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 Many failed systems were abandoned


because analysts tried to build wonderful
systems without understanding the
organization.
 The primarily goal is to create value for the
organization.

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The systems analyst is a key person
analyzing the business, identifying
opportunities for improvement, and
designing information systems to
implement these ideas.
It is important to understand and
develop through practice the skills
needed to successfully design and
implement new information systems.

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 The project --
 Moves systematically through phases where each
phase has a standard set of outputs
 Produces project deliverables
 Uses deliverables in implementation
 Results in actual information system
 Uses gradual refinement

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 Planning (Why build the system? How should
the team go about building it?)
 Analysis (Who uses system, what will it do,
where and when will the system be used?)
 Design (How will the system work?)
 Implementation (System delivery)

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A simple process for
making lunch

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Process Product

System Request
Planning
Feasibility Analysis
Workplan

System Proposal
Analysis
System
Specification
Design
New System and
Implementation
Maintenance Plan

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A formalized approach to implementing the SDLC
A series of steps and deliverables
 Methodology Categories

Process- Structured Design


Centered Rapid Application
Data-Centered Development
Object- Agile Development
Oriented
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Pros Cons
Identifies systems Design must be
requirements long specified on paper
before programming before programming
begins begins

Minimizes changes to
Long time between
requirements as
system proposal and
project progresses
delivery of new
system

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Pros Cons

Reduces Schedule Still Uses Paper


Time Documents

Less Chance of Sub-projects May Be


Rework Difficult to Integrate

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Spiral Model

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 Incorporate special techniques and tools:
 CASE tools
 JAD sessions
 Fourth generation/visualization programming
languages
 Code generators

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 Phased development
A series of versions developed sequentially
 Prototyping
 System prototyping
 Throw-away prototyping
 Design prototyping

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Insert Figure 1-4 here

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Pros Cons

Users Get a System


To Use Quickly Users Work with a
System that is
Intentionally
Users Can Identify
Incomplete
Additional Needs
For Later Versions

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Pros Cons

Users Interact with Tendency to do


Prototype Very Quickly Superficial Analysis

Users Can Identify Initial Design


Needed Changes Decisions May
And Refine Real Be Poor
Requirements

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Pros Cons

May Take Longer


Risks are Minimized
Than Prototyping

Important Issues are


Understood Before the
Real System is Built

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Pros Cons

Fast Delivery of Results Requires Discipline

Works Best in
Works Well in Projects Small Projects
With Undefined or
Changing Requirements Requires Much
User Input

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 Clear user requirements
 Familiarity with technology
 Complexity of system
 Reliability of system
 Time schedule
 Schedule visibility

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 Business analyst
 Systems analyst
 Infrastructure analyst
 Change management analyst
 Project manager

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 The Systems Development Lifecycle consists of
four stages: Planning, Analysis, Design, and
Implementation
 There are six major development methodologies:
the waterfall method, the parallel development
method, the phased development method, system
prototyping, design prototyping, and agile
development.
 There are five major team roles: business analyst,
systems analyst, infrastructure analyst, change
management analyst and project manager.

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