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Student Name: Victoria Dickens

Grade Level: Twelfth Grade English


School: Monticello High School
Date of Lesson: March 6, 2014
Topic: Figurative Language: How to Find Written Word Come Alive
Enduring Understandings:
Figurative Language can be used to convey deeper meaning.
Authors us figurative language in order to create a mental picture, create a feeling, or give the
reader a better idea about the story.
A figure of speech is when an author uses a word or words to create an effect; often the words do
not have their original meaning.
Being able to recognize and understand figurative language can help me better understand what
an author is saying.
We can recognize figures of speech in our everyday lives.
Essential Questions:
What is a figure of speech?
Primary Content Objectives:
Students will know:
A figure of speech is the opposite of literal language.
The definition of each figure of speech learned or reviewed: allusion, alliteration,
personification, hyperbole, metaphor, simile, onomatopoeia, idiom, & irony.
Students will be able to do:
Find figures of speech in songs that they know.
Write their own figures of speech.
Related state or national standards:
9.3The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to
extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.
a) Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, antonyms, and cognates to
understand complex words.

b) Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and


phrases.
e) Identify literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.
Assessment:
Pre-Assessment: In the introduction I will ask students if they have heard of vocabulary words,
and what they know about them.
Formative Assessment: the students will be creating their own definition and an example of each
figure of speech; what students say during this process will allow me to assess what they
understand, misconceptions, and miscommunications.
The students will be competing to see what group can find the most figures of speech in popular
songs; this will allow me to assess how well students can identify and interpret figures of speech.
Students will write their own figure of speech to share with the class.
Materials and Resources:
Tablets and Computers for students to look up song lyrics
PowerPoint on Google Docs for the vocabulary slide show
Handout with two columns: the first column has a place for the student to write the word and the
second column has a place for the student to write their own definition in their own words.
Key Vocabulary and Definitions:
Figure of Speech: when an author uses a word or words to create an effect; often the words do
not have their original meaning
Simile: two unlike things are explicitly compared; usually using the words like or as
Metaphor: a word or phrase that is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in
order to suggest a resemblance
Alliteration: the repetition of the same sound in order to emphasize the point the author is
making
Hyperbole: an obvious and intentional exaggeration
Personification: giving an animal or an object human qualities or a quality of human nature in
order to animate objects or ideas
Onomatopoeia: a word that is created to imitate a sound
Allusion: a passing or casual reference, a mention of something either directly or indirectly
Idiom: an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of the words or
from the general grammatical rules of language (kick the bucket, the round table)
Irony: when words say the opposite of what an author really means; a figure of speech in which
words are used in such a way that their intended meaning is different from the actual meaning of
the words; a difference between the appearance and the reality.
Lesson Procedures:

1. Introduction and goal orientation:


a. Before we get started, Im going to go over three expectations I have for you all
when I am teaching.
i. The first expectation is that you listen, but when I say that, I dont just
mean that you listen to me. I expect you to listen to each other because
your peers have valuable things to say that you need to hear.
ii. My second expectation when I teach is that you ask questions. You guys
know that in my book the only stupid question is an unasked question, so
ask all the questions that you have.
iii. My third expectation is that we all do our best work at all times.
b. What is a figure of speech? The best way to understand the definition is to
understand what its not: a figure of speech is not literal language.
c. What is literal language? How would you define literal language?
d. So now that we see what literal language is, what is a figure of speech?
e. Examples and Non-Examples:
i. There is a sorting activity for the students on the SMARTBoard; there are
six sentences or sayings, and the students will tell me whether that is
literal or figurative language.
2. Connecting to prior knowledge and experiences:
a. Many of the students have been exposed to some of these figures of speech, such
as simile, personification, etc. so I am going to be asking them throughout the
lesson what they already know about these figures of speech.
b. Do you guys remember learning about a figure of speech? What do you remember
about them? Do you remember the names of specific figures of speech?
3. Tasks and activities:
a. After the introduction: Now that I have an idea of what you guys already know,
we are going to talk about a few figures of speech today. Some of this may be
review, and some of these may be new.
b. Here is a figure of speech: The building was as tall as a mountain.
i. What do you all notice about this figure of speech?
ii. This figure of speech is a simile. What is a simile?
iii. A simile is when two unlike things are explicitly compared. But what does
that mean?
iv. What is one way you can spot a simile? One way to spot a simile: the word
like or as
v. Can you think of an example of a simile?
c. Here is a different figure of speech: Her sky blue eyes were deep pools of water.
i. What do you all notice about this figure of speech?
ii. This figure of speech is a metaphor. What is a metaphor? How would you
define it?

