFDUHvODSr, prin prevederile ei;
n planul reprezentrii intereselor: SURGXFmWRULL L
GLVWULEXLWRULL VXQW IRDUWH ELQH UHSUH]HQWD L DWkW SULQ RUJDQL]D LL
SDWURQDOH SURIHVLRQDOH L FRPHUFLDOH FkW L SULQ LQIOXHQ D SH

lng autorit LvQVFRSXODGRSWrii unor reglementri care s LQ


cont de interesele lor, pe cnd consumatorii sunt o mas, adesea
amorf, de indivizi dintre care pu LQL WLX V-L SURPRYH]H
LQWHUHVHOH SULQ DF LXQL vQ FDGUXO XQRU RUJDQL]D LL FDUH V-i
reprezinte.
Diversificarea continu a ofertei de mrfuri n cDGUXOSLH HORU
VRILVWLFDUHD VLVWHPXOXL GH LQIRUPDUH L vQGHRVHEL D XQRU SXEOLFD LL

comerciale, alturi de eforturile diferitelor firme de a atrage


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complexit LL SURFHVXOXL GH FXPSrare a mrfurilor, sporind, pentru


consumatori, dificultatea alegerii produselor, a stabilirii ncrederii n
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consumatorilor este limitat, n multe situa LLGHGLIHULWHLQVWLWX LLDOH


statului, ale producmWRULORULFRPHUFLDQ LORULDUvQXQHOHFD]XULFKLDU
GH DO L FRQVXPDWRUL FD XUPDUH D VLVWHPXOXL GH UHOD LL FH GRPLQ
societatea, a posibilit LORU UHGXVH GH ILQDQ DUH D  SURGXFHULL L
FRPHUFLDOL]mULL

EXQXULORU

SUHFXP

L

D

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GH

cumprare a diverselor categorii de consumatori. De asemenea,


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acestea echivaleaz practic cu o presiune fcut asupra


consumatorilor.
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vQ OXPH 2UJDQL]D LD 1D LXQLORU 8QLWH 218  GXS ample studii,
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JXYHUQH GLQ QXPHURDVH

ri a adoptat, prin rezolu LD QU GLQ 


aprilie 1985 a Adunrii Comerciale, Principiile directoare pentru

Agromarketing
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, vizeaz urmtoarele
obiective:
ajutarea WXWXURU rilor n elabRUDUHD XQHL SROLWLFL L OHJLVOD LL
SULYLQG SURWHF LD FRQVXPDWRULORU FkW PDL FRUHVSXQ]toare
FRQGL LLORUGLQILHFDUH DU;
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consumatorilor;
crearea FRQGL LLORU SHQWUX IDFLOLWDUHD SURGXFHULL L
comeUFLDOL]mULL GH SURGXVH FkW PDL FRUHVSXQ]mWRDUH QHYRLORU L
cererii solvabile ale consumatorilor;
punerea  OD GLVSR]L LD FRQVXPDWRULORU D XQHL JDPH ODUJL GH
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GHSLD

adecvate acestui scop;


ncurajarea SURIHVLRQDOLVPXOXL

L D HWLFLL FHORU DQJDMD L vQ

SURLHFWDUHD SURGXFHUHD L FRPHUFLDOL]DUHD EXQXULORU GH FRQVXP


LDVHUYLFLLORU
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a practicilor comerciale abuzive care afecteaz consumatorii.


Necesit LOHOHJLWLPHSHFDUH218SULQ3ULQFLSLLOHGLUHFWRDUH
SHQWUX SURWHF LD FRQVXPDWRUXOXL YUHD V
le consacre sunt
urmtoarele:
SURWHF LD FRQVXPDWRULORU ID de pericolele care le afecteaz

VmQmWDWHDLVLJXUDQ D
SURPRYDUHD

L

SURWHF LD

LQWHUHVHORU

HFRQRPLFH

DOH

consumatorilor;
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le permit s

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necesit LOHSHUVRQDOH
HGXFDUHD

FRQVXPDWRULORU

vQ

VSLULWXO

DXWRSURWHF LHL

ID
de
-ar putea pune n

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despgubirea efectiv a consumatorilor afecta L GH SUDFWLFLOH


comerciale abuzive;
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a-L H[SXQH RSLQLLOH vQ SURFHVHOH GH OXDUH D GHFL]LLORU FDUH vL
privesc.

