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EI Standard 1541

Performance requirements for


protective coating systems used in
aviation fuel storage tanks and piping

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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS


USED IN AVIATION FUEL STORAGE TANKS AND PIPING
EI STANDARD 1541
FIrst edition
July 2009

Published by
ENERGY INSTITUTE, LONDON
The Energy Institute is a professional membership body incorporated by Royal Charter 2003
Registered charity number 1097899

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BP Oil UK Ltd

Centrica

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ConocoPhillips Ltd

EDF Energy

ENI

E. ON UK

ExxonMobil International Ltd

Kuwait Petroleum International Ltd

Maersk Oil North Sea UK Limited


Murco Petroleum Ltd
Nexen
Saudi Aramco
Shell UK Oil Products Limited
Shell U.K. Exploration and Production Ltd
Statoil Hydro
Talisman Energy (UK) Ltd
Total E&P UK plc
Total UK Limited

Copyright 2010 by the Energy Institute, London.


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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS USED IN AVIATION FUEL STORAGE TANKS AND PIPING

CONTENTS
Page
Legal notices and disclaimers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
1


Introduction and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.3 Retroactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Determination of the effect of the coating on aviation fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


2.1 Requirements of an internationally recognised specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2 Additional requirements for determining the coating effect on the aviation fuel . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2.1 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2.2 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3 Additional properties required of a coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4 Selection, preparation, application and inspection of the coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Annex A Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Annex B Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Tables:
Table 1 Test fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

III
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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS USED IN AVIATION FUEL STORAGE TANKS AND PIPING

LEGAL NOTICES AND DISCLAIMERS


This publication has been prepared by the EI Aviation Committee.

The information contained in this publication is provided as guidance only, and although
every effort has been made by the EI to assure the accuracy and reliability of its contents, the EI
MAKES NO GUARANTEE THAT THE INFORMATION HEREIN IS COMPLETE OR ERROR-FREE. ANY
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PUBLICATION.

IV
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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS USED IN AVIATION FUEL STORAGE TANKS AND PIPING

FOREWORD
This publication has been prepared by the EI Aviation Committee. It is intended to provide guidance
on performance requirements for protective coating systems that may be used in aviation fuel storage
tanks and piping.

Users of this publication shall be aware that due consideration shall be given to the effect of any
unusual or abnormal circumstance, on which it is not possible to generalise within the scope of this
publication. Specialist advice shall be sought in these cases.

In addition, in some areas local or national statutory regulations also apply (e.g. German Institute
of Building Technology requirement for tank coatings which result in a grey colour). This publication
is intended to be complementary to these established controls and practices.

The EI is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers to warn and equip their employees,
and others exposed, concerning health and safety risks and precautions, nor undertaking their
obligations under local and regional laws and regulations.

Nothing contained in any EI publication is to be construed as granting any right, by implication
or otherwise, for the manufacture, sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or product covered by
letters patent. Neither shall anything contained in the publication be construed as insuring anyone
against liability for infringement of letters patent.

This publication is intended to assist those involved in the storage of aviation fuel. Every effort
has been made by the EI to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained herein; however,
the EI makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication and
hereby expressly disclaim any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or for
the violation of any local or regional laws or regulations with which this publication may conflict.

Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted to the Technical Department, Energy
Institute, 61 New Cavendish Street, London, W1G 7AR (e: technical@energyinst.org).

V
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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS USED IN AVIATION FUEL STORAGE TANKS AND PIPING

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The preparation of this publication was undertaken by Mr. J. Thurston, Air BP, with input from
technical representatives of the following companies:
Air BP Limited
Air TOTAL International
AFS Aviation Fuel Services GmbH
Chevron
ConocoPhillips
ExxonMobil Aviation International Ltd.
ExxonMobil Fuels Marketing Company
ExxonMobil Research & Engineering
International Paint Ltd
Kuwait Petroleum International Aviation Company Ltd.
Marathon Petroleum Company LLC
Shell Aviation Ltd.
Shell Global Solutions
Shell Oil Products

VI
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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS USED IN AVIATION FUEL STORAGE TANKS AND PIPING

1 INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE


1.1

INTRODUCTION

The use of protective coating systems for the coating of interior metal1 surfaces of
aviation fuel (jet fuel and aviation gasoline) storage tanks and piping is an important
tool in the prevention of corrosion on these metal surfaces, to ensure the integrity of
containment as well as protecting aviation fuel from contamination by rust during storage
and distribution. There are many issues to consider when planning to use a protective
coating system such as:

determination of the effect of the coating on the aviation fuel;

determination of the effect of aviation fuel on the coating;

selection of the appropriate coating system;

surface preparation, and

correct application.

