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I n t roduct ion

This Manual describes the structure and the troubleshooting of electronic


control fuel injection system (common rail type) in 4HK1 and 6HK1 industrial
engines.
Use this manual sufficiently to perform service work properly and quickly.
Hitachi Construction Machinery Co., Ltd

General Contents
Disassemble and Assemble Engine
General Information
Engine Mechanical (4HK16HK1)
Cooling System
Fuel System
Engine Electrical
Exhaust System and Turbocharger

Engine Manual (1/2)


Control System
Electronic control fuel injection system (Common rail type)

General Information

GENERAL INFORMATION
General Information
Contents
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0A-2
Service Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0A-2
Reading the model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0A-6
General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0A-7

0A-2

General Information

General Information 0A-1

0A-2 General Information

General Information
Service Precautions
In order to carry out work safely
1. Always use an engine stand when taking the
engine down from the vehicle.
Do not place the engine directly onto the ground,
or place in a manner that interferes with the oil
pan.
2. If you are working together with others, always pay
attention to each other's safety.
3. If you are repairing any part of the electrical
system, always remove the minus side cable from
the battery terminal before starting work. If you are
removing the battery cover, always remove the
cover in a place that is away from sources of fire/
heat.
WSHK0190

6. All regular tools, gauges and special tools should


be regularly inspected, and prepared before
starting work. Do not use bent spanners, hammers
with damaged edges, chipped chisels, or any other
faulty or damaged tools.

4. Do not perform painting work or leave the engine


running for long periods of time in an enclosed or
badly ventilated indoor workshop.
5. Always use the correct specialized tool indicated in
the instructions. Using the incorrect tool may
cause damage to the parts or injury to the person
using the tool.
7. Always pay close attention to safety and handling
requirements when using grinders, cranes,
welders, and other such equipment.
Moreover, always wear the correct protective
garments and use the necessary safety tools for
the job in hand.

General Information 0A-3

WSHK0192

WSHK0191

8. Always check that there are no fuel leaks when


performing maintenance work on the fuel system.
(It may cause a fire.)

Replacement parts and part numbers.


1. Always replace packing, oil seals, o-rings, caulking
lock nuts, folding lock plates, split pins and other
such parts with brand new parts.
2. The parts numbers contained in this manual may
not represent the supply condition of the parts, and
the part numbers may be changed due to
revisions. Therefore, parts should always be
checked against a parts catalogue before use.
Liquid gasket

9. Pay close attention to the risk of ignition if you are


handling parts that carry a high voltage.
Furthermore, any oil or grease spilt onto rubber
parts must be wiped off immediately, as it will
cause deterioration of the rubber.

1. Each time you disassemble parts that use liquid


gasket, completely remove the old gasket residue
from each of the parts and matching sections using
a scraper, then clean each of the parts to
completely remove oil, water, and dirt etc. from the
various surfaces. Using the specified type of liquid
gasket, apply new liquid gasket to each of the
surfaces before reassembling the parts.
2. In order to make it easier to clean liquid gasket
surfaces, apply gasket remover liquid (Pando391D made by Three Bond Co., Ltd.) and leave
the part to stand for approximately 10 minutes,
after which the old liquid gasket residue will be
easier to remove.
However, this should not be used on resin
components or painted components.
3. Please take care not to apply too much or too little
liquid gasket.
Also, you should always re-apply the liquid gasket
upon itself when you start and finish application.
4. Make sure that there are no gaps when reinstalling the liquid gasket parts to each other. If
there are gaps between the two parts, re-apply the
liquid gasket. Some parts, especially the oil pan,
use the same size studs as a guide to eliminate the
need for knock pin positioning etc.
5. Re-install these parts within 7 minutes of applying
the liquid gasket.

0A-4 General Information


If more than 7 minutes passes, remove the
previous liquid gasket and re-apply it.
6. Please wait for at least 30 minutes since the last
part is installed before starting the engine.
Liquid gasket
Seal section

Product name

Manufacturer's name

Between cylinder block and Flywheel housing

1207B

Three Bond

Between cylinder block and Flywheel housing and


Crankcase

1207B

Three Bond

Between cylinder block and Crank case

1207B

Three Bond

Between cylinder block and Front cover

1207B

Three Bond

262

Loctite

Cylinder block, head plug nipple, unit, switches


Always use the liquid gasket products listed above,
or a liquid gasket identical to the ones listed above.
Use the correct quantity of liquid gasket. Always
follow the handling instructions for each product.
Application procedure
1. Wipe the contact surfaces clean of all water,
grease or oil. The contact surfaces should be dry.
2. Apply a regular bead width of liquid gasket to one
of the contact surfaces. Make sure that the bead
does not break at this point.
Notes:
If there are special regulations concerning the
application procedure in the repair document, please
follow those regulations.
Work procedure
1. Wipe the joint surfaces of the bolt, bolt hole, and
screw thread section clean of water, grease, and
oil. The contact surfaces should be dry.
2. Apply Loctite to the top 1/3 of the screw.
3. Tighten the bolt to the correct tightening torque.

Important:
After tightening the bolt, do not apply excessive torque
or try to rotate the bolt until at least one hour has
passed, and the Loctite has hardened.
Procedure for using the Plastigauge
Type

Measurable range

mm (in)

PG-1 (Green)

0.025 0.076 (0.001 0.003)

PR-1 (Red)

0.051 0.152 (0.002 0.006)

PB-1 (Blue)

0.102 0.229 (0.004 0.009)

Example: Procedure for measuring the clearance


between the connecting rod bearing and crank pin.
Clean the connecting rod and bearing, and install
the bearing to the rod.
Cut the plastigauge to the same width as the crank
pin, and while avoiding the oil pore of the crank pin
lay the gauge parallel to the pin.

General Information 0A-5


Line up the marks on the connecting rod and cap
and install the crank pin, apply molybdenum
disulfide to the thread section and bearing surface
of the fastening bolt, and rotate both cap and bolt
to the correct torque.
Important:
Do not move the connecting rod while using the
plastigauge.
Gently remove the cap and connecting rod, and
measure the crushed width of the plastigauge
(clearance between rod and pin) using the scale
printed on the bag.

Example: Measuring the clearance between the crank


bearing and crank journal
Clean the clamp face of the cylinder block and
crankcase bearing, and also the bearing, and
install the cylinder block to the crankcase.
Gently rest the crankshaft on the cylinder block,
and rotate it approximately 30 degree to stabilize it.

Cut the plastigauge to the same size as the journal


width, and while avoiding the oil pore of the journal
lay the gauge parallel to the journal.
Gently rest the crank case on the cylinder block,
apply molybdenum disulfide to the thread section
and bearing surface of the fastening bolt, and
tighten in sequence to the correct torque.
Important:
Do not rotate the crankshaft while using the
plastigauge.
Gently remove the crankcase, and measure the
crushed width of the plastigauge (clearance
between bearing and journal) using the scale
printed on the bag.

0A-6 General Information


Reading the model
Engine number stamping position
4HK1

WSHK0185

General Information 0A-7


6HK1

WSHK0186

General information
Terminology, description of abbreviations
Terminology definitions
Term

Explanation

Maintenance standard

The generic name for reference values required for maintenance, such as nominal
dimension, selection of a reference point, and limit.

Nominal dimension

Shows the standard value at the point of manufacture that does not include the
common difference.

Selection of a reference point Shows the standard value after assembling, repairing, or adjusting.
Limit

When this value (dimensions) is reached, it shows that the part has reached its full
limit and must be replaced or repaired.

Front rear, left right, upper


lower

These show each orientations of parts installed to the vehicle when looking from
the vehicle's forward direction.

Unit

Units written to SI conventions (mainly torque, pressure, force)


[Example] Length: mm, Torque: Nm {kgfm}

Warning

Items that carry the warning mark pose a danger to life or threat of serious injury if
not strictly observed.

Caution

Items that carry the caution mark may cause injury or lead to accidents if not strictly
observed.

Important

Items that carry the important mark may cause the vehicle to break down, or may
prevent the guaranteed normal operation of the system or related parts if not strictly
observed.

0A-8 General Information


Term

Explanation

Notes

Items that should receive special mention within a work procedure.

Description of abbreviations
Abbreviation
AC

Abbreviation
FWD

Forward
Forward

F/C

Fuel Cut
Fuel Cut

GND

Ground
Earth

Description
Alternating Current
Alternating Current

ACC

Accessory
Accessory

ACG

Alternating Current Generator


Alternating current generator

IC

API

American Petrol Institute


American Petroleum Institute

ID Plate

ASM (Assy) Assembly


Assembly
ATDC

After Top Dead Center


After Top Dead Center

BAT, BATT

Battery
Battery

BRG, Brg

Bearing
Bearing

BKT, BRKT

Bracket
Bracket

BTDC
CO
CONN

Before Top Dead Center


Before Top Dead Center
Carbon Oxide
Carbon Monoxide
Connector
Connector

CPU

Central Processing Unit


Central processing unit

C/U

Control Unit
Control unit

DC

Direct Current
Direct current

DI

Direct Injection
Direct injection

ECU

Engine Control Unit / Electronic Control


Unit
Engine control unit / control unit

Description

IN
ISO

I/PUMP
JIS

Integrated Circuit
Integrated circuit
Identification plate
Identification plate, ID plate
Intake, Intake
Intake
International
Standardization
International
Standardization

for

Organization

for

Injection Pump
Injection Pump
Japanese Industrial Standard
Japanese Industrial Standard

L/H, LH

Left Hand
Left hand side

M/V

Magnetic Valve
Magnetic valve

NOx

Nitrogen Oxide
Nitrogen Oxide

N-TDC

Organization

Number - Top Dead Center


Top dead center rotational frequency

OPT

Option
Option

Pole(S)
Pole

PCV

Pump
Control
Valve/
Positive
Crankcase Ventilation
Pump control valve/ Positive crankcase
ventilation

PM

Particulate Matter
Particulate matter

PS

Pre-Stroke
Pre-stroke

ECM

Engine Control Module


Engine control module

EGR

Exhaust Gas Recirculation


Exhaust gas recirculation

PTO

Exhaust
Exhaust

Power Take Off


Power take off

QOS

Quick On System
Rapid preheating system

Exh, EXH
Ft, FRT

Front
Front

Rr, RR

Rear
Rear

General Information 0A-9


Abbreviation
R/H, RH

SI (International System of Units)

Description

With regards the conversion to SI (International


System of Units)

Right Hand
Right hand side

R/L

Relay
Relay

STD

Standard
Standard

SW

Switch
Switch

TICS

Timing & Injection rate Control System


A type of injection system

VGS Turbo

Variable
Geometry
turbocharger
System
Adjustable turbo, VGS turbo

W/L

The introduction of the SI systems aims to


internationally unify the metric system and the various
units used by different countries (traditional weights
and measures, the foot pound method etc.), and to
curb the confusion that occurs between the different
units (conversion calculations etc.).
The new calculating method which adopted SI units
was completely adopted in Japan in 1992, and is
standardized by JIS-Z-8203.
All of the units in this manual are written in line with the
International System of Units SI units, and conventional
units are written in { } brackets.
SI
French) Abbreviated name of Le Systeme International
dUnites

Warning Lamp
Warning lamp

Connection between main SI units and conventional units


SI

Conventional Unit

Length

Same as the conventional unit

Weight (Mass)

kg

kg

Same as the conventional unit

Force

* kg, kgf

Torque

Nm

* kgm, gfm

Pressure

Pa

*kg/cm2, mmHg

Dynamic force, horsepower

PS

Capacity, air volume displacement

m3

Litle, L, cc

g/(kWh)

g/(PSh)

Fuel consumption

*1 Published service data may conveniently use kg for


force and mass (weight) instead of kgf.
*2 Some conversion results may be rounded off to 1 or
2 decimal places.
Converting expressions of quantity
When converting, prefixes such as k (kilo) or m (mili)
are used.
M

Mega

106

1,000,000

Kilo

103

1,000

100
0.1

Hecto

10

Deci

10-1

Centi

-2

Milli

Micro

10

0.01

10-3

0.001

-6

10

0.000001

200 kgf/cm2 = 19,620 kPa = 19.6 MPa


40 mmHg = 5,332 Pa = 5.3 kPa

Item, unit conversion

1 kgf = 9.80665 N
1 kgfm = 9.80665 Nm
1 kgf/cm2 = 9.80665 kPa, 1 mmHg = 133.3 Pa
1 PS = 0.74 kW
1 Litle = 1 dm3, 1 cc = 1mLitle = 1cm3
1 g/(PSh) = 1.360 g/(kWh)

Conversion formula
Length
km 0.6214 = mile
m 3.281 = ft
mm 0.03937 = in
Pressure
kPa 0.0101972 = kg/cm2
kPa 0.145038 = psi
MPa 10.197162 = kg/cm2
MPa 145.03774 = psi
Tightening torque
Nm 0.101972 = kgm
Nm 0.737562 = lb ft
Speed
kg/h 0.6214 = MPH
Temperature
C 1.8 + 32 = F

0A-10 General Information


Table of tightening torque
The tightening torque values in the table below apply to
all situations unless a special tightening torque is
specified.
bolts, nuts
Nm {kgfm}
Strength
classification

4.8
4T

Bolt head
Hexagon head bolt
section shape
* M10 1.5
M12 1.25
* M12 1.75

7T

Flange bolt

Hexagon head bolt

Flange bolt

19.6 ~ 33.3 {2.0 ~ 3.4} 22.3 ~ 37.2 {2.3 ~ 3.8} 27.5 ~ 45.1 {2.8 ~ 4.6} 30.3 ~ 50.4 {3.1 ~ 5.1}
49.0 ~ 73.5 {5.0 ~ 7.5} 54.9 ~ 82.3 {5.6 ~ 8.4} 60.8 ~ 91.2 {6.2 ~ 9.3}

68.1 ~ 102.1 {6.9 ~


10.4}

45.1 ~ 68.6 {4.6 ~ 7.0} 51.0 ~ 76.5 {5.2 ~ 7.8} 56.9 ~ 84.3 {5.8 ~ 8.6} 62.7 ~ 94.0 {6.4 ~ 9.6}
76.5 ~ 114.7 {7.8 ~
11.7}

83.0 ~ 124.5 {8.5 ~


12.7}

93.2 ~ 139.3 {9.5 ~


14.2}

100.8 ~ 151.1 {10.3 ~


15.4}

71.6 ~ 106.9 {7.3 ~


10.9}

77.2 ~ 115.8 {7.9 ~


11.8}

88.3 ~ 131.4 {9.0 ~


13.4}

94.9 ~ 142.3 {9.7 ~


14.5}

104.0 ~ 157.0 {10.6 ~


16.0}

115.6 ~ 173.3 {11.8 ~


17.7}

135.3 ~ 204.0 {13.8 ~


20.8}

150.1 ~ 225.2 {15.3 ~


23.0}

100.0 ~ 149.1 {10.2 ~


15.2}

109.4 ~ 164.2 {11.2 ~


16.7}

129.4 ~ 194.2 {13.2 ~


19.8}

142.5 ~ 213.8 {14.5 ~


21.8}

M18 1.5

151.0 ~ 225.6 {15.4 ~


23.0}

195.2 ~ 293.2 {19.9 ~


29.9}

* M18 2.5

151.0 ~ 225.6 {15.4 ~


23.0}

196.1 ~ 294.2 {20.0 ~


30.0}

M20 1.5

206.0 310.0 {21.0 ~


31.6}

269.7 ~ 405.0 {27.5 ~


41.3}

* M20 2.5

190.2 ~ 286.4 {19.4


29.2}

249.1 ~ 374.6 {25.4 ~


38.2}

M22 1.5

251.1 413.8 {25.6 ~


42.2}

362.8 ~ 544.3 {37.0 ~


55.5}

* M22 2.5

217.7 ~ 327.5 {22.2 ~


33.4}

338.3 ~ 507.0 {34.5 ~


51.7}

M24 2

358.9 ~ 539.4 {36.6 ~


55.0}

430.5 ~ 711.0 {43.9 ~


72.5}

* M24 3

338.3 ~ 507.0 {34.5 ~


51.7}

406.0 ~ 608.0 {41.4 ~


62.0}

M14 1.5
* M14 2
M16 1.5
* M16 2

The * mark indicates where soft materials have been used for internal thread sections, such as castings.

General Information 0A-11


Nm {kgfm}
Strength classification
Bolt head
shape

section

9.8
9T

8.8
Hexagon head bolt

Flange bolt

Hexagon head bolt

Flange bolt

5.6 ~ 11.2 {0.6 ~


1.1}

6.6 ~ 12.2 {0.6 ~


1.2}

M8 1.25

13.4 ~ 25.7 {1.4 ~


2.6}

15.3 ~ 28.4 {1.6 ~


2.9}

16.7 ~ 30.4 {1.7 ~


3.1}

18.1 ~ 33.6 {1.9 ~


3.4}

M10 1.25

31.3 ~ 52.5 {3.2 ~


5.4}

35.4 ~ 58.9 {3.6 ~


6.1}

37.3 ~ 62.8 {3.8 ~


6.4}

42.3 ~ 70.5 {4.3 ~


7.2}

31.3 ~ 51.4 {3.2 ~


5.2}

34.5 ~ 57.5 {3.5 ~


5.8}

36.3 ~ 59.8 {3.7 ~


6.1}

40.1 ~ 66.9 {4.1 ~


6.8}

M12 1.25

69.3 ~ 104.0 {7.1 ~


10.6}

77.7 ~ 116.5 {7.9 ~


11.9}

75.5 ~ 113.8 {7.7 ~


11.6}

85.0 ~ 127.5 {8.7 ~


13.0}

* M12 1.75

64.8 ~ 96.1 {6.6 ~


9.8}

71.4 ~ 107.2 {7.3 ~


10.9}

71.6 ~ 106.9 {7.3 ~


10.9}

79.5 ~ 119.2 {8.1 ~


12.2}

M14 1.5

106.2 ~ 158.8 {10.8


~ 16.2}

114.9 ~ 172.3 {11.7


~ 17.6}

113.8 ~ 170.6 {11.6


~ 17.4}

123.4 ~ 185.1 {12.6


~ 18.9}

100.6 ~ 149.8 {10.3


~ 15.3}

108.2 ~ 162.2 {11.1


~ 16.6}

106.9 ~ 160.0 {10.9


~ 16.3}

115.5 ~ 173.3 {11.8


~ 17.7}

154.3 ~ 232.5 {15.7


~ 23.7}

171.1 ~ 256.7 {17.4


~ 26.2}

160.0 ~ 240.3 {16.3


~ 24.5}

176.9 ~ 265.3 {18.0


~ 27.1}

147.6 ~ 221.4 {15.0


~ 22.6}

162.5 ~ 243.8 {16.6


~ 24.9}

153.0 ~ 229.5 {15.6


~ 23.4}

168.5 ~ 252.7 {17.2


~ 25.8}

M18 1.5

222.5 ~ 334.3 {22.7


~ 34.1}

229.5 ~ 345.2 {23.4


~ 35.2}

* M18 2.5

223.6 ~ 335.4 {22.8


~ 34.2}

230.5 ~ 346.2 {23.6


~ 35.3}

M20 1.5

307.4 ~ 461.7 {31.4


~ 47.1}

316.8 ~ 475.6 {32.3


~ 48.5}

* M20 2.5

284.0 ~ 472.1 {29.0


~ 43.5}

293.2 ~ 440.3 {29.2


~ 44.9}

M22 1.5

413.6 ~ 620.5 {42.2


~ 63.3}

424.6 ~ 636.5 {43.3


~ 64.9}

* M22 2.5

385.7 ~ 578.0 {39.3


~ 58.9}

394.2 ~ 592.3 {40.0


~ 60.4}

M24 2

490.8 ~ 810.5 {50.0


~ 82.7}

554.1 ~ 830.6 {56.5


~ 84.7}

* M24 3

462.8 ~ 693.1 {47.2


~ 70.7}

520.7 ~ 781.6 {53.1


~ 79.7}

M6 1

* M10 1.5

* M14 2
M16 1.5
* M16 2

The * mark indicates where soft materials have been used for internal thread sections, such as castings.

0A-12 General Information


Designations for bolt heads

Legend
1. Hexagon head bolt(4.8, 4T)
2. Hexagon head bolt(4.8, 4T)
3. Flange bolt(4.8, 4T)
4. Flange bolt(4.8, 4T)
5. Hexagon head bolt(7T)
6. Flange bolt(7T)
7. Hexagon head bolt (refined 8.8)
8. Hexagon head bolt (refined 8.8)

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Hexagon head bolt(Un-refined 8.8)


Hexagon head bolt(Un-refined 8.8)
Flange bolt(8.8)
Flange bolt(8.8)
Hexagon head bolt(9.8, 9T)
Hexagon head bolt(9.8, 9T)
Flange bolt(9.8, 9T)
Flange bolt(9.8, 9T)

Flare nut
Pipe diameter

Flare nut tightening torque (service


standard value) Nm {kgfm}

tightening torque
(for medium and large
size vehicles)

Flare nut 2 side width (mm)


Old

New

4.76 mm

12.8 ~ 18.6 {1.3 ~ 1.9}

14

14

6.35 mm

23.5 ~ 49 {2.4 ~ 5.0}

17

17

8.0 mm

23.5 ~ 49 {2.4 ~ 5.0}

19

17

10.0 mm

44.1 ~ 93.2 {4.5 ~ 9.5}

22

19

12.0 mm

58.8 ~ 137.3 {6.0 ~ 14.0}

27

24

15.0 mm

78.5 ~ 156.9 {8.0 ~ 16.0}

30

30

General Information 0A-13


Taper screw from connectors (brass)
Nm {kgfm}
Screw size

PT(R) 1/8

PT(R) 1/4

PT(R) 3/8

PT(R) 1/12

2.0 ~ 14.7
(0.2 ~ 1.5)

4.9 ~ 15.7
(0.5 ~ 1.6)

9.8 ~ 16.7
(1.0 ~ 1.7)

9.8 ~ 17.7
(1.0 ~ 1.8)

Special Tool Classification


A; Essential tool
Servicing operation cannot be done with any other tools than the essential tool.
B; Recommended tool
Servicing work can be done with a general-purpose tool commercially available.
However, it is advisable to use the recommended tool as much as possible for a reduced work time and an improved
safety in work operations.
C; Available tool
Although it takes a more working time, servicing operations can be made with a tool commercially available as
substitute for the available tool.

0A-14 General Information

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

ENGINE
ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DIESEL ENGINE (4HK1, 6HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-3
Precautions on Service Work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-3
Main Data and Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-11
Cylinder Head Cover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-14
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-14
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-15
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-16
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-18
Inlet Cover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-20
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-20
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-21
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-22
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-24
Turbocharger and Exhaust Manifold . . . . . . . . . . 1A-25
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-25
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-26
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-27
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-28
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-31
Timing Gear Train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-34
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-34
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-35
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-37
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-39
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-50
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-51
Rocker Arm Shaft ASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-52
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-52
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-52
Disassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-53
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-55
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-56
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-58
Camshaft ASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-59
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-59
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-60
Disassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-61
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-63
Fixing torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-65
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-65
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-66
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-68
Valve Stem Seal, Valve Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-69
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-69
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-69
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-70
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-71
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-73
Cylinder Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-74
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-74
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-74
Disassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-78

Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1A-81
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1A-87
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1A-94
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-101
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-101
Piston, Connecting Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-103
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-103
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-103
Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-104
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-110
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-112
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-114
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-114
Flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-115
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-115
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-115
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-117
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-117
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-119
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-119
Front Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-120
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-120
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-121
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-122
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-124
Crankshaft Front Oil Seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-126
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-126
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-126
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-128
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-133
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-133
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-134
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-134
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-134
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-135
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-138
Crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-139
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-139
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-139
Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-141
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-141
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-141
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-146
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-150
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-150
Cylinder Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-152
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-152
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-152
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-153
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-154
Lubrication System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-157
Precautions on Service Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-157

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Function Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-158
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-159
Oil Port Cover ASM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-160
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-160
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-160
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-160
Oil Cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-162
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-162
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-163
Disassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-164
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-164
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-165
Oil Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-168
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-168
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-168
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-169
Oil Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-171
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-171
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-171
Disassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-172
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-172
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-173
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-174
Oil Pressure Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-178
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A-178

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-3

DIESEL ENGINE (4HK1, 6HK1)


Precautions on Service Work
Matters that
maintenance

require

attention

in

terms

of

To prevent damage to the engine and ensure reliability


of its performance, pay attention to the following in
maintaining the engine: When taking down the engine
on the ground, do not make the bearing surface of the
oil pan touch directly the ground. Use a wood frame, for
example, to support the engine with the engine foot and
the flywheel housing.
Because there is only a small clearance between the
oil pan and the oil pump strainer, it can damage the
oil pan and the oil strainer.
When the air duct or air cleaner is removed, cover
the air intake opening to prevent foreign matter
from getting into the cylinder. If it gets into it, it can
considerably damage the cylinder and others while
the engine is operating.
When maintaining the engine, never fail to remove
the battery ground cable. If not, it may damage the
wire harness or electrical parts. If you need
electricity on for the purpose of inspection, for
instance, watch out for short circuits and others.
Apply engine oil to the sliding contact surfaces of
the engine before reassembling it. This ensures
adequate lubrication when the engine is first
started.
When valve train parts, pistons, piston rings,
connecting rods, connecting rod bearings or
crankshaft journal bearings are removed, put them
in order and keep them.
When installing them, put them back to the same
location as they were removed.
Gaskets, oil seals, O-rings, etc. must be replaced
with new ones when the engine is reassembled.
As for parts where a liquid gasket is used, remove
an old liquid gasket completely and clean it up
thoroughly so that no oil, water or dust may be
clung to them. Then, apply the designated liquid
gasket to each place anew before assembly.
Surfaces covered with liquid gasket must be
assembled within 7 minutes of gasket application.
If more than 7 minutes have elapsed, remove the
existing liquid gasket and apply new liquid gasket.
When assembling or installing parts, fasten them
with the specified tightening torque so that they
may be installed properly.

Matters that require attention in specifically dealing


with this engine.
Holes or clearances in the fuel system, which serve as
a passage of fuel, including the inside of the injector,
are made with extreme precision. For this reason, they
are highly sensitive to foreign matter and if it gets in, it
can lead to an accident on the road, for instance; thus,
make sure that foreign matter will be prevented from
getting in.
When servicing the fuel system, every precaution must
be taken to prevent the entry of foreign material into the
system.
Before beginning the service procedure, wash the
fuel line and the surrounding area.
Perform the service procedures with clean hands.
Do not wear work gloves.
Immediately after removing the fuel hose and/or
fuel pipe, carefully tape vinyl bags over the
exposed ends of the hose or pipe.
Always replace the high-pressure pipe in fuel
system with new one if it has been removed.
Reuse of it causes damage the seal surface,
resulting in fuel leakage.
If parts are to be replaced (fuel hose, fuel pipe,
etc.) do not open the new part packaging until
installation.
Work procedure
The fuel opening must be quickly sealed when
removing the fuel pipe, injection pipe, fuel injector,
fuel supply pump, and common rail.
The eyebolts and gasket must be stored in a clean
parts box with a lid to prevent adhesion of foreign
matter.
Fuel leakage could cause fires. Therefore, after
finishing the work, wipe off the fuel that has leaked
out and make sure there is no fuel leakage after
starting the engine.