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Aceste necesit LOHJLWLPHFRQWLHQWL]DWHVXQWGHIDSWGUHSWXUL


ale consumatorilor.
n acest context, apreciem c este mai corect s facem
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statul asigur prerogative constitu LRQDOH FDUH GDX SRVLELOLW L
consumatorilor s-L DSHUH GUHSWXULOH SH FDOH DGPLQLVWUDWLYm VDX
juridic.
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promoveze o societate demoFUDWLFm L FD R FRPSRQHQWm GH ED]m D
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GH
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respectarea drepturilor consumatorilor.


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alimentar, aceasta vizeaz, n esen , urmtoarele obiective:
mbunt LUHD DOLPHQWD LHL SRSXOD LHL DWkW GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH

FDQWLWDWLYFkWLFDOLWDWLY

supravegherea

calit LL

SURGXVHORU

DOLPHQW

are

oferite

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o mai bun informare a consumatorilor cu privire la produsele


;
aprarea n fa D XQRU SROLWLFL DJUHVLYH GH YkQ]DUHL SURPRYDUH D

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Agromarketing

  
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PRODUCTORII
Calitate
Fiabilitate
Mentenabilitate
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Factori

/ $)
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snt
Securitate
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consumatorilor

accesibile
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+

SINDICATELE
Supraveghere social
Ac iuni de sus inere
Ac iuni de promovare

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profil
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Informare
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Responsabilit LOH DVLJXUrii protec LHL FRQVXPDWRULORU UHYLQ


n principal, autorit LORU SXEOLFH JXYHUQHORU  GDU vQ DFHDVW zon
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3URWHF LDFRQVXPDWRULORU

2UJDQLVPHFXDWULEX LLvQSURWHF LDFRQVXPDWRULORU

Preocuparea pentru protejarea consumatorilor dateaz nc


din antichitate, dezvoltarea schimbului de mrfuri n pie HOH GLQ
RUDHOHcet L QHILLQG XQ IHQRPHQ vQWkPSOmWRU L QHFRQWURODW Q
scrierile vechi se spune, de exemplu, c n pie HOH GLQ $WHQD SH
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,QWHUYHQ LD VWDWXOXL vQ FRQWUROXO FDOLW

LL SURGXVHORU L DO


schimbului acestora s-a amplificat concomitent cu dezvoltarea
societ LLFXDSDUL LDGHQRLSURGXVHLFXH[WLQGHUHDSLH HORU
Pe msura dezvoltrii pie HORU QD LRQDOH L LQWHUQD LRQDOH D
VFKLPEXOXL GH PmUIXUL L VHUYLFLL PRGDOLWm LOH GH SURWHMDUH D

consumatorilor au evoluat treptat de la formele simple, la dezvoltarea


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Primele reglementri privind protec LDFRQVXPDWRUXOXLHPLVH


de ctre diferitele state au vizat produsele agroalimentare, datorit
faptului c ele de LQHDXFHDPDLPDUHSRQGHUHvQFDGUXOVFKLPEXULORU
FRPHUFLDOH SH GH R SDUWH L IDSWXOXL Fm HOH HUDX GHVWLQDWH VDtisfacerii
unor nevoi primare, pe de alt parte. Astfel, n Italia, n 1865, a fost
adoptat Legea de supraveghere sanitar n domeniul alimentar sau
vQ )UDQ D vQ DQXO  D IRVW DGRSWDWm /HJHD SULYLQG IUDXGHOH L
IDOVLILFmULOH vQ GRPHQLXO SURGXVHORU L

serviciilor. Legea francez

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FRQVXPDWRULLILHDVXSUDQDWXULLWLSXOXLRULJLQLLLVDXFRQ LQXWXOXLvQ
VXEVWDQ HXWLOHILHDVXSUDFDQWLW

