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5 Types of Cakes

Liquid shortening
Type of fat used should be the micro emulsified shortening like nutex or fluid flex this fat looks
like Vaseline and allows the mixture to be whipped all at once allows for high amount of sugar to
flour (High Ratio Cake). There is over 100% sugar in this mixture. The sugar helps retain
moisture and prolongs the shelf life of the cake.
Angel Food Cake
Divide the sugar in half
Blend one half of the sugar with flour
Whip the remaining half of the sugar with the egg whites to 7 times in volume.
Fold the flour by hand.
Egg whites, sugar, and flour. Any type of flavoring may be added.
Contains no fat or cholesterol because the egg yolks are not used has a high percentage of sugar.
Fat or grease is the enemy of egg whites and the bowl and the paddle should be wiped.
Down with white vinegar and salt using a paper towel then wash in warm water. Allow to dry
Jelly Roll Sponge
Similar to the Genoise except the eggs are not heated and the melted butter is replaced with
warm water. The water added creates more gluten allowing the cake to be more flexible and
Bake the jelly roll and remove from pan and roll it up while its still warm. Cool.
Genoise Sponge
Whole eggs and sugar heated up to over a hot water bath to 110*F
Whip the mixture to 4 Times in volume fold the sifted dry ingredients by hand very gently.
Add the melted butter last.
This is the most difficult sponge to make.
No Chemical leavening air makes the height.
Made in greased pan

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Dobos Torte
Named after the famous Hungarian Chef Jozsef Dobos, born in 1847 in Hungary
In 1887 chef Dobos invented the Dobos torte in Budapest
The torte consists of many thin layers of vanilla sponge and filled with chocolate butter cream.
The top layer of sponge is spread with caramel.
Each wedge or slice of sugar is thin propped up on top of the torte with chocolate shavings to
designate the slices.
Traditionally the sides of the torte never iced so the many layers can show many modern
versions have the sides of the torte iced or dipped in chocolate.

Caramelized Sugar

Caramelized sugar is sugar that has been heated to 310*F

It is used to create many decorations and
also to make spun sugar
There are two main types of caramelized sugar dry method and wet method
It is most important that a clean bowl is used
To prevent crystallization an acid or invert sugar can be used.

Dry method
This method is the fastest, but it is also easier to burn the sugar. The sugar is placed in a clean
bowl over high heat until all the sugar has melted and turned light amber.

Wet Method
The sugar is made into sugar syrup and boiled until it turns light amber. The ratio for making
sugar is three parts sugar to one part water 3:1 Ratio during cooking. The sides of the pot should
be brushed with a clean pastry brush to prevent re crystallization also glucose is often used to
help prevent re crystallization.

There are two types nougat brown and white both can be used as a filling for pralines
Brown Nougat: Is also called croqant (French) or krokant (German) it is a mixture of
caramelized sugar and lightly toasted nuts classically almonds.
Soft Nougat: Is used in pralines and are made by mixing the nougat with other ingredients such
as cream corn syrup or glucose honey or fruit juices candied fruits chocolate almond paste
praline paste or other flavorings also can be added

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White Nougat: Is a mixture of Italian meringue and honey and is beaten until most of the water
in the meringue has evaporated toasted nuts flavorings and sometimes candied fruits are folded
into the meringue immediately before it is pressed between bars for shaping and cutting.
Most nougat fillings are sensitive to moisture because of their high sugar contents. Because of
their high sugar content. They have a longer shelf life and will keep for several months.

Types of Meringue
There are three main types of meringues all have a 2:1 Ratio of sugar to egg whites the
difference between them is in their method of preparation.
Common also known as French meringue: This is the easiest of the three types of meringue to
make because this meringue is not heated its structure is weaker than other types of meringue
and the texture is much grainier.
Swiss: In this meringue, Both the sugar and the egg whites are heated over a double boiler while
lightly whisking them till the sugar dissolves about 110*F
Italian: This is considered to be the finest of the three meringues. It is made by heating the sugar
into sugar syrup.
Because Swiss and Italian meringues are heated, they form a stronger bond and structure and
their texture is smoother than the French meringue.

5 Types of Butter Creams

American: Is made with a combination of butter, shortening, and confectionary sugar. This
butter cream does not produce as smooth a texture as others. Because the sugar is never
dissolved Milk, egg whites or sugar are sometimes added to improve texture and shine.
German: Is made with butter, some shortening, and fondant.
Swiss: Is made with Swiss meringue and butter
French: Is made with a pate bombe and butter. The pate bombe base is a mixture of whipped egg
yolks and sugar syrup. This advantage if using pate bombe for a base is that it can be made up
ahead and refrigerated.
Italian: Is made with Italian meringue and butter.