1A-4 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


How to read the model
4HK1

Name
1. Cast The Engine Model

2. Stamp An Engine Number

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-5

6HK1

WSHK0001

Name
1. Stamp An Engine Number
Explanations on functions and operation
Electronic engine control
With the control unit, the range from injection to air
intake/exhaust, including fuel injection quantity,
injection timing, intake air restriction, EGR, and idling
rpm, is controlled.
Cylinder block
The cylinder block is cast-iron with the center distance
of each bore being equal and is of the highly rigid,
symmetrical structure with the crankshaft center being
the center. The bearing cap is of the ladder frame
structure and tightened up under the plastic range
rotation angle method.

Cylinder liner
The cylinder liner is selected to match an internal
diameter of a bore of the cylinder block and built, which
is imprinted on the left side of the cylinder.
Piston
The piston is aluminum-alloy and an autothermatic
piston with a strut cast, while the combustion chamber
is a round reentrant type.
Cylinder head
The cylinder head is cast-iron and there are 4 valves
per cylinder. The angular tightening method of the
cylinder head bolt further increases reliability and
durability.

1A-6 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Crankshaft
Tuftriding is given, while on the No. 1 balance weight
imprinted is the grade of each journal diameter.

Rotate the crankshaft to make the No.1 cylinder


meet the compression top dead center (TDC).
4HK1

EGR system
Based upon data, including water temperature, engine
speeds or engine loads, it is controlled via Engine
Control Module (ECM) to purify exhaust by recycling
part of it.
Its main components include an EGR valve, an EGR
cooler and various sensors.
Connecting rod cap bolt
The angular tightening method of the connecting rod
cap bolt further increases reliability and durability.
Common rail-type electronic control injection
system
The common rail-type electronic control injection
system is composed of a fuel supply pump that sets the
target pressure of high-pressure fuel and supply it, a
common rail that measures such high-pressure fuel
and a fuel injector that turns it into a fine spray and
injects it. Each is controlled via ECM based upon
various signals, while injection timing or fuel injection
quantity is controlled under every possible driving
condition.

6HK1

Fuel injector
The fuel injector is a 7-hole nozzle that adjusts fuel
injection quantity or injection timing by opening or
closing an electromagnetic valve on the head of the
fuel injector.
ECM corrects the dispersion of fuel injection quantity
between fuel injectors according to ID code data in
memory. At the replacement of fuel injectors, ID code
data should be stored in ECM.
Fuel filter with sedimenter
It is a fuel filter with sedimenter that gets rid of water by
making use of the difference in specific gravity between
light oil and water, which comes with an indicator that
notifies you that it is filled with water.
Preheating system
The preheating system consists the ECM, the glow
relay, glow plugs and the glow indicator lamp. The
preheating system is operated when the engine coolant
temperature is low, and make the engine easy to start.
Lubrication system
It is an oil filter with full-flow bypass, which uses a
water-cool oil cooler and oil jet to cool the piston.
Function check
Inspection/adjustment of valve clearance
1.

Inspection of valve clearance


Remove the cylinder head cover.
Remove the fuel injector harness ASM.
Loosen the terminal nuts alternately to remove.
Remove the leak off pipe.

WSHK0049
Insert a 0.4 mm (0.016 in) thickness gauge into a
clearance between the rocker arm and the bridge
to check it and adjust it if needed.
Valve clearance

mm (in)

Intake valve

0.4 (0.016)

Exhaust valve

0.4 (0.016)

Caution:
Adjust while being cold.
2. Adjustment of valve clearance
Caution:
Adjust valve clearance carefully so that the bridge may
become level (hit the end of the 2 valve axes).

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


a. Completely loosen all of the bridge and rocker
arm adjusting nuts and adjusting screws
(4HK1: 8 nuts and 8 screws, 6HK1: 12 nuts and
12 screws).
b. Place a 0.4 mm (0.016 in) thickness gauge
between the No. 1 cylinder rocker arm end and
the bridge cap.
c. Tighten the rocker arm adjusting screw until the
thickness gauge is snug (not tight) between the
rocker arm end and the bridge cap.
d. Tighten the rocker arm lock nut.
e. Tighten the bridge adjusting screw until the
bridge contacts the valve head.
f. Tighten the bridge lock nut.
g. Check that the thickness gauge is still held
snugly between the rocker arm end and the
bridge cap. If it is too tight, slightly loosen the
bridge adjusting screw and lock nut to restore
snugness.
h. Remove the thickness gauge.
i. Repeat the above procedure for the remaining
cylinders.
Tightening torque: 22 Nm (2.2 kgm/16 lb ft)

Name
1. Rocker Arm
2. Bridge Cap
3. Bridge

1A-7

With a thickness gauge kept inserted, tighten


an adjusting screw of the bridge lightly and
make sure that the tip of the adjusting screw
touches the end of valve axis and the
movement of the thickness gauge has become
tight.
Then, check if the end of the valve axis on the
opposite side is unstable or hits diagonally. If
so, loosen the bridge adjusting screw a little so
that the end of the valves on both sides may
touch properly.
Valve bridge clearance: 0.1 mm (0.0039 in) or
less
After making an adjustment so that the end of
the valves on both sides may touch properly,
tighten up an adjusting screw nut of the bridge
with a flathead screwdriver so that the bridge
adjusting screw may not rotate.
Tightening torque: 22 Nm (2.2 kgm/16 lb ft)
Caution:
If the adjusting screw of the bridge is poorly adjusted,
the bridge would tilt and be pushed down and seized,
which may damage the bridge guide, for example.
Thus, adjust it accurately.

Tightening torque:
Rocker arm adjustment 22 Nm (2.2 kgm/16 lb ft)
screw nut
Bridge adjustment screw 22 Nm (2.2 kgm/16 lb ft)
nut

1A-8 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Adjustment table (4HK1)
Cylinder No.

Valve arrangement

IN EX IN EX IN EX IN EX

No. 1 cylinder
Compression top dead center position

No. 4 cylinder
Compression top dead center position

Adjustment table (6HK1)


Cylinder No.

Valve arrangement

IN EX IN EX IN EX IN EX IN EX IN EX

No. 1 cylinder
Compression top dead center position

No. 6 cylinder
Compression top dead center position

If the No. 1 cylinder is the compression TDC,


adjust a valve clearance with { mark given on
the table and if the No. 4 (4HK1) or No. 6
(6HK1) cylinder is the compression TDC, that
with mark.
4HK1

6HK1

WSHK0002

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-9

4HK1

WSHK0003

Attach the harness ASM to the fuel injector.


Tighten the harness bracket with the
designated torque.
Tightening torque: 48 Nm (4.9 kgm/35 lb ft)
Install the terminal nuts on the fuel injector.

Name
1. Fuel Injector Harness Connector
6HK1

Tightening torque: 2 Nm (0.2 kgm/18 lb in)


Note:
Tighten the terminal nuts alternately in order to
prevent imbalance in tightening because they are
unified.
Do not tighten the nuts too tightly because it leads
to damage to the terminal stud.
Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to the Cylinder Head Cover.
Compression pressure inspection
Warm-up the engine.
Remove a negative terminal of the battery and
remove all the glow plugs.
Remove the harness connector for the fuel injector
built on the lower head cover (no fuel will be
injected).
Caution:
When the harness connector is removed, ECM judges
that it broke down and DTC is recorded. Upon
completion of measurement, never fail to clear memory
of ECM.
(For how to clear memory of ECM, refer to the Engine
Control System Section)

WSHK0004

Name
1. Fuel Injection Harness Connector
Install the negative terminal of the battery.
Turn on the starter to emit foreign matter within the
cylinders.
Install an adapter and a gauge of a compression
gauge of the special tool.

1A-10 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Compression gauge: 5-8840-2675-0 (J-26999-12)


Compression gauge adapter
4HK1: EN-46722
6HK1: 5-8840-2622-0
Turn on the starter to inspect compression
pressure.
4HK1
Compression pressure
Standard
Limit
Differences among
the cylinders

MPa (psi) / 200 rpm


2.84 3.24 (412 469)
1.96 (284)
294 kPa (43)

6HK1
Compression pressure

MPa (psi) / 200 rpm

Standard

3.24 (469)

Limit

2.26 (327)

Differences among
the cylinders

294 kPa (43)

Measure each cylinder one by one.


Caution:
To keep engine speed at 200 rpm or more, use fully
charged batteries.
Remove a compression gauge of the special tool.
Remove a negative terminal of the batteries.
Install a harness connector for the fuel injector built
on the lower head cover.
Install all the glow plugs.
Tightening torque: 20 Nm (2.0 kgm/15 lb ft)
Install the negative terminal of the battery.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-11


Main Data and Specifications
Item

Engine model 4HK1

Type

Diesel/4-cycle/water cooled-type, inline four-cylinder


OHC

Combustion chamber form

Direct injection type

Cylinder liner type

Dry type

Number of cylinders - cylinder bore


strokes
Displacement

mm (in)
cc (cu.in)

Compression ratio

4-115 (4.53) 125 (4.92)


5193 (317)
17.5

Compression pressure

MPa (psi)/rpm

Idle speed

rpm

Valve clearance

Intake

3.23 (468)/200
800
0.4 (0.016) (cold)

mm (in) Exhaust

0.4 (0.016) (cold)

Ignition type

Compressed ignition

Injection order

1-3-4-2

Lubricating system
Lubricating type

Pressure type

Oil pump type


Volume of lubricating oil

Gear type
L (qts)

Oil filter type

13.0 (13.7) 20.5 (21.7)


Full flow filter (cartridge type)

Oil cooling type

Built-in, water-cooling

Cooling system
Cooling type

Water cooling type

Radiator type

Corrugated fin (pressure type)

Water pump type

Centrifugal, belt type

Thermostat type

2 wax-type units

Thermostat valve-opening temperature

C (F)

85 (185)

Volume of coolant

L (qts)

14 (14.8) (incl. radiator)

Fuel system
Injection pump type

Electronic control common rail type

Governor type

Electronic type

Timer type

Electronic type

Injection nozzle type

Multi-hole type
7-hole and 0.16 mm (0.0063 in) inside diameter

Charging system
Generator type
Power output
Regulator type

AC type
V/A

24 - 50
IC

1A-12 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Item

Engine model 4HK1

Starting system
Starter type

Reduction type

Power output

V-kw

Preheat system type

24 - 5.0
Glow plug

Glow plug standard voltage/electric current

V/A

Item

23 - 3.5
Engine model 6HK1

Type

Diesel/4-cycle/water cooled-type, inline four-cylinder


OHC

Combustion chamber form

Direct injection type

Cylinder liner type

Dry type

Number of cylinders - cylinder bore


strokes
Displacement

mm (in)
cc (cu.in)

Compression ratio

6-115 (4.53) 125 (4.92)


7790 (475)
17.5

Compression pressure

MPa (psi)/rpm

Idle speed

rpm

Valve clearance

Intake

3.04 (441)/200
For Hitachi products: 800, For JCB and Sumitomo
products: 900
0.4 (0.016) (cold)

mm (in) Exhaust
Ignition type

0.4 (0.016) (cold)


Compressed ignition

Injection order

1-5-3-6-2-4

Lubricating system
Lubricating type

Pressure type

Oil pump type


Volume of lubricating oil

Gear type
L (qts)

Oil filter type

28 (29.6) 38 (40.2)
Full flow filter (cartridge type)

Oil cooling type

Built-in, water-cooling

Cooling system
Cooling type

Water cooling type

Radiator type

Corrugated fin (pressure type)

Water pump type

Centrifugal, belt type

Thermostat type

2 wax-type units

Thermostat valve-opening temperature

C (F)

82 (180)

Volume of coolant

L (qts)

14.5 (15.3)

Fuel system
Injection pump type

Electronic control common rail type

Governor type

Electronic type

Timer type

Electronic type

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Item

Engine model 6HK1

Injection nozzle type

Multi-hole type
7-hole and 0.16 mm (0.0063 in) inside diameter

Charging system
Generator type

AC type

Power output

V/A

Regulator type

24 - 90/50
IC

Starting system
Starter type

Reduction type

Power output

V-kw

Preheat system type

24 - 5.0
Glow plug

Glow plug standard voltage/electric current


Special tool
Illustration

1A-13

Tool Number/Description

5-8840-26750-0
J-26999-12
Compression gauge

EN-46722
Compression gauge
adapter
(4HK1)

5-8840-2622-0
Compression gauge
adapter
(6HK1)

V/A

23 - 3.5

1A-14 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Cylinder Head Cover


Components
4HK1

Name
1. Head Cover
2. Gasket

3. Head Cover Case


4. Gasket

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-15

6HK1

WSHK0005

Name
1. Head Cover
2. Gasket

Removal
1. Remove the head cover.
2. Remove the gasket.

3. Head Cover Case


4. Gasket

1A-16 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


4HK1

4HK1

Name
1. Head Cover

Name
1. Head Cover Case
2. Fuel Injector Harness Connector

6HK1
6HK1

1
1

WSHK0006

Name
1. Head Cover
3. Remove the fuel injector harness connector.
4. Remove the head cover case.
5. Remove the gasket.

WSHK0007

Name
1. Head Cover Case
2. Fuel Injector Harness Connector

Installation
1. Install the gasket on the lower cover.
2. Install the head cover case.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 18 Nm (1.8 kgm/13 lb ft),
6HK1: 13 Nm (1.3 kgm/9.6 lb ft)
3. Install the fuel injector harness connector.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Caution:
Push it in thoroughly until the claws of the lock raise.

1A-17

4HK1

4HK1

6HK1
Name
1. Head Cover Case
2. Fuel Injector Harness Connector
6HK1

WSHK0008

WSHK0007

Name
1. Head Cover Case
2. Fuel Injector Harness Connector
4. Install the gasket on the head cover.
5. Install the head cover and tighten up according to
the orders given on the figure.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 18 Nm (1.8 kgm/13 lb ft),
6HK1: 13 Nm (1.3 kgm/9.6 lb ft)

1A-18 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Torque Specifications
4HK1

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-19

6HK1
N m{kg m/lb ft}

13 {1.3 / 9.6}

13 {1.3 / 9.6}

WSHK0009

1A-20 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Inlet Cover
Components
4HK1

Name
1. Case ASM
2. Inlet Cover
3. Inlet Pipe Gasket

4. Inlet Pipe
5. Reed Valve

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-21

6HK1

5
4
6

1
3

WSHK0177

Name
1. Case ASM
2. Inlet Cover
3. Inlet Pipe Gasket

Removal
1. Remove the common rail.
Refer to the Common Rail in the fuel system
section.
2. Remove the inlet pipe.
3. Remove the case ASM.
Remove the reed valve from the case ASM.
Inspect the valve whether the carbon has not come
in contact around the valve.

4. Inlet Pipe
5. Reed Valve
4. Bolt

4HK1

1A-22 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

WSHK0048

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

4. Remove the boost pressure sensor and bracket.

Installation

1. Install the inlet cover.


Apply the liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207C or
equivalent) by using a bead diameter of 2.5 5.5
mm (0.1 0.2 in) along a groove of the inlet cover.
Install within seven minutes after applying liquid
gasket.
Tightening torque: 22 Nm (2.2 kgm/16 lb ft)
Caution:
Be careful not to forget to fasten the bolt indicated
with an arrow.
Tighten up the stud part together with the common
rail.

WSHK0236

Name
1. Boost Pressure Sensor
2. Bracket
5. Remove the inlet cover.
On the place where the case ASM is to be installed
inside the inlet cover (arrowed) is a bolt. Be careful
not to forget to remove it.
Peel the liquid gasket off carefully.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


2. Install the boost pressure sensor and bracket.
Apply Loctite to the bolt shown on the illustration
and install it.
Tightening torque: 21.6 Nm (2.2 kgm/16 lb ft)

1A-23

Name
1. Case ASM
2. Reed Valve
3. Bolt
6HK1

WSHK0236
WSHK0179

Name
1. Boost Pressure Sensor
2. Bracket
3. Install the reed valve to the case ASM
Apply the liquid gasket (Loctite 262) on the
mounting bolt and tighten it to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 9.8 Nm (1.0 kgm/7.2 lb ft)
4. Install the case ASM.
Apply the liquid gasket and mount within 7
minutes.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)
4HK1

Name
1. Case ASM
2. Reed Valve
3. Bolt
5. Install the gasket on the inlet pipe and tighten up
with the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)
6. Install the common rail.
Refer to the Common Rail in the fuel system
section.

1A-24 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Torque Specifications
4HK1

6HK1

N m(kg m/lb ft)

39 (3 / 29)

20 (2 / 15)

24.5 (2.5 / 18)

WSHK0063

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Turbocharger and Exhaust Manifold


Components
4HK1

Name
1. Oil Feed Pipe
2. Water Return Pipe
3. Exhaust Manifold
4. Water Feed Pipe

5. Turbo Charger ASM


6. Exhaust Adapter
7. Oil Return Pipe

1A-25

1A-26 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

WSHK0012

Name
1. Oil Feed Pipe
2. Exhaust Manifold
3. Turbo Charger ASM

Removal
1. Loosen the radiator drain cock to drain coolant.
(4HK1 only)
2. Remove the air intake duct from the turbocharger
and the air cleaner.
3. Remove the charge air pipe from the turbocharger
and the charge air cooler.
4. Disconnect the exhaust pipe.
5. Remove the EGR pipe.
6. Remove the oil feed pipe.
7. Remove the oil return pipe.
8. Remove the water feed pipe. (4HK1 only)

4. Exhaust Adapter
5. Oil Return Pipe

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Remove the water return pipe. (4HK1 only)

1A-27

6HK1

WSHK0013

Name
1. Water Return Pipe
9.
10.
11.
12.

Remove the heat protector on the turbocharger.


Remove the exhaust adapter bolts.
Remove the four turbocharger clamping nuts.
Remove the turbocharger from the exhaust
manifold.
13. Remove the exhaust manifold.
4HK1

Name
1. Exhaust Manifold
2. Turbocharger
3. Exhaust Adapter

Inspection
Inspection of exhaust manifold
Inspect the plane surface of the plane on which the
manifold and the cylinder head are to be installed.
Manifold installation plane surface
Standard
Limit

mm (in)
0.3 (0.01) or less
0.5 (0.02)

Caution:
If the plane surface exceeds the limit, replace it.

Name
1. Exhaust Manifold
2. Turbocharger
3. Exhaust Adapter

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

1A-28 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Check a crack in the exhaust manifold visually.
Carefully inspect the turbocharger for abrasion and/or
excessive wear. Make any necessary adjustments,
repairs, and/or part replacements.
Inspecting the turbocharger is refered to the Turbo
chager in the exhaust system section.

6HK1

Installation
1. Put the gasket in to install the exhaust manifold.
4HK1: Tighten up with the 2 nuts and 6 bolts
according to the order given on the figure.
Tightening torque: 34 Nm (3.5 kgm/25 lb ft)
6HK1: Tighten up with the 12 nuts according to the
order given on the figure.
Tightening torque: 55 Nm (5.6 kgm/41 lb ft)
34 Nm (3.5 kgm/25 lb ft) for (7)
only
Caution:
Do not tighten up too much because it hampers
expansion and contraction due to the heat from the
manifold.
4HK1

WSHK0014

2. Install the gasket and turbocharger to the exhaust


manifold. Tighten the nuts to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 52 Nm (5.3 kgm/38 lb ft)
3. Tighten the adapter bolts (exhaust manifold side)
to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 32.4 Nm (3.3 kgm/24 lb ft)
4HK1

Name
1. Exhaust Manifold
2. Turbocharger
3. Exhaust Adapter

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-29

Tightening torque: 41 Nm (4.2 kgm/30 lb ft)

6HK1

6. Install the water return pipe bracket. Tighten the


bolts to the specified torque. (4HK1 only)
1

Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)


Install the rubber hose between the water return
pipe and the thermostat housing.
4HK1

WSHK0013

Name
1. Exhaust Manifold
2. Turbocharger
3. Exhaust Adapter
4. Install the water feed pipe to the turbocharger.
(4HK1 only)
Tighten the joint bolts to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 41 Nm (4.2 kgm/30 lb ft)
Install the pipe bracket and tighten the bolts to the
specified torque.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)
4HK1

Name
1. Water Return Pipe
7. Install the turbocharger oil feed pipe to the top of
the turbocharger. Tighten the joint bolts to the
specified torque.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 41 Nm (4.2 kgm/30 lb ft),
6HK1: 34.5 Nm (3.5 kgm/25 lb ft)
Install the pipe bracket and tighten the bolts to the
specified torque.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)
8. Tighten the oil return pipe bolts to the specified
torque.
Tightening torque (Turbocharger side):
4HK1: 9 Nm (0.9 kgm/80 lb in),
6HK1: 17.6 Nm (1.8 kgm/13 lb ft)
Tightening torque (Cylinder block):
4HK1: 22 Nm (2.2 kgm/16 lb ft),
6HK1: 17.6 Nm (1.8 kgm/13 lb ft)

Name
1. Water Feed Pipe
5. Install the water return pipe. Tighten the joint bolts
to the specified torque. (4HK1 only)

1A-30 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Oil Return Pipe
9. Install the air intake duct and tighten the bolts to
the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 10 Nm (1.0 kgm/89 lb in)
10. Install the charge air pipe in the turbo charger and
the charge air cooler.
Tightening torque:
Duct bolt 21 Nm (2.1 kgm/15 lb ft)
Duct clip 6 Nm (0.6 kgm/53 lb in)
11.
12.
13.

Connect the exhaust pipe.


Add cooling water to the radiator. (4HK1 only)
Install the EGR pipe.
Put the gasket between both ends of the EGR pipe
and install to the specified torque.

Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)


14. Replenish the coolant. (4HK1 only)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Torque Specifications
4HK1

1A-31

1A-32 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

N m(kg m/lb ft)

17.6 (1.8 / 13)

34.5 (3.5 / 25)

23.5 (2.4 / 17)

50.5 (5.1 / 37)

32.4 (3.3 / 24)

17.6 (1.8 / 13)

WSHK0015

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-33

N m{kg m/lb ft}

WSHK0232

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

1A-34 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Timing Gear Train


Components
4HK1

Name
1. Idle Gear B Shaft
2. Idle Gear A
3. Idle Gear B
4. PTO Idle Gear
5. PTO Idle Gear Cover
6. Flywheel

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Rear Oil Seal


Flywheel Housing
Slinger
Crankshaft Position Sensor
Oil Pan
Fuel Supply Pump

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-35

6HK1

10

1
3

8
12

11

WSHK0017

Name
1. Idle Gear B Shaft
2. Idle Gear A
3. Idle Gear B
4. PTO Idle Gear
5. PTO Idle Gear Cover
6. Flywheel

Removal
1. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.
2. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
3. Remove the camshaft ASM.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.
4. Remove the cylinder head ASM.
Refer to the Cylinder Head.
5. Remove the fuel supply pump ASM.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Rear Oil Seal


Flywheel Housing
Slinger
Idle Gear A Shaft
PTO Idle Gear Shaft
Oil Pump

1A-36 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Refer to Fuel Supply Pump in the fuel system
section.

6HK1

WSHK0064
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
6. Remove the crankshaft position sensor.
Remove the crankshaft position sensor before
remove flywheel.
4HK1

7. Remove the flywheel.


Install the crankshaft stopper on the starter part of
the flywheel housing to stop the crankshaft from
rotating.
Caution:
Check if the stopper meshes with the ring gear without
fail and is installed properly.
Special tool
Crankshaft stopper: x-xxxx-xxxx-x (xx-xxxxx)

Loosen the fastening bolts of the flywheel little by


little according to the order given on the figure.
After loosening all the bolts, remove the stopper to
remove the flywheel.
8. Remove the rear oil seal.
Refer to the Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal.
9. Use the slinger remover to remove the slinger.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Caution:
If the oil seal has been removed, both the oil seal and
slinger must be replaced as a set.

1A-37

Never fail to remove the bolt(s) given on the figure.

Special tool
Slinger remover:
1-8521-0027-0 (For 4HK1 and 6HK1)
x-xxxx-xxxx-x (For 4HK1)
8-9439-6858-0 (For 6HK1)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Remove the idle gear A.


Remove the idle gear A shaft. (6HK1)
Remove the oil pump. (6HK1)
Remove the idle gear B.
Remove the idle gear B shaft.

10. Remove the oil pan.


11. Remove the PTO idle gear cover.
12. Remove the PTO idle gear.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Inspection
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
13. Remove the flywheel housing.

1. Measurement of idle gear backlash


Apply a dial gauge on the teeth of the idle gear to
be measured and move the gear to right and left
lightly to read how much the dial gauge shook
(never fail to fix the gear).
If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the
idle gear.

1A-38 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Backlash of the timing gear
Standard
Limit

mm (in)

0.10 0.17 (0.004 0.006)


0.30 (0.01)

Measure backlash of the idle gear before removing


the idle gear A.

3. Outside diameter of idle gear shaft


Use a micrometer to measure an external diameter
of each idle gear shaft.
If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the
shaft.
4HK1
2. Measurement of end clearance of the idle gear.
Insert a thickness gauge between the idle gear and
the thrust collar to measure a clearance.
If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace
either the idle gear or the thrust collar.

Outside diameter of idle gear shaft


Standard
Limit

29.959 29.980 (1.179 1.180)


29.80 (1.173)

External diameter of the idle gear A shaft


Axial play of idle gear
Standard
Limit

mm (in)
0.080 0.140 (0.003 0.006)
0.20 (0.008)

Measure an end clearance of the idle gear before


removing the idle gear B.

Standard
Limit

mm (in)

mm (in)

39.959 39.975 (1.573 1.574)


39.80 (1.567)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

6HK1

Outside diameter of idle gear shaft


Standard
Limit

mm (in)

29.959 29.980 (1.179 1.180)

Clearance between the idle gear and the


shaft
Standard

29.9 (1.177)

Limit
External diameter of the idle gear A shaft
Standard
Limit

49.950 49.975 (1.967 1.968)


49.9 (1.965)

If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace


either the idle gear or the shaft.
4HK1
mm (in)

0.020 0.062 (0.0007 0.0024)


0.200 (0.0079)

Clearance between the idle gear A and the


shaft
Limit

0.200 (0.0079)
mm (in)

0.025 0.075 (0.0010 0.0030)


0.200 (0.0079)

Installation
1. Install the idle gear B shaft.
Tighten the idle gear B shaft to the specified
torque.
Tightening torque: 31 Nm (3.2 kgm/23 lb ft)

Clearance between the idle gear and the


shaft

Standard

0.020 0.062 (0.0007 0.0024)

Clearance between the idle gear A and the


shaft
Standard

4. Clearance between the idle gear and the idle gear


shaft
Measure an inside diameter of the idle gear
bushing to calculate a clearance between the idle
gear and the idle gear shaft.