LLPrfurilor livrate. Totodat, legea


prevedea pedepse pentru cei ce falsific mrfuri destinate
DOLPHQWD LHL XPDQH VDX DQLPDOHORU PHGLFDPHQWH EmXWXUL L SURGXVH
DJULFROHSUHFXPLSHQWUXFHLFDUHH[SXQVDXYkQGPmUIXULIDOVLILFDWH

sau toxice.
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ri, structurile care compun


paliere ale

VLVWHPXO GH SURWHF LH D FRQVXPDWRULORU SURYLQ GLQ GRX

societ LLLDQXPH
2

Diaconescu M., Diaconescu Mirela Eurostategii n domeniul agroalimentar, Ed.


Descartes Conseil, Bucureti, 2000

Agromarketing

$GPLQLVWUD LD

FHQWUDO

(Guvernul), care a creat cadrul

OHJLVODWLY LQVWLWX LRQDO FHQWUDO L ORFDO SULQ vQILLQ DUHD D 

organisme menite s asigure protec LD FRQsumatorilor, unele din


HOH ILLQG VSHFLDOL]DWH LDU DOWHOH DYkQG DWULEX LL L vQ DFHDVW
activitate.
Societatea civil,SULQFUHDUHDXQXLFDGUXRUJDQL]D LRQDOSURSULX
ED]DW SH IRUPH DVRFLDWLYH DVRFLD LL IHGHUD LL L FRQIHGHUD LL DOH

consumatorilor, cu scop de protejare a intereselor acestora.


Aceast bipolaritate a activit LLWUHEXLHV confere sistemului
GH SURWHF LH D FRQVXPDWRULORU VWDELOLWDWH vQ IXQF LRQDUH L IRU n
DF LXQLOHFDUHVHvQWUHSULQGvQDFHVWVFRSQ5RPkQLDvQV, nu putem
vorbi de o aVHPHQHDVWDELOLWDWHLHILFLHQ a sistemului, acestea fiind
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L

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adoptarea unor opinii comune etc.


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consumatorilor este $XWRULWDWHD 1D LRQDO pentru Protec LD


Consumatorilor (ANPC) vQILLQ DW n august 1992, n baza OG nr.
21/1992 (modificat prin LegHDL+* 
$13&DF LRQHD]mSHQWUXUHDOL]DUHDVWUDWHJLLORUSROLWLFLORUL
SURJUDPHORUJXYHUQDPHQWDOHvQGRPHQLXOSURWHF LHLYLH LLV

nt LLL
securit LLFRQVXPDWRULORU(ODUHQXPHURDVHDWULEX LLGLQWUHFDUHPDL
importante sunt:
prevenirea cet HDQXOXLGHDFXPSmUDLXWLOL]DXQSURGXVFDUHDU
putea s-i pun n pericol via D Vntatea sau interesele
economice;
supravegherea despgubirii consumatorilor, n situa LD vQ FDUH DX
cumprat produse necorespunztoare, de ctre cei vinova L Ge

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VHVL]DUHD RUJDQHORU DELOLWDWH SHQWUX UHWUDJHUHD DXWRUL]D LLORU GH
IXQF LRQDUHvQFD]XODJHQ LORUHFRQRPLFLYLQRYD L
Q

PRG

FRQVWDQW

$13&

vL

UHDOL]HD]m

DWULEX LLOH

SULQ

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RUJDQL]D LLORUQHJXYHUQDPHQWDOHSHQWUXSURWHF LDFRQVXPDWRULORU

3URWHF LDFRQVXPDWRULORU

ANPC central are n subordine 41 de oficii teritoriale


corespunztoare celor 4GHMXGH HLPXQLFLSLXOXL%XFXUHWLSUHFXP
L XQ &HQWUX 1D LRQDO SHQWUX QFHUFDUHD L ([SHUWL]DUHD 3URGXVHORU

(LAREX), care are n subordinea sa filiale, aflate n principalele


rii.
Activit LOH VSHFLILFH DOH /$5(; VXQW UHDOL]DWH GH GRX
fLUPH VSHFLDOL]DWH /$5(;,QWHQD LRQDO L /$5(; /DERUDWRDUH FDUH
VXQWFXSULQVHvQFRPSRQHQ DVDRUJDQL]DWRULF.

