Sunteți pe pagina 1din 4

I.AudienceAnalysis:Describetheconferenceatwhichyouwillpresentyourpaper.

Whois
youraudience?Whataretheirinterests?Whatistheireducationlevel?Howdoyouplanto
appealtothisparticularaudience?

MyaudienceismostlyAmericancitizensthatsupportapurelydefensivestrategy,or
areuninformedontheissueandthusdonothaveanopinion.Giventhefactthatmostexperts
inthefieldvehementlysupportthetransformationofUScyberpolicyintoaheavilyproactive
one,myaudiencearemostlikelynotextensivelyinvolvedinorinformedabouttheworldof
cybersecurity.Thiscategoryappliestoeveryonefromhighlyeducatedpoliticiansandmedical
doctors,tothosewithjustahighschooldegree.
GiventhefactthatmostpeopledonotfeelthatUScyberpolicydoesnotimpacttheir
lives,onegoalofmyargumentistoprovethattheissueaffectsallAmericancitizensona
dailybasis.Icanmakemyargumentofinteresttothisaudiencebybringingtolighthowmany
onlineservicestheymayuseonagivenday,andthentalkingabouttheirsusceptibilityto
attack.
Furthermore,myaudienceismostlikelynotverywellinformedonthetechnicalitiesof
theissue,sobyfocusinglargelyonpoliticalviewpointswhiledefininganytechnicaltermsI
useIcanmaketheargumentmoreappealingtomyaudience.Usingcommon,
understandablelanguagemakestheargumenteasiertofollowandthereforeincreasesits
persuasionpower.

II.ProvisionalAbstractofyourArgument:

Inmyargument,IpresentthreereasonsforwhytheUnitedStatesneedstoswitch
fromaheavilydefensivecyberpolicytoaheavilyoffensivecyberpolicy.Thesereasonsinclude
1)themoreeffectivedeterrenceofattacks,2)theneedtostayrelevantontheinternational
technologicalstage,and3)thenecessityofmovingawayfromthedomesticimpracticalities
thatourcurrentpolicycreates.Ifocuslargelyonemphasizingthatstrongoffensive
capabilitiesarevitalforasuccessfulcybersecurityplatform,whileremindingthereaderthat
defensiveskillsareneededaswell.IalsodiscussthepertinenceoftheNSAprogram
cybercommandbothinternationallyanddomestically,whichreaffirmsthesuccessof
strategiesthatuseinteractionbetweenoffensiveanddefensivestrategiestoenhanceeach
otherscapabilities.

III.LogicalStructureofyourArgument.

MainClaim:

TheUnitedStateswouldbenefitthemostfromacybersecuritypolicythatincludes
bothoffensiveanddefensivestrategies.

Qualificationstoyourmainclaimthatlimititsscopeandestablishexceptionstoyour
argument.Qualificationshelptoavoidovergeneralizing.

MyargumentmainlyappliestotheUnitedStatesgovernmentalagencies,theiractions,
andtheirsusceptibilitytocyberattacks.

Reason1

Astrongoffensivestrategyisneededtoappropriatelydeterattacks.

Groundsthatsupportreason1:

AccordingtoViceAdm.MikeRogersPresidentObama'spicktoreplaceGen.Keith
AlexanderasthedualhattedcommanderofCyberCommandandtheNSAtheUnited
States"maybeconsideredaneasiermark"duetothefactthatthenationasawholehasnot
adoptedaproactiveapproachtocyberattacks.ThishesitationplacestheUnitedStateson
theradarofforeignentitieswithmaliciousintent,invitinganattackonournetworks.Despite
thefactthattheNSAisabletopinpointtheexactoriginofanattack,wecontinuallyfailtoact
inresponse.Choosingamoralhighgroundofturningourcheekswhenweareattacked
simplymakesournationappearshyandtimidontheinternationalstageandwecannot
affordtohavethissortofstagefright.Thejustificationbehindrespondingtoanattackismuch
lesshazythanthejustificationtoattackfirst.Refusingtoinitiateanattackisfoolishyet
justifiable,butrefusingtoevenrespondtoanattackisselfdeprecatingandnaive.
ThetimidimageoftheUnitedStateshasanobviouseffectinthenumberof
cyberattacksthattheUnitedStatesfaces.Ourclosestally,TheUnitedKingdom,facesabout
120,000cyberattacksaday.ThatnumberisjustunderMichigansonagoodday.The
Pentagonreportsawhopping10millionattemptedcyberattacksonadailybasis.Wearea
target.TheonlywaytochangethewayforeignentitiesviewtheUnitedStatesistochange
theapproachwetaketocyberattacks.Youcannotexpecttoseeachangeinresultswithout
firstchangingtheactions.
Furthermore,beingpurelydefensiveonlyencouragesattacksbecausewesendouta
messagetotherestoftheworldthatsays,asMikeRogersputsit,[cyberattackerscan]just
do,literally,anything[they]wantandthereisn'tapricetopayforit.Anoffensivestrategy
wouldintimidatepotentialattackersfarmorethananexclusivelydefensivestrategywould.

