Sunteți pe pagina 1din 15

Triangulation is a powerful technique that facilitates validation

of data through cross verification from two or more sources. In


particular, it refers to the application and combination of several
research methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon.[2]

It can be used in both quantitative (validation) and qualitative


(inquiry) studies.

It is a method-appropriate strategy of founding the credibility of


qualitative analyses.

It becomes an alternative to traditional criteria like reliability and


validity.

It is the preferred line in the social sciences.

By combining multiple observers, theories, methods, and empirical


materials, researchers can hope to overcome the weakness or
intrinsic biases and the problems that come from single method,
single-observer and single-theory studies.
The purpose of triangulation in qualitative research is to
increase the credibility and validity of the results. Several
scholars have aimed to define triangulation throughout the years.

According to ODonoghue and Punch (2003), triangulation is a


method of cross-checking data from multiple sources to search
for regularities in the research data."[5]

According to Erina Audrey (2013) Triangulation also


crosschecks information to produce accurate results for certainty
in data collection

Denzin (1978) identified four basic types of triangulation:[6]

Data triangulation: involves time, space, and persons

Investigator triangulation: involves multiple researchers in an


investigation

Theory triangulation: involves using more than one theoretical


scheme in the interpretation of the phenomenon

Methodological triangulation: involves using more than one


method to gather data, such as interviews, observations,
questionnaires, and documents.

Validity
Validity is the extent to which the instrument measures what it purports to measure. It
seeks to establish the truth of the research and to enhance its credibility.
Validity is not only an issue when working with qualitative data, as Parlett and Hamilton
(1972) argue:
even the most rigorous statistical survey requires constant exercise of human
judgement - for example, in what questionnaire items to include; in what statistical
comparisons will be made and how; and, most of all, in what light the findings are
presented or summarised for others. This is not always acknowledged.....Finally, there
is...one powerful check on the studys validity - arguably the most powerful of all. Does
the study present a recognisable reality to those who read it? (p.12)
VALIDITY is achieved through:
the juxtaposition of quantitative and qualitative data;
rigour;
discussion and cross-checking;
piloting;
triangulation.
Anderson (1990, p.163) argues that the strength of the case study approach is that it
incorporates a chain of evidence in support of any conclusions drawn - the case study

itself strives for internal validity, trying to understand what is going on in the studied
situation.

Triangulation
Triangulation refers to the process of using more than one approach / researcher /
respondent / occasion / paradigm upon the same phenomenon so as to check the
validity of the findings and to provide evidence for having confidence in the findings.
If, for example, the outcomes of a questionnaire survey correspond to those of an
observational study of the same phenomena, the more the researcher will be confident
about the findings.
(Cohen and Manion, 1994, p.234)
Denzin suggests that there are four basic types of triangulation:
1. data triangulation.
2. investigator triangulation - the use of multiple rather than single observers.
3. theory triangulation using more than one theoretical scheme in the interpretation of
data.
4. methodological triangulation:
Triangulation between methods - employing two or more approaches to a single
problem/issue or aspect of it
One cannot triangulate between methods unless one can be sure that both (or all) of
the methods address a single issue (McFee, 1992, p.217).
Triangulation within a method - brings two or more viewpoints on a particular occasion
e.g. those of a teacher, student and observer with a view to accommodating all of their
viewpoints (McFee, 1992, p.216).
No single research method will ever capture all of the changing features of education,
each research method implies a different interpretation, and adds a different
perspective. Furthermore the use of contrasting methods considerably reduces the
chances that any consistent findings are attributable to similarities of method (Lin,
1976).

Thus triangulation aims to foster truth through the process of corroboration. It may also
serve the function of elaboration by providing richness of detail and initiation by
suggesting new areas for investigation (Greene, Caracelli and Graham, 1989). The
premises on which triangulation is based is that all methods have inherent limitations
and bias, so that the use of one method will invariably lead to limited and biased data.
This traditional view of triangulation is challenged by those who see it as providing a
rich and complex picture of some social phenomenon being studied rather than a clear
path to a singular view of what is the case (Mathison, 1988, p.15).
Mathison (1988) posits three outcomes which might emerge from a triangulation
strategy, namely:convergence; inconsistency, or contradiction. Convergence results
in a single proposition about a phenomenon; inconsistency of findings means that data
are neither confirmed or contradicted whilst contradictory data lead to
incommensurable propositions. (Mathison, 1988 p.16).
What is important is that all of the outcomes from triangulation need to be explained,
the process is not a technical fix, but rather a means of providing the researcher with a
holistic understanding of the phenomenon being researched.