RUDHDOH

/$5(;,QWHUQD LRQDOHVWHRVRFLHWDWHFXFDSLWDOPL[WGHVWDW
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FDOLWDWH L

de supravegehere a mrfurilor ce fac obiectul tranzac LLORU

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FD DFHWLD Vm RE LQ

avizul de participare la tranzac iile bursiere cu


mrfurile lor din partea, au nevoie de certificatul de inspec LH GDW GH
/DUH[,QWHUQD LRQDO

Larex Laboratoare este o societate cu capital de stat


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prduselor pe care le-au cumprat: alimente, textile, ncl minte,


cosmetice, electrocasnice etc. Deoarece testrile sau ncercrile
produselor nu sunt totdeauna accesibile, datorit costurilor ridicate,
consumatorii pot apela la ANPC care va plti analizele pe baza
devizelor convenite n comun, n spiritul Legii nr.11/1994 privind
SURWHF LD FRQVXPDWRUXOXL vQ VHQVXO F, dac produsele prezint
GHIHFWH REOLJD LD DFKLWrii pl LL UHYLQH DJHQWXOXL HFRQRPLF LDU GDF
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deci obligat s fac vreun efort financiar.
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de importante sunt:
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calit LLSURGXVHORU
DFRUGDUHD GH DVLVWHQ tehnic firmelor productoare pentru
RUJDQL]DUHD

L

DFUHGLWDUHD

ODERUDWRDUHORU

SURSULL

GH

WHVWmUL

vQFHUFmUL L DQDOL]H IL]LFR FKLPLFH DOH SURGXVHORU SUHFXP L

pentru implementarea metodelor moderne de conducere a


controlului calit LLSURGXVHORU

Agromarketing

organizarea de cursuri

SHQWUX

IRUPDUHD

L

SHUIHF LRQDUHD

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n prezent, ANPC resimte n activitatea proprie o serie de


efecte negative generate de ntrzierea nregistrat n edificarea
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QU LDQXPHREOLJD LDDJHQ LORUHFRQRPLFLGHDFRPHUFLDOL]D
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GHFODUD LDGHFRQIRU

mitate, rmne fr aplicare practic.

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GH FRQWURO L FDUH FRQIRUP +* QU SDUWLFLSm vPSUHXQm FX

ANPC la activit LSULYLQGSURWHF LDFRQVXPDWRULORULDQXPH%LURXO


Romn de Metrologie Legal, Garda Financiar, Inspectoratul
*HQHUDO

DO

3ROL LHL

,QVWLWXWXO

SHQWUX

&RQWUROXO

GH

6WDW

DO

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SanitarVeterinar din MAA, Direc LD SHQWUX &KLPL]DUH 3URWHF LD 3ODQWHORU
L &DUDQWLQm )LWR-Sanitar din M.A.A., Inspec LD GH 6WDW SHQWUX
&DOLWDWHD 6HPLQ HORU L 0DWHULDOXOXL 6ditor, Compartimentele de
UHJOHPHQWDUH

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L

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GLQ

FDGUXO

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n anul 1990 s-D

vQILLQ DW

$VRFLD LD

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SHQWUX

3URWHF LD

pentru promovarea

L DSmUDUHD FRQVXPDWRULORU GLQ 5RPkQLD L GHVImRDUm R VHULH GH

activit LVSHFLILFHSULQ
participarea la comitetele tehnice de standardizare;
reprezentarea consumatorilor n comitetele de conducere
ale unor organisme de certificare;
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HGLWDUHD GH IRL YRODQWH L DOWH PDWHULDOH GH LQIRUPDUH D
FRQVXPDWRULORUD

Q SUH]HQW vQ

DUD QRDVWU

fiin HD] peste 200 de forme

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personalitate juridic pentru protec LD FRQVXPDWRULORU RUJDQL]DWH FX


sprijinul APC Romnia.
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produsele agroalimentare, cu impact asupra masei de consumatori, se