Warrantthatprovidesthelogicallinkbetweenthemainclaimandsupportingreason:

Deterringattacksisagoodthingbecausedecreasingthenumberofattackseffectively
decreasesthelikelihoodofanattackbeingsuccessful.

Backingevidencethatsupportsyourwarrant:

Duetothenatureofcyberattacks,thesuccessrateofattacksincreasesasmore
attacksareinitiated.Whenanattackfails,theattackerisabletoidentifyexactlywhich
strategiesareineffective.Thisassiststheattackerinfindingthebestattackstrategy,which
thencanbeappliedtoseveralotherattacksondifferentnetworks.Conversely,ifanattacker
isdeterredfromattacking,theywillnotgainthissameexpertisebecausetheywillbetoo
intimidatedtomakerepeatedattemptsonasystem.
Also,itsjustasimplequestionofmathematics.Letssaythesuccessrateofattacksis
currently50%.1outof2attemptsachievingsuccessismuchmoredesirablethan500outof
1000attemptsbeingsuccessful.Deterringattackersreducesthenumberofattempts,which
thenreducesthenumberofsuccesses.

Reason2insupportofyourmainclaim:

Thisisthetrendtheworldisgoingin,andwecannotfallbehind.

Groundsthatsupportreason2:

Thewaytoavoidbeingatargetistoestablishourpresenceasaleaderinthe
cybersecurityworld,yetwecannotappearasaleaderifwehavenoexpertiseinboth
offensiveanddefensiveareas.Currently,over60countrieshaveaskedtheDoDtoassistin
creatingacybercommandprogramsimilartotheoneintheUnitedStates.Cybercommandis
anNSAprogramthatfindsweaknessesinnetworks.Theprogramhastwoteamsaredteam
andablueteam.Theredteamactsashackers,searchingforanyandeveryvulnerabilityina
system,whiletheblueteambuildsupthesecurityofthesystemtopreventtheredteamfrom
successfullygainingentry.Thecybercommandstrategyonlyworkswiththebalanceof
offenseanddefense.
Cybercommandgetsalotofheatfromsupportersofpurelydefensivestrategy,yetthe
originalityofthisprogramiswhatestablishestheUnitedStatesasaninnovatorintheworldof
cybersecurity.

Warrantthatprovidesthelogicallinkbetweenthemainclaimandsupportingreason:

Fallingbehindtherestoftheworldtechnologicallywouldnotbebeneficialtothe
UnitedStates.

Backingevidencethatsupportsyourwarrant:

Beingseenasaleaderincybersecuritywillhelpbolstertheoverallimageofthe
UnitedStates,aswellasdiscourageattacks.Havingareputablestanceontheissuewould
intimidatepotentialterroristswhilesimultaneouslygainingtherespectofourallies,whichare
bothapositivethingfortheUnitedStates.


Reason3

Apurelydefensivestrategyisimpracticaldomestically.

Groundsthatsupportreason1:

Refusingtoparticipateinactivitiesthatbolsterouroffensivestrengthisnotjust
damagingontheinternationallevel,butonthedomesticlevelaswell.Apurelydefensive
strategywouldrenderthecybercommandprogramuseless,thusdestroyingourbestwayto
detectandeliminatenetworkvulnerabilities.Infact,usingtechniquessuchastheonesinthe
cybercommandprogramisthebestwaytostrengthenourdefenseaswellasouroffense,so
thenetworksecurityofourowngovernmentalagenciesandprivatebusinesseswouldbeata
higherriskofattack.
Furthermore,theineffectivenessofthecurrentdefensivestrategyislargelyeffecting
severalUnitedStatesbusinesses.Thegovernmentandprivatesectorworkverycloselyto
developcybersecurityplatforms.Continuingtouseanineffectivestrategyputstheprivate
sectoratriskforacyberattackjustasmuchasitputsthepublicsectoratrisk.

Warrantthatprovidesthelogicallinkbetweenthemainclaimandsupportingreason:

Impracticalityisanegativetraitforanypolicytohave.

Backingevidencethatsupportsyourwarrant:

Abidingbyapolicythatisineffective,nomatterwhatareathepolicypertainsto,is
damagingtoanationswellbeing.ThemostobviousexampleinUnitedStateshistoryis
Hooverspolicyoflaissezfaireeconomics.ThehandsoffapproachHooversadministration
tooktobigbusinessactivitieswasimpracticalfortheeconomicsustainabilityoftheworking
class,resultingintheGreatDepression.Impracticalityshouldhavenoplaceingovernmental
policy.