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Butter Creams and Icings

Icings: are used to fill and frost cakes and tortes and to decorate cookies and various dessert
items. Icings have three main functions.
To improve the keeping quality of the cake by trapping moisture.
To improve the taste of the item.
To enhance the eye appeal and make the cake more attractive.
There Are Four Basic Icings:

Butter cream

Cake Mixing
Proper Cake Mixing Should Be The Following:
1. Achieve a uniform and complete mixing of all ingredients.
2. To form and incorporate air cells on the method of mixing and the formula.
3. Accomplish a desirable grain and texture in a product.
Main ingredients in cakes
Eggs provide lightness and physical leavening through manual or mechanical means.
Three ways of Physical leavening are:
1. Whipping
2. Creaming
3. Folding
Sugar adds color, flavor, texture, and grain to the cake.
Fats and shortenings tenderize the cake.
Flour provides structure to the cake.
Five methods of cake mixing
1. Creaming method:
Creaming sugar and fat together with a paddle, air cell formed in the creaming stage.
Eggs added fat coats air cells formed.
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Flour added flour strengthens air cells formed.

2. Blending Method:
Add all ingredients except 1/3 of the liquid and eggs and mix with a paddle for 5 Mins until
Add eggs and remaining liquids and mix at 2 speed for 5 minutes
Not as many air cells are formed
A form of liquid shortening must be used and it must be at room temperature.
Hydrogenation of shortening allows a higher ratio of sugar to flour in the mix.
3. Blitz Method:
Put all the ingredients in at once, placing the wet ingredients first. Whip at slow speed to
Liquid shortening type cakes mix for 4 Mins at #3 speed and then for 3 Min at #2 speed.
Chemical leavening is used with this method.
Liquid shortening is used.
4. Combination Method: (Creaming and Whipping)
The flour and shortening are creamed together until soft and light.
Eggs and sugar are heated in a double boiler and whipped to full volume.
The eggs and sugar are then gently combined by folding the creamed mixture and shortening.
No chemical leavening used, purely physical leavening from eggs
Used in the making of old fashion pound cake.

Short Dough
American short dough is referred to as 1-2-3 dough it contains:
Sugar in one part
Butter in 2 parts
Flour in three parts.
Eggs are usually added to the amount of sugar used
Never over mix or over cream the dough
Dough should rest for 30 Mins before using to allow the gluten to relax
Short doughs are baked at 325* F - 350* F.

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Fondant is normally used to cover the petits fours glace.
Chocolate coating our glazes can also be used.
To achieve the desired consistency fondant must be warmed and sometimes it must be
The fondant is heated to 100*F over a double boiler or a hot water bath.
If the fondant is heated over 110*F it will loose its shine as it dries.
The fondant must be kept refrigerated to prevent spoilage.
To adjust the consistency of fondant, water, simple syrup or liqueur is used.
When dipping or coating petits fours care must be taken to coat the item completely and
Basic Recipe:
5# sugar
1# water
8 oz Glucose
Method of Preparation:
Cook to 240*F
Pour on wet marble let cool to 110*F
Work with spatulas till consistency
In butter creams
Never exceed 105*F

Flat icing
Cream fondant
Confectioners fondant
Liquid fondant
Rolled fondant

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Icings and fondant

Improve the quality of the cake by trapping moisture inside
Improve taste
Enhance eye appeal
7 basic icings:

Butter Cream
Fudge Icing
Flat Icing
Boiled Meringue
Royal Icing

Grown long before Christ era in Greece, Also in Anatolia (Western part of Asia). The Middle
East and in southern Asia.
Almonds are one of the earliest cultivated food plants.
The first recorded appearance of almonds in a kitchen was in 400 B.C. they were used in meat
Almonds are a member of the rose family. They are also related botanically to apricots, cherries,
peaches, and plums.
Grown on the almond tree, there are two kinds of almonds: sweet and bitter.
Sweet almonds are eaten
Bitter almonds are used as a source of almond flavoring.
The best known almond confection is marzipan
Almonds are grown commercially in California.
Marzipan history
From the Latin Panis meaning St. Marks bread (the patron saint of Venice).
Early origins were in the orient
Early recipes were produced from a mixture of almonds sugar and rosewater
Lu beck is famous for marzipan legend has it during a famine because of grain shortage a
pastry chef developed a bread of almonds grain sugar and egg whites and restored every ones
In the 15th century and 166h century there are many writings about marzipan cakes and
confectioneries being issued as a form of barter and as an expensive gift.