SRWPHQ LRQD

3URWHF LDFRQVXPDWRULORU

efectuarea de sondaje de opinie n rndul consumatorilor


privind calitatea principalelor produse alimentare;
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economici care au dus la ncasarea unor sume necuvenite sau


FDUH DX SXV vQ FLUFXOD LH EXQXUL DOLPHQWDUH FX SDUDPHWUL

calitativi necorespunztori;
SRSXODUL]DUHD vQ SUHVm OD UDGLR L WHOHYL]LXQH D LQSXWXULORU
FRQVXPDWRULORU SUHFXP L D REOLJD LLORU DJHQ LORU HFRQRPLFL

potrivit normelor legale n vigoare;


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GH DF LXQH DO FXPS

rtorului n situa LD FkQG D IRVW Sgubit


prin vnzarea unui aliment de calitate necorespunztoare.
n anul 1994 s-D vQILLQ DW &RQVLOLXO &RQVXOWDWLY SHQWUX
3URWHF LD &RQVXPDWRULORU &&3&  FRQVWLWXLQGX-se
astfel cadrul
LQVWLWX LRQDO DGHFYDW GLDORJXOXL FX 6RFLHWDWHD &LYLO. n componen D
acestuia intr cte un reprezentant din fiecare asocia LH GH
consumatori, diQ ILHFDUH RUJDQ DGPLQLVWUDWLY FX FRPSHWHQ H vQ
GRPHQLXO

SURWHF LHL

FRQFHQWUHD]m

SH

FRQVXPDWRULORU

FRUGRQDUHD

L

$FWLYLWDWHD

DUPRQL]DUHD

&&3&

DF LXQLORU

VH

SULYLQG

SURWHF LD FRQVXPDWRULORU LQL LDWH GH GLYHUVHOH RUJDQLVPH SXEOLFH L

nonguvernamentale cu atrLEX LLvQGRPHQLX


/D QLYHOXO HXURSHDQ IXQF LRQHD] patru mari organisme
QHJXYHUQDPHQWDOHFXUROvQSURWHF LDFRQVXPDWRULORU

BEUC Biroul European al Uniunii Consumatorilor;


COFCE  &RPLWHWXO 2UJDQL]D LLORU )DPLOLDOH D &RQVXPDWRULORU
Europeni;
EUROCOOP Comunitatea European a Cooperativelor de
consum;
CES &RQIHGHUD LD(XURSHDQ a Sindicatelor;
EIIC ,QVWLWXWXO(XURSHDQ,QWHUQD LRQDODO&RQVXPDWRUXOXL
Primele patru organisme sunt reunite n CCC Consiliul
&RQVXOWDWLYDO&RQVXPDWRULORUvQILLQ DWvQ anul 1989.
Din februarie 1997, n Uniunea European func LRQHD]
'LUHF LD *HQHUDOm D 3ROLWLFLL &RQVXPDWRULORU L 3URWHF LHL 6nt LL
Acestora, cunoscut sub form prescurtat sub denumirea de
'LUHF LD;;,9

Agromarketing
2ELHFWLYHOH SROLWLFLL GH SURWHF LH D Fonsumatorilor
din
Uniunea European vizeaz n principal urmtoarele domenii:
DUPRQL]DUHD OHJLVOD LLORU QD LRQDOH SULYLQG SURGXVHOH DOLPHQWDUH
FRVPHWLFH
GHWHUJHQ L
EXQXUL
GH
IRORVLQ
ndelungat,
DXWRPRELOH