Limit

mm (in)

mm (in)

Limit

Standard

1A-39

mm (in)

0.025 0.066 (0.0009 0.0026)


0.200 (0.0079)

After installation, apply engine oil to the shaft.

1A-40 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

WSHK0193

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


2. Install the idle gear B.
Install the idle gear B in the direction given on the
figure and tighten up the fastening bolts with the
specified torque.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 110 Nm (11.2 kgm/81 lb ft),
6HK1: 95 Nm (9.7 kgm/70 lb ft)

Name
1. Crank Gear
2. Idle Gear A
Align the crankshaft gear (2) L mark and idle gear
A (1) 0 marks.
Tighten the installing bolt to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 133 Nm (13.6 kgm/98 lb ft)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Idle Gear
2. Thrust Collar
3. Bolt
3.
4.
5.

Install the oil pump.


Install the idle gear A shaft. (6HK1)
Install the idling gear A.
Rotate the crankshaft to make the No.1 cylinder
meet the compression top dead center (TDC).

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Name
1. Idle Gear C
2. Camshaft Gear
3. Idle Gear B
4. PTO Gear
5. PTO Idle Gear
6. Install the flywheel housing.
Clean the rear side of the cylinder block. In
particular, remove overflow liquid gasket
thoroughly when the crankcase is installed.
As the figure shows, apply the liquid gasket
(ThreeBond 1207B or equivalent) inside a hole of
the bolt (except the bolt holes indicated with an
arrow) evenly.

6.
7.
8.
9.
4HK1

Crankshaft Gear
Oil pump Drive Gear
Fuel Supply Pump Gear
Idle Gear A

1A-41

1A-42 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

Align with the knock pin of the cylinder block and


install the flywheel housing.
Tightening torque of the flywheel housing (4HK1):
Nm (kgm/lb ft)
1 = 96 (9.8/71)
2 = 77 (7.9/57)
3 = 38 (3.9/28)
Tighten up the Mark 3 from the cylinder block side.

WSHK0043
4HK1

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-43

Tightening torque of the flywheel housing (6HK1):


Nm (kgm/lb ft)
1 = 96 (9.8/71)
2 = 86 (8.8/63) 3 = 119 (12.1/88)
4 = 53 (5.4/39)
5 = 73 (7.4/54)
6 = 26 (2.7/19)
6HK1

1
1

1
3

6
1

1
1

WSHK0044
7. Install the PTO idle gear.
Apply engine oil over the part where the gear of the
idle gear shaft is to be put together.
Put the idle gear and the shaft together and install
it on the location given on the figure and tighten up
with the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 133 Nm (13.6 kgm/98 lb ft)
6HK1: 119 Nm (12.1 kgm/88 lb ft)

1A-44 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

8. Install the PTO idle gear cover.


Install the O-ring on the cover and install it on the
flywheel housing and tighten up the tightening
bolts with the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 19 Nm (1.9 kgm/14 lb ft)
4HK1

WSHK0194

9. Install the oil pan.


Apply the liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207B or
equivalent) on a joint between the cylinder block,
the front cover and the flywheel housing with a
beat diameter of 3 mm (0.12 in).
Install the oil pan within 7 minutes after applying
the liquid gasket.
4HK1

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

1A-45

6HK1

WSHK0195

With the flywheel housing, the front cover and the


stud of the crankcase as a guide, put together the
gasket and put the oil pan on it.
Then, put the rubber ASM on the oil pan and fix it
by fastening bolts and nuts.
4HK1

Name
1. Oil Pan
2. Gasket
Tightening
4HK1
After fastening the oil pan at the respective points
of (1), (2), (3), and (4), fasten other parts.
Tightening torque: 30 Nm (3.1 kgm/22 lb ft)

1A-46 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1
Fastening the oil pan from the part of A or B in
clock wise order.
It tightens again by specified torque.
Tightening torque: 24.5 Nm (2.5 kgm/18 lb ft)

WSHK0197

After pressing in the slinger, make sure that the


distance between crankshaft end surface and the
slinger is A as specified.
4HK1

WSHK0196

10. Install the rear slinger using installer, setting tool.


Special tool
4HK1
Oil seal installer kit: x-xxxx-xxxx-x (x-xxxxx)
6HK1
Oil seal setting tool: 8-94396-856-0
Install the slinger (1) to the end of adapter (2).
Install the adapter to the crankshaft (3).
Install the slinger sleeve (4) to the adapter. Tighten
the center bolt (5) until the sleeve comes in contact
with the adapter stopper.

WSHK0198

Distance (A): 17.30.3 mm


Distance (B): 10.80.1 mm

(0.70.01 in)
(0.40.004 in)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

1A-47

WSHK0201
WSHK0199

Distance (A): 170.3 mm

(0.70.01 in)

Caution:
Be sure to replace the slinger and oil seal as a set.
11. Install the rear oil seal using installer, setting tool.

After pressing the oil seal, make sure that the


distance between crankshaft end surface and the
oil seal as specified.
4HK1

WSHK0202

Distance (A): 7.80.3 mm


WSHK0200

Special tool
4HK1
Oil seal installer kit: x-xxxx-xxxx-x (x-xxxxx)
6HK1
Oil seal setting tool: 8-94396-856-0
Apply engine oil to the oil seal lip.
Caution:
Do not allow engine oil to come in contact with the
outside oil seal and felt ring.
Insert the oil seal (1) into the adapter (2).
Insert the oil seal sleeve (3) to the adapter.
Tighten the center bolt until the sleeve comes into
contact with the adapter stopper.

(0.30.01 in)

1A-48 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

13. Rotate the crankshaft to make the No. 1 cylinder


meet the compression TDC.
14. Remove the oil drain adapter.
15. Install the O-ring on the fuel supply pump and
make the slits with an arrow meet and with the stud
bolt as a guide, install the fuel supply pump
tentatively.
Caution:
When removing the fuel supply pump, if the stud
bolt on the cylinder block side loosens, or the stud
bolt is replaced, apply the Loctite No. 262 on the
side where the stud bolt is to be buried before
assembly.

WSHK0203

Distance (B): 7.50.15 mm

(0.30.006 in)

12. Install the flywheel.


Along with the knock pin of the crankshaft, install
the flywheel and tighten up with the specified
torque according to the order given on the figure.
Tightening torque:
1st step =
78 Nm (8.0 kgm/58 lb ft)
2nd step =
60
3rd step =
60

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Check if the alignment mark of the gear painted
white is at the location given on the figure when
viewed from the plug hole and tighten up with the
specified torque.
Nut tightening torque:

50 Nm (5.1 kgm/37 lb ft)

Bolt tightening torque:

76 Nm (7.7 kgm/56 lb ft)

If the location of the teeth of the painted gear is not


in the right place, put it together all over again.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


17. Install the cylinder head ASM.
Refer to the Cylinder Head.
18. Install the camshaft ASM.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.
19. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
20. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Plug Hole
2. Alignment Mark
16. Install the oil drain adapter ASM on the plug hole
and tighten with the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 6 Nm (0.6 kgm/53 lb in)
Apply engine oil over the O-ring nice and thin and
install it.

Name
1. Adapter
2. O-Ring

1A-49

1A-50 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Torque Specifications
N m{kg m/lb ft}
31 {3.2 / 23}

110 {11.2 / 81}

50 {5.1 / 37}

134 {13.7 / 99}


134 {13.7 / 99}

76 {7.7 / 56}
19 {1.9 / 14}

78 {8 / 58}

60

60

6 {0.6 / 4}

30 {3.1 / 22}

8 {0.8 / 6}

WSHK0065

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Special Tool
Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

x-xxxx-xxxx-x
xx-xxxxx
Crankshaft stopper
Rank B

1-8521-0027-0
Slinger remover
Rank B

x-xxxx-xxxx-x
x-xxxxx
Oil seal installer kit
(4HK1)
Rank A

8-9439-6856-0
Oil seal setting tool
(6HK1)
Rank A

1A-51

1A-52 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Rocker Arm Shaft ASM


Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Camshaft Bracket
2. Rocker Arm
3. Wave Washer
4. Rocker Arm

Removal
1. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.
2. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Along with the camshaft bracket, remove the
rocker arm shaft ASM.

5. Rocker Arm Bracket


6. Camshaft Bracket
7. Rocker Arm Shaft

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Because the bolt(s) shown on the figure is are
designed to fix the rocker arm shaft, do not remove
it for now.

1A-53

6. Remove the camshaft bracket to take the shaft out.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Caution:
Pay full attention so as not to drop the bridge cap in the
gear case of the rear part of the cylinder head or the
hole into which oil pours back in the front.

Disassembly
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Remove the camshaft bracket.


Remove the rocker arm.
Remove the wave washer.
Remove the rocker arm.
Remove the rocker arm bracket.
Disassemble according to the order (2) (4)
thereafter.

Name
1. Camshaft Bracket
2. Rocker Arm
3. Wave Washer
4. Rocker Arm
5. Rocker Arm Bracket
6. Camshaft Bracket
7. Rocker Arm Shaft
7. Check if the oil hole is clogged of the camshaft
bracket (on the rear side).

8. Check if the rocker arm shaft is bent.


Place the rocker arm shaft on a V block.
Check if it is bent by rotating the shaft with a dial
gauge on the center of the shaft.
As a result of measurement, if its bend is slight,
press it to rectify it (while cold).

1A-54 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


If the bend of the shaft exceeds the limit, replace
the shaft.
Bend of the rocker arm shaft
Limit

mm (in)
0.3 (0.012)

10. Inspect a clearance between the rocker arm and


the rocker arm shaft.
Use a cylinder gauge to measure an inside
diameter of the bushing of the rocker arm to
measure a clearance between the external
diameter of the shaft.
If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the
rocker arm and the shaft.
Clearance between the rocker arm and
rocker arm shaft
Standard
Limit

mm (in)

0.010 0.056 (0.0004 0.0022)


0.2 (0.0079)

9. Check if the rocker arm shaft is worn.


Use a micrometer to measure 8 places of the
vibrating part of the rocker arm.
If the measurement falls is the limit or less, replace
the shaft.
External diameter of the rocker arm shaft
Standard

22.0 (0.866)

Limit

21.85 (0.860)

mm (in)
11. Inspect a clearance between the roller of the
rocker arm and the rocker arm pin.
a. Pass a string, for instance, through an opening
between the rocker arm and the roller, pull it in
the direction indicated with an arrow strongly
and measure the gap between the rocker arm
and the roller with the roller stuck out. Figure 1
b. After marking the measuring point, pull the
string out and measure the gap of the marked
place with the roller pushed deep into the end.
Figure 2
c. The gap between the measurement taken
under a. and that under b. will be a clearance
between the roller and the rocker arm pin. If it
exceeds the limit, replace the rocker arm.
Clearance between the roller and the
rocker arm pin
Standard
Limit

mm (in)

0.068 0.099 (0.0026 0.0038)


0.2 (0.0079)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Reassembly
1. Install the camshaft bracket to one side of the
rocker arm shaft tentatively first. When the rocker
arm shaft ASM is installed on the cylinder head,
tighten them up fast.
Assemble in the reverse order of disassembly.

2. Install the rocker arm.


Apply engine oil in an inside diameter of the rocker
arm, the roller and the rocker arm pin and install it
on the rocker arm shaft.

1A-55

3. Install the wave washer between the rocker arm.


4. Install the rocker arm bracket.
Pay attention to the direction in which the bracket
is put together and put it together with the rocker
arm shaft.
5. Install the camshaft bracket.
Install the camshaft bracket on the rocker arm
shaft with the bolts indicated with an arrow
tightened tentatively. When the rocker arm shaft
ASM is installed on the cylinder head, tighten them
up fast.

1A-56 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Camshaft Bracket
2. Rocker Arm
3. Wave Washer
4. Rocker Arm
5. Rocker Arm Bracket
6. Camshaft Bracket
7. Rocker Arm Shaft

Name
1. Bridge Cap
2. Bridge
Loosen an adjusting screw of the rocker arm, apply
engine oil over the roller part of the rocker arm and
install it on the cylinder head.
Loosen the bolts indicated with an arrow a little, it
will become easier to install it.

Installation
1. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
If the bridge cap comes off, apply engine oil over
the inside of the bridge cap and put it together with
the bridge.
Caution:
Pay full attention so as not to drop the bridge cap in the
gear case of the rear part of the cylinder head or the
hole into which oil pours back in the front.

Apply engine oil on a screw of the bolts and nuts.


Tighten up the tightening bolts of the rocker arm
ASM tentatively, and gradually tighten up the entire
rocker arm ASM horizontally according to the order
of the nut on the rocker arm side.
Tightening torque:
4HK1
Bolt (3) = 56 Nm (5.7 kgm/41 lb ft)
Nut (1), Bolt (2), (4) = 27 Nm (2.8 kgm/20 lb ft)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Name
1. Camshaft Bracket Fixing Nut
2. Camshaft Bracket Fixing Bolt
3. Rocker Arm Bracket Fixing Bolt
4. Rocker Arm Shaft Set Bolt
6HK1
Nut (1) (4) and Bolt (10) (13) =
27 Nm (2.8 kgm/20 lb ft)
Bolt (5) (9) = 56 Nm (5.7 kgm/41 lb ft)

WSHK0204

Adjustment of valve clearance


Refer to Function Check.
2. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.

1A-57

1A-58 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Camshaft ASM
Components
4HK1

Name
1. Bearing Cap
2. Bearing

3. Knock Pin
4. Camshaft Gear

1A-59

1A-60 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

11

WSHK0055

Name
1. Bolt
2. Washer
3. Gear
4. Pin
5. Spring
6. Pin

Removal
1. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.
2. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
3. Remove the camshaft bearing cap.
4. Remove the bearing upper.
5. Remove the camshaft ASM.
6. Remove the bearing lower.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Sub Gear
Dish Spring
Snap Ring
Pin
Camshaft

Caution:
Put the removed bearings in order with a tag, for
example, by cylinder.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-61

WSHK0057

Disassembly
1. Remove the scissors gear ASM. (6HK1)
Fix the hexagon portion of the camshaft in a vise
using a mouth ring. Use snap ring pliers to remove
the sub gear.
Caution:
Take care not to damage to the cam portion and the
journal portion of the camshaft.

Name
1. Snap Ring
2. Dish Spring
3. Sub Gear
4. Spring
5. Camshaft Gear
2. Remove the camshaft gear.
Remove the fastening bolts of the camshaft gear
and put the block of wood in a puller to remove the
camshaft gear.

WSHK0056
Name
1. Wood
3. Remove the knock pin.
4. Inspect the camshaft visually.
Check if the journal and cam parts of the camshaft
are worn or damaged, if so, replace it.

1A-62 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


If the height of the cam lobe is the limit or less,
replace the camshaft.
Height of the cam lobe

mm (in)

Intake air

Exhaust

Standard

52.8 (2.08)

54.5 (2.15)

Limit

51.8 (2.04)

53.5 (2.11)

5. Check the axial play of the camshaft.


Use a thickness gauge to measure an end
clearance of the camshaft gear and the camshaft
bracket.
If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the
camshaft gear or the camshaft.
End clearance of the camshaft
Standard
Limit

mm (in)

0.085 0.205 (0.033 0.008)


0.25 (0.009)

Caution:
Measure an end clearance of the camshaft before
disassembling.

WSHK0228

7. Check if the camshaft journal is worn.


Use a micrometer to measure wear which is not
even with a diameter of the camshaft journal.
If the measured uneven wear exceeds the limit,
replace the camshaft.
External diameter of the camshaft journal
part
Standard
Limit

39.950 39.975 (1.5728 1.5738)


39.850 (1.5688)

Partial wear of the camshaft journal part


Limit

6. Check if the cam lobe is worn.


Use a micrometer to measure the height of the
cam lobe.

mm (in)

0.05 (0.0019)

mm (in)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Clearance of the journal part
Standard
Limit

1A-63
mm (in)

0.020 0.087 (0.0008 0.0034)


0.15 (0.0059)

8. Check for bent of the camshaft.


Place the camshaft on a V block to measure a
bend with a dial gauge.
Rotate the camshaft slowly to measure how much
the dial indicator shook. If it exceeds the limit,
replace the camshaft.

Reassembly
Bent of the camshaft
Limit

mm (in)
0.05 (0.0019)

1. Install the knock pin.


2. Install the camshaft gear.
With the side of the camshaft gear center boss part
stuck out being on the camshaft side, install the
camshaft gear along with the knock pin.
Tightening torque: 142 Nm (14.5 kgm/105 lb ft)
Caution:
Be careful not to damage the cam and journal parts
when tightening up the gear.

9. Measure a camshaft journal oil clearance.


a. Measure an inside diameter of the camshaft
bearing with a dial gauge.
b. Read the difference between the inside
diameter of the camshaft bearing and the
diameter of the camshaft journal.
If the measured oil clearance exceeds the limit,
replace the camshaft bearing.

3. Install the scissors gear ASM. (6HK1)

1A-64 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Fix the hexagon portion of the camshaft in a vise
using a mouth ring. Assemble the spring with its
left end contacting the pin of camshaft main gear to
make a gap on the right.
Assemble the sub gear so that its pin is inserted
into the gap between the right side of pin of the
camshaft main gear and the right end of the spring.

Before installing the camshaft to the cylinder head,


rotate the sub gear using the special tool to
prevent the spring force which acts on the sub
gear from affecting. Align the hole of the sub gear
with the camshaft main gear and install the phase
alignment pin from the sub gear side to match the
teeth.
Special tool
Scissors gear spring wrench: 5-8840-2674-1

WSHK0057
Name
1. Snap Ring
2. Dish Washer
3. Sub Gear
4. Spring
5. Camshaft Gear

WSHK0244

Assemble onto the cylinder head.

Use snap ring pliers to assemble the snap ring and


the dish washer securely.

WSHK0056

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-65

Fixing torque

N m(kg m/lb ft)

142 (14.5 / 105)

WSHK0060

Special Tool
Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

Illustration

5-8840-2674-1
Scissors gear spring
wrench
Rank A
WSHK0245

1A-66 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Installation

4HK1

1. Rotate the crankshaft to make the No. 1 cylinder


meet the compression TDC.
4HK1

WSHK0066
6HK1

6HK1

WSHK0049
2. Install the camshaft bearing lower.
Apply engine oil over the camshaft bearing lower
and install it on the cylinder head.
3. Install the camshaft ASM.
Put together the camshaft ASM so as to make the
B (4HK1) or (6HK1) mark meets the upper
face of the cylinder head.

4. Install the baring upper to the bearing cap.


5. Install the bearing cap.
Apply engine oil on the bearing upper.
Direct the front mark of the bearing cap toward the
front of the engine and put it together with the
cylinder head in numerical order.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Apply engine oil over the screw part and tighten up


the bearing cap with the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 27 Nm (2.8 kgm/20 lb ft)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


6. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
7. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.

1A-67

1A-68 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-69

Valve Stem Seal, Valve Spring


Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Camshaft Bearing Cap
2. Camshaft Bearing
3. Camshaft
4. Rocker Arm Shaft ASM
5. Valve Stem Oil Seal

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Removal

5. Remove the bridge (2).

1. Remove the cylinder head cover.


Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.
2. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
3. Remove the camshaft ASM.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.
4. Remove the bridge cap (1).

Valve Spring
Spring Upper Seat
Split Collar
Bridge
Valve Spring Seat

Caution:
Keep the removed bridge and bridge cap properly so
that they may be put back to the original place.

1A-70 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


8. Remove the valve spring.
Put the removed valve springs in order by cylinder
number.
9. Remove the valve stem oil seal.
Use pliers to remove the oil seal.
10. Remove the valve spring seat.

Name
1. Bridge Cap
2. Bridge
Caution:
Pay full attention so as not to drop the bridge cap in the
gear case of the rear part of the cylinder head or the
hole into which oil pours back in the front.
6. Remove the split collar.
Apply compressed air over the cylinder from the
glow plug holes to keep the valve at the home
position.
Use a replacer to compress the valve spring to
remove the split collar.
Special tool
Valve spring replacer: 5-8840-2621-0 (J-43263)
Pivot: 8-9439-6862-0 (EN-46721)

Caution:
Do not reuse the removed oil seal.

Inspection
Check the valve spring.
Caution:
Check the valve spring visually and if there is clear
damage or wear-out, replace it.
1. Free length
Measure free length of the spring and if it is shorter
than the specified limit, replace the spring.
4HK1
Free length of the valve spring

mm (in)

Intake air

Exhaust

Standard

65.9 (2.59)

68.1 (2.68)

Limit

62.9 (2.48)

65.1 (2.56)

6HK1
Free length of the valve spring

7. Remove the spring upper seat.


Remove the special tool to remove the upper seat.

mm (in)

Intake air

Exhaust

Standard

59.9 (2.36)

68.1 (2.68)

Limit

58.7 (2.31)

66.7 (2.63)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-71

4HK1
Tension of the valve spring

N (lb)

Intake air

Exhaust

Installation
length mm (in)

46.0 (1.81)

46.0 (1.81)

Standard

348 (78)

383 (86)

Limit

330 (74)

356 (80)

6HK1
Tension of the valve spring

2. Valve spring squareness


Use a surface plate and a square to measure the
valve spring squareness.
If the measured value exceeds the specified limit,
the valve spring must be replaced.

N (lb)

Intake air

Exhaust

Installation
length mm (in)

46.0 (1.81)

46.0 (1.81)

Standard

348 (78)

378 (85)

Limit

309 (69)

329 (74)

4HK1
Valve spring squareness
Limit

mm (in)
3.0 (0.12)

6HK1
Valve spring squareness
Limit

mm (in)
3.4 (0.13)

Installation
1. Install the valve stem oil seal.
Apply engine oil over the peripheral part of the
valve guide and install the oil seal by using a valve
stem seal installer.
Caution:
After installing the valve stem oil seal, check if it is
inserted nice and deep and the oil seal is not tilted or
the garter spring has not come off.
3. Tension
Use a spring tester to compress the spring to the
installation height. Measure tension of the
compressed spring. If the measurement is lower
than the limit, replace the spring.

1A-72 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Special tool
4HK1
Valve stem seal installer: 8-9439-6815-0 (EN-47685)
6HK1
Valve guide oil seal installer: 5-8840-2625-0 (J43267)

3. Install the spring upper seat.


4. Install the split collar.
Apply compressed air over the cylinder from the
glow plug holes to keep the valve at the home
position.
Use a replacer to compress the valve spring and
install the split collar.
Special tool
Valve spring replacer: 5-8840-2621-0 (J-43263)
Pivot: 8-9439-6862-0 (EN-46721)

2. Install the valve spring.


Install it with the paint mark or the narrow side of
the spring pitch being the lower side (cylinder head
side).
Paint mark
Intake air

Light blue

Exhaust

Yellow

5. Apply engine oil over the bridge and install it.


Caution:
Move it up and down to check if it moves smoothly.
6. Apply engine oil over the bridge cap and install it.
Caution:
Pay full attention so as not to drop the bridge cap in the
gear case of the rear part of the cylinder head or the
hole into which oil pours back in the front.

Name
1. Spring Pitch
2. Paint Mark

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-73

Special Tool
Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

5-8840-2621-0
J-43263
Valve spring remover
Rank B

8-9439-6862-0
EN-46721
Pivot ASM
Rank B
Name
1. Bridge Cap
2. Bridge
7. Install the camshaft ASM.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.
8. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
9. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.

8-9439-6815-0
EN-47685
Valve stem seal installer
(4HK1)
Rank B

5-8840-2625-0
J-43267
Valve guide oil seal
installer
(6HK1)
Rank B

1A-74 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Cylinder Head
Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Bridge Cap
2. Bridge
3. Bridge Guide
4. Split Collar
5. Spring Upper Seat
6. Valve Spring
7. Valve Stem Oil Seal
8. Valve Guide
Caution:
To avoid electric shock;
Set the switch to the OFF position and disconnect
battery negative cable before checking or repairing the
fuel injector, wiring or/and connectors.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Idle Gear C Cover


Idle Gear C
Glow Plug
Intake And Exhaust Valves
Cylinder Head
Valve Spring Seat
Thermostat
Water Outlet Pipe

Removal
1. Drain the coolant.
2. Remove the engine harness.
3. Disconnect the exhaust pipe.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


4. Remove the turbocharger.
Refer to the Turbocharger and Exhaust Manifold.
5. Remove the left-hand EGR adapter and right-hand
EGR pipe.
6. Remove the EGR water feed pipe.
7. Remove the EGR water return pipe.
8. Remove the EGR cooler.
9. Remove the water feed pipe for coolant water for
the EGR cooler and the water return pipe.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Harness Bracket
2. Harness Connector
3. Fuel Injector Terminal Nut
4. Nozzle Leak-Off Pipe
17. Remove the fuel leak-off hose.
18. Remove the fuel leak-off pipe (2).
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

4HK1

Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. Water Return Pipe
3. EGR Cooler
4. EGR Pipe
5. Water Feed Pipe
10. Remove the fan guide bracket.
11. Remove the left-hand intake pipe between the
inter-cooler and the inlet duct.
12. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.
13. Remove radiator upper hose.
14. Loosen the fuel injector terminal nuts alternately to
the same level, and remove the terminal.
15. Loosen the fuel injector harness bracket bolt,
remove the inside connector, and remove the
harness bracket.
16. Remove the nozzle leak-off pipe (4).

Name
1. High Pressure Pipe
2. Leak-Off Pipe

1A-75

1A-76 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

6HK1
1
1

WSHK0020

WSHK0019

Name
1. High Pressure Pipe
2. Leak-Off Pipe
19. Remove the water bypass hose from the cylinder
head side.
Remove the engine coolant temperature sensor
connector.
4HK1

Name
1. Water Bypass
20. Remove the EGR valve and EGR valve connector.
21. Remove the cam angle sensor connector.
22. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
23. Remove the camshaft ASM.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.
24. Remove the bridge cap carefully so that it does not
fall into inside the engine.
25. Remove the bridge.
Caution:
Store the removed bridge and bridge cap so that they
can be placed in their original locations.
26. Remove the glow plug connector.
27. Remove the glow plug.

Name
1. Water Bypass

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


28. Remove the injection pipe clip, and remove the
injection pipe.
Important:
Do not reuse the high-pressure pipe in fuel system if it
has been removed.
4HK1

1A-77

31. If you have difficulty in removing the fuel injector,


set the fuel injector remover in the fuel injector,
tighten the attachment part on the joint of the leakoff pipe and pull out the fuel injector upward.
Special tool
Fuel injector remover: 5-8840-2826-0 (EN-46720)
Sliding hammer: 5-8840-0019-0 (J-23907)
Caution:
When pulling out the fuel injector using a special tool,
check that the fuel injector sleeve does not come off.