Triangulation is used to:


strengthen qualitative findings;
reveal discrepant findings which are likely to enrich explanations;
monitor for bias;
reduce the possibility of unsubstantiated findings;
provide a complex picture of the phenomenon being studied.
Issues:
qualitative and quantitative research have different strengths and weaknesses so that
the ensuing data may not be as comparable as sometimes proposed by advocates of
triangulation;
difficulty in knowing what a conflict in results actually comprises (i.e. What is this
conflict actually telling you about the methods and your design?) (Bryman, 1994, pp.1214);
should all data have equal weighting?
you need to ensure that the data collected from different sources is comparable e.g.
data from documents and from observation.

Reliability,
Reliability is essentially a synonym for consistency and replicability over time, over
instruments and over groups of respondents (Cohen et al 2000, p. 117).
The more qualitative the research design the less reliable the data become. Reliability
can only be assured by using a highly structured instrument, so that when for example
an interviewer moves from a structured approach to probe or prompt then reliability is
necessarily compromised in the quest for greater validity. This tension between validity
and reliability needs to be explored in detail in interpretivist/eclectic research
approaches.

Ethics The ethical considerations of your research may not be so significant, but
nevertheless a fundamental principle of research is that the researcher
should be aware of the implications of his/her work.
It is clear that data gathering activities will involve practitioners in new
sets of relationships, it is necessary to ensure that the activities are
compatible with other professional responsibilities.
1. Relevant committees, authorities, individuals need to be consulted.
2. All participants must be allowed to influence the work, and the wishes
of those who do not wish to participate must be respected.
3. The development of the work must remain visible to all, and open to
suggestion
4. Permission must be obtained before making observations or examining
documents produced for other institutional purposes.
5. Description of others work must be negotiated with those concerned.
6. The researcher must accept responsibility for maintaining
confidentiality.
7. Obtain explicit authorisation before using quotations - e.g. verbatim
transcripts.
8. Retain the right to report your work.
9. Make the principles binding and known to all.

Sample Action Research Proposal


IMPROVING READING COMPREHENSION
THROUGH THE USE OF HIGHER ORDER THINKING ACTIVITIES

II - Background of the Study:


The area of focus for my project is improving Reading Comprehension Through
the Use of Higher Order Thinking Skill Activities. Without the solid foundation of reading
skill the researcher feels the children will be struggle hard throughout their schooling
and adult life. By learning the best comprehension strategies and how to best teach
these strategies to the pupils, the researcher hopes to provide the solid foundation
needed to succeed . Although the school's NAT result has meet or exceed its
expectation, still the researcher has a thought of a way to improve it. In reading class,
the grade three pupils scored84%, but the scores dropped in the 4th grade. So the
researcher concludes that the pupils score decreases because of the pupils have very
poor higher - order thinking skills to increase reading test scores and develop meaningful
reading experience to the pupils.

III - Statement of the Problem:


As the researcher of this research, I have found out that many of my pupils in
grade III are able to read fluently, but still have difficulty in answering the "how" and
"why" questions. I am hoping that by incorporating higher order thinking skills my pupils
would be able to transfer and make connections to reading. This is important in order
for a child to be successful. I feel that incorporating reading strategies and showing
students how to reflect about what they have read, would improve their reading
comprehension and to become life-long learners. I am looking forward to working on
this area of concern, and sharing my findings with my co-teachers.

IV- Significance of the Study:


The study will be deemed important for the proper recognition of the improving
Reading Comprehension Through the use of higher - order thinking activities on the
academic Performance of the grade III pupils, Likewise, the findings of this research may
prove useful to the following, to wit;

Pupils. Having a clearer view and firsthand experience of the teacher's


performance, this will further enhance pupil's knowledge of the importance of
mastering the basic skills of their competencies so they will make an effort to do best.
This may lead to better enthusiasm and develop good study habit.

Teachers. This study may heighten their awareness in identifying


the learning tasks that are well developed as well as the least. This may further
be a motivating factor to adapt measures and new strategies for the improvement
of instructions in reading.
Parents. The result of this study will serve as bird's eye view of
the parent to know the needs of their children with regards to improving their
reading comprehension.

School Administrator and Supervisors. Results of this investigation


may encourage administrators and supervisors help their teachers upgrade their
teaching performance in improving reading comprehension through closer
supervision and faculty development and training programs.

Department of Education Camarines Sur Specially Ragay


District. With the use of the results of the study, any educational upliftment will
benefit the municipality of Ragay as it may improve the quality of working force
of the municipality or the quality of life of their respective constituents.

Curriculum Planners. The findings of this study may assists the


planners in the proper selection of methods, techniques, and strategies that
need to be reinforced.

Community.The result of this study may benefit the community


in as much they know that the teachers of their children are equipped with the
necessary tools and competence in teaching them.

Researcher Himself. This may serve as inspiration in teaching


his pupils above and beyond his capacity.