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Many doctors also were using marzipans as cures

Marzipan one of the most popular mediums for decorative art works in the bake shop.
Form of almond paste
Many Uses:
Can be colored or molded into fruits, animals, flowers etc.
Cover or drape pastries or cakes
For showpieces
Marzipan qualities
To be called marzipan it must have at least 25 % almonds the higher the percentage of almonds
the better the quality.
3 basic types
White highest quality made with the best almonds
Holds color well
Can be used for any modeling
Percentage of almonds determine grade.
Yellow made with the same process but a lower quality almond is used
Yellow color added to hide imperfection of natural almond color
Difficult to get true color.
Raw sugar marzipan
Cheapest quality almonds unrefined sugar
Darker color does not color well sticky.
Almond paste from flour
Method of producing a workable paste from flour
Use 1:1 ratio almond flour and 10x sugar
Add egg whites till substance is at workable consistency to roll pipe or shape.
Almond paste
Special the procedure for grinding the almonds (Done in slow steps with little pressure applied).
So that the paste doesnt break down and become oily. (A specialty grinder is used for this

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Almonds are available in the following forms:


Ganache has 3 basic uses:
The main ingredients in Ganache are chocolate and a water based liquid:
Sometimes orange juice
Any other ingredients such as fat, Flavorings, or alcohol are optional.
Additional sugars can also be added such as glucose, corn syrup, or granulated sugar. These
items improve the texture and shine of the Ganache.
Ganache is prepared by bringing the liquid to a boil. The liquid is removed form the heat and
added to a finely chopped chocolate. The mixture is whisked until the ingredients are well
blended, the chocolate has completely melted, and the mixture is smooth. Flavorings or liqueurs
should be added after the mixture is completely smooth to avoid the evaporation of the alcohol
and loss of flavor.
A variation of a meringue is Japonaise
This is a meringue with ground blanched almonds or hazelnuts added to it.
It is often piped into disk that is used as torte layers.
The Japonaise is baked at a low temperature of 200*F 225*F until the structure is set.
The meringue can also be left overnight in a warm oven to dry. (Dry Slow Baking)

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Storing meringues
Because of their high sugar content, meringues are very susceptible to moisture. After baking
they should be used as soon as possible or stored in air tight containers.

Type of nuts:
Filbert/ Hazelnuts: Grown in Europe and North America many uses in the bake shop essential
for linzer dough
Peanuts: Many growing areas very popular in American pastries and candies
Pecans: Native to America mostly used for pecan pie and pralines
Pistachios: Native to Asia also produced in the United States used in a variety of cakes and
pastries also many uses in ice creams, garnishes, and petits fours.
Walnuts: Many growing areas many uses for baked goods ice creams and decoration.
Almonds: Grown commercially in California.
Sweet almonds: used for eating and baking
Bitter almonds: used for almond extract and flavoring
Brazil nuts: grown wild in the tropics very expensive too costly in baking
Cashews: grows in the tropics excellent in baking high in fat.
Chestnuts: grown in North America and Europe mostly in cooking
Coconuts: Grown in tropical and subtropical area. Fruit of the coconut palm tree, used in many
items of baked goods.

Lutetia Torte
Lutetia Torte is also called a classical torte
The definition for classical is generally accepted as being standard. Not new or experimental
This torte originated in Romania it was named after the princess Lutetia
Later the torte was further developed in France

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Originally make with macaroons which are chest nuts

Now and days walnuts are used.
Sacher Torte
The sacher torte was invented in 1832 by Franz Sacher in Vienna Austria Franz was a sixteen
year old apprentice pastry chef to prince Metternich the diplomat and enemy of napoleon
Prince Metternich demanded high standards in his kitchen and was always expecting something
new from his pastry chef
A special dinner party was given and something exciting was expected from the pastry chef. But
the pastry chef was sick and so the young apprentice invented the famous Sacher torte on every
slice he wrote his last name Sacher the torte was a big success.
Eventually Franz Sacher set up his own place in Vienna Austria. The hotel Sacher became for its
restaurant as well for its chocolate cake
Today many places produce Sacher tortes, but only one place the hotel Sacher in Vienna can
name it the original Sacher torte

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