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

iii. A metaphor is a word or phrase that is applied to something to which it is


not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance. But what does
that mean?
iv. Can you think of any examples of a metaphor?
This is another figure of speech: But a better butter makes a batter better.
i. What figure of speech do you notice?
ii. This is something called alliteration. But what does that mean?
iii. Can you guys think of a definition for alliteration?
iv. Alliteration is the repetition of the same sound in order to emphasize the
point the author is making.
v. What examples can you guys think of for alliteration?
Here is a different figure of speech: You are running so fast youre going to leave
tire tracks on the floor.
i. What figure of speech do you notice in this sentence?
ii. This is a hyperbole. What is a hyperbole?
iii. What is the definition of a hyperbole in your own words?
iv. A hyperbole is an obvious and intentional exaggeration.
v. Can you think of any examples for hyperbole?
The next figure of speech is: The lamp post stood like a traveler waiting for the
bus to arrive.
i. What do you notice about this sentence?
ii. What definition would you make for personification?
iii. Personification is when an author gives an animal or an object human
qualities or characteristics in order to make them more human or more
relatable.
iv. Can you think of any examples of personification?
This one is: The uninvited guest banged on the door with a thunk.
i. What do you notice in this sentence?
ii. This is an onomatopoeia. How would you define that?
iii. Onomatopoeia is a word that is created to imitate a sound.
iv. Can you think of any examples?
What about this one: Look at that Mona Lisa smile.
i. What do you notice in this sentence? What is happening, and what is the
author trying to convey?
ii. This is an allusion. What is the definition of an allusion?
iii. An allusion is reference to another book, movie, song, poem, etc.
iv. Can you think of one example of an allusion?
The next one is: Dont put all your eggs in one basket.
i. Do you notice anything in this sentence?
ii. This is an example of an idiom. What is an idiom?

iii. An idiom is an expression or saying that does not make sense if you use
the literal meaning of the words to figure out what the author is saying
iv. Can you give me another example of an idiom?
j. The last one we are going to talk about today is:
i. What do you notice about this? What is the author saying?
ii. This is an example of Irony. What does irony mean?
iii. Irony is when the author means the exact opposite of what they say. It is a
figure of speech in which words are used in such a way that their intended
meaning is different from the actual meaning of the words. It is a
difference between the appearance and the reality.
iv. Can you think of another example of irony?
k. Now I want us all to realize that we have been using figures of speech all our
lives; they are in our favorite songs, and youve probably sung them without even
realizing that you were using a figure of speech.
l. If you need help remembering these definitions, or if you want to see more
definitions, there is a cool website called:
http://www.flocabulary.com/hiphoplanguage/
m. You can also use the handout that we filled out in class.
n. Now you are going to work with a partner or a small group to find all of the
figures of speech that you can in a popular song. You can pick your favorite song,
or a song that you hear a lot, and I want you to look up the lyrics to that song. A
site like MetroLyrics is a great place to start. You can also find a lyric video on
YouTube if that would help you connect the lyrics to the song.
o. As you read through the lyrics of the song, I want you to find as many figures of
speech as you can. If you find more than one simile, those count as finding 2
figures of speech. The team that finds the most wins the competition.
i. The students will get a popular song and have to see what figures of
speech they can find in the song they are given. Each pair or group will
work on one song together.
p. The students will use the handout they got previously; these handouts should be
filled out with the terms and the definitions that the students learned.
4. Closure:
a. After the students share how many/what they found, I will collect the song lyrics
and see what they found. Then I will correct and mistakes and see if I can find any
more in the songs before giving the songs back to the students.
b. Now I want you all to write your own figure of speech on a piece of paper. You
can come up front, read it, and make us guess what figure of speech you wrote, or
you can just give your work to Ms. Carter, Mr. Bauer, or myself.
Accommodations for individual differences:

Some students are going to need to see the word spelled in order to learn the figure of speech, so
I created a presentation that will allow the students to see the words, not just hear them.
The students will have technology so they can listen to the songs as well as read the lyrics; this
will help bridge the gap between oral and reading vocabularies.
Behavioral and organizational strategies:
Pace: In order to decrease down time and to increase productivity, every stage of the lesson
except for group work will be done at a brisk pace (not too fast, but without too much
unnecessary wait time). This is a preventative measure to reduce the time and opportunity for
students to act out during instruction.
These students seem most invested when learning can be a social activity; that is why I have
students working in small groups, participating in a competition, and sharing their figures of
speech with others.

Figure of Speech

Definition

Example