1.2

SCOPE
This publication is intended to apply to:

1.3

erformance requirements for protective coating systems;


p
coating manufacturers test procedures, and
coatings used on aviation fuel storage tanks and piping.

RETROACTIVITY
The provisions of this standard are intended for application to new storage tanks and
piping or existing storage tanks that are undergoing coating replacement.

1It

should be noted that the use of stainless steel or aluminium may preclude the need for the use of a protective
coating.

1
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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS USED IN AVIATION FUEL STORAGE TANKS AND PIPING

2 DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF THE COATING ON


AVIATION FUEL
2.1

REQUIREMENTS OF AN INTERNATIONALLY RECOGNISED SPECIFICATION


When a protective coating is used to line the interior surface of storage tanks and/or
piping, the coating shall not have an effect on the aviation fuel. To determine this, the
coating material shall meet the requirements of one of the internationally recognised
specifications listed below and in addition the requirements described in 2.2 of this
standard:
UK Ministry of Defence Standard
DEF STAN 80-97 Paint, system, for the interior of bulk fuel tank and fittings, two pack
USA Department of Defense
MIL-PRF-4556 Performance specification - Coating kit, epoxy, for interior of steel fuel
tanks
USA Department of Defense
MIL-PRF-23236 Performance specification - Paint coating systems, fuel and salt water
ballast tanks

2.2

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DETERMINING THE COATING EFFECT ON THE


AVIATION FUEL
For coatings that are qualified to DEF STAN 80-97, MIL-PRF-23236 and MIL-PRF-4556
additional determination of the effect of the coating material on the aviation fuel and
the effect of sea water on the coating shall be obtained by undertaking the laboratory
testing described in 2.2.1. Only if the results of the coating testing are acceptable, as
described in 2.2.2, should the system be considered acceptable for use as a coating in
aviation fuel service.

2.2.1

Procedure

2.2.1.1

Properly prepare and apply the coating material under test to six steel Test Pieces, each
measuring 115 mm ( 5 mm) x 25 mm ( 5 mm) x 3 mm ( 1 mm) in accordance with
the coating manufacturers instructions.

2.2.1.2

Store one Test Piece in a sealed opaque container.

2.2.1.3

Obtain test fluids as described in Table 1. Test fluids shall be stored in sealed approximately
5 litre epoxy coated metal (as described in ASTM D 4306) or uncoated stainless steel
containers.

2.2.1.4

Measure the Existent Gum, by IP 540/ASTM D 381 of Test Fluid A.

2.2.1.5

Measure the Existent Gum (mg/100 ml) by IP 540/ASTM D 381 of Test Fluid B.

2
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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS USED IN AVIATION FUEL STORAGE TANKS AND PIPING

2.2.1.6

Measure the electrical conductivity by IP 274/ASTM D 2624 of Test Fluid B.

2.2.1.7

Measure the JFTOT breakpoint (highest temperature divisible by 5C with a visual tube
rating <3 and pressure drop less than 25 mm of Hg) of Test Fluid B. Note that a jet fuel
having stable JFTOT performance must be used for this testing or the coating will appear
to fail in 2.2.2.5. It is not permitted to compensate the results in 2.2.2.5 for unstable jet
fuel.

2.2.1.8

Prepare at room temperature, five wide mouth Borosilicate Glass (as described in ASTM
D 4306) jars or stainless steel containers. Fill two with Test Fluid A, two with Test Fluid B
and one with Test Fluid C. Details of the Test Fluids and the required volume of each, are
given in Table 1.
Table 1 Test fluids
Test Fluid

Description

Volume

70/30 (v/v) iso-octane/toluene mixture

100 ml

Jet Fuel meeting ASTM D 1655 or DEF STAN 91-91


latest revisions without static dissipater additive with a
conductivity (measured by ASTM D 2624 or IP 274) of
less than 10 pS/m

1L

C*

Synthetic seawater meeting ASTM D 1141 containing


Stock Solution Nos. 1 and 2, but not 3.