WH[WLOH

MXFmULL

PHGLFDPHQWH

vQJUmmPLQWH

L

pesticide;
msuri privind creditul, publicitatea mincinoas, practicile
comerciale abuzive;
RE LQHUHD GH FmWUH FRQVXPDWRUL D GUHSWXOXL GH FRQVLOLHUH L
DVLVWHQ

juridic n litigiile avnd drept obiect bunuri de consum;


stabilirea unor reguli privind iQIRUPD LLOH LQVFULS LRQDWH SH

SURGXVHLDPEDODMHOHDFHVWRUD
VWLPXODUHD

WHVWHORU

FRPSDUDWLYH

GH

SURGXVH

GH

FRQVXP

L

SXEOLFDUHD UH]XOWDWHORU vQ SXEOLFD LL LQGHSHQGHQWH GH LQWHUHVHOH


DJHQ LORUHFRQRPLFL
HGXFDUHD FRQVXPDWRULORU WLQHUL VDX DGXO L SHQWUX FD DFHWLD Vm
DF LRQH]HUD LRQDOvQFRQWH[WXOSLH HLOLEHUHVWLPXOkQGX

-se pentru

DFHDVWDVFKLPEXULOHvQWUHRUJDQL]D LLOHFRQVXPDWRULORULQFOXGHUHD
XQRUWHPHSULYLQGSURWHF LDFRQVXPDWRULORUvQSURJUDPHOHFRODUH
LRUJDQL]DUHDGHFXUVXULSHQWUXIRUPDUHDHGXFDWRULORUSUHFXPL
DF LXQLOHSULQPDVV

-media.
Promovarea intereselor consumatorilor este o parte integrant
a politicii Uniunii Europene care are n centrul ei bunstarea
cet HQLORU LDU DFHDVWm SROLWLFm vL DGXFH FRQWULEX LD OD EXQXO PHUV DO
mecanismHORU HFRQRPLFH DOH SLH HL XQLFH HXURSHQH 0rfurile care
nu ofer consumatorilor o satisfac LH UH]RQDELO n schimbul sumei
pltite, consitutie n realitate o investi LHJUHLWmLQHILFLHQWmLLQYHUV
mrfurile care dau satisfac LH FRQVXPDWRULORU OH LQVSLr ncredere,
GHYLQ FmXWDWH HOH FRQWULEXLQG OD FUHWHUHD HFRQRPLFm L GHFL OD

bunstarea consumatorului.

6.3 Revendicrile consumatorilor privind produsele


agroalimentare
La produsele alimentare, revendicrile consumatorilor se
refer, n principal, la:

3URWHF LDFRQVXPDWRULORU

drepturile privind calitatea acestor produse;


dreptul de informare asupra produselor;
GUHSWXO SULYLQG VmQmWDWHD L VHFXULWDWHD SH FDUH WUHEXLH Vm OH

asigure consumul acestora;


GUHSWXO GH OLEHU DUELWUX DO FRQVXPDWRUXOXL vQDLQWH L vQ WLPSXO

actului de cumprare.
De obicei, aceste revendicri sunt reunite cu alte obiective de
natur politic, cum ar fi aprarea mediului sau o mai bun calitate a
YLH LL

Abordate ntr-o manier concret, criticile consumatorilor


privind produsele alimentare privesc deopotriYm DWkW FDOLWDWHD FkW L
GLVWULEX LD

SUH XULOH

L

SURPRYDUHD

DFHVWRUD

Q

IRQG

WRDWH

componentele marketingului mix.


$VWIHOvQFHSULYHWHSULPDFRPSRQHQWmDPL[XOXL produsul,
revendicrile vizeaz: falsificarea, durabilitatea, condi LRQDUHD
ambalarea L FRPSR]L LD FRQ LQXWXO vQ FRORUDQ L FRQVHUYDQ L
LQJUHGLHQWHLDGLWLYLVLQWHWLFL 

La cea de-a doua component:

GLVWULEX LD

, sunt vizate:
rile
IRU DWH PDL DOHV FHOH OD GRPLFLOLX  PHWodele agresive de atragere a
cumprtorilor pentru vnzarea unor produse de slab calitate.