Future Researcher. The information and insights that will be


gained from this study may serve as guide for other researcher in framing their
conceptual framework and design and at the same time encourage them to
conduct lateral studies within their area of preferences.

V- Scope of the Study

The general focus of the present study was on the Improving


Reading Comprehension Through the use of Higher Order Thinking Skills
Activities of the grade III pupils in Baya Elementary School, District of Ragay,
Division Of Camarines Sur.The study covered the PHIL-IRI assessment result of
the school year 2011-2012 utilizing the post -test. The aspect s in Improving
Reading Comprehension that the present study will look into the different reading
strategies. Predicting, making connections, visualizing, Inferring, questioning, and
summarizing are shown on this research to improve reading comprehension.

VI - Research Design
A. Methodology
This study employ the pre-Experimental one shot case
study. According to De Jesus
the pre experimental one shot case study is a design in which a
single group is only studied
once, subsequent to a treatment is the instruction of reading
strategies . It is important to teach
the strategies by naming the strategy and how it should be used,
modelling trough think aloud
process, group practice, partner practice and independent use of the
strategy.

The second tool used was the Phil-Iri test administered to


the pupils in the grade III
pupils in the first week of July, 2011. This tool used to determine
student growth in reading
comprehension.
The teacher observation checklist was used by the
researcher to gather data
throughout the intervention. This tool provides information of changes
on how well his pupils
understand and use reading comprehension strategies over time.

B. Sampling Design
Purposive sampling was employed in selecting pupils respondent of the study. The
pupils who were selected were enrolled in the third grade class for
the school year 2011-2012.

C. Description of Instrument Data and Gathering Form.


The Metacomprehension Strategy Index had a total of 25 questions
divided into three parts that asked about the strategies pupils used to help them
better understand the story. Part I of MSI is consist of statement about the
strategies used prior to reading a story, Part II of the MSI consist of statement
about the strategies used while reading a story, and the part III of the MSI consist
of statement about the strategies used after reading the story.

VI - Work Plan
Pre - Implementation

Date

Activities

_______________

_________________

_______________

_________________

During Implimentation
_______________

_________________

_______________

_________________

Post - Implementation
_______________

________________

_______________

________________

Proposed Budget:

Expected Expenses

Proposed

Budget
* Computer's Ink

Php. 1,

606.00
* Bond paper

Php. 108.00

Prepared by:

_________________
Teacher- I

Noted:
_______________________
School Head

Recommending Approval:
______________________
Public Schools District Supervisor

___________________
ES - I English

Approved:

___________________________________
Asst. Schools Division Superintendent

Stages of an Action Research Project


Lewin (1946) outlined a set of procedures for action research in the context of social planning which
are still adhered to today.
Planning usually starts with something like a general idea. For one reason or another it seems
desirable to reach a certain objective. Exactly how to circumscribe this objective, and how to reach it
is frequently not too clear. The first step then is to examine the idea carefully in the light of the
means available. Frequently more fact finding about the situation is required. If this first period of
planning is successful, two items emerge: namely, an 'overall plan' of how to reach the objective and
secondly, a decision in regard to the first step of action. Usually this planning has also somewhat
modified the original idea. ... The next period is devoted to executing the first step of the overall
plan. (In Deakin University, 1988, The action research reader, p. 42)
More fact-finding is usually necessary at this stage, new insights develop and the next planning stage
is corrected. The overall plan can be modified. The whole cycle can be described as planning,
executing and fact finding and so on for each step.
Rational social management, therefore, proceeds in a spiral of steps each of which is composed of a
circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of action. (Lewin, 1952, pp. 462-463)
Basically the process of an action research project consists of a number of phases:
initial reflection
planning
action
observation
reflection
Where possible or appropriate most projects go through several cycles or spirals of the basic phases.
Like all descriptions of research endeavours, the action research spiral and the stages it describes are
much more clear-cut than occurs in reality. Planning is seldom perfect, action reveals the need for
further planning, backtracking occurs, and so on. Nevertheless it is useful to given an account of
each phase separately in order to describe the action research process.