100 ml

*The testing of a coating in Test Fluid C is not required if the coating has been
qualified to DEF STAN 80-97.
2.2.1.9

Completely immerse one Test Piece in each of the five containers of test fluid. Seal each
container.

2.2.1.10 Store the five containers at room temperature in a location where they will not be
disturbed for a period of 30 days.
2.2.1.11 Test Fluid A: measure Existent Gum, by IP 540/ASTM D 381 of the fluid in each
container.
2.2.1.12 Test Fluid B:
2.2.1.12.1 Measure Existent Gum (mg/100 ml) by IP 540/ASTM D 381 of the fluid for each of the
two containers.
2.2.1.12.2 Measure corrosiveness to copper by IP 154/ASTM D 130 (Corrosion Copper Strip - 2 h @
100 C) of the fluid in each of the two containers.
2.2.1.12.3 Measure for electrical conductivity by IP 274/ASTM D 2624 of the fluid in each of the two
containers.
2.2.1.12.4 Measure the oxidative thermal stability by IP 323/ASTM D 3241 of the test fluid in each
of the two containers at the test temperature of 5 C less than the breakpoint measured
in 2.2.1.7.

3
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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS USED IN AVIATION FUEL STORAGE TANKS AND PIPING

2.2.1.13 Test Fluid C: remove, rinse with petroleum, dry and visually inspect the test piece.
2.2.2

Results

2.2.2.1

The results obtained from the two Test Fluid B containers from step 2.2.1.12.3 shall be
compared with the result obtained in step 2.2.1.6. These results shall be considered
acceptable if both results are within the repeatability of the test method as compared
with the result obtained in 2.2.1.6.

2.2.2.2

The results obtained from the two Test Fluid A containers from step 2.2.1.11 shall be
compared with the result obtained in step 2.2.1.4. These results shall be considered
acceptable if both results are within the repeatability of the test method as compared to
the result obtained in 2.2.1.4.

2.2.2.3

The results obtained from the two Test Fluid B containers in step 2.2.1.12.1 shall be
compared with the result obtained in step 2.2.1.5. These results shall be considered
acceptable if both results are within the repeatability of the test method as compared to
the result obtained in 2.2.1.5.

2.2.2.4

The results obtained from the two Test Fluid B containers in step 2.2.1.12.2 shall be
considered acceptable if both results are within the limits prescribed in the relevant jet
fuel specification (either ASTM D 1655 or DEF STAN 91-91).

2.2.2.5

The results obtained from the two Test Fluid B containers in step 2.2.1.12.4 shall be
considered acceptable if both tests give VTR <3 and pressure drop less than 25 mm.

2.2.2.6

The results obtained from the inspection of the Test Piece from the one Test Fluid C
container from step 2.2.1.13 shall be considered acceptable if the Test Piece appears
essentially identical to the control sample in step 2.2.1.2.

4
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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS USED IN AVIATION FUEL STORAGE TANKS AND PIPING

3 ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES REQUIRED OF A COATING


3.1

Coatings used in aviation fuel service shall have a white or light colour to assist in routine
inspection of the storage tank and shall have a smooth surface to promote drainage.

3.2

Coatings used to line the interior of piping used in aviation fuel service shall pass a lining
burn back test as prescribed in 3.2.1 to 3.2.2.

3.2.1

Two sample plates, of dimensions 200 5 mm x 150 5 mm x 6 2 mm, shall be coated


on one side only, then each shall be bevelled along one 150 mm edge to an angle of 45
degrees. The plates shall then be arc welded together along the length of the bevelled
edge forming a butt weld.

3.2.2

After welding in accordance with 3.2.1 the piece shall be visually inspected. To be
considered an acceptable result there shall be no visual sign of the coating having burned
off, peeled or removed in any other way for a distance greater than 20 mm from the
extremities of the weld. There should be minimal loss of adhesion in the adjoining coating
and coating discoloration should not be widespread. Any discoloration of the coating
should be reported.