DGDRVXULOH PDUMHOH  H[FHVLYH GH SUH  OXQJLPHD FLUFXLWHORU YkQ]

Q FH SULYHWH SUH XO VXEOLQLHP SUDFWLFDUHD GH SUH XUL GH
SUHVWLJLXSHQWUXDD

-zisa crem a societ LLVDXGHSUH XULULGLFDWH


invocndu-se, pentru inducerea n eroare a consumatorilor, cunoscuta
UHOD LHSUH -calitate.
n materie de promovare a produselor, revendicrile privesc:
DUJXPHQWHOH L LQYRFD LLOH PLQFLQRDVH FRVWXO SXEOLFLW LL FDUH ULGLF
SUH XO  XWLOL]DUHD GH FRSLL IHPHL L JUXSXUL GH UHIHULQ (lideri de
RSLQLH VQREL HWF  SHQWUX SXEOLFLWDWH DJUHVLYm 7RW DLFL LQWUm L DFHHD
VHJPHQWDUH D SLH LL SULQ FDUH

n spoturile publicitare se
exploateaz diferen HOH HFRQRPLFH L VRFLDOH GLQWUH GLIHULWH FDWHJRULL
de consumatori.
Toate aceste revendicri vizeaz de regul ac LXQLOHLOHJDOHL
FRQWLHQWH DOH XQRU DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL vQGUHSWDWH vQ UHDOL]DUHD XQRU
YHQLWXUL VXSOLPHQWDUH SULQ vQHODUHD FXPSmUmWRULORU 6XQW vQVm L
VLWXD LL QHFRUHVSXQ]

toare, n condi LLOH vQ FDUH FHL vQ FDX] sunt de

Agromarketing

bun credin . Cauzele ce pot fi invocate n aceste cazuri sunt


QHFXQRDWHUHDOHJLVOD LHLLVODEXOSURIHVLRQDOLVPDODFHVWRUD
)D

de aceste situa LL HYRFm faptul c anumite materii

SULPH DJULFROH FDUH VWDX OD ED]D SURGXFHULL XQRU DOLPHQWH FRQ LQ vQ

mod natural,

R VHULH GH VXEVWDQ H FX FDUDFWHU WR[LF FXP DU IL

JOXFR]LGHOH FLDQRJHQHWLFH D]RWD LL DPLQHOH ELRJHQH R[DOD LL HWF

Eliminarea sau minimalizarea pericolului toxic al acestora nu se


poate face dect prin prelucrri tehnologice adecvate, de obicei prin
prHOXFUDUHD WHUPLFm 'DU L SULQ SUHOXFUDUHD WHKQRORJLFm D PDWHULLORU
SULPHDJULFROHvQDOLPHQWHvQXQHOHFD]XULVHSRWIRUPDVXEVWDQ HFX
FDUDFWHUWR[LFLDQWLQXWULWLY'HDFHHDHVWHQHFHVDUFDSURGXFmWRULLVm

identifice cele mai adecvate tehnologii de pUHOXFUDUH L FRQVHUYDUH D


materiilor prime alimentare, care s reduc la minimum pierderile de
HOHPHQWH QXWULWLYH YDORURDVH L Vm PLFRUH]H SH FkW SRVLELO ULVFXO
LQWURGXFHULL vQ DOLPHQWH GH VXEVWDQ H G

untoare organismului uman

(de exemplu: nitrozime, aOGHKLGHFHWRQHFRPSXL0DLOODUGSROLPHUL


8
GHR[LGDUHWHUPLFmD .
n Romnia riscurile artate mai sus pot fi eliminate prin
elaborarea de standarde ale calit LL SURGXVHORU L VLJXUDQ HL ORU
L SULQ DOLQLHUHD SURJUHVLYm D DFHVWRUD OD QRUPHOH HXURSHQH L
LQWHUQD LRQDOHJHQHUDODFFHSWDWH
QPXO LUHD FmLORU L D IDFWRULORU GH FRQWDPLQDUH L SROXDUH D
PDWHULLORU SULPH DJULFROH L D DOLPHQWHORU LPSXQH

extinderea gamei
reglementeze problema
inocuit LL DFHVWRU SURGXVH prin luarea n considerare a unor noi
noxe rezultate din procesele de chimizare a agriculturii (pesticide,
GH