Name
1. Fuel Injection Pipe
2. Fuel Injection Pipe Clip
6HK1
2
1

Name
1. Sliding Hammer
2. Fuel Injector Remover
3. Fuel Injector ASM

WSHK0021

Name
1. Fuel Injection Pipe
2. Fuel Injection Pipe Clip
29. Remove the common rail.
Remove the common rail
connector.

pressure

30. Remove the fuel injector bracket.

sensor

Caution:
Attach a cylinder number to the removed fuel injector
when storing it.
Be sure not to make the nozzle touch something.

1A-78 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

32. Remove the lower head cover.


33. Remove the cylinder head ASM.
Loosen the cylinder head bolts in the order
described in the drawing.
Caution:
Be sure not to overlook (1) and (2) because they are
attached with the flywheel housing with M10 bolts.
Remove the cylinder head gasket.

WSHK0022

Disassembly
1. Remove the case ASM.
Be sure not to lose the gasket.
2. Remove the boost pressure sensor and bracket.
1

Caution:
Replace the head gasket with a new one once it was
removed.
2

4HK1

WSHK0236

Name
1. Boost Pressure Sensor
2. Bracket
3. Remove the inlet cover.
Remove liquid gasket adherent to the removed
inlet cover.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

1A-79

10. Remove the idle gear C.

4. Remove the A/C compressor bracket.


5. Remove the exhaust manifold.
Remove the heat protector and remove the
exhaust manifold.
6. Remove the exhaust gasket.
7. Disconnect the water outlet pipe.
8. Remove the thermostat.

Name
1. Idle Gear C
2. Shaft

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


9. Remove the idle gear C cover.
Put the edge of a driver on the outer circle of the
sealing cup as shown in the drawing, tap it lightly,
reverse it, then pull it out with pliers or other
equipment.

11.
12.
13.

Remove the split collar.


Remove the spring upper seat.
Remove the valve spring.
Use a replacer to compress the valve spring to
remove the split collar.

Special tool
Valve spring replacer: 5-8840-2621-0 (J-43263)
Pivot: 8-9439-6862-0 (EN-46721)
Remove the special tool, then remove the upper
sheet and springs.
Sort the removed valve springs by cylinder
number.

1A-80 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

14. Remove the intake and exhaust valves.


Sort the removed valves according to cylinders by
using tags and others.

16. Remove the valve guide.


Use the valve guide replacer to press out the
valve guides from the bottom side of the cylinder
head.
Special tool
Valve guide replacer: 5-8840-2628-0 (J-43272)

15. Remove the valve stem oil seal.


Use pliers to remove the oil seals.
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
17. Put the nozzle sleeve remover on the nozzle
sleeve from the bottom side of the cylinder head,
then pull out the nozzle sleeve.
Special tool
Nozzle sleeve remover: 5-8840-2623-0 (J-43265)
Caution:
Be sure not to scratch the bottom side of the
cylinder head.
Do not reuse the removed nozzle sleeve.
Carefully remove sawdust in the screw groove.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Name
1. Nozzle Sleeve
18. Remove the bridge guide.
Electrically weld the nut on the head of the bridge
guide, attach the sliding hammer and pull it out.

1A-81

Inspection
1. Check the cylinder head ASM.
Remove varnish, soot and others adhered on the
metal surface completely. Use metal brush and
others so that the seal surface of the surface
where the gasket is installed is not hurt.
Check the following causes in the case of leak of
the seal surface of the cylinder head, corrosion, air
leak and defective gasket.

a.

Improper installation
Defective tightening of the cylinder head.
Winding seal surface of the cylinder block.
Damage on the screw surface or extracted
cylinder head bolt due to extra tightening torque

Caution:
Replace suspicious bolt.
b. Inside the combustion chamber, glow plug hole.

Name
1. Nut
19. Remove the oil seal.
Press the tool against the oil seal. Strike the tool to
remove the seal from the inside of the cylinder
head.

1A-82 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Check whether there is a crack between the
valve seats and in the cylinder head of the
exhaust port part, and replace the cylinder head
if there is serious damage or crack. Check the
collar if necessary.

Use a straight edge ruler and thickness gauge


to measure the four sides and diagonal lines as
shown in the drawing, and replace if they
exceed the limit.
Distortion of the surface where the
manifold and cover are installed
Standard
Limit

c. Flatness of the under surface of the cylinder


head
Use a straight edge ruler and thickness gauge
to measure the four sides and diagonal lines as
shown in the drawing, and replace if they
exceed the limit.
Distortion of the under surface of the
cylinder head
Standard
Limit

mm (in)

0.05 (0.002) or less


0.20 (0.0079)

0.05 (0.002) or less


0.2 (0.0079)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


e. Flatness of the exhaust manifold
Use a straight edge ruler and thickness gauge
to measure the flatness. If it exceeds the limit,
replace the exhaust manifold.
Distortion of the exhaust manifold
Standard
Limit

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


d. Flatness of the surface where the exhaust
manifold and inlet cover are installed

mm (in)

mm (in)

0.3 (0.0118) or less


0.5 (0.0197)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Gap

1A-83
mm (in)

Assembly standard

0.020 (0.00079)
0.057 (0.00224)

Usage limit

0.1 (0.0039)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


2. Bridge cap
Inspect abrasion and deformation of the surface
where the cap and the rocker arm adjust bolt
contact.
If the amount of abrasion is 0.1 mm (0.0039 in) or
larger, or if it abrades away in a zonal shape,
replace it.
Abrasion of the bridge cap
Limit

mm (in)
0.1 (0.0039)

Name
1. Bridge
2. Bridge Guide
4. Check the valve guide.
Caution:
If there is a scratch or abnormal abrasion in the valve
stem and the inner diameter part of the valve guide,
replace it with new one along with valve guide.
a. Measure the valve guide clearance.
Measure the diameter of the valve stem with a
micro meter.
If the diameter of the valve stem is smaller than
the limit, replace the valve and valve guide
altogether.
4HK1
The external diameter of the valve stem

3. Bridge
Make sure the bridge moves smoothly along the
bridge guide.
Measure the gap between the bridge and bridge
guide.

mm (in)

Standard

Limit

Intake valve

8.946 (0.3522)
8.962 (0.3528)

8.88 (0.3496)

Exhaust valve

8.921 (0.3512)
8.936 (0.3518)

8.80 (0.3465)

1A-84 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1
The external diameter of the valve stem
Intake valve
Exhaust valve

mm (in)

Standard

Limit

8 (0.315)

7.88 (0.3102)

5. Inspect abrasion of the bridge gap.


Measure the contact surface of bridge cap and the
rocker arm, using a dial gauge.
If the abrasion exceeds the limit, or there is an
abnormal abrasion (zonal abrasion), replace the
bridge cap.
Measure the gap between the valve guide and
valve stem within 10 mm (0.39 in) from the
valve guide, using a dial gauge.
If the measured value exceeds the limit, replace
the valve guide and valve altogether.

Abrasion of the bridge cap


Limit

mm (in)
0.1 (0.00394)

4HK1
Gap between the valve guide and
valve stem

mm (in)

Standard

Limit

Intake valve

0.038 (0.00150)
0.071 (0.00280)

0.20 (0.00787)

Exhaust valve

0.064 (0.00252)
0.096 (0.00378)

0.25 (0.00984)

6HK1
Gap between the valve guide and
valve stem

mm (in)

Standard

Limit

Intake valve

0.039 (0.00153)
0.062 (0.00244)

0.20 (0.00787)

Exhaust valve

0.064 (0.00252)
0.096 (0.00378)

0.25 (0.00984)

6. Check the valve.


Thickness of valve
Measure the thickness of the valve.
If the measured value exceeds the limit, replace
the valve and valve guide altogether.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-85

4HK1
Thickness of valve

mm (in)
Standard

Limit

Intake valve

1.8 (0.0709)

1.3 (0.0512)

Exhaust valve

1.75 (0.0689)

1.3 (0.0512)

6HK1
Thickness of valve

mm (in)
Standard

Limit

Intake valve

1.88 (0.074)

1.3 (0.0512)

Exhaust valve

1.75 (0.0689)

1.3 (0.0512)

Measure the contact width of the valve seat. If


the seat contact surface has a scratch or is
rough, or if the abrasion of the contact surface
exceeds the limit, modify or replace it.
Contact width of the valve seat

mm (in)

Standard

Limit

Intake valve

2.5 (0.0984)

3.0 (0.1181)

Exhaust valve

2.0 (0.0787)

2.5 (0.0984)

Valve seat
Remove carbon, water stain and others on the
under surface of the cylinder head.
Install the valve in the cylinder head.
Measure the depth of the valve from the under
surface of the cylinder head, using a depth
gauge or straight edge ruler.
If the value exceeds the limit, replace the valve
insert or the cylinder head ASM.
4HK1
Depth of the valve
Standard
Limit

mm (in)
0.7 (0.0276) 1.2 (0.0472)
2.5 (0.0984)

If the contact surface of the valve seat is


defective, modify it or replace the valve, valve
guide and valve seat altogether.

6HK1
Depth of the valve
Intake valve
Exhaust valve

Contact surface of the valve seat

mm (in)
Standard

Limit

1 (0.039)

2.5 (0.098)

1.3 (0.051)

2.8 (0.11)

Angle of the contact Exhaust side of 4HK1 and


surface: 6HK1: 45
Intake side of 6HK1: 30

1A-86 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Repair of the seat surface


Remove carbon from the surface of the valve
seat.
Use a seat cutter to minimize the scratch and
other roughness (15/45/75-blade), thereby
returning the contact width to the standard
value.

Caution:
Remove only scratches and roughness, and do not cut
the surface too much.
Use the free adjustment valve cutter pilot.
Do not let the valve cutter pilot waver inside the valve
guide.

Attach compound in the valve insert seat.


Insert the valve into the valve guide.
Attach compound on the valve seat surface,
rotate the valve and hit it lightly to grind them,
and confirm that it has even contact all round.
Caution:
Remove compound completely after grinding.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-87

Replace the valve seat insert


Remove the valve seat insert
Arc-weld the entire inner diameter of the valve
seat insert.
Cool the valve seat insert for two to three
minutes. Contraction fur to cooling makes it
easier to remove the valve seat insert.
Remove the valve seat insert, using a screw
driver. Be sure not to hurt the cylinder head.

Name
1. Washer
2. Valve Seat
3. Press

Reassembly
1. Install the oil seal.
Install on the surface of injection pipe insert.
Name
1. Arc-Weld
2. Valve Seat Insert
3. Screw Driver
Install the valve seat insert
Carefully place a washer (the outer diameter is
smaller than the valve seat insert) on the valve
seat insert.
Use the press to apply pressure gradually on
the washer, thereby pushing the valve seat
insert.
After replacement of the valve seat, Attach
compound on the valve seat surface, rotate the
valve and hit it lightly to grind them, and confirm
that it has even contact all round.
Caution:
Do not apply too much pressure with the press.
Remove compound completely after grinding.

Hammer it in so that the seal does not incline.


Caution:
Be sure not to hurt the rip.
Special tool
Oil seal installer: 5-8840-2627-0 (J-43269)

1A-88 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Name
1. Cylinder Head
2. Oil Seal Installer
2. Install the bridge guide.
Apply engine oil on the outer diameter of the guide,
then use the installer to hammer it into the depth of
the finishing part of the hole of the cylinder head.
(Note: the height of the bridge guide is about
37.5 mm {1.48 in} from the upper surface of the
head)
Special tool
Bridge guide installer: 5-8840-2626-0 (J-43268)
Engine oil

Name
1. O-Ring
2. O-Ring
3. Apply Seal Material
4. Engine Oil
Install the nozzle sleeve on the cylinder head,
insert the guide sleeve.
Use the guide sleeve to push in so that the nozzle
sleeve fully contacts with the under surface of the
cylinder head.
Insert the sleeve and fix it with the tighten and bolt.
Insert the ball (bearing steel ball 9.525 mm
{0.375 in}) into the guide sleeve, attach the punch
bar and hammer out the ball.
Caution:
Leave the cylinder head floating so that the ball
comes off from the under surface.

3. Nozzle sleeve
Install the O-ring on the nozzle sleeve, apply
engine oil.
Apply seal material on the taper section.
Loctite No. TL620

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Special tool
Nozzle sleeve installer: 5-8840-2624-0 (J-43266)

1A-89

Special tool
Valve guide replacer: 5-8840-2628-0 (J-43272)

Height from the upper surface of the cylinder head


to the edge surface of the valve guide: 13.9 mm
(0.5472 in) 14.3 mm (0.5630 in)
Caution:
When replacing the valve guide, it must be replaced
together with the valve.

Name
1. Punch Bar
2. Ball
3. Guide Sleeve
4. Nozzle Sleeve
5. Bracket
6. Bolt
4. Install the valve guide.
Hammer in the valve guide from the upper surface
of the cylinder head, using the valve guide
replacer.

5. Install the valve stem oil seal.


Apply engine oil on the outer diameter of the valve
guide, use the valve stem seal installer to install
the oil seal.
Caution:
After installation of the valve stem seal, confirm that the
oil seal is not inclining and the garter spring is in place.

1A-90 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Special tool
4HK1
Valve stem seal installer: 8-9439-6815-0 (EN-47685)
6HK1
Valve guide oil seal installer: 5-8840-2625-0 (J43267)

Name
1. Spring Pitch
2. Paint Mark

6. Install the intake and exhaust valves.


Apply engine oil on the valve stem part and install
the valve.

8. Install the spring upper seat.


9. Install the split collar.
Use a replacer to compress the valve spring and
install the split collar.
Special tool
Valve spring replacer: 5-8840-2621-0 (J-43263)
Pivot: 8-9439-6862-0 (EN-46721)

7. Install the valve spring.


Install the valve spring with the paint mark or the
narrower side of the spring pitch on the under side
(the cylinder head side).
Paint mark
Intake side

Light blue

Exhaust side

Yellow

10. Install the idle gear C.


Apply engine oil on the idle gear C shaft and the
inner diameter of the idle gear, install the idle gear
C so that the side with gear groove is on the side of
the rear surface of the engine.
Tighten the idle gear C to the specified torque.
Do not use impact wrench and like.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-91

4HK1

Tightening torque: 95 Nm (9.7 kgm/70 lb ft)

Name
1. Thermostat

Name
1. Idle Gear C
2. Shaft

6HK1

11. Install the idle gear C cover.


Apply liquid gasket (Loctite 262 or 962T) on the
outer diameter of the idle gear C cover, use the
sealing cup setting tool to hammer it in so that the
measurements follow the drawing.
Special tool
Sealing cup installer: 5-8840-2222-0 (EN-47690)

WSHK0024

Name
1. Thermostat
13. Connect the water outlet pipe.
Tighten the water outlet pipe to the specified
torque.
WSHK0023

12. Install the thermostat.


Install the thermostat on the position shown in the
drawing.

Tighten it up together with the fan shroud bracket.


Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)

1A-92 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


4HK1

Name
1. Distance Tube
2. Conical Spring
3. Nut

6HK1

Tighten the exhaust manifold in the order


described in the drawing.
Tightening torque: 34 Nm (3.5 kgm/25 lb ft)
Caution:
Do not tighten it too much so that it hinders extraction
and contraction of the manifold due to heat.
4HK1

WSHK0025

14. Install the exhaust gasket.


15. Install the exhaust manifold.
Install the distance tube conical spring and the nut
on the stud of the cylinder head in this order.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

1A-93

4HK1

WSHK0014

Install the heat protector.

6HK1

Tightening torque: 10 Nm (1.0 kgm/89 lb in)


16. Install the inlet cover.
Apply liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207C or
equivalent) in accordance with the groove of the
inlet cover, with the bead diameter of 2.5 mm
(0.0984 in) 5.5 mm (0.2165 in).

13

14

10

12

11

WSHK0026

17. Install the boost pressure sensor and bracket.


Apply Loctite to the bolt shown on the illustration
and install it.
Tightening torque: 21.6 Nm (2.2 kgm/16 lb ft)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Tighten in the order described in the drawing.
Tighten the stud bolts (6) and (9) jointly with the
common rail.
Tightening torque: 22 Nm (2.2 kgm/16 lb ft)

1A-94 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


1

WSHK0236

Name
1. Boost Pressure Sensor
2. Bracket
18. Install the inlet pipe.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)

Measurement
points:
Standard point:

Head of the piston

(2) and (3)

Upper surface of the


cylinder block

(1)

Caution:
Note that there are three options for the head gasket
according to the amount of extrusion of piston shown in
the following table. (4HK1 only)
Calculate the piston extrusion amount of each
cylinder. (4HK1 only)
Extrusion amount =

(measurement of (2) +
measurement of (3)) /2

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

70

Select a gasket of an appropriate grade based on


the maximum extrusion amount among all the
cylinders. (4HK1 only)

Installation
1. Install the cylinder head gasket.
Select the cylinder head gasket. (4HK1 only)
Clean the head of the piston and the upper surface
of the cylinder block.
Use a dial gauge to measure the extrusion of the
piston. Measure at two points of each cylinder.
The following drawing shows the measurement
points and the standard point of the cylinder block.

WSHK0231

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Gasket
Grade

1A-95

Recognized Piston Protrusion amount


mm (in)

(no hole)

0.520 (0.02047)
0.600 (0.02362)

(1 hole)

0.601 (0.02366)
0.680 (0.02677)

(2 holes)

0.681 (0.02681)
0.760 (0.02992)

(4HK1 only)
4HK1 only

Install the cylinder head gasket.


Install the cylinder head gasket with the parts
number upside, along with the cylinder head rear
gear case and knock pin.

Name
1. Grade Recognition Hole
Apply liquid gasket
Apply liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207B or
equivalent) on the joint (1) of the cylinder block and
the flywheel housing with the bead diameter of
3 mm (0.118 in).
Install the cylinder head within seven minutes after
applying liquid gasket.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


2. Install the cylinder head ASM.
Install the cylinder head, adjusting the knock pin of
the cylinder block.
Caution:
Be sure not to hurt the head gasket when installing it.

1A-96 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Special tool
Angle gauge: 5-8840-0266-0 (J-45059, KM470-B)
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Apply molybdenum disulfide on the screw part and
setting face of the head bolt of M14, and apply
engine oil on the screw part and setting face of the
head bolt of M10.

6HK1

Use a torque wrench and angle gauge to tighten


the head bolts in the order described in the
drawing.
Tightening torque:
M14 bolt (4HK1: 1 18, 6HK1: 1 26)
1st step = 98 Nm (10.0 kgm/72 lb ft)
2nd step = 147 Nm (15.0 kgm/108 lb ft)
3rd step = 30 60
M10 bolt (4HK1: 19, 20; 6HK1: 27, 28)
4th step = 38 Nm (3.9 kgm/28 lb ft)
Use a stud bolt for (4HK1: 16).

WSHK0027

3. Install the fuel injector on the cylinder head.


4. Apply molybdenum disulfide on the screw part and
setting face of the fuel injector tighten bolt and
tighten it tentatively.
Important:
Reinstall each fuel injector to the original cylinder from
which it was removed during the disassembly
procedure.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

1A-97

Name
1. Fuel Injector ASM
2. Fuel Injector Tighten Bolt
5. Install the common rail.
Tightening torque: 19 Nm (1.9 kgm/14 lb ft)
Install the common rail pressure sensor.
6. Install the injection pipe.
Important:
Replace the high-pressure pipe in fuel system with new
one if it has been removed.
Apply a thin coat of engine oil on the outer
diameter of the sleeve nut on the side of the fuel
injector and install the injection pipe.
Use a spanner to tighten the sleeve nut until it
completely contacts both on the fuel injector and
common rail.
Tighten the injection pipe clip with the designated
torque.
Tightening torque: 6 Nm (0.6 kgm/53 lb in)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Fuel Injection Pipe
2. Fuel Injection Pipe Clip
7. Final tighten the injection clamp bolts to the
specified torque.
Tightening torque: 30 Nm (3.1 kgm/22 lb ft)
8. Tighten the injection pipes to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 44 Nm (4.5 kgm/32 lb ft)

1A-98 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Injection Clamp Bolt
2. Injection Pipe Sleeve Nut
9. Install the glow plug.
Tightening torque: 20 Nm (2.0 kgm/15 lb ft)
10. Install and tighten the glow connector with the
designated torque.
Tightening torque: 1.2 Nm (0.1 kgm/10.6 lb in)

Name
1. Bridge Cap
2. Bridge
13. Install the camshaft ASM.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.
14. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
15. Install and tighten the camshaft speed sensor with
the designated torque.
Tightening torque: 8 Nm (0.8 kgm/71 lb in)

11. Apply engine oil over the bridge and install it.
Caution:
Move it up and down to check if it moves smoothly.
12. Apply a thin coat of engine oil inside the bridge
cap, install it.

16. Connect the water bypass hose.


Install the engine coolant temperature sensor on
the thermostat housing.
17. Install the leak off pipe.
Leak off pipe tightening torque:
Tightening torque: 12 Nm (1.2 kgm/106 lb in)
18. Install the fuel leak-off hose.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Install the fuel leak-off hose on the fuel leak-off
pipe and fix it with a clip.

1A-99

4HK1

19. Clip a new gasket to the fuel nozzle leak-off pipe


and install the fuel leak-off pipe.
Tightening torque: 12 Nm (1.2 kgm/106 lb in)

6HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

WSHK0028
21. Install the terminal nuts on the fuel injector.
Tightening torque: 2 Nm (0.2 kgm/18 lb in)

20. Install the fuel injector harness connector from


inside, tighten the harness bracket with the
designated torque.
Tightening torque: 48 Nm (4.9 kgm/35 lb ft)

Caution:
Tighten the terminal nuts alternately in order to
prevent imbalance in tightening because they are
unified.
Do not tighten the nuts too tightly because it leads
to damage to the terminal stud.

1A-100 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


26. Connect the exhaust pipe.
27. Install the engine harness.
28. Replenish the coolant.

Name
1. Fuel Injector
2. Fuel Injector Harness
3. Fuel Injector Terminal Nut
22. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.
23. Connect the radiator upper hose.
24. Install the EGR valve & EGR cooler.
For details of installation, refer to EGR Valve and
EGR Cooler of the section of exhaust system.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. Water Return Pipe
3. EGR Cooler
4. EGR Pipe
5. Water Feed Pipe
25. Install the oil level gauge and guide tube.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-101


Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Special Tool
Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

5-8840-0019-0
J-23907
Sliding hammer
Rank B

8-9439-6815-0
EN-47685
Valve stem seal installer
(4HK1)
Rank B

5-8840-2628-0
J-43272
Valve guide remover
Rank B

5-8840-2625-0
J-43267
Valve guide oil seal
installer
(6HK1)
Rank B

1A-102 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

5-8840-0266-0
J-45059
KM470-B
Angle gauge
Rank B

5-8840-2621-0
J-43263
Valve spring remover
Rank B

5-8840-2624-0
J-43266
Nozzle sleeve installer
Rank A

8-9439-6862-0
EN-46721
Pivot ASM
Rank B

5-8840-2626-0
J-43268
Bridge guide installer
Rank A

5-8840-2222-0
EN-47690
Seal ring installer
Rank A

5-8840-2627-0
J-43269
Oil seal installer
Rank A

5-8840-2623-0
J-43265
Nozzle sleeve remover
Rank A

5-8840-2826-0
EN-46720
Injector remover
Rank A

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-103

Piston, Connecting Rod


Components

7
1

5
3

WSHK0184

Name
1. Snap Ring
2. Piston
3. Bearing
4. Connecting Rod Cap

5. Connecting Rod
6. Piston Pin
7. Piston Ring

Removal
1. Remove the oil pan.
Refer to Oil Pan.
2. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.
3. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
4. Remove the camshaft ASM.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.
5. Remove the cylinder head.
Refer to the Cylinder Head.
6. Remove the connecting rod cap.
Caution:
Sort the removed bearings according to cylinders by
using tags.
7. Remove the piston and connecting rod.

1A-104 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Remove carbon on the upper side of the cylinder
liner with a scraper.
Pull out the piston and connecting rod towards the
cylinder head.
Caution:
Be sure not to damage the oil jet and cylinder liner
when pushing out the connecting rod.

2. Remove the snap ring.


3. Remove the piston pin.
Caution:
Sort the disassembled piston pins, pistons and
connecting rods together in the order of cylinders.

8. Remove the connecting rod bearing.


Caution:
Sort the bearings in the order of cylinders when reusing
them so that they will not be confused with the bearing
of other cylinders.

Disassembly
1. Remove the piston ring.
Use ring pliers to remove the piston ring.
Caution:
Sort the piston rings in the order of cylinders when
reusing them so that they will not be confused with the
pistons and piston rings of other cylinders.
4. Remove the connecting rod from the piston.
5. Piston
Clean carbon carefully that is adhered to the head
of the piston and the groove of the piston ring.
Caution:
Do not use wire brush to clean the piston because it
scratches the piston.
Inspect the piston with eyes for cracks, burns and other
excessive wear, and replace it if there is any
abnormality.
6. Measure the gap between the piston and the inner
diameter of the cylinder liner.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-105


Cylinder liner inner diameter
Use a cylinder bore dial indicator to measure the
liner inner diameter both in the thrust and radial
directions in the designated position.
Measurement position (from the upper surface of
the cylinder block)
1. 20 mm (0.79 in) 2. 110 mm (4.33 in)
3. 190 mm (7.48 in)
Measure the liner inner diameter based on the
average value of the actual measurement values
on 6 positions.
Cylinder liner inner diameter

mm (in)

115.021 115.050 (4.52838 4.52952)

Gap between the piston and the inner


diameter of the cylinder liner
Standard

mm (in)

0.082 0.130
(0.0032 0.0051)

6HK1
Piston diameter
Standard

mm (in)
114.974 114.989
(4.52652 4.52711)

Gap between the piston and the inner


diameter of the cylinder liner
Standard

mm (in)

0.042 0.066
(0.00165 0.00259)

Caution:
If it is found that the gap between the cylinder liner
inner diameter and the piston exceeds the standard
value, replace the piston or cylinder liner.

Name
1. 20 mm (0.79 in)
2. 110 mm (4.33 in)
3. 190 mm (7.48 in)
Piston outside diameter
Use a micrometer to measure the outside diameter
of the piston in the right angle to the piston pin in
the designated position.
Measurement position (from the upper surface of
the piston) 82 mm (3.2 in).
4HK1
Piston diameter
Standard

mm (in)
114.920 114.949
(4.52440 4.52554)

7. Piston replacement
You do not need to select grades because there is
only one grade for each of the piston and the
cylinder liner inner diameter.
If you replace the cylinder liner, you must select
the cylinder block (1, 2, 3) because there are two
types of the liner outer diameter.
Refer to Cylinder Block if you replace the cylinder
liner.
Caution:
The head of piston has a marking of grade B or C when
it is shipped from the factory.