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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS USED IN AVIATION FUEL STORAGE TANKS AND PIPING

4 SELECTION, PREPARATION, APPLICATION AND


INSPECTION OF THE COATING
The selection of an appropriate coating system, the preparation of the surface to be coated,
coating application, and inspection of the coating after application are essential steps to
ensure the coating will prevent corrosion of the metal surface, prevent contamination of
aviation fuel, promote water removal by being smooth and be long lasting. Additional
information on applying coatings can be found in:

PI RP 652 Lining of above ground petroleum storage tank bottoms


A
UK MOD Defence Works Functional Standard Spec. 032 Internal coating of aviation fuel storage tanks

The purchaser of the coating should advise the coating manufacturer of the aviation
fuels including any fuel additives that will come in contact with the coating. The coating
manufacturer shall then confirm in writing that the coating supplied is fit-for-service and
that it meets the requirements set out in sections 2 and 3 of this standard. The purchaser
of the coating material shall adhere to the coating manufacturers recommendations for
surface preparation, application, and thickness, number of applications and inspection
of the coating.

6
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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS USED IN AVIATION FUEL STORAGE TANKS AND PIPING

ANNEX A
BIBLIOGRAPHY
API RP 652 Lining of above ground petroleum storage tank bottoms
ASTM D 130 Standard test method for corrosiveness to copper from petroleum products
by copper strip test
ASTM D 1141 Standard practice for the preparation of substitute ocean water
ASTM D 1655 Standard specification for aviation turbine fuels
ASTM D 2624 Standard test method for electrical conductivity of aviation and distillate
fuels
ASTM D 3241 Standard test method for thermal oxidation stability of aviation turbine
fuels (JFTOT procedure)
ASTM D 4306 Standard practice for aviation fuel sample containers for tests affected by
trace contamination
IP 154 Petroleum products Corrosiveness to copper Copper strip test (ISO
2160:1998)
IP 274 Determination of electrical conductivity of aviation and distillate fuels
IP 323 Determination of thermal oxidation stability of gas turbine fuels JFTOT method
IP 540 Determination of the existent gum content of aviation turbine fuel Jet evaporation
method
UK Ministry of Defence Works Functional Standard Spec. 032 Internal coating of aviation
fuel storage tanks
UK Ministry of Defence Standard 80-97 Paint, system, for the interior of bulk fuel tank
and fittings, two packs
UK Ministry of Defence Standard 91-91 Turbine fuel, aviation kerosene type, Jet A-1
NATO Code: F35, Joint service designation: AVTUR
USA Department of Defense MIL-PRF-4556 Performance specification - Coating kit,
epoxy, for interior of steel fuel tanks
USA Department of Defense MIL-PRF-23236 Performance specification - Paint coating
systems, fuel and salt water ballast tanks

7
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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS USED IN AVIATION FUEL STORAGE TANKS AND PIPING

ANNEX B
ABBREVIATIONS/UNITS
The following abbreviations are used in this publication:
C
degrees Celsius
DEF STAN Defence Standard
h
hour
L
litre
mg
milligram
ml
millilitre
mm
millimetre
MOD
UK Ministry of Defence
pS/m
picosiemens per metre
RP
recommended practice
v/v
volume per volume basis

8
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IMPORTANT: This document is s ubject to a licence agreement is s ued by the Energy Ins titute, London, UK. It may only be
us ed in accordance with the licence terms and conditions . It mus t not be forwarded to, or s tored, or acces s ed by, any
unauthoris ed us er. Enquiries : e:pubs @energyins t.org t: +44 (0)207 467 7100

Global aviation fuel handling publications


The Energy Institute is the provider of the following portfolio of equipment standards and operational
recommended practices to facilitate the safe and efficient handling of aviation fuel, particularly at airports.
They are available for use internationally. The titles include those that were developed jointly with the API.
These are available through the EI from either www.energypublishing.org or Portland Customer Services
(t: +44 (0)1206 796 351). The two API titles can be obtained from www.global.ihs.com. For further information
on the EI aviation fuel handling portfolio please contact technical@energyinst.org.

General
Title

Ed.