LQGLFDWRUL

VWDQGDUGL]D L

FDUH

vQJUmmPLQWHHUELFLGHD HPLVLLDOHDFWLYLWm LLLQGXVWULDOH FRPSXL


DL

PHWDOHORU

UDGLRDFWLYLWDWH

JUHOH

FRPSXL

FORUXUD L

GHULYD L

DL

VXOIXOXL

.a.). De asemenea, se impune extinderea controlului

LDDQDOL]HORUImFXWHvQDFHVWVFRS
2

DWHQ LH

VSHFLDO

trebuie acordat publicit LL Icute

DOLPHQWHORU L PDL DOHV EmXWXULORU DOFRROLFH L  SURGXVHORU GLQ WXWXQ

destinate fumatului. n multe state s-au instituit, prin intermediul


OHJLVOD LHLIRUPHIRDUWHVHYHUHGHFRQWUROvQGRPHQLXOSXEOLFLW LLFH
VXQW H[HUFLWDWH DWkW GH LQVWLWX LLOH SXEOLFH VSHFLDOL]DWH VDX FX DWULEX LL
vQ GRPHQLXO SURWHF LHL FRQVXPDWRULORU FkW L GH RUJDQL]D LL DOH

acestora. Controlul are ca scop prevenirea utilizrii publicit LL FD


LQVWUXPHQW GH SURPRYDUH D FRQFXUHQ HL QHORLDOH VDX GH DJUHVDUH D

3URWHF LDFRQVXPDWRULORU

FRQVXPDWRUXOXL &D XUPDUH QLFL R DF LXQH SXEOLFLWDU nu se poate


lansa fr ca ea s fie autorizat sub aspectul mesajului, suportului
publicitar, timpului, locului efecturii etc.
'HH[HPSOXvQ)UDQ DvQSXEOLFLWDWHDSULQWHOHYL]LXQHFHDUH

ca obiect promovarea buturilor alcoolice, se interzice:


XWLOL]DUHD PLQRULORU FD LQWH SXEOLFLWDUH VDX SUH]HQWDUHD XQRU
VHFYHQ HvQFDUHDFHWLDconsum alcool;
DVRFLHUHD FRQVXPXOXL GH DOFRRO FX FUHWHUHD XQRU SHUIRUPDQ H

SVLKLFHLQWHOHFWXDOHD

DFRUGDUHDXQRUYLUWX LWHUDSHXWLFHE

uturilor alcoolice;

VXEOLQLHUHD

FRQ LQXWXOXL

ULGLFDW

vQ

DOFRRO

GUHSW

FDOLWDWH

D

buturilor etc.
n acest context, trebuie s subliniem, ca o tendin pozitiv,
restrngerea activit LORU SXEOLFLWDUH  D FRQ LQXWXOXL L PHVDMHORU
acestora  OD LJmUL L DOWH SURGXVH GLQ WXWXQ GHVWLQDWH IXPDWXOXL Q
PDMRULWDWHD

mULORU OXPLL SXEOLFLWDWHD SULQ UDGLR L WHOHYL]LXQH OD

aceste produse este interzis, iar n cazul celorlalte suporturi


SXEOLFLWDUH DILHUHYLVWH]LDUHHWF PHVDMXOWUHEXLHFRPSOHWDWFXXQ

avertisment la adresa snt LL FRQVXPDWRULORU FX SULYLUH OD ULVFXULOH


pe care le prezint consumul acestor produse.

Concepte cheie
Consumator. Persoana fizic ce cumpr de pe pia mLFRQVXPm
PmUIXULLVDXVHUYLFLLGHWRWIHOXOSURGXVHLRIHULWHVSUHYkQ]DUH
GHGLYHULDJHQ LHFRQRPLFL

Agromarketing

3URWHF LD FRQVXPDWRULORU. Modalit LOH SULQ FDUH FRQVXPDWRULL


sunt SURWHMD L vPSRWULYD SUDFWLFLORU LOHJDOH VDX SHULFXORDVH DOH
productorilor, comercian LORUHWF
Consumerism 0LFDUH VRFLDOm DSmUXWm vQ 68$ vQ DQLL
 GH
aprare a intereselor consumatorilor mpotriva abuzurilor la care
VXQW VXSXL GH IDEULFDQ L FRPHUFLDQ L FRPSDQLL GH SXEOLFLWDWH

etc.