1A-106 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Name
1. Front Mark Cut
8. Inspect the piston ring.
Measure the joint of the piston ring (remove carbon
on the ring joint)
Insert the piston ring into the cylinder liner.
Use the piston to push the ring to reach the under
edge of the cylinder liner.

If the measurement exceeds the limit, replace the


piston ring.
Piston ring gap

mm (in)
Standard

Limit

Top ring

0.18 0.28
(0.0071 0.0110)

1.2
(0.047)

Second ring
Third ring

0.35 0.50
(0.0138 0.0197)

1.2
(0.047)

Oil ring

0.15 0.35
(0.0059 0.0138)

1.2
(0.047)

Measure the clearance between the piston ring


groove and the piston.
Remove carbon on the piston ring groove
completely.
Put the piston ring in the piston ring groove, use a
thickness gauge to measure the gap between
them.
If the clearance between the piston ring groove
and the piston exceeds the limit, replace the piston
and the piston ring.

Use a thickness gauge to measure the gap of the


ring joint.

Piston ring and piston ring groove


clearance
Piston ring

mm (in)

Standard

Limit

Top ring

0.057 0.097
(0.0022 0.0038)

0.20
(0.0079)

Second ring
Third ring

0.085 0.120
(0.0033 0.0047)

0.20
(0.0079)

Oil ring

0.020 0.060
(0.0008 0.0024)

0.20
(0.0079)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-107


Expansion force

N (kgf/lbf)
Standard

Limit

Top ring

22.7 30.7
(2.31 3.13/5.10 6.90)

11.8
(1.2/2.7)

Second ring

16.7 22.6
(1.70 2.30/3.75 5.08)

5.9
(0.6/1.3)

Third ring

20.8 28.2
(2.12 2.88/4.68 6.34)

4.9
(0.5/1.1)

Oil ring

43.0 58.1
(4.38 5.92/9.67 13.06)

41.2
(4.2/9.3)

Inspect to make sure that there is a resistance to


the extent which the piston can push the piston pin
lightly in normal temperatures.
If it feels a large looseness or instability in normal
temperatures, replace the piston or piston pin.

9. Inspect the piston pin.


Inspect the piston pin with eyes for cracks,
scratches and other damages, replace it if
necessary.
Use a micrometer to measure the outer diameter
of the piston pin. If the measured value exceeds
the limit, replace the piston pin.
4HK1
Piston pin outer diameter
Standard

mm (in)

35.995 36.000 (1.4171 1.4173)

Limit

35.970 (1.4161)

6HK1
Piston pin outer diameter

mm (in)

Standard

40.0 (1.5748)

Limit

39.95 (1.5728)

Measure the bush of the small edge of the


connecting rod. If the clearance between the
bushing inner diameter and the pin diameter
exceeds the limit, replace the bushing or
connecting rod ASM, and the pin.
Piston pin and connecting rod small end
bushing clearance
Standard
Limit

mm (in)

0.012 0.027
(0.0005 0.0011)
0.05(0.0020)

1A-108 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

10. Measure the clearance between the piston and the


piston pin.
Apply engine oil on the piston pin. Use your finger
to push it in the piston hole and rotate it. If the pin
smoothly rotates without instability, the clearance
is normal. If there is instability, measure the
clearance. If the clearance exceeds the limit,
replace the piston and the piston pin.
Piston pin and piston pin hole clearance
Standard

mm (in)

0.004 0.017 (0.00016 0.00067)

Limit

0.04 (0.0016)

11. Remove the bushing.


Set the collar, connecting rod and collar on the
setting bar as shown in the drawing.

Name
1. Setting Bar
2. Connecting Rod
3. Nut
4. Collar
5. Bushing
6. Collar
Place the connecting rod bushing replacer base on
the bench press, tighten the fixation bolt.
Use the bench press to replace the bush.
Special tool
Connecting rod bushing replacer: 5-8840-2340-0
(EN-47682)

Tighten the nut.

Name
1. Bolt
2. Connecting Rod Bushing Replacer
12. Measure the connecting rod alignment.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-109


Use a connecting rod aligner to measure the
torsion and parallel level of the big end hole and
the small end hole. If the measured value exceeds
the limit, replace it.
Connecting rod alignment
(per length of 100 mm {3.94 in})
Distortion and
Parallelism

mm (in)

Standard

Limit

0.05 (0.002)

0.20 (0.008)

Remove the cap.


Measure the largest width of the plastigauge to
calculate the oil clearance. If the clearance
exceeds the limit, replace the bearing ASM.
Crank pin and bearing clearance
Standard
Limit

mm (in)

0.036 0.077 (0.0014 0.0030)


0.10 (0.0039)

Remove the plastigauge from the bearing and


crank pin.
13. Measure the bearing oil clearance.
Measure the oil clearance between the connecting
rod bearing and the crank pin with the following
method.
Remove the connecting rod cap. Sort the
removed caps according to the cylinder
number.
Clean the bearing and the shaft pin.
Check the bearing. If it is damaged or worn
seriously, replace the bearing ASM.
Place the plastigauge on the crankshaft pin.
Install the bearing cap and tighten the bolt with the
designated torque.
Apply molybdenum disulfide on the screw part and
the bearing surface.
Connecting rod bearing cap bolt torque:

Nm
(kgm/lb ft)

1st step

39 (4.0/29)

2nd step

60

3rd step

30

Caution:
Do not rotate the crankshaft.

14. Select the connecting rod bearing.


Refer to the bearing selection table when installing
a new connecting rod or replacing bearings in use.
Select and install the bearing, paying attention to
the large edge hole diameter of the connecting rod.

1A-110 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Reassembly
1. Install the bush
Place the connecting rod bushing replacer base on
the bench press, set the connecting rod and
tighten the fixation bolt.
Special tool
Connecting rod bushing replacer: 5-8840-2340-0
(EN-47682)

Name
1. Recognition Boss: When putting, 4HK1:Front,
6HK1:Back
2. Big End Diameter Grade Mark
3. Cylinder Number
Bearing selection table
Big end hole
diameter
Grade

Bearing
recognition
color

Oil clearance

Green

0.036 0.077
(0.0014 0.0030)

Yellow

0.036 0.077
(0.0014 0.0030)

mm (in)

Name
1. Bolt
2. Connecting Rod Bushing Replacer
Set the collar, new bushing and collar on the
setting bar as shown in the drawing.
Tighten the nut.
Adjust the oil hole of the connecting rod and the oil
hole of the bush, and use the bench press to install
the bush.

Name
1. Grade Identification Color

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-111


6HK1: Install it so that the front mark of the head of
the piston and the connecting rod forging mark
(projecting) on the connecting rod face the
opposite direction.
Use snap ring pliers to install the snap ring of one
side.

Name
1. Setting Bar
2. Connecting Rod
3. Nut
4. Collar
5. Bushing
6. Collar
After installing the new bush, use a grinder to
machine the pin hole so that the pin clearance
equals the standard value.

Name
1. Snap Ring
2. Front Mark
3. Forging Mark (Projecting): 4HK1: Front, 6HK1:
Back
4. Apply enough engine oil on the piston pin, push it
in the piston and the connecting rod small edge.
5. Use snap ring pliers to install the snap ring.
Caution:
Make sure that the snap ring is installed in the ring
groove properly. Make sure that the connecting rod
moves smoothly.

2. Install the piston.


3. Install the connecting rod.
4HK1: Install it so that the front mark of the head of
the piston and the connecting rod forging mark
(projecting) on the connecting rod face the same
direction.

6. Use piston ring setting tool to install the piston ring.

1A-112 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Install the oil ring so that the joint angle of the ring
and coil expander is in the opposite 180 direction.
Install the piston ring so that the marks N face
upward.
Special tool
Piston ring setting tool: 1-8522-1029-0

Installation
1. Install the connecting rod bearing.
Install the bearing on the connecting rod, apply
engine oil on the bearing.
2. Install pistons and connecting rod ASM.
Apply enough engine oil on the piston ring, ring
groove and piston side surface.
Dislocate the piston ring joint so that (1) is top ring,
(3) is 2nd ring, (2) is 3rd ring and (4) is oil ring, as
shown in the drawing.
Face the piston front mark cut to forward, use the
piston ring compressor to insert the piston in the
cylinder liner.
Caution:
Be sure not to make the connecting rod touch the
oil jet when pushing in the piston.
Be sure not to hurt the inside of the liner when
pushing in the piston.
Special tool
Piston ring compressor: 5-8840-9018-0 (J-8037)

Name
1. Top Ring
2. Second Ring
3. Third Ring
4. Oil ring
Caution:
Note that the shapes are different for each piston ring.
Make sure that there is not gap in the position indicated
in the drawing when the oil ring coil expander was
installed.

3. Install the connecting rod cap.


Install the bearing on the connecting rod cap and
apply engine oil.
Install the cap, matching the numbers (1, 2, 3, 4) of
the caps and connecting rods.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-113


5. Install the camshaft ASM.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.
6. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
7. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.
8. Install the oil pan.
Refer to Oil Pan.

Name
1. Recognition Boss: When putting, 4HK1:Front,
6HK1:Back
2. Big End Diameter Grade Mark
3. Cylinder Number
Apply molybdenum disulfide on the screw part and
the setting face of the tightening bolt and tighten it
with the designated torque.
Tightening torque:
1st step = 39 Nm (4.0 kgm/29 lb ft)
2nd step = 60
3rd step = 30
Special tool
Angle gauge: 5-8840-0266-0 (J-45059, KM470-B)
Caution:
Make sure that the crankshaft rotates smoothly.

4. Install the cylinder head.


Refer to the Cylinder Head.

1A-114 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Torque Specifications

Special Tool
Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

5-8840-2340-0
EN-47682
Connecting rod bushing
remover
Rank B

x-xxxx-xxxx-x
Piston ring setting tool
Rank B

x-xxxx-xxxx-x
x-xxxx
Piston ring compressor
Rank B

5-8840-0266-0
J-45059
KM470-B
Angle gauge
Rank B

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-115

Flywheel
Components

Name
1. Flywheel Housing
2. Flywheel ASM

Removal
1. Remove the starter motor.
Remove the ground cable of the starter motor.
Remove the two nuts on the upper side and lower
side that fix the starter, remove the starter from the
fly wheel housing.

3. Washer
4. Crankshaft Position Sensor

4HK1

1A-116 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

Special tool
Crankshaft stopper: x-xxxx-xxxx-x (xx-xxxxx)

WSHK0030
2. Remove the crankshaft position sensor.
Remove to prevent contact damage when the
flywheel is removed.

Gradually loosen the flywheel installation bolts in


the order shown in the drawing so that the flywheel
does not rotate.

Do not throw or drop because it is vulnerable to


shock.
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

After loosening all the bolts, remove the stopper to


remove the flywheel.

3. Remove the washer and flywheel.


Install the crankshaft stopper to the starter
installing portion of the flywheel housing.

4. Take out the ring gear.


Put a bar on the ring gear and hit it with a hammer
to remove it.

Caution:
Make sure that the stopper is properly fitted and
engaged with the ring gear.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-117

Inspection

Installation

1. Visual check
Inspect the flywheel friction surface for cracks and
damages, and replace it if it has abnormality.

1. Install the ring gear.


After heating the ring gear with a gas burner
equally, install it in the flywheel.

Inspect the tooth part of the ring gear, replace the


ring gear if it has damage or serious wear.

In the case of shrinkage cooling of the ring gear,


maintain the flatness by applying weight of 68.6 kN
(15,400 lbf).

2. Measurement of the friction surface


Measure the depth of the flywheel friction surface.
Adjust it if the measured value is within the
standard value and the limit.
If the measured value exceeds the limit, replace
the flywheel.
Depth of the friction surface of the flywheel
Standard

19 (0.75)

Limit

20 (0.79)

Caution:
Install the ring gear so that the side with a pattern
faces forward.
Shrink fit the ring gear to the flywheel.
Make sure that flywheel and ring gear adhesion is
complete.

mm (in)

Depth = From the pressure installation surface to the


friction surface.

2. Install the flywheel.


3. Install the washer.
Install the flywheel to match with the knock pins of
the crankshaft, tighten them in the order shown in
the illustration.

1A-118 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Apply molybdenum disulfide on the screw part and
setting face of the bolt.

4HK1

Install the crankshaft stopper to the starter


installing portion of the flywheel housing.
Tightening torque:
1st step = 78 Nm (8.0 kgm/58 lb ft)
2nd step = 120 150
Special tool
Crankshaft stopper: x-xxxx-xxxx-x (xx-xxxxx)
Angle gauge: 5-8840-0266-0 (J-45059)

6HK1

WSHK0030
Install the ground cable of the starter motor.

4. Install and tighten the crankshaft position sensor


with the designated torque.
Tightening torque: 8 Nm (0.8 kgm/71 lb in)
5. Install the starter motor on the flywheel housing
with nuts and tighten them with the designated
torque.
Tightening torque: 76 Nm (7.7 kgm/56 lb ft)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-119


Torque Specifications

N m{kg m/lb ft}

78 {8 / 58}

60

60

8 {0.8 / 5.9}

WSHK0067

Special Tool
Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

x-xxxx-xxxx-x
xx-xxxxx
Crankshaft stopper
Rank B

5-8840-0266-0
J-45059
KM470-B
Angle gauge
Rank B

1A-120 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Front Cover
Components
4HK1

6
2

7
8
9

4
5
10

WSHK0239

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-121


6HK1

12

11

3
9

10

WSHK0240

Name
1. Front Cover
2. Oil Pan Gasket
3. Oil Pan
4. Front Oil Seal
5. Crankshaft Pulley
6. Water Pump ASM

Removal
1. Remove the front oil seal.
Refer to Crankshaft Front Oil Seal.
2. Remove the oil pan.
Refer to Oil Pan.
3. Remove the water pump.
Refer to the Water Pump in the cooling system
section.
4. Remove the front cover.
Remove the generator adjust plate. (6HK1 only)

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Fan Belt
Water Pump Pulley
Spacer
Fan ASM
Adjusting Plate
Generator

Remove the oil relief valve (arrow), loosen the front


cover installation bolts and remove the front cover.

1A-122 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


4HK1

1
1

WSHK0243

Installation
1. Install the front cover.
Clean the cylinder block front surface. In particular,
remove liquid gasket leaked during installation of
the crankcase.

Name
1. O-Ring
6HK1

Install two O-rings and apply liquid gasket


(ThreeBond 1207B or equivalent), or each
equivalent along with the groove of the front cover
installation surface.
Beat width
Beat height

1.5 5mm (0.059 0.20 in)


0.3 mm 1.5 mm
(0.012 0.059 in) from the
surface

joint

Install within seven minutes after applying liquid


gasket.
Caution:
Apply liquid gasket so that it does not adhere to the Oring.

020EY00062

Name
1. O-Ring
Align with the knock pin of the cylinder block and
install the front cover.
Caution:
Along with the front cover, install the water pump ASM
(before liquid gasket hardens).
4HK1
Tightening torque
Front cover bolt (1): 23.5 Nm (2.4 kgm/17 lb ft)
Front cover bolt (2): 52 Nm (5.3 kgm/38 lb ft)
Front cover bolt (3): 23.5 Nm (2.4 kgm/17 lb ft)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-123


Tighten the oil relief valve (4) to the specified
torque.
Tightening torque
Oil relief valve: 39 Nm (4.0 kgm/29 lb ft)

WSHK0032

WSHK0233

Name
1. Bolt: L = 35
2. Bolt: L = 30
3. Bolt: L = 65
4. Oil Relief Valve
6HK1
Tightening torque
Front cover bolts (13 bolts): 18 Nm (1.8 kgm/13
lb ft)
Tighten bolt with (*) mark together with the adjust
plate of the generator.
When you remove the stud bolt (1), install in
original position.
Tightening torque
Stud bolt for water pump: 12.7 Nm (1.3 kgm/9.4
lb ft)

2. Install the water pump.


Refer to the Water Pump of the section of the
Cooling System
3. Install the oil pan.
Refer to Oil Pan.
4. Install the front oil seal.
Refer to Crankshaft Front Oil Seal.

1A-124 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Torque Specifications
4HK1
N m{kg m/lb ft}

23.5 {2.4 / 17}

52 {5.3 / 38}

39 {4 / 29}

WSHK0241

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-125


6HK1
N m(kg m/lb ft)

39 (4 / 29)

20 (2 / 14)

39 (4 / 29)

18 (1.8 / 13)

WSHK0164

1A-126 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Crankshaft Front Oil Seal


Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Crankshaft Pulley

Removal
1. Drain coolant.
2. Remove the starter.
Disconnect the starter ground cable.
Unscrew two mounting nuts, upper and lower, from
the starter to dismount the starter from the flywheel
housing.

2. Crankshaft Front Oil Seal

4HK1

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-127


6HK1

Special tool
Crankshaft stopper: x-xxxx-xxxx-x (xx-xxxxx)

WSHK0030
3. Disconnect the upper radiator hose on the engine
side.
4. Disconnect the coolant reserve tank hose on the
radiator side.
5. Disconnect the lower radiator hose on the engine
side.
6. Remove the radiator (with the fan guide) detaching
right and left brackets.
7. Remove the fan ASM.
Remove the fan ASM unscrewing four mounting
bolts.

10. Remove the crankshaft front oil seal.


Remove the oil seal off with a screwdriver or the
like avoiding damage to the oil seal contact surface
on the front cover and the shaft.

8. Remove the fan belt.


9. Remove the crankshaft pulley.
Loosen the pulley nut blocking the crankshaft from
turning by placing a crankshaft stopper on the
starter mounting position on the flywheel housing.
Caution:
Make sure that the stopper is properly fitted and
engaged with the ring gear.

Name
1. Felt
2. Slinger
3. Oil Seal
Caution:
Be sure to replace the slinger and oil seal as a set.
11. Remove the front slinger.
Use the slinger remover to remove the front
slinger.

1A-128 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Special tool
Slinger remover:
1-8521-0027-0 (For 4HK1 and 6HK1)
x-xxxx-xxxx-x (For 4HK1)
8-9439-6858-0 (For 6HK1)

WSHK0197

After pressing in the slinger, make sure that the


distance between crankshaft end surface and the
slinger is A as specified.
WSHK0205

4HK1

Installation
1. Install the front slinger using installer, setting tool.
Special tool
4HK1
Oil seal installer kit: x-xxxx-xxxx-x (x-xxxxx)
6HK1
Oil seal setting tool: 8-94396-856-0
Install the slinger (1) to the end of adapter (2).
Install the adapter to the crankshaft (3).
Install the slinger sleeve (4) to the adapter. Tighten
the center bolt (5) until the sleeve comes in contact
with the adapter stopper.

WSHK0206

Distance (A): 40.50.3 mm


Distance (B): 340.1 mm

(1.60.01 in)
(1.30.004 in)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-129


6HK1

Special tool
4HK1
Oil seal installer kit: x-xxxx-xxxx-x (x-xxxxx)
6HK1
Oil seal setting tool: 8-94396-856-0
(Use the parts listed below for the front oil seal.)
No.

WSHK0199

Distance (A): 180.3 mm

Part Name

Oil seal

Sleeve (front)

Adapter (front)

Adapter ring (front)

Washer (front)

Center bolt

Fixing bolt

Mount the adapter onto the crankshaft with fixing


bolts.

(0.70.01 in)

Caution:
Be sure to replace the slinger and oil seal as a set.
2. Install the crankshaft front oil seal.
Press fit the oil seal using an oil seal installer,
setting tool.

Name
1. Adapter
Apply engine oil to the lip of the oil seal and place it
on the front side adapter.

Name
1. Oil Seal
2. Adapter (Front)
3. Adapter Ring (Front)
4. Fixing Bolt
5. Sleeve (Front)
6. Washer (Front)
7. Center Bolt

Put the front side adapter ring in the sleeve and fix
the sleeve on the adapter with the center bolt and
a washer.
Tighten the bolt until the sleeve touches the
adapter to press fit the front oil seal.

1A-130 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


4HK1

Name
1. Oil Seal
2. Adapter Ring
3. Sleeve
4. Bolt and Washer

Name
1. Adapter Ring
2. Sleeve
3. Adapter
4. Oil Seal
6HK1

After you have press-fitted the front oil seal,


confirm the measurement shown (depth from the
end surface of the crankshaft to the oil seal) and
check for deflection of the oil seal.

WSHK0203

Distance (B): 8.50.15 mm

(0.330.006 in)

3. Install the damper to the crankshaft pulley. (6HK1)


Tighten in the sequence shown.
Tightening torque: 48 Nm (4.9 kgm/35 lb ft)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-131

WSHK0033

4. Install the crankshaft pulley.


Apply engine oil to the threads of the fastening
bolts.
Install the crankshaft pulley aligning with the knock
pins on the crankshaft.
Tighten in the sequence shown.
Tightening torque: 200 Nm (20.4 kgm/148 lb ft)

Name
1. Crankshaft Pulley
2. Generator
3. Fan Pulley
b. Fan belt adjustment
Loosen the adjustment bolt (1) of the AC
generator and adjust the fan belt moving the
generator.
Tightening torque:

5. Install the fan belt.


a. Inspection of fan belt deflection
Check with a scale if the belt deflection is within
the specified limits when pressure of 98 N
(22 lb) is applied mid-way along the belts
longest run. Also check the belt for damage.
Amount of fan belt deflection

mm (in)

for new belt

5.0 5.8 (0.19 0.23)

for reused belt

6.1 6.9 (0.24 0.27)

(2) = 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)


(3) = 40 Nm (4.1 kgm/30 lb ft)

Name
1. Adjusting Bolt
2. Fixing Bolt
3. Fixing Bolt
6. Tighten the fan ASM to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)
7. Install the radiator.

1A-132 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


8.
9.
10.
11.

Connect the lower radiator hose.


Connect the coolant reserve tank hose.
Connect the upper radiator hose.
Install the starter in the flywheel housing with nuts
and tighten to the specified tightening torque.

Tightening torque: 76 Nm (7.7 kgm/56 lb ft)


Connect the starter ground cable.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


12. Fill the radiator with coolant.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-133


Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Special Tool
Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

x-xxxx-xxxx-x
xx-xxxxx
Crankshaft stopper
Rank B

x-xxxx-xxxx-x
x-xxxxx
Oil seal installer kit
(4HK1)
Rank A

1-8521-0027-0
Slinger remover
Rank B

8-94396-856-0
Oil seal setting tool
(6HK1)
Rank A

1A-134 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal


Components

Name
1. Flywheel

2. Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal

Removal
1. Remove the flywheel.
Refer to the Flywheel.
2. Remove the crankshaft rear oil seal.
Remove the oil seal off with a screwdriver or the
like avoiding damage to the oil seal contact surface
on the flywheel housing and the shaft.

Name
1. Felt
2. Slinger
3. Oil Seal

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-135


3. Use the slinger remover to remove the slinger.
Caution:
If the oil seal has been removed, both the oil seal and
slinger must be replaced as a set.
Special tool
Slinger remover:
1-8521-0027-0 (For 4HK1 and 6HK1)
x-xxxx-xxxx-x (For 4HK1)
8-9439-6858-0 (For 6HK1)

Installation
1. Install the front slinger using installer, setting tool.
Special tool
4HK1
Oil seal installer kit: x-xxxx-xxxx-x (x-xxxxx)
6HK1
Oil seal setting tool: 8-94396-856-0
Install the slinger (1) to the end of adapter (2).
Install the adapter to the crankshaft (3).
Install the slinger sleeve (4) to the adapter. Tighten
the center bolt (5) until the sleeve comes in contact
with the adapter stopper.

WSHK0197

After pressing in the slinger, make sure that the


distance between crankshaft end surface and the
slinger is A as specified.

1A-136 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


4HK1

WSHK0198

Distance (A): 17.30.3 mm


Distance (B): 10.80.1 mm

(0.70.01 in)
(0.40.004 in)

6HK1

Name
1. Adapter (Rear)
2. Fixing Bolt
3. Center Bolt
4. Sleeve (Rear)
5. Collar (Rear)
6. Adapter Ring (Rear)
7. Oil Seal
Special tool
4HK1
Oil seal installer kit: x-xxxx-xxxx-x (x-xxxxx)
6HK1
Oil seal setting tool: 8-94396-856-0
No.

WSHK0199

Distance (A): 170.3 mm

(0.70.01 in)

Caution:
Be sure to replace the slinger and oil seal as a set.
2. Install the crankshaft rear oil seal.
Press-fit the rear oil seal using an oil seal installer,
setting tool.

Part Name

Oil seal

Sleeve (rear)

Adapter (rear)

Collar (rear)

Adapter ring (rear)

Center bolt

Fixing bolt

Put a collar on the fixing bolt and mount the


adaptor onto the crankshaft.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-137

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Collar
2. Fixing Bolt
3. Adapter

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


After you have pressed in the rear oil seal, confirm
the measurement shown (depth from the end
surface of the crankshaft to the oil seal).

Apply engine oil to the lip of the oil seal and place it
in the rear side adapter.
Put the rear side adapter ring in the sleeve and put
the sleeve on the adapter and fix with the center
bolt.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Sleeve
2. Adapter Ring
Tightening the center bolt until the sleeve touches
the adapter to press fit the oil seal.

Name
1. Rear Part of The Crankshaft
2. Oil Seal
3. 4HK1: 7.8 0.3 mm (0.31 0.012 in),
6HK1: 7.5 0.15 mm (0.3 0.006 in)
4. Collar
5. Adapter Ring
6. Sleeve
7. Adapter
3. Install the flywheel.
Refer to the Flywheel.

1A-138 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Special Tool
Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

1-8521-0027-0
Slinger remover
Rank B

x-xxxx-xxxx-x
x-xxxxx
Oil seal installer kit
(4HK1)
Rank A

8-94396-856-0
Oil seal setting tool
(6HK1)
Rank A

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-139

Crankshaft
Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Upper Bearing
2. Upper Thrust Bearing
3. Gear
4. Crankshaft

Removal
1. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.
2. Remove the rocker arm shaft.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
3. Remove the camshaft.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.

5. Lower Bearing
6. Lower Thrust Bearing
7. Crankcase

4. Remove the cylinder head.


Refer to the Cylinder Head.
5. Remove the fuel supply pump.
Refer to Fuel Supply Pump in the fuel system
section.
6. Remove the crankshaft front oil seal.
Refer to Crankshaft Front Oil Seal.