ISBN

EI 1540

Design, construction, operation and maintenance of aviation fuelling


facilities

4th

978 0 85293 565 1

EI 1541

Performance requirements for protective coating systems used in


aviation fuel storage tanks and piping

1st

978 0 85293 566 8

EI 1542

Identification markings for dedicated aviation fuel manufacturing and 8th


distribution facilities, airport storage and mobile fuelling equipment

978 0 85293 567 5

EI 1585

Guidance in the cleaning of aviation fuel hydrant systems at airports

2nd

978 0 85293 568 2

EI 1594

Initial pressure strength testing of airport fuel hydrant systems with water 2nd

978 0 85293 569 9

EI 1597

Procedures for overwing fuelling to ensure delivery of the correct fuel


grade to an aircraft

1st

978 0 85293 570 5

EI HM 20

Meter proving: Aviation fuelling positive displacement meters

1st

978 0 85293 302 2

Equipment (excluding filtration)


EI 1529

Aviation fuelling hose and hose assemblies

6th

978 0 85293 571 2

EI 1584

Four-inch hydrant system components and arrangements

3th

978 0 85293 572 9

EI 1598

Considerations for electronic sensors to monitor free water and/or


particulate matter in aviation fuel

1st

978 0 85293 573 6

EI Research report

Review of methods of bonding a hydrant dispenser (servicer) to an


aircraft for refuelling

1st

978 0 85293 475 3

Filtration equipment
EI 1550

Handbook on equipment used for the maintenance and delivery of


clean aviation fuel

1st

978 0 85293 574 3

EI 1581

Specification and qualification procedures for aviation jet fuel filter/separators

5th

978 0 85293 575 0

EI 1582

Specification for similarity for EI 1581 aviation jet fuel filter/separators 1st

978 0 85293 576 7

EI 1583

Laboratory tests and minimum performance levels for aviation fuel


filter monitors

5th

978 0 85293 527 9

EI 1590

Specifications and qualification procedures for aviation fuel microfilters

2nd

978 0 85293 577 4

EI 1596

Design and construction of aviation fuel filter vessels

1st

978 0 85293 578 1

EI 1599

Laboratory tests and minimum performance levels for aviation fuel


dirt defence filters

1st

978 0 85293 579 8

EI Research report

Electrostatic discharges in 2-inch fuel filter monitors

1st

978 0 85293 388 6

EI Research report

Electrostatic discharges in 2-inch aviation fuel filter monitors Phase 2:


Properties needed to control discharges

1st

978 0 85293 408 1

EI Research report

Investigation into the effects of lubricity additives on the performance 1st


of filter/water separators

978 0 85293 395 4

North American fuel handling


API 1543

Documentation, monitoring and laboratory testing of aviation fuel


during shipment from refinery to airport

1st

A154301

API 1595
Design, construction, operation, maintenance, and inspection of avia- 1st
A159501
This document is issued
with a single
user
licence to the EI registered subscriber: rdemeio@ppg.com
tion pre-airfield
storage
terminals

IMPORTANT: This document is s ubject to a licence agreement is s ued by the Energy Ins titute, London, UK. It may only be
us ed in accordance with the licence terms and conditions . It mus t not be forwarded to, or s tored, or acces s ed by, any
unauthoris ed us er. Enquiries : e:pubs @energyins t.org t: +44 (0)207 467 7100

Energy Institute

This publication has been produced as a result of

61 New Cavendish Street

work carried out within the Technical Team of the

London W1G 7AR, UK

Energy Institute (EI), funded by the EIs Technical


Partners. The EIs Technical Work Programme

t: +44 (0) 20 7467 7100

provides industry with cost effective, value adding

f: +44 (0) 20 7255 1472

knowledge on key current and future issues

e: pubs@energyinst.org

affecting those operating in the energy sector,

www.energyinst.org

both in the UK and beyond.

ISBN 978 0 85293 566 8

Registered Charity Number 1097899

This document is issued with a single user licence to the EI registered subscriber: rdemeio@ppg.com

IMPORTANT: This document is s ubject to a licence agreement is s ued by the Energy Ins titute, London, UK. It may only be
us ed in accordance with the licence terms and conditions . It mus t not be forwarded to, or s tored, or acces s ed by, any
unauthoris ed us er. Enquiries : e:pubs @energyins t.org t: +44 (0)207 467 7100