Initial Reflection
Action research arises from a problem, dilemma, or ambiguity in the situation in which practitioners
find themselves. It may be at the level of a general concern, a perceived need, or a course-related
problem. For example:
1. The students seem to have great difficulty with the section of the course on financial
management.
2. When they go on their clinical placements, students make little use of the theory we teach.
3. The assignments are mostly reproductions of lecture notes-there is little sign of any additional
reading.
For a concern to be translated into an action research project, it needs to be made more concrete,
so that it becomes susceptible to change or improvement. You need to devise a specific course of
action, which you can try out, to see if it affects your original concern. More specific questions for
the above concerns might be something like:
1. What changes could be made to the curriculum to clarify the relationship between financial
management and the prerequisite skills which are needed?
2. Would different teaching techniques better prepare students for the clinical situation?
3. How can the assessment questions be changed so that additional reading is encouraged?
Preliminary observation and critical reflection is usually needed to convert a broad concern to an
action theme. A concern does not often directly suggest the remedy: educational problems are not
that simple.
The changes you might make will often fall into one of three categories:
changes to the curriculum or syllabus
modifications to teaching techniques or adoption of a new method
changes to the nature of the assessment.
In some ways this stage is the most difficult as the problem needs to be sufficiently refined to be
tractable and to ensure that the focus is on the most important issues. At the same time, you must
avoid redefining the problem in such a way that the original concerns are not addressed adequately.
It is also important to recognise which problems or issues it is feasible to focus on in a project: in
some cases a commonsense solution to a current difficulty can readily be found, while in others
there may be institutional constraints which render attempts at solution beyond the scope of
teaching staff. For example, it is not uncommon for problems related to teaching and learning to
arise from course planning documents which may not be able to be changed for a given period of
time, say until a course evaluation and revision is due.

Lastly, attention needs to be given to the timing of the project. For instance, given semester
schedules and availability of students and staff, will it be possible to complete a cycle in the
foreseeable future or would it be better to delay the project until a later date?
Recording the Existing Situation
In action research you are aiming to promote change. To report the effects of the change you need a
record of the situation before and after the change. What were the observations which promoted
your concern? What are the current practices and the current situation? Some of the observation
techniques described in the section Techniques for Observation can be used before and after a
change takes place, to examine the effect of the action taken.
Finding Relevant Literature
As part of your initial reflection, you should find out whether there is any relevant literature to aid
your particular project. The educational literature is now so extensive that it is unlikely that there
isn't.
You could save time reading numerous journal articles if you can locate a book or review relevant to
your problem. The next short-cut is the ERIC educational database. Educational terminology is
probably not as precise or tightly defined as in some other disciplines and you therefore need to
experiment with key-words or combinations of key-words to locate the articles that you need.
In addition, don't forget the educational literature in your own subject area. Most disciplines have an
educational journal such as the Journal of Chemical Education, or devote sections of general journals
to educational topics.

Planning
The most important outcome of the planning phase is a detailed plan of the action you intend to
take or the change you intend to make. Who is going to do what, and by when? What are the
proposed alterations to the curriculum? How do you intend to implement your revised teaching
strategies? It is important to try to work out whether your plans are practicable and to consider how
others might react to their implementation.
You also need to make plans for observation or monitoring your proposed changes. Look through
the section on 'evaluation techniques' and decide which you will use and then prepare any
questionnaires, interview schedules or other observation devices as appropriate. Seek any advice
you need early! It is better to get help before you start gathering data, than to try to get help at the
end in order to interpret information from poorly designed instruments.

Action
Reality can be messy and unpredictable! In carrying out your plan, things will rarely go precisely as
expected. Do not be afraid to make minor deviations from your plan in

the light of experience and feedback. Make sure that you record any deviations from your plan, and
the reasons you made them.
Furthermore, it is in this phase that new insights are likely to arise. These can either be incorporated
into your current project or recorded for future research.

Observation
Detailed observation, monitoring and recording enables you to assess the effect of your action or
intervention and hence the effectiveness of the proposed change. The observation techniques you
can use are discussed in the next section.
In addition to the planned observations, all those involved in the action research project should keep
a diary or journal where additional observations and insights are recorded on a regular basis.

Reflection
Regular reflection within the project team is an integral feature of an action research project.
Innovations can be fine-tuned as the activity proceeds if participants meet on a regular basis.
At the end of an action cycle it is particularly important to reflect critically on what has happened
using the observations and notes made in diaries. How effective were your changes? What have you
learnt? What were the barriers to change? How can you improve the changes you are trying to make
in future?
Critical reflection can take place in isolation but it is usually more fruitful if takes place within small
group discussions where ideas and impressions can be shared and where hopefully changes in
attitude and practice in those concerned with the innovation can be brought about.
Many practices within higher education are strongly influenced by tacit conventions. Through
participative critical reflection it is possible to expose these conventions and examine whether their
observation is truly beneficial to the practices they influence. Often improvements to teaching and
learning can only be brought about once any unhelpful conventions are exposed and participants
move away from unconscious behaviour based upon these deep seated conventions.
As a result of this period of reflection, ideas will usually arise for a further cycle of action research:
most people find that a second cycle is needed. However, such a cycle should arise naturally from
the situation and the desire of participants to continue with the project. It would be pointless to
continue with a further cycle when there appears to be no need to do so, or the researchers are
unable to commit themselves to carrying it out.