1A-140 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


7. Remove the crankshaft rear oil seal.
Refer to the Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal.
8. Remove the oil pan.
Refer to Oil Pan.
9. Remove the water pump.
Refer to the Water Pump in the Cooling System
Section.
10. Remove the front cover.
Refer to the Front Cover.
11. Remove the timing gear train.
Refer to the Timing Gear Train.
12. Remove the oil pump.
Refer to the Oil Pump.
13. Remove the piston and connecting rod.
Refer to the Pistons and Connecting Rod.
14. Remove the crankcase.
Gradually loosen crankcase mounting bolts in the
sequence shown and remove the crankcase using
the replacer holes (arrowed holes in the figure).
4HK1

6HK1

7 11

15 19

26

30

34

38

37

33

29

27

31

35

39

36

32

28

6 10

22 25

21 17

14 18

23 24

20 16 12 8

13

4 1

WSHK0034

15. Remove the lower thrust bearing.


16. Remove the lower crankshaft bearings.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


17. Remove the crankshaft ASM.
18. Remove the upper thrust bearing.
19. Remove the upper crankshaft bearings.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-141


Special tool
Crankshaft gear puller: 8-9439-6819-0 (EN-41222)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Disassembly
1. Remove the gear.
Remove the gear using a gear puller.
Special tool
Crankshaft gear puller: 8-9439-6818-0 (EN-47684)

Name
1. Alignment Mark

Inspection
1. Thrust clearance
Set a dial gauge as shown and measure the
crankshaft thrust clearance.
If the thrust clearance exceeds the limit, replace
the thrust bearings in a pair.
Axial play of the crankshaft
Standard
Limit

mm (in)

0.104 0.205 (0.0041 0.0081)


0.35 (0.0138)

Caution:
Measure the thrust clearance before dismounting.

Reassembly
1. Install the gear.
Heat the gear to 170 250C (338 482F) and
install it aligning the groove on the gear with the
pin on the crankshaft.
Insert the gear at one push into the flange with its
end side with the alignment mark S facing
outward. If you are fitting the gear while it is cold,
beat the gear in until it impinges on the end using
the installer.

1A-142 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


2. Main bearing clearance
Remove the crankcase.
Set out disassembled main bearings in the order of
the numbers.
Remove the crankshaft. Remove the main bearing.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Place Plastigauge on the crankshaft journal as
shown.
Place the lower bearings at original positions on
the crankcase.

Clean the crankshaft journal and the upper and


lower bearings.
Check the bearings for damage or excessive wear.
If you find damage or excessive wear in the check,
replace the bearings in pairs.
Place the upper bearings and the crankshaft on
the cylinder block. Install the crankshaft so that it
becomes horizontal.
Caution:
Turn the crankshaft about 30 to allow the bearings to
settle in.

Install the crankcase and tighten bolts to the


specified tightening torque.
Tighten the crankcase in the sequence shown
using a torque wrench and an angle gauge.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-143


Tightening torque:
M14 bolt 4HK1: (1 10), 6HK1: (1 14)
1st step = 98 Nm (10.0 kgm/72 lb ft)
2nd step = 132 Nm (13.5 kgm/97 lb ft)
3rd step = 30 60
M10 bolt 4HK1: (11 27), 6HK1: 15 39)
4th step = 37 Nm (3.8 kgm/27 lb ft)
Tighten bolts from 1 to 10 (M14) and confirm that
they are tightened to a torque of 142 Nm (14.5
kgm/105 lb ft) or more.
Special tool
Angle gauge: 5-8840-0266-0 (J-45059, KM470-B)
Caution:
Do not rotate the crankshaft after tightening the
crankcase.
Loosen the bolts and gently remove the
crankcase.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


4HK1

Measure the widest part of the Plastigauge


flattened by tightening the crankcase to determine
the clearance.
4HK1
Journal oil clearance

mm (in)
Standard

Limit

No.1, 2, 4, 5

0.037 0.072
(0.0015 0.0028)

0.11
(0.0043)

No.3

0.051 0.086
(0.0020 0.0034)

0.11
(0.0043)

6HK1
Journal oil clearance
6HK1

37

33 29

14

10

11

13

12

18 15

19 23

27 31

38

34 30

25 21

26 22

17 16

20 24 28 32

3639

35

WSHK0035

mm (in)
Standard

Limit

No. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6,
7

0.063 0.094
(0.0025 0.0037)

0.14
(0.0055)

No. 4

0.093 0.124
(0.0037 0.0049)

0.14
(0.0055)

1A-144 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

If the journal oil clearance exceeds the limit,


replace the main bearings altogether or the
crankshaft.
Remove the plastigauge from the bearing and
crank pin.

4. Measure the journal and the crank pin diameters


and uneven wear.
Measure outer diameters of the journal and the pin
and calculate differences between the maximum
and the minimum values. Take measurements at
four positions for both the journal and the pin.

Inspection of crankshaft
Check the crankshaft journal and crank pin
surfaces for wear and damage. Check the oil seal
contact surface for excessive wear and damage.
Check the oil port for clogging.
3. Crankshaft run-out
Carefully set the crankshaft on the V block. Slowly
turn the crankshaft to measure the run-out. If the
crankshaft run-out exceeds the limit, replace the
crankshaft.
4HK1
Crankshaft run-out
Standard
Limit

mm (in)
0.05 or less (0.0020 or less)
0.30 (0.012)

4HK1

6HK1

Crankshaft outside diameter

Crankshaft run-out
Standard
Limit

Standard

Limit

Journal #1, 2, 4, 5

81.905 81.925
(3.22460 3.22538)

81.85
(3.222)

Journal #3

81.891 81.911
(3.22408 3.22483)

81.85
(3.222)

Pin

65.902 65.922
(2.59456 2.59535)

65.850
(2.5925)

mm (in)
0.06 or less (0.0024 or less)
0.45 (0.018)

mm (in)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-145


6HK1
Crankshaft outside diameter

mm (in)

Standard

Limit

Journal No. 1, 2, 3,
5, 6, 7

81.905 81.925
(3.22460 3.22538)

81.85
(3.222)

Journal No. 4

81.875 81.895
(3.22341 3.22421)

81.85
(3.222)

Pin

72.902 72.922
(2.87015 2.87093)

72.850
(2.8681)

Caution:
Tufftriding (soft nitriding treatment) is applied to
enhance strength of the crankshaft. Therefore, you
shall not polish the surface of the crankshaft.
Selection of crankshaft bearing
When installing new crankshaft bearings or
replacing bearings in use, make reference to the
Bearing Selection Table.
Select and install new bearings paying close
attention to the cylinder block journal internal
diameter grade and the crankshaft journal
diameter grade.
Journals are numbered from 1 to 5 (4HK1) or 1 to
7 (6HK1) from left to right when viewed so that the
numbers are in normal reading orientation.

Caution:
Be careful about difference in the shape of the bearings
when installing them.

Name
1. Upper Bearing
2. Oil Gallery
3. Grade Identification Color
4. Oil Groove
5. Lower Bearing
6. Grade Identification Color

1A-146 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Bearing selection table
4HK1
Combination of grades

Oil clearance

mm (in)

Cylinder block
Grade

Crank journal
Grade

Bearing identification
color

#1, 2, 4, 5

#3

Black

0.039 0.070
(0.00154 0.00276)

0.053 0.084
(0.00209 0.00331)

Brown

0.037 0.068
(0.00146 0.00267)

0.051 0.082
(0.00201 0.00323)

Blue

0.041 0.072
(0.00161 0.00283)

0.055 0.086
(0.00217 0.00339)

Black

0.039 0.070
(0.00154 0.00276)

0.053 0.084
(0.00209 0.00331)

6HK1
Combination of grades

Oil clearance

mm (in)

Cylinder block
Grade

Crank journal
Grade

Bearing identification
color

#1, 2, 3, 5, 6

#4

Black

0.065 0.092
(0.00256 0.00362)

0.095 0.122
(0.00374 0.00480)

Brown

0.063 0.089
(0.00248 0.00350)

0.093 0.119
(0.00366 0.00469)

Blue

0.067 0.094
(0.00264 0.00370)

0.097 0.124
(0.00382 0.00488)

Black

0.065 0.091
(0.00256 0.00358)

0.095 0.121
(0.00374 0.00476)

Installation
1. Install the crankshaft upper bearing.
Install the upper bearing in the cylinder block and
apply oil.
Caution:
When replacing the crankshaft bearings, select grades
referring to the Crankshaft Bearing Grade Selection.
Do not apply oil to the bearing installation surface on
the cylinder block and external surface of the bearing.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


2. Install the upper thrust bearing.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-147


Install the upper thrust bearing in the front side of
the cylinder block journal No.5 (4HK1) or No.7
(6HK1). In doing this, you may attach the upper
thrust bearing to the cylinder block with grease.
Then, be sure to wipe up excess grease.
Caution:
Install the thrust bearing so that the oil groove contacts
the crankshaft.

5. Install the lower thrust bearing.


Install the lower thrust bearing in the rear side of
the crankcase journal No.5 (4HK1) or No.7
(6HK1).
Install the thrust bearing so that the oil groove
contacts the crankshaft.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


3. Install the crankshaft ASM.
Apply engine oil to the crankshaft journal and
gently place the crankshaft on the cylinder block.

6. Install the crankcase.


Apply liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207B or
equivalent) to the crankcase forming beads with
diameters of 3 4 mm (0.12 0.16 in).

Press the crankshaft to the rear and insert the


upper thrust bearing in the rear side of the cylinder
block journal No.5 (4HK1) or No.7 (6HK1).

Install the crankcase within 7 minutes after you


have applied the liquid gasket.

Caution:
Install the thrust bearing so that the oil groove contacts
the crankshaft.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


4. Install the lower crankshaft bearing.

Gently place the crankcase on the cylinder block.

1A-148 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


4HK1

6HK1
mm(in)
2(0.08)

.4

(0

10

12(0.47)

2.5(0.1)
5(0.2)

8(0.31)

0.4

8(0.31)

8(0.31)

59

.
(0

15

10(

2.5(0.1)

2.5(0.1)
WSHK0036

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-149


Apply Molybdenum Disulfide to M14 bolts threads
and setting faces and tighten them to the specified
tightening torque in the sequence shown.

6HK1

You need not apply engine oil to M10 bolts.


Tightening torque:
M14 bolt 4HK1: (1 10), 6HK1: (1 14)
1st step = 98 Nm (10.0 kgm/72 lb ft)
2nd step = 132 Nm (13.5 kgm/97 lb ft)
3rd step = 30 60
M10 bolt 4HK1: (11 27), 6HK1: (15 39)
4th step = 37 Nm (3.8 kgm/27 lb ft)
Tighten the bolts (M14) from 1 to 10 (4HK1) or 1 to
14 (6HK1) and confirm that they are tightened to a
torque of 142 Nm (14.5 kgm/105 lb ft) or more.
Special tool
Angle gauge: 5-8840-0266-0 (J-45059, KM470-B)
Caution:
Confirm that the crankshaft turns smoothly.
4HK1

37

33 29

14

10

11

13

12

18 15

19 23

27 31

38

34 30

25 21

26 22

17 16

20 24 28 32

3639

35

WSHK0035

7. Install pistons and connecting rods.


Refer to the Pistons and Connecting Rod.
8. Install the oil pump.
Refer to the Oil Pump.
9. Install the timing gear train.
Refer to the Timing Gear Train.
10. Install the front cover.
Refer to the Front Cover.
11. Install the water pump.
Refer to the Water Pump in the Cooling System
Section.
12. Install the oil pan.
Refer to Oil Pan.
13. Install the crankshaft rear oil seal.
Refer to the Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal.
14. Install the crankshaft front oil seal.
Refer to Crankshaft Front Oil Seal.
15. Install the fuel supply pump.
Refer to the Fuel Supply Pump.
16. Install the cylinder head.
Refer to the Cylinder Head.
17. Install the camshaft ASM.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.
18. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
19. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.

1A-150 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Special Tool
Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

8-9439-6818-0
EN-47684
Crankshaft gear remover
Rank B

Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

8-9439-6819-0
J-41222
Crankshaft gear installer
Rank B

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-151


Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

5-8840-0266-0
J-45059
KM470-B
Angle gauge
Rank B

1A-152 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Cylinder Block
Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Cylinder Liner

Removal
1. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.
2. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
3. Remove the camshaft ASM.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.
4. Remove the cylinder head.
Refer to the Cylinder Head.

2. Cylinder Block

5. Remove the fuel supply pump.


Refer to Fuel Supply Pump in the fuel system
section.
6. Remove the crankshaft front oil seal.
Refer to Crankshaft Front Oil Seal.
7. Remove the crankshaft rear oil seal.
Refer to the Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal.
8. Remove the oil pan.
Refer to Oil Pan.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-153


9. Remove the water pump.
Refer to the Water Pump in the Cooling System
Section.
10. Remove the front cover.
Refer to the Front Cover.
11. Remove the timing gear train.
Refer to the Timing Gear Train.
12. Remove the oil pump.
Refer to the Oil Pump.
13. Remove the piston and connecting rod.
Refer to the Pistons and Connecting Rod.
14. Remove the crankshaft.
Refer to the Crankshaft.
15. Remove the piston oil jet

If the cylinder liner cannot be pulled free by hand,


tap around the lower side of the liner with a
hammer grip or similar object loosen it.

Inspection
1. Carefully remove water stains or other foreign
matters on the surface of the cylinder block.
Be careful not to damage the cylinder block.
2. Carefully remove the liquid gasket on the
crankcase mounting surface.
3. Clean up the cylinder block.
4. Visually inspect the cylinder block.
Conduct color check and hydraulic (or pneumatic)
test and if you find crack or other damage, replace
the cylinder block.

5. Cylinder liner wear measurement


Check the internal surface of the liner for flaw or
damage.
Measure the liner bore diameter at the most worn
part (it wears more in the rotation direction) at 15
20 mm (0.59 0.79 in) from the top end of the liner
with the liner installed in the cylinder block. If the
wear is over the application limit, replace it.

16. Remove the cylinder liner.

1A-154 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Cylinder liner bore diameter


Standard
Limit

mm (in)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

115.021 115.050
(4.52837 4.52952)
115.20 (4.5354)

Caution:
You need not select cylinder liner bore grade since the
liners are only available in one size.
6. Cylinder block upper face warpage
Pull out the cylinder liners and remove water stains
on the cylinder block.
Measure four sides and two diagonals of the top
surface of the cylinder block using a straight edge
(1) and a thickness gauge (2).
Replace the cylinder block if the measurements
exceed limit values.
Cylinder block upper face warpage
Standard
Limit

mm (in)

0.05 or less (0.002 or less)


0.20 (0.079)

Installation
1. Cylinder liner grade selection
Select liner outer diameter grades according to the
cylinder block bore grades stamped on the cylinder
block at arrowed positions in the figure.
The cylinder liner grade is stamped on the outside
of the cylinder liner (1).
Matching the grades of the cylinder block and the
liner outer diameter
Cylinder block (stamp)

1, 2

Liner outside diameter

1X

3X

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-155


Cylinder block bore and liner grade
(Reference)
Grade

(1, 2) / (1X)

mm (in)
(3) / (3X)

Cylinder 118.001 118.020


118.021 118.030
block
(4.64699 4.64654) (4.64649 4.64684)
Bore
diameter
Liner
117.991 118.000
118.001 118.010
outside (4.64531 4.64566) (4.64570 4.64605)
diameter
1

WSHK0636

4HK1

(Reference)
When replacing liners, a liner set let you obtain a
piston of proper grade for a given liner bore
diameter only by specifying a liner outside
diameter grade.
2. Install the cylinder liners.
Install the cylinder liners perpendicular to the
cylinder block.
Do not hammer the liner or apply excessive forth to
insert it.
Caution:
Clean up and blow with compressed air the cylinder
block and the cylinder liners before installing them.

6HK1

3. Amount of the cylinder liner extrusion


Measure the amount of the cylinder liner extrusion
using a dial gauge.
Difference of the amount of the extrusion between
adjacent two cylinders should be within 0.03 mm
(0.0012 in).
Amount of the cylinder liner extrusion
Standard

mm (in)

0.05 0.10 (0.0020 0.0039)

1A-156 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Caution:
Be sure to measure the cylinder liner extrusion
whenever you have replaced cylinder liners.

4. Install the piston oil jet.


Align the knock pin of the oil jet with the pin hole of
the cylinder block and tighten with the check valve.
Tightening torque: 21 Nm (2.1 kgm/15 lb ft)
Caution:
Be careful not to deform or damage the oil jet nozzle.

5. Install the crankshaft.


Refer to the Crankshaft.
6. Install pistons and connecting rods.
Refer to the Pistons and Connecting Rod.
7. Install the oil pump.
Refer to Oil Pump.
8. Install the timing gear train.
Refer to the Timing Gear Train.
9. Install the front cover.
Refer to the Front Cover.
10. Install the water pump.
Refer to the Water Pump in the Cooling System
Section.
11. Install the oil pan.
Refer to Oil Pan.
12. Install the crankshaft rear oil seal.
Refer to the Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal.
13. Install the crankshaft front oil seal.
Refer to Crankshaft Front Oil Seal.
14. Install the fuel supply pump.
Refer to Fuel Supply Pump in the Fuel System
section.
15. Install the cylinder head.
Refer to the Cylinder Head.
16. Install the camshaft ASM.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.
17. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
18. Install the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-157

Lubrication System
Precautions on Service Work
During each disassembly, remove the old gasket
adhering to each part and mating part completely
using a scraper at the location, where the fluid
gasket is to be used, clean the traces of oil,
moisture, and dirt completely using waste cotton
and apply the specified new fluid gasket at each
location.

Avoid excessive or insufficient coating volume.


Note that seizure may occur in case of excessive
coating due to clogging of the oil gallery and oil jet,
and oil and water leakage may occur if the coating
is insufficient.
Always, the start and end of the application should
be overlapped.
Explanations on functions and operation
The lubrication system uses the filter element
combined with a full flow bypass, water-cooled oil
cooler, and oil jet for piston cooling.

Lubricating system diagram

1A-158 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


Function Check

Oil Temperature 85 (185 F)


1000
(145.0)

Oil pressure check

Special tool
Oil pressure gauge: J43620-20
Hose: J43630
Connector (4HK1 only): J43630-14
Oil pressure testing adapter (4HK1 only): EN-46333

900
(130.5)
800
(116.0)

Oil Pressure kPa(psi)

1. Check whether the engine oil is contaminated with


dirt, light oil, or water. If contaminated with dirt,
light oil, or water (after examining the cause and
taking the appropriate measures for light oil or
water contamination), replace the oil.
2. Check the engine oil level. The oil level should be
between the two holes of the level gauge. If the oil
level is insufficient, replenish it.
3. Remove the oil pressure switch on the oil filter
body.
4. Install the oil pressure gauge on the oil filter body.

700
(101.5)
600
(87.0)
500
(72.5)

1
2

400
(58.0)
300
(43.5)

3
4

200
(29.0)
100
(14.5)
0
(0)

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

Engine speed (rpm)

1800

2000

2200

WSHK0238

Name
1. 4HK1 Oil Pressure (Oil Port)
2. 4HK1 Oil Pressure (Oil Gallery)
3. 6HK1 Oil Pressure (Oil Port)
4. 6HK1 Oil Pressure (Oil Gallery)
5. Warm the engine.
6. Measure the oil pressure, to check whether it is
more than 550 kPa (80 psi) at 2000 rpm.
7. Stop the engine.
8. Remove the oil pressure gauge.
9. Install the oil pressure switch.
10. Start the engine and check for oil leakage.
Engine oil

2
WSHK0237

* 6HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Oil Port
2. Oil Gallery
3. Hose
4. Oil Pressure Gauge

Ensure the engine is at a level ground. Before


starting the engine or when 5 minutes or more
have elapsed after stopping the engine, check the
engine oil volume using the level gauge. The
volume is appropriate if the engine oil is between
the upper and lower limits of the level gauge.
Replenish the engine oil, if level is below the lower
limit. Also, check for contamination of the engine
oil.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-159


Special Tool
Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

J-43620-20
Oil pressure gauge
Rank B

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

J-43630
Hose
Rank B

J-43630-14
Connector
(4HK1)
Rank A

J-46333
Oil pressure gauge
testing adapter
(4HK1)
Rank A
Name
1. Upper Limit
2. Lower Limit
Engine oil leakage
In the lift up condition, confirm that there are no
leaks from the cylinder head cover and oil pan.

1A-160 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Oil Port Cover ASM


Components

Name
1. Oil Pressure Switch
2. Oil Port Cover

3. O-Ring

Removal
1. Remove the oil pressure switch.
2. Remove the oil port cover.
3. Remove the O-ring.

Installation
1. Install the O-ring on the oil port cover.

Name
1. O-Ring
2. O-Ring

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-161


2. Install the oil port cover on the cylinder block and
tighten it to the specified torque.
Tightening torque:
4HK1 48 Nm (4.9 kgm/35 lb ft)
6HK1 39.2 Nm (4.0 kgm/29 lb ft)

Name
1. Bolt M10X L = 80
2. Bolt M10X L = 25
3. Install the oil pressure switch to the oil port cover.
Apply the liquid gasket (Loctite 262) on 2 to 3
peaks from the tip of the threaded part of the oil
pressure switch and install it at the position shown
in the figure.
Tightening torque: 41.2 Nm (4.2 kgm/30 lb in)

1A-162 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Oil Cooler
Components
4HK1

Name
1. Bypass Hose
2. EGR Cooler Water Return Pipe
3. Oil Cooler
4. Common Rail

5. Fuel Supply Pump


6. EGR Cooler Water Feed Pipe
7. Suction Pipe

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-163


6HK1

WSHK0038
Name
1. EGR Cooler Water Return Pipe
2. Oil Cooler
3. Common Rail

4. Fuel Supply Pump


5. Suction Pipe

Removal
1. Remove the common rail.
Refer to the Common Rail in the fuel system
section.
2. Remove the fuel supply pump.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


3. Remove the EGR cooler water return pipe.
Remove the brackets to the water pipe at two
locations to make the pipe unsupported.

1A-164 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


4. Remove the EGR cooler water feed pipe. (4HK1)
5. Remove the clip on the head side of the water
bypass hose (4HK1) and remove the hose from
the suction pipe ASM.

Screw the removed fixing bolt of the oil cooler into


the replacer hole at the location 1 of the figure and
remove the oil cooler.

4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


7. Remove the O-ring.
Name
1. Bypass Hose
2. EGR Cooler Water Return Pipe
3. EGR Cooler Water Feed Pipe
4. Suction Pipe

Disassembly
1. Remove the element mounting bolts.
2. Remove the element.
3. Remove the O-ring.

6HK1

WSHK0039

Name
1. Suction Pipe
2. EGR Cooler Water Return Pipe
6. Remove the oil cooler ASM with glow plug
controller bracket (4HK1 only).

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Element
2. O-Ring

Reassembly
1. Install the O-ring on the oil cooler case.
2. Install the element.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-165


3. Tighten the element fixing bolts using the specified
torque.

2
(0.08 0.16)

1(0.04)

(0.04

2
0.08)

Tightening torque: 20 Nm (2.0 kgm/15 lb ft)

WSHK0242

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Element
2. O-Ring

Installation
1. Install the oil cooler ASM.
Apply liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207B or
equivalent) to the flange surface groove (cylinder
block). Bead diameter must be between 2 and 4
mm (0.08 and 0.16 in).
Refer to the illustration for the offset position (no
more than 1 mm {0.04 in}).
Install the O-rings (1) and (2) to the oil passage
inlet and outlet. Do not allow the liquid gasket to
contact the O-ring.

Name
1. O-Ring
2. O-Ring
3. Liquid Gasket
Align the oil cooler holes with the cylinder block
studs.
Install the oil cooler and glow plug controller
bracket to the cylinder block.
Tighten the bolts to the specified torque in the
order shown in the illustration.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)
Liquid gasket quickly hardens.
Make it complete within 7 minutes after
applying the liquid gasket.
4HK1

1A-166 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


6HK1

6HK1

WSHK0040
2. Connect the water suction pipe.
Apply liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207B) to the
flange of the water suction pipe. Bead diameter
must be between 2 and 5 mm (0.08 and 0.20 in).
Refer to the illustration for the offset position (no
more than 1 mm {0.04 in}). (4HK1)
Install the water suction pipe to the oil cooler. Refer
to the illustration.
Tighten the bolts to the specified torque.

WSHK0041
Name
1. Gasket
2. Suction Pipe
Caution:
The water suction pipe must be installed immediately
after the oil cooler (the pipe and cooler use the same
liquid gasket).
4HK1

Tightening torque: 4HK1: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)


6HK1: 20 Nm (2.0 kgm/15 lb ft)
4HK1

3. Install the EGR cooler water feed pipe. (4HK1)


Install the O-ring on the EGR cooler water feed
pipe.

Name
1. Liquid Gasket

Install at the position shown in the figure and


tighten using the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-167


4HK1

4. Install the EGR cooler water pipe.


(4HK1)
5. Install the body cover ASM LH on the surface of
the oil cooler and cylinder block and tighten it using
the specified torque. (4HK1)
Tightening torque: 19 Nm (1.9 kgm/14 lb ft)
6. Remove the oil drain adapter. (4HK1)
7. Install the fuel supply pump.
Refer to Fuel Supply Pump in the fuel system
section.
8. Install the common rail.
Refer to the Common Rail in the fuel system
section.

1A-168 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Oil Pan
Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Oil Pan Gasket

Removal
1. Drain engine oil.
2. Remove the oil pan.

2. Oil Pan

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-169


3. Remove the Oil strainer.

4HK1

WSHK0180

4. Remove the O-ring.

6HK1

Installation
1. Install the oil strainer with new O-ring to the crank
case.
Tightening torque:
M8 Bolt (4HK1): 32 Nm (3.3 kgm/24 lb ft)
M8 Bolt (6HK1): 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)
M10 Bolt: 48 Nm (4.9 kgm/35 lb ft)

Install the gasket using the studs of the crankcase,


flywheel housing, and front cover as guide and
mount the oil pan.
Install the rubber ASM on the oil pan and secure it
using nuts and bolts.

WSHK0181

2. Install the oil pan.


At the seam between the cylinder block and the
front cover with the flywheel housing, apply the
liquid gasket (4H: ThreeBond 1207B or 6H:
1207C) to a bead diameter of 3 mm (0.12 in).
Apply the liquid gasket and install the oil pan within
7 minutes.

1A-170 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


4HK1

6HK1
Fastening the oil pan from the part of A or B in
clock wise order.
It tightens again by specified torque.

6HK1

Tightening torque: 24.5 Nm (2.5 kgm/18 lb ft)

WSHK0195

Name
1. Oil Pan
2. Gasket
4HK1
Tighten the locations (1), (2), (3), and (4) as shown
in the figure and then tighten others. (In any
sequence)
Tightening torque: 30 Nm (3.1 kgm/22 lb ft)

WSHK0196

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-171

Oil Pump
Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Oil Pump ASM
2. Spring
3. Ball
4. Split Pin

Removal
1. Drain engine oil.
2. Drain out the cooling water.
3. Remove the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.
4. Remove the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
5. Remove the camshaft ASM.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.
6. Remove the cylinder head ASM.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.
7. Remove the fuel supply pump ASM.
Refer to Fuel Supply Pump in the Fuel System
section.
8. Remove the flywheel.
Refer to the Flywheel.

5. Driven Gear And Shaft


6. Oil Pump Body
7. Gasket

9. Remove the rear oil seal of the crankshaft.


Refer to Rear oil seal of Crankshaft.
10. Remove the oil pan.

1A-172 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


11. Remove the flywheel housing.
Make sure you remove the bolts shown in the
figure.

Disassembly
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
12. Remove the idle gear A.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Remove the driven gear and shaft.


Remove the split pin.
Remove the spring.
Remove the ball.

Reassembly
1. Install the ball.
2. Install the spring.
3. Install the split pin and fold it according to (1).

13. Remove the oil pump ASM and gasket.

4. Apply engine oil on the driven gear and shaft and


mount them on the oil pump body.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-173


Measure the clearance between the gear surface
and the upper surface of the oil pump body using
the thickness gauge and square.
If the gap between the gear and the body inner
wall exceeds the limit, replace the gear ASM or the
driven gear ASM.
Clearance between the gear side surface
and the upper surface of the oil pump body
Standard
Limit

mm (in)

0.064 0.109 (0.0025 0.0043)


0.20 (0.0079)

Inspection
1. Measure the clearance between the gear and the
inner wall of the oil pump body.
Measure the clearance between the gear and oil
pump body using a thickness gauge.
If the gap between the gear and the body inner
wall exceeds the limit, replace the gear ASM or the
driven gear ASM.
Clearance between the gear and inner
wall of the body
Standard
Limit

mm (in)

0.125 0.220 (0.0049 0.0087)


0.30 (0.0118)

3. Measure the clearance between the driven gear


shaft and the bush.
Measure the outside diameter of the driven gear
shaft using a micrometer.
Outside diameter of the driven gear shaft
Standard
Limit

2. Measure the clearance between the gear side


surface and the upper surface of the oil pump
body.

mm (in)

15.989 16.000 (0.62949 0.62992)


15.900 (0.62598)

1A-174 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


3. Install the idling gear A.
Install the idling gear shaft at the position shown in
the figure and apply engine oil on the shaft.
Rotate the crankshaft clockwise and bring the
piston of the No.1 cylinder to the top dead center.

Measure the inside diameter of the bushes of the


oil pump body and cylinder block using the dial
gauge.
If the clearance between the driven gear shaft and
bushing exceeds the limit, replace the driven gear
ASM.
Clearance between the driven gear shaft
and bush
Standard
Limit

mm (in)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Match the alignment marks of the crankshaft gear
and the idle gear A, and install them on the
cylinder block.

0.04 0.07 (0.0016 0.0028)


0.20 (0.0079)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Tighten the mounting bolts using the specified
torque.
Tightening torque: 133 Nm (13.6 kgm/98 lb ft)

Installation
1. Install the gasket.
2. Install the oil pump ASM.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)

4. Install the flywheel housing.


Clean the rear side of the cylinder block. Remove
the protruding fluid gasket thoroughly, especially,
when mounting the crankcase.

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-175


Apply the liquid gasket (ThreeBond 1207B)
uniformly on the inside surface of the bolt holes
(excluding the bolt holes indicated by arrows) as
shown in the figure.
After applying the liquid gasket, quickly install it.
4HK1

Tightening torque: (6HK1)


Bolt holes marked with 1 =
96 Nm (9.8 kgm/71 lb ft)
Bolt holes marked with 2 =
86 Nm (8.8 kgm/63 lb ft)
Bolt holes marked with 3 =
119 Nm (12.1 kgm/88 lb ft)
Bolt holes marked with 4 =
53 Nm (5.4 kgm/39 lb ft)
Bolt holes marked with 5 =
73 Nm (7.4 kgm/54 lb ft)
Bolt holes marked with 6 =
26 Nm (2.7 kgm/19 lb ft)
The seal is tightened from the cylinder block side.

WSHK0235

6HK1

WSHK0043
Align with the knock pin of the cylinder block and
install the flywheel housing.
Tightening torque: (4HK1)
Bolt holes marked with 1 =
96 Nm (9.8 kgm/71 lb ft)
Bolt holes marked with 2 =
77 Nm (7.9 kgm/57 lb ft)
Bolt holes marked with 3 =
38 Nm (3.9 kgm/28 lb ft)

1A-176 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)


4HK1

6HK1

1
1

1
6

1
3

1
1

WSHK0044

ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1) 1A-177


5. Install the oil pan.
Refer to Oil Pan.
6. Install the rear seal of the crankshaft.
Refer to Rear Oil Seal of Crankshaft.
7. Install the flywheel.
Refer to the Flywheel.
8. Install the fuel supply pump ASM.
Refer to Fuel Supply Pump in the Fuel System
section.
9. Install the cylinder head ASM.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.
10. Install the camshaft ASM.
Refer to Camshaft ASM.
11. Install the rocker arm shaft ASM.
Refer to Rocker Arm Shaft ASM.
12. Tighten the cylinder head cover.
Refer to Cylinder Head Cover.

1A-178 ENGINE MECHANICAL (4HK1, 6HK1)

Oil Pressure Switch


Inspection
Check the continuity between the switch terminal and
the body grounding in the no-load condition.
If there is no connectivity, replace with normal parts.

Circuit check
1. Turn the key switch to ON.
2. Disconnect the oil pressure switch connector, and
confirm that the oil pressure-warning lamp lights
when the connector on the harness side is
grounded.
If the warning lamp does not light up, check the
circuit between the meter and the oil pressure
switch, and repair the disconnected locations.

Cooling System

ENGINE
Cooling System
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-2
Precautions on Service Work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-2
Function Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-5
A List of Defective Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-8
Main Data and Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-8
Water Pump (4HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-9
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-9
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-9
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-10
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-11
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-12
Water Pump (6HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-13
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-13
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-15
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-17
Disassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-18
Inspection and Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-19
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-20
Thermostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-23
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-23
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-23
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-23
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-24
Drive Belt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-25
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-25
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-25
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B-27

Cooling System

Cooling System

1B-1

1B-2 Cooling System

Cooling System
Precautions on Service Work

Explanations on functions and operation

WARNING:
Do not remove the radiator cap when the cooling water
is at high temperature. Steam or boiling water will gush
out and you may be burnt. To open the radiator cap,
cover the cap with a thick cloth when the cooling water
is cool, release the pressure by slowly turning the cap,
and then remove the cap.
4HK1

Cooling water system

Name
1. Water Jacket
2. Drain Plug
3. Oil Cooler
4. Water Pump
5. Drain Cock
6. Radiator
7. Cooling Fan
8. Radiator Cap
9. Heater Core

The cooling water system, which is the forced


circulation system, consists of a water pump,
thermostat, and radiator as its main components.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Reservoir Tank
Air Bleeding Plug
Water Outlet Pipe
Thermostat (2 units)
Thermometer Unit
Bypass Route
Turbocharger
EGR Cooler

Cooling System

1B-3

6HK1

10
9

11

14

12
13
7
6

1
4
3

WSHK0045
Name
1. Water Jacket
2. Drain Plug
3. Oil Cooler
4. Water Pump
5. Drain Cock
6. Radiator
7. Cooling Fan

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Radiator Cap
Reservoir Tank
Water Outlet Pipe
Thermostat (2 units)
Thermometer Unit
Bypass Route
EGR Cooler

1B-4 Cooling System


Water pump
The water pump, which uses the centrifugal impeller
system, is driven by the engine fan belt.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Fan Center
2. Bearing

3. Impeller
4. Seal Unit

Cooling System

1B-5

Thermostat
The thermostat is a wax pellet type and consists of two
units, in which one unit (bottom bypass type) has an
valve initial opening temperature of 82 C (180 F) and
the second (inline type) has an valve initial opening
temperature of 85 C (185 F). It is designed such that
the water temperature can be adjusted finely and it is
mounted within the thermostat-housing unit.

Name
1. Jiggle Valve
2. Stamp Mark (Valve Initial Opening Temperature)
3. Valve

Function Check
Cooling water level check
Check the cooling water level within the reserve
tank and the level is appropriate when the cooling
water level is within the MAX (upper limit) and MIN
(lower limit) range. In case the volume of the
cooling water is deficient, remove the reserve tank
cap and replenish with a mixture of tap water and
engine coolant in the ratio of 1:1 until the level
comes close to the MAX line.
4HK1
Standard value
Cooling
level

water 14 L (14.8 qts)


(between MIN and MAX levels)

4. Gasket
5. Piston

6HK1
Standard value
Cooling
level

water 14.5 L (15.3 qts)


(Engine only)

Inspection
Cooling water leak check
Use the radiator cap tester and apply a pressure of
200 kPa (29.0 psi) and check for leaks in the
locations given below. Check that the radiator hose
and heater hose are not damaged or degraded
and the hose clamp is not loose.

1B-6 Cooling System


Inspection location
Radiator ASM, water pump ASM, radiator hose,
heater hose
Coolant
1. About the engine coolant concentration
Take the concentration corresponding to the
minimum temperature because the freezing
temperature
varies
according
to
the
concentration of the engine coolant.
Use only genuine engine coolant.
Use engine coolant with a mix ratio in the range
of 30 to 60% because over heating is likely to
occur if the ratio is greater than 60% and
corrosion prevention is inadequate if the ratio is
less than 30%.

Name
1. Antifreeze Hydrometer
2. Radiator
Fix the temperature of the cooling water being
measured in the range of 0 to 50 C (32 to 122 F).
Measure the temperature and specific gravity and
determine the concentration from the table given
below.

Freezing
temperature
guideline

Mix ratio
Liter (qts)
Engine
coolant

Tap
water

Concentration
of engine
coolant

-18C (-0.4F) 4.2 (4.4)

7.8 (8.2)

35%

-25C (-13F)

5.0 (5.3)

7.0 (7.4)

42%

-35C (-31F)

6.0 (6.3)

6.0 (6.3)

50%

-40C (-40F)

6.4 (6.8)

5.6 (5.9)

53%

2. Engine coolant density measurement


Methods for measuring specific gravity
Measure the specific gravity and the temperature
of the cooling water using an anti-freeze specific
gravity meter and thermometer.
Take precautionary measures as the boiled cooling
water may gush out at high temperatures if the cap
is removed.
Use a deep container to suit the height of the
specific gravity meter.

Coolant scooping method


Measure the concentration using the coolant scoop.

Cooling System
EGR cooler air bleeding procedure
When replacing the coolant, bleed air from the EGR
cooler with the following procedure.
Caution:
Be sure to replace the coolant when it is cooled.
Loosen the air bleeder plug (1) on the EGR cooler.

WSHK0246

3. Pour coolant into the radiator via its opening.


4. Tighten the plug when the coolant spills over from
the air bleeder plug.
Replace the copper packing if it is faulty.
Caution:
Take care to prevent the spilt coolant from getting
the exhaust system parts wet.
Be sure to wipe off the spilt coolant.
Tightening torque: 24.530.5 Nm (2.53.1 kgm/
1823 lb ft)
Pour coolant into the radiator via its opening again
until it is filled.
Bleed air from the engine body coolant with idling
the engine.

1B-7

1B-8 Cooling System


A List of Defective Phenomena
Engine overheats
Engine overcools
Engine overheats
Condition
Engine overheats

Possible Cause

Correction

Cooling water volume is deficit.

Replenish.

Thermometer unit is defective.

Replace.

Thermostat is defective.

Replace.

Radiator pump is defective.

Replace.

Radiator is clogging.

Clean or replace.

Radiator cap is defective.

Replace.

Engine oil volume is deficient or


incorrect engine oil is used.

Replenish or change the engine oil.

Cylinder head gasket is defective.

Replace.

The fan belt is loose.

Adjust.

Exhaust system is clogging.

Clean or replace.

The fuel injection quantity is in surplus.

Diagnose the engine control system.

Fuel injection timing is incorrect.

Diagnose the engine control system.

Starting pressure of fuel injection is


low.

Diagnose the engine control system.

Engine overcools
Condition
Engine overcools

Possible Cause
Thermostat is defective.

Correction
Replace.

Main Data and Specifications


Water pump

Centrifugal impeller system

Pulley ratio

0.950

Thermostat

Wax pellet system

Valve opening temperature

C (F)

With jiggle valve 85 (185)


Without jiggle valve 82 (180)

Temperature when fully open

C (F)

With jiggle valve 100 (212)


Without jiggle valve 95 (203)

Cooling System

Water Pump (4HK1)


Components

Name
1. Fan
2. Spacer
3. Water Pump Pulley

Removal
1. Drain the coolant.
2. Remove the four mounting bolts and then the fan
ASM and spacer, water pump pulley.

4. Fan Belt
5. Water Pump ASM
6. Gasket

1B-9

1B-10 Cooling System

Name
1. Fan
2. Spacer
3. Water Pump Pulley
4. Bolt
3. (2) and (3) that tighten the setting plate and water
pump together. Loosen the adjusting bolts (1) in
the generator and remove the fan belt.

Name
1. Adjusting Bolt
2. Lock Nut
3. Bolt
4. Remove the water pump ASM while inserting and
scraping with the driver at the position shown in
the figure.

Name
1. Water Pump
5. Remove the gasket.

Inspection
1. Appearance check
Check for cracks or damage in the pump body.
Check for cracks and corrosion in the impeller.
Check for water leakage from the seal unit.
If you find abnormalities, replace with the water
pump ASM.
2. Bearing nut check
Rotate the fan center while pushing it along the
radial direction. Confirm that there is no
abnormal noise and no excessive play.
If you find abnormalities, replace with the water
pump ASM.

Cooling System 1B-11


Installation
1. Install the gasket.
2. Install the water pump ASM.
Mount the water pump to match with the studs
of the front cover.
3. Temporarily fit the bolts until the water pump pulley
and the spacer and fan are properly seated in the
water pump ASM.
4. Mount the fan belt, tighten the adjusting bolts of
the generator, and adjust the tension.
Refer to the Drive Belt.
5. After fan belt adjustments, tighten the generator
using the specified torque.

Name
1. Fan ASM
2. Spacer
3. Water Pump Pulley
4. Bolt
7. Pour coolant.

Name
1. Adjusting Bolt
2. Lock Nut
3. Bolt
6. After the fan belt adjustments, tighten the
temporarily fitted fan pulley and spacer and fan
using the specified torque.
Tightening torque:
M8: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)
M10: 45 Nm (4.6 kgm/33 lb ft)

1B-12 Cooling System


Torque Specifications

52(5.3 / 38)

24(2.4 / 18)
76(7.7 / 56)

127(13 / 94)

24(2.4 / 18)

M8:24(2.4 / 18)
M10:45(4.6 / 33)
WSHK0247

Cooling System

1B-13

Water Pump (6HK1)


Removal
1. Loosen the fan fixing nuts to remove the cooling
fan.

Loosen the mounting bolt (2) and the sliding


piece nut (1).
Pivot the alternator at the mounting bolt toward
the center of the engine.

WSHK0207
WSHK0209

2. Remove the fan guide.

WSHK0208

Name
1. Bolt
2. Washer
3. Rubber mount
4. Rubber mount
5. Guide tube
6. Fan guide
3. Loosen the fan pulley fixing bolts.
4. Remove the fan belt.

1B-14 Cooling System


5. Remove the adapter and fan pulley.

WSHK0210

Name
1. Adapter
2. Fan pulley
3. Water pump
6. Disconnect the bypass hose.
7. Loosen the fixing nuts and bolts from the water
pump.
8. Remove the water pump from the front plate.
9. Discard the gaskets.

4. Bypass hose
5. Water duct
6. Water duct

Cooling System
Installation
1. Install the water pump with new gaskets to the
front plate. Use the locating pin.
2. Tighten the fixing nuts and bolts to the specified
torque.

1B-15

6. Clamp the bypass hose.


7. Install the fan pulley and adaptor to the water
pump.
Tighten the fixing bolts to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 52 Nm (5.3 kgm/38 lb ft)

Tightening torque:
Nut A: 39 Nm (4.0 kgm/29 lb ft)
Bolt: 20 Nm (2.0 kgm/15 lb ft)

WSHK0213

WSHK0211

3. Install the water duct with new gasket to the


cylinder head.
Tighten the bolts to the specified torque.

8. Install the fan belt.


9. Adjust the fan belt tension.
Depress the drive belt midway between the
alternator and fan pulley.
Drive Belt Deflection: 8 - 11 mm (0.31 - 0.43 in)

Tightening torque:
Bolt (1) : 221.6 Nm (22.6 kgm/163 lb ft)
Bolt (2) : 24.5 Nm (2.5 kgm/18 lb ft)
Water pump
Alternator

Crankshaft

WSHK0214

WSHK0212

4. Install the water duct with new gasket to the oil


cooler and water pump.
Tighten the bolts to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 20 Nm (2.0 kgm/15 lb ft)
5. Connect the bypass hose.

1B-16 Cooling System


10. Install the cooling fan.
Tighten the fixing nuts to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 52 Nm (5.3 kgm/38 lb ft)

WSHK0207

11. Install the fan guide.


Tighten the fixing bolts to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 30 Nm (3.1 kgm/22 lb ft)

WSHK0208

Name
1. Bolt
2. Washer
3. Rubber mount
4. Rubber mount
5. Guide tube
6. Fan guide

Cooling System

1B-17

Torque Specifications
N m(kg m/lb ft)

39(4 /29)

20(2 / 14)
221.6(22.6 / 163)

20(2 / 14)

20(2 / 14)

24.5(2.5 / 18)

52(5.3 / 38)

F06E100076

1B-18 Cooling System


Disassembly

WSHK0215

Name
1. Center
2. Dust cover
3. Snap ring
4. Bearing
5. Bearing
6. Spacer
7. Bearing
8. Washer

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Shaft
Water pump body
Dowel pin
Seal unit
Impeller
Gasket
Cover
Bolt

Cooling System
1. Remove the rear cover from the water pump body.
2. Use a remover 1-8521-0062-0 to remove the
impeller from the water pump.
3. Use a puller to remove the water pump center.
4. Remove the dust cover and snap ring.
5. Remove the water pump shaft with ball bearings.
Use a plastic hammer to lightly tap on the water
pump shaft from the impeller side.

1B-19

Inspection and Repair


Make the necessary adjustments, repairs and part
replacements if excessive wear or damage is
discovered during inspection.
Water pump impeller
1. Check the impeller for corrosion.

WSHK0218
WSHK0216

6. Use a bench press to remove the bearing from the


shaft.

Water pump shaft


1. Measure the water pump shaft and center or
impeller interference.
If the measured interference is less than the
specified limit, the pump shaft and / or the center
and impeller must be replaced.
Pump shaft and center interference:
Limit: 0.048 0.078 mm (0.0019 0.0031 in)
Pump shaft and impeller interference:
Limit: 0.022 0.062 mm (0.0009 0.0024 in)

WSHK0217

7. Remove the seal unit.

WSHK0219

1B-20 Cooling System


2. Carefully wipe away any bearing grease.
3. Listen for excessive bearing operating noise.

Use a bench press to gradually press the water


pump shaft down until the bearings are seated
correctly.

WSHK0220

Excessive bearing operating


severe bearing wear.

noise

indicates

Reassembly

WSHK0222

2. Install the water pump shaft with bearings to the


water pump body.
Repack the bearings with multipurpose grease.

1. Install the ball bearing to the water pump shaft.


Apply engine oil to the water pump shaft.
Place the water pump shaft and the bearings
on the base plates.
Install the washer (4), ball bearing (3), spacer
(2), and bearings (1).

WSHK0223

Place the water pump body on bench press


base plate.
NOTE :
To prevent damage to the water pump shaft, place soft
brass or copper sheets between the base plates and
the water pump shaft.
WSHK0221

Cooling System
Position the pump shaft with bearings to the
water pump body.
Use a bench press to gradually press the water
pump shaft into the water pump body.
NOTE :
Do not drive the bearing into position with a hammer or
similar object. Bearing damage will result.

1B-21

4. Install the seal unit to the water pump body.


Press in the seal unit to the specified position
using a bench press and installer 1-85220-0470.
Seal unit installation position A:
11.0 11.6 mm (0.433 0.457 in)

WSHK0226
WSHK0224

3. Install the snap ring and dust cover.


Use pliers to install the snap ring into water
pump body groove.
Install the dust cover with the flange facing out.

5. Install the water pump impeller to the water pump


shaft.
Use a bench press to press in the impeller.
The impeller must be flush with the water pump
shaft end.
6. Use a bench press to gradually press the water
pump center onto the water pump shaft to the
specified dimension.

WSHK0225

WSHK0227

Dimension A:

202.9 mm (7.988 in)

7. Install the rear cover with new gasket to the water


pump body.

1B-22 Cooling System


Special tool
Illustration

Tool Number/Description

1-8521-0062-0
Impeller remover

1-8522-0047-0
Seal unit installer

Cooling System

Thermostat
Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Water Outlet Pipe
2. Thermostat

Removal
1. Drain the coolant. Prepare the container for
discharging and use it for replenishment when
mounting the thermostat. Set the discharge of
cooling water such that the water does not flow out
of the thermostat housing.
2. Disconnect the water outlet pipe.
3. Remove the thermostat.
4. Remove the gasket from the thermostat.

Inspection
Place the thermostat in water and increase the
temperature while stirring it sufficiently.
Measure the temperature when the valve is just
opened and when it is fully open.

3. Gasket

1B-23

1B-24 Cooling System


Installation

6HK1

1. Mount the gasket on the thermostat and mount it at


the position shown in the figure.
The thermostat with the jiggle valve (A) is
installed to the left side of the engine. The jiggle
valve faces the rear of engine.
Fit the thermostat gasket ensuring that it does
not come out of and on top of the external
housing on the cylinder head side.

WSHK0024

Name
1. Thermostat
2. Connect the water outlet pipe.

Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)

031EY00026

4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


3. Replenish the cooling water stored during the
discharge, and check the volume of the cooling
water.
Name
1. Thermostat
2. Cylinder Head

Cooling System

1B-25

Drive Belt
Components

Name
1. Crankshaft Pulley
2. Generator Drive Belt
3. Bolt
4. Generator

5.
6.
7.
8.

Adjusting Bolt
Lock Nut
Adjusting Plate
Water Pump Pulley

Inspection

Drive Belts Adjustment

Check for the presence of wear or damage in the drive


belt and renew the parts if necessary.
Check the tension of the belt and adjust if necessary.

Adjustment procedure

Inspection procedure
Apply a pressure of 98 N (22 lb) at the center of the
long span of each belt and check the deflection of the
belt.
Deflection of generator drive belt
When the belt is new
5.0 to 5.8 mm (0.19 to 0.23 in)
When the belt is reused
6.1 to 6.9 mm (0.24 to 0.27 in)

Adjust simultaneously the generator drive belt for


adjustment of belt.
1. Loosen the adjusting plate lock nuts and the
mounting bolts of generator on the underside of
the generator.
2. Rotate the adjusting bolts of generator and adjust
the belt (remove and fit).
When replacing the belt, you must always
replace both the belts.
3. After adjustments, tighten the adjusting plate lock
nuts and the mounting bolts of generator on the
underside of the generator using the specified
torque.
Tightening torque:
Lock nut:
76 Nm (7.7 kgm/56 lbft)
Bolt:
127 Nm (13.0 kgm/94 lbft)

1B-26 Cooling System

Name
1. Crankshaft Pulley
2. Bolt
3. Generator
4. Adjusting Bolt
5. Lock Nut
6. Water Pump Pulley
7. Generator Drive Belt

Cooling System
Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

1B-27

1B-28 Cooling System

Fuel System

ENGINE
Fuel System
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-2
Precautions on Service Work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-2
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-12
Fuel Filter ASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1C-13
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1C-13
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1C-13
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1C-13
Fuel Filter Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-14
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-14
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-14
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-14
Fuel Injector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-15
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-15
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-16
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-19
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-22
Special Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-23
Fuel Supply Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-24
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-24
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-25
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-26
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-29
Gauze filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-30
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-30
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-30
Electromagnetic Pump Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-31
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-31
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-31
Common Rail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-32
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-32
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-33
Disassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-35
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-36
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-36
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1C-39

Fuel System

Fuel System

1C-1

1C-2 Fuel System

Fuel System
Precautions on Service Work
Parts of the fuel system such as the internal part of the
fuel injector, holes and clearances that form passages
for fuel are finished to a very high degree of accuracy.
They are therefore highly sensitive to foreign matter
and the entry of foreign matter could cause damage to
the fuel passage. Therefore, effective measures should
be taken to prevent the entry of foreign matter.
If water removal agent is used in the fuel then it will
absorb moisture in the light oil and may cause rust.
Therefore, do not use water removal agent in the fuel
tank.
When servicing the fuel system, every precaution must
be taken to prevent the entry of foreign material into the
system.
Before beginning the service procedure, wash the
fuel line and the surrounding area.
Perform the service procedures with clean hands.
Do not wear work gloves.
Immediately after removing the fuel hose and/or
fuel pipe, carefully tape vinyl bags over the
exposed ends of the hose or pipe.
Always replace the high-pressure pipe in fuel
system with new one if it has been removed.
Reuse of it causes damage the seal surface,
resulting in fuel leakage.
If parts are to be replaced (fuel hose, fuel pipe,
etc.) do not open the new part packaging until
installation.
Discard gaskets and O-rings and replace them with
new ones.
Work procedure
The fuel opening must be quickly sealed when
removing the fuel pipe, injection pipe, fuel injector,
fuel supply pump, and common rail.
The eyebolts and gasket must be stored in a clean
parts box with a lid to prevent adhesion of foreign
matter.
Fuel leakage could cause fires. Therefore, after
finishing the work, wipe off the fuel that has leaked
out and make sure there is no fuel leakage after
starting the engine.

Fuel System

1C-3

Explanations on functions and operation


Fuel system diagram
2

4HK1

3
1

6
7

6HK1

7
9

WSHK0248

Name
1. Common Rail
2. Fuel Filter
3. Electromagnetic Pump
4. Pre-fuel Filter
5. Fuel Tank

6.
7.
8.
9.

Supply Pump
Fuel Injector
Leak-Off Pipe
Fuel Return Pipe

1C-4 Fuel System


Removal of Foreign Material between Main Filter
and Supply Pump

ZX200-3 class

IMPORTANT: When the bolt at fuel outlet side in


main filter is loosened or the hose is
removed, remove foreign material
between main filter and supply
pump.
When the main filter or the hose between main filter
and supply pump is replaced, remove foreign material
between main filter and supply pump.
1. Install the base to the fuel outlet in main filter.
: 19 mm
: 445 Nm (4.50.5 kgfm, 323.69 lbfft)

Main Filter
Fuel
Outlet

M1U1-07-014

Bolt
Base
Clamp

2. Install the hose to the base and secure with the


clamp.
3. Remove the hose at the fuel inlet side in supply
pump.

Hose

To Supply
Pump

W1GR-01-01-001

4HK1 Supply Pump Fuel Inlet

6HK1 Supply Pump Fuel Inlet

W1GR-01-01-002

W1GR-01-01-003

Fuel System 1C-5


4. Turn the key switch ON and operate the fuel
solenoid pump. Put fuel from the hose into the
container.

Hose
Incorrect

CAUTION: Use the container which can


measure beyond 10 liters.
Make the hose extend straight in order not to
accumulate foreign material inside.
Keep away the hose end from the container
or fuel in the container in order not to enter
foreign material.

Correct

W1GR-01-01-004

Hose

5. When fuel in the container is beyond 4 liters, turn


the key switch OFF and stop the fuel solenoid
pump.

Container

W1GR-01-01-005

6. Install the hose to the fuel inlet in supply pump and


secure with the clamp.
7. Release any pressure in the fuel system. (Refer to
Bleeding Air in Fuel System on the Operators
Manual.)
8. Start the engine. Check for any leaks in fuel
system.

4HK1 Supply Pump Fuel Inlet

6HK1 Supply Pump Fuel Inlet

W1GR-01-01-002

W1GR-01-01-003

1C-6 Fuel System


Caution:
Be careful foreign material does not into the fuel
system, because the precise fuel system is used.
Common rail
4HK1

Name
1. Flow Damper
2. Pressure Limiter

3. Pressure Sensor

Fuel System 1C-7


6HK1

MFW41DMF000201

Name
1. Flow Damper
2. Pressure Limiter

3. Fuel Inlet
4. Pressure Sensor

1C-8 Fuel System


Fuel supply pump
4HK1

Name
1. Fuel Temperature Sensor
2. Suction Control Valve
3. High Pressure Pipe

4. Camshaft Key
5. Camshaft Nut

Fuel System

1C-9

6HK1

WSHK0046
Name
1. Fuel Temperature Sensor
2. Suction Control Valve

3. High Pressure Pipe


4. Camshaft Key

1C-10 Fuel System


Fuel injector

Fuel filter

Name
1. Terminal Stud
2. Part for Mounting Leak Off Pipe
3. O-ring
4. Part for Mounting Injection Pipe
5. Parts Number
6. ID Plate

Name
1. Priming Pump
2. Air Bleed
3. Case
4. Drain Plug
Function check
Air bleeding
1. Before starting the engine
a. Fit a tray below the fuel filter (below the air
bleed plug).
b. Turn the key switch to ON, and activate the
electromagnetic pump. (on the machine with
electromagnetic pump)
c. Loosen the plug adequately and operate the
priming pump more than 20 times until the fuel
near the plug overflows.
d. Tighten the plug, and operate the priming pump
more than 10 times until it is filled with fuel.
After waiting for approximately a minute, loosen
the plug and bleed out the air in the fuel filter.
(This work must be repeated a minimum of
three times until no more air comes out from the
plug.)

Fuel System

1C-11

e. Tighten the plug firmly and wipe the fuel in the


surrounding area. Operate the priming pump
(10 to 15 times) till it is filled with fuel and then
send fuel to the engine.
2. After starting the engine
a. Start the engine, but do not control the engine
speed on machine side.
b. After starting, maintain the idling rotation for 5
seconds.
c. Increase the engine speed slowly and keep this
for three minutes.
d. Operate the engine speed to maximum on the
machine side. (Repeat this operation several
times)
e. Return to idling speed.
Caution:
If the air bleeding work is insufficient then it could lead
to faults in the engine. Therefore, the procedures after
starting the engine should always be implemented.
Water drain
It is designed that the float inside of the water
sedimenter floats when water accumulates.
When the float level goes up to the aluminum body
section, be sure to drain the water.
Water draining procedure
Loosen the air bleed plug at the top of the water
sedimenter. Then loosen the drain plug to drain the
water inside of it. After draining, tighten each plug
securely. Then bleed air from the fuel.
Fuel system vacuum check
Use this procedure to measure the vacuum (negative
pressure) discharge side the fuel system.
Important:
The fuel pressure/vacuum gauge ASM (gauge (1)) and
the fuel pressure/vacuum gauge adapter (adapter (5))
must be cleaned before connecting to the fuel line.
Otherwise, foreign material adherent to the tools may
damage the fuel supply pump.
1. Disconnect the fuel hose from the fuel filter
housing. (fuel supply pump side).
2. Install the adapter.
Special tool
Fuel pressure/vacuum gauge adapter (4HK1 only):
EN-47667
3. Connect the gauge (1) with hose to the adapter
(3).
Special tool
Fuel pressure/vacuum gauge ASM:
J-44638

Name
1. Fuel Pressure/Vacuum Gauge ASM
2. Fuel Pipe (Discharge Side)
3. Fuel Pressure/Vacuum Gauge Adapter (4HK1
only)
4. Loosen the air bleeding plug on the supply pump.
5. Use your hand to operate the fuel filter priming
pump. Operate the pump until all the air has been
bled from the system.
6. Start the engine and allow it to idle.
7. Note the gauge (1) reading. If the reading is
normal, go to Step 8. If the fuel vacuum is greater
than the specified value, there is a problem in the
fuel system. Perform the procedures outlined
below.
Standard fuel vacuum Less than 17 kPa (170 mbar)
Replace the cartridge fuel filter element.
Check the fuel delivery pipe. If it is clogged, it must
be replaced.
Remove the fuel pipe at the fuel filter inlet. Use
high-pressure air forced through the fuel pipe to
clean the fuel system.
Caution:
Remove the fuel filler cap before applying highpressure air.

1C-12 Fuel System


Do not perform this procedure if the fuel tank is
nearly full (fuel approaching or flowing into the fuel
filler neck). The forced air will spray fuel from the
fuel filler neck.
8. Remove the gauge (1) and hose from the adapter
(3).
9. Remove the adapter (3).
10. Connect the fuel hose.
11. Use your hand to operate the fuel filter priming
pump. Operate the pump until all the air has been
bled from the system.
12. Start the engine and allow it to idle.
13. Inspect the fuel system for fuel leakage.

Special Tool
Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

EN-47667
Fuel pressure/vacuum
gauge adapter
(4HK1)
Rank B

J-44638
Fuel pressure/vacuum
gauge ASM
Rank B

Fuel System 1C-13

Fuel Filter ASM


Components

Name
1. Priming Pump
2. Air Bleed
3. Case
4. Drain Plug

Removal
1. Remove the feed hose and the return hose from
the fuel filter and plug it so that the fuel does not
flow out.
2. Remove the bolts for mounting the fuel filter.
3. Remove the fuel filter ASM.

Installation
1.
2.
3.
4.

Install the fuel filter ASM.


Install the bolts for mounting the fuel filter.
Install the feed hose and the return hose.
Bleed out the air.
Refer to Fuel System.

1C-14 Fuel System

Fuel Filter Element


Removal
1. Remove the case using the filter wrench.
Special tool
Main filter wrench: 8-9801-3170-0
2. Remove the Fuel Filter element.

Special tool
Main filter wrench: 8-9801-3170-0

Special Tool
Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

8-9801-3170-0
Main filter wrench
Rank A

Name
1. Priming Pump
2. Air Bleed
3. Case
4. Drain Plug

Installation
1. Assemble the Fuel Filter element.
2. To simplify air bleed, fill light oil in the case.
3. Tighten the case by hand. During this process take
adequate care that the light oil that is inside does
not flow out.
4. Use the filter wrench and tighten rotating by 1/3 to
2/3.

Fuel System

Fuel Injector
Components
4HK1

1C-15

1C-16 Fuel System


6HK1

11
8

7
10
12

3
4

1
2

WSHK0162

Name
1. Fuel Injection Pipe Clip
2. Fuel Injection Pipe
3. Fuel Injector Leak-Off Pipe
4. Fuel Injector
5. Fuel Injector Clamp
6. Fuel Injector Clamp Bolt

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

EGR Adapter
EGR Cooler
EGR Valve
Cylinder Head Cover
Fuel Injector Harness Bracket
Fuel Injector Terminal

The fuel system consists of many tiny holes and


spaces that allow the movement of fuel from one place
to another. These holes and spaces are milled to
extremely high precision. This is especially true of the
fuel injectors.

Caution:
To avoid electric shock;
Set the switch to the OFF position and disconnect
battery negative cable before checking or repairing the
fuel injector, wiring or/and connectors.

The fuel injector is very sensitive to foreign material.


Foreign material will result in fuel system breakdown.
Exercise great care not to allow the entry of foreign
material into the fuel system or fuel injectors during the
removal and installation procedure.

Removal
1. Remove the engine harness, the EGR valve, the
pressure sensor, and all of the fuel injector
connectors.
2. Remove the EGR valve and the EGR adapter.

Fuel System

1C-17

3. Tape the EGR case holes shut to prevent the entry


of foreign material.
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Cylinder Head Cover

6HK1
2

5. Alternately loosen the fuel injector terminal nuts a


little at a time in sequence. Several loosening
cycles should be required before the nuts are
loose.
6. Loosen the fuel injector harness bracket bolts.
Remove the inside connector and the harness
bracket.
7. Remove the fuel injector leak-off pipe.
8. Remove the lower cover.

WSHK0163

Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. EGR Valve
4. Remove the cylinder head cover.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Harness Bracket
2. Harness Connector
3. Fuel Injector Terminal
4. Fuel Leak Off Pipe

1C-18 Fuel System


9. Remove the fuel injection pipe clips and the
injection pipes.
Important:
Do not reuse the high-pressure pipe in fuel system if it
has been removed.

Caution:
Do not remove the fuel injector sleeve.
Special tool
Fuel injector remover: 5-8840-2826-0 (EN-46720)
Sliding hammer: 5-8840-0019 (J-23907)

4HK1

6HK1
2
1

Name
1. Sliding Hammer
2. Remover
3. Fuel Injector ASM
11.

WSHK0021

Name
1. Fuel Injection Pipe
2. Pipe Clip
10. Loosen the fuel injector clamp fixing bolts and
remove the fuel injectors.
If the fuel injectors are difficult to remove, use the fuel
injector remover. Install the fuel injector remover to the
leak-off pipe attachment part on the fuel injector. Use a
sliding hammer to force the fuel injector clamp off the
fuel injector.

Mark each fuel injector with the number of the


cylinder from which it was removed. Store the fuel
injectors in a safe place. Position the fuel injector
so that the nozzle is protected.

Caution:
Do not tamper with the electromagnetic portion of
the fuel injector. Reduced electromagnetic function
will result in injector failure.
Recording Injector ID Code Information from the
Injector ID plate on the replaced fuel injector
housing;
Record all numbers of replaced fuel injector's from ID
plate.

Fuel System

1C-19

3. Install the fuel injector clamps to the cylinder head.


4. Temporarily tighten the clamp bolts.
5. Apply a thin coat of engine oil to the outer surface
of the fuel injector side sleeve nuts.
6. Install the fuel injector pipes to the position shown
in the illustration.
Important:
Replace the high-pressure pipe in fuel system with new
one if it has been removed.
7. Use a spanner to carefully the sleeve nuts until the
fuel injector pipes contact the fuel injector and
common rail.
8. Tighten the fuel injection pipe clips to the specified
torque.
Tightening torque: 6 Nm (0.6 kgm/53 lb in)
Name
1. Injector ID Plate
2. Injector ID Code
3. Fuel Injector

Installation
Important:
Install each of the fuel injectors on its original position.
(the cylinder from which it was removed)
1. Install a new gasket and O-ring to each of the fuel
injector clamps. Refer to the illustration.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Fuel Injection Pipe
2. Pipe Clip
9. Final tighten the injection clamp bolts to the
specified torque.
Tightening torque: 30 Nm (3.1 kgm/22 lb ft)
10. Tighten the injection pipes to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 44 Nm (4.5 kgm/32 lb ft)
Name
1. Gasket
2. Fuel Injector
3. Bolt
4. Fuel Injector Clamp
2. Apply molybdenum to the threads and seating
surfaces of the clamp bolts.

1C-20 Fuel System


4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Clamp Bolt
2. Sleeve Nut

6HK1

11. Install the nozzle leak off pipes together with the
new gaskets. Tighten the pipes to the specified
torque.
Tightening torque: 12 Nm (1.2 kgm/106 lb in)

WSHK0028
14. Install the fuel injector terminal nuts to the injector.
15. Alternately tighten each nut 2 or 3 turns at a time
until the specified torque is reached.
Tightening torque: 2 Nm (0.2 kgm/18 lb in)
Caution:
Do not overtighten the nuts. Damage to the terminal
studs will result.
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
12. Install the fuel injector harness connectors. Work
from the inside out.
13. Install the harness bracket and tighten the bolts to
the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 48 Nm (4.9 kgm/35 lb ft)
6HK1: 22 Nm (2.2 kgm/16 lb ft)

Fuel System

1C-21

Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)

Name
1. Fuel Injector
2. Harness
3. Terminal Nut
16. Install the gasket to the cylinder head cover.
17. Install the cylinder head cover and tighten the bolts
to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 18 Nm (1.8 kgm/13 lb ft)
6HK1: 13 Nm (1.3 kgm/9.6 lb ft)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Cylinder Head Cover
18. Install the gasket to the EGR valve and tighten the
bolts to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)
19. Install the gasket to the EGR adapter and tighten
the bolts to the specified torque.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. EGR Valve
20. Attach the engine harness connectors. Each
composite connector should make a loud click
when it is securely attached.
Before Programming the Injector ID Code
Important:
DO NOT program the fuel injector ID code data unless
you are directed by a service procedure or you are
directed by a service bulletin. Programming the fuel
injector at any other time will not permanently correct a
customers concern.
Ensure the following conditions are met before
programming the ECM.
System voltage for machine
There is no charging system concern. All
charging system concerns must be repaired
before programming the ECM.
Battery voltage is 12 volts or 24 volts (varies
depending on the machine). The battery must
be charged before programming the ECM if the
battery voltage is low.
A battery charger is NOT connected to the
machines battery. Incorrect system voltage or
voltage fluctuations from a battery charger may
cause programming failure or ECM damage.
Turn OFF or disable and system that may put a
load on the machines battery.
The key switch is in the proper position. DO NOT
change the position of the key switch during the
programming procedure, unless instructed to do
so.
All tool connections are secure.
RS-232

1C-22 Fuel System


The connection at the data link connector
(DLC) is secure.
Voltage supply circuit
DO NOT disturb the tool harness while
programming. If an interruption occurs during the
programming procedure, programming failure or
ECM damage may occur.
Surrounding environment
Surrounding temperature must be between 0
and 50C (32 and 122F) during the
programming procedure. Excessively low or
high temperature may cause the programming
failure or ECM damage.

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) on the tool


harness and ECM may cause the programming
failure or ECM damage.
Injector ID Code Programming Procedure
Programming of the injector ID code is refered to
Injector Replacement in the EMPS or EMPS III
operating instructions manual.

Torque Specifications
4HK1 : 48 (4.9 / 35)
6HK1 : 22 (2.2 / 16)

N m(kg m/lb ft)

2 (0.2 / 1.5)

4HK1 : 18 (1.8 / 13)


6HK1 : 13 (1.3 / 9.6)

12 (1.2 / 8.9)
30 (3.0 / 22)

24 (2.4 / 17)
6 (0.6 / 4.4)
44 (4.5 / 32)
WSHK0047

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Fuel System
Special Tool
Illustration

Tool Number/Description/
Special Tool Rank

5-8840-0019-0
J-23907
Sliding hammer
Rank B

5-8840-2826-0
EN-46720
Injector remover
Rank A

1C-23

1C-24 Fuel System

Fuel Supply Pump


Components

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Fuel Leak Off Pipe
2. Fuel Pipe
3. Fuel Supply Pump
4. O-ring
The fuel system consists of many tiny holes and
spaces that allow the movement of fuel from one place
to another. These holes and spaces are milled to
extremely high precision. This is especially true of the
fuel injectors.
The fuel injector is very sensitive to foreign material.
Foreign material will result in fuel system breakdown.
Exercise great care not to allow the entry of foreign
material into the fuel system or fuel injectors during the
removal and installation procedure.

5.
6.
7.
8.

Bracket
Bracket O-ring
Drive Gear
Oil Drain Adapter

Fuel System

1C-25

Removal
1. Remove the intake pipe and case ASM.
2. Remove the fuel pipe and fuel leak-off pipe.
Important:
Do not reuse the high-pressure pipe in fuel system if it
has been removed.
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


6. Use a gear puller to remove the fuel supply pump
gear and the bracket O-ring.

6HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


7. Loosen the 3 bolts holding the fuel supply pump
bracket. Remove the bracket and the O-ring.

WSHK0048
3. Disconnect the fuel feed hose.
4. Disconnect the connector of fuel temperature
sensor and the common rail pressure regulator
from the fuel supply pump.
5. Remove the fuel supply pump.
Note:
A single bolt (1) secures the pump and the flywheel
housing.

Caution:
Do not hold the high pressure pipe, during the
supply pump removal procedure.
Do not grasp the high pressure pipe, when moving
the supply pump form one location to another.

1C-26 Fuel System

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Name
1. Fuel Supply Pump
2. O-ring
3. Fuel Supply Pump Bracket

Name
1. Fuel Supply Pump
2. O-ring
3. Fuel Supply Pump Bracket

Installation
1. Install the O-ring to the fuel supply pump.
2. Install the pump to the bracket and tighten the 3
bolts to the specified torque.

3. Align the fuel supply pump shaft key and gear.


Install the gear and tighten the nut to the specified
torque.
There is a round alignment mark on the gear (white
paint).
Tightening torque: 64 Nm (6.5 kgm/47 lb ft)

Tightening torque: 19 Nm (1.9 kgm/14 lb ft)


Caution:
Take care not to twist the O-ring.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Fuel Supply Pump
2. Fuel Supply Pump Gear
3. Nut

Fuel System
4. Apply white paint to the top of the fuel supply pump
gear tooth directly above the stamped O mark.
Refer to the illustration.

1C-27

6HK1

WSHK0049
* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.
5. Turn the crankshaft in the normal direction of
engine rotation until the No. 1 or No. 4 cylinder is
at TDC on the compression stroke.
Refer to the illustration.
4HK1

6.
7.
8.
9.

Remove the oil drain adapter.


Install the O-ring to the fuel supply pump.
Align the slits as shown in the illustration.
Insert the stud bolts into the guides and
temporarily tighten them.

Caution:
If the stud bolts (cylinder block side) have been
loosened or replaced, apply Loctite 262 to the
recessed portion of the bolts.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Check that the round alignment mark (white paint)
is positioned as shown in the illustration when
viewed from the plug hole. If necessary, reposition
the gear.
Tighten the stud bolts and the nuts to the specified
torque.
Tightening torque Nut: 50 Nm (5.1 kgm/37 lb ft)
Bolt: 76 Nm (7.7 kgm/56 lb ft)

1C-28 Fuel System


14. Install the case ASM.
Apply the liquid gasket and mount within 7
minutes.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Plug Hole
2. Alignment Mark
10. Apply a light coat of engine oil to the O-ring.
11. Install the oil drain adapter to the plug hole.
Tighten the bolts to the specified torque.

6HK1

Tightening torque: 8 Nm (0.8 kgm/71 lb in)

WSHK0050
15. Install the fuel pipe and fuel leak-off pipe.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Oil Drain Adapter
2. O-ring
12. Connect the fuel temperature sensor and the
suction control valve connectors to the fuel supply
pump.
13. Connect the fuel feed hose.

Important:
Do not reuse the high-pressure pipe in fuel system if it
has been removed.
16. Start and idle the engine.
Important:
In order to make the fuel supply pump characteristic
learn into the ECM, let the engine idle until warm-up. If
the fuel system DTC' stored in the meantime, once
clear DTD and warm-up the engine again.

Fuel System
Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

1C-29

1C-30

Fuel System

Gauze filter
4HK1

3
WSHK0249

6HK1

WSHK0250

Name
1. Fuel Supply Pump
2. Eyebolt

Removal
1. Remove the eyebolt.
2. Disconnect the C-ring from the eyebolt and detach
the gauze filter.
3. Clean the gauze filter with solvents, then blow dust
particles off with compressed air.

3. Gauze Filter

Installation
1. Attach the gauze filter to the eyebolt, then secure it
using a C-ring.
2. Install the eyebolt to the supply pump.
Tightening torque: 14.6 24.6 Nm
(1.5 2.5 kgm/11 18 lb ft)
3. Bleed out the air.
Refer to "Fuel System".

Fuel System

1C-31

Electromagnetic Pump Filter

4
3

WSHK0251

Name
1. Electromagnetic Pump
2. Filter Element

Removal
1. Remove the ground cable that is installed on the
electromagnetic pump cover.
2. Turn the pump cover with your hand to remove it
and take out the filter element.
3. Clean the filter element with solvents, then blow
dust particles off with compressed air.

3. Pump Cover
4. Ground Cable

Installation
1. Insert the filter element to the pump, then attach
the cover.
2. Install the ground cable to the cover.
3. Bleed out the air.
Refer to "Fuel System".

1C-32 Fuel System

Common Rail
Components
4HK1

Name
1. Fuel Leak Off Pipe
2. Fuel Pipe
3. EGR Valve
4. EGR Cooler
5. EGR Adapter

6.
7.
8.
9.

Injection Pipe Clip


Injection Pipe (#1 to #4)
Common Rail
Common Rail Bracket

Fuel System

1C-33

6HK1

3
6
7
4

WSHK0165

Name
1. Fuel Leak Off Pipe
2. Fuel Pipe
3. EGR Valve
4. EGR Cooler
Parts of the fuel system such as the internal part of the
fuel injector, holes and clearances that form passages
for fuel are finished to a very high degree of accuracy.
They are therefore highly sensitive to foreign matter
and the entry of foreign matter could cause damage to
the fuel passage. Therefore, effective measures should
be taken to prevent the entry of foreign matter.

Removal
1. Remove the air intake pipe.
Disconnect the connector for the intake air
temperature sensor.
2. Remove the fuel leak off hose from the leak off
pipe.

5.
6.
7.
8.

EGR Adapter
Injection Pipe Clip
Injection Pipe (#1 to #6)
Common Rail
Cover the removed fuel hose with a lid, keep it
facing upward and secure it using wire, etc.

Note:
Cover the areas exposed during part removal to
prevent the entry of foreign material into the fuel
system.
3. Disconnect the connected of common rail pressure
sensor, and all the connectors.
4. Remove the EGR valve and the EGR adapter.
5. Tape the EGR case holes shut to prevent the entry
of foreign material.

1C-34 Fuel System


4HK1

4HK1

6HK1

6HK1
2

1
2

WSHK0166

Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. EGR Valve
6. Remove the injection pipe clip and remove the
injection pipes.
Important:
Do not reuse the high-pressure pipe in fuel system if it
has been removed.
Note:
Cover the areas exposed during part removal to
prevent the entry of foreign material into the fuel
system.

WSHK0167

Name
1. Fuel Injection Pipe
2. Pipe Clip
7. Remove the fuel pipe.
Note:
Cover the areas exposed during part removal to
prevent the entry of foreign material into the fuel
system.
8. Remove the clip and the fuel leak off pipe.
Note:
Cover the areas exposed during part removal to
prevent the entry of foreign material into the fuel
system.

Fuel System
4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Fuel Leak Off Pipe

Name
1. Common Rail Bracket (4HK1)
2. Common Rail

6HK1

Disassembly
1. Remove the fuel pressure limiter.
4HK1

WSHK0051
Name
1. Fuel Leak Off Pipe
9. Remove the common rail and the common rail
bracket.
Caution:
Do not grasp the pressure sensor, during the
common rail removal procedure.
Take care not to damage the connector unit of the
pressure sensor.

1C-35

1C-36 Fuel System


6HK1

6HK1

2
WSHK0168

WSHK0168

Name
1. Common Rail
2. Pressure Sensor
3. Pressure Limiter

Name
1. Common Rail
2. Pressure Sensor
3. Pressure Limiter

Reassembly

Installation

1. Install the fuel pressure limiter.


Tightening torque: 172 Nm (17.5 kgm/127 lb ft)
4HK1

1. Tighten the common rail bracket to the specified


torque. (4HK1)
Tightening torque: 19 Nm (1.9 kgm/14 lb ft)
2. Tighten the common rail to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 4HK1: 19 Nm (1.9 kgm/14 lb ft)
6HK1: 25 Nm (2.5 kgm/18 lb ft)
Caution:
Do not grasp the pressure sensor, during the
common rail reassembly procedure.
Take care not to damage the connector unit of the
pressure sensor.

Fuel System

1C-37

4HK1

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Common Rail Bracket (4HK1)
2. Common Rail

6HK1

3. Tighten the fuel leak off pipe (1) using the


mounting eyebolt and the clip using the specified
torque.
Tightening torque
4HK1
6HK1
4HK1
6HK1
4HK1
4HK1
6HK1

3
7

(2):
(2):
(3):
(3):
(4):
(7):
(7):

18 Nm (1.8 kgm/13 lb ft)


10 Nm (1.0 kgm/7.4 lb ft)
12 Nm (1.2 kgm/106 lb in)
14.2 Nm (1.4 kgm/126 lb in)
8 Nm (0.8 kgm/71 lb in)
6 Nm (0.6 kgm/53 lb in)
8.8 Nm (0.9 kgm/78 lb in)

4. Tighten the fuel pipe (5) using the mounting sleeve


nut and the specified torque.
Tightening torque (6): 44 Nm (4.5 kgm/32 lb ft)
(8): 44 Nm (4.5 kgm/32 lb ft)

1
6

5
2

WSHK0169

5. Tighten the injection pipe and the clip using the


specified mounting torque.
Important:
Replace the high-pressure pipe in fuel system with new
one if it has been removed.
Injection pipe sleeve nut
Tightening torque: 44 Nm (4.5 kgm/32 lb ft)
Injection pipe clip
Tightening torque: 6 Nm (0.6 kgm/53 lb in)
Apply a thin coat of engine oil on the periphery of
the sleeve nut on the fuel injector side and
assemble.

1C-38 Fuel System


4HK1

4HK1

6HK1

6HK1
2

1
2

WSHK0167

Name
1. Fuel Injection Pipe
2. Pipe Clip
6. Install the gasket to the EGR valve and tighten the
bolts to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)
7. Install the gasket to the EGR adapter and tighten
the bolts to the specified torque.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)

WSHK0166

Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. EGR Valve

Fuel System
Torque Specifications
4HK1

1C-39

1C-40 Fuel System


6HK1
N.m
(lb ft)
N m(kg
m/lb

39 (4.0 / 29)
24 (2.4 / 17)

6 (0.6 / 4)
44 (4.5 / 33)

24 {17}
(2.4 / 17)
25 (2.5 / 18.4)

8.8 (0.9 / 6.5)


19.6 (2.0 / 14.5)

44 (4.5
{33} / 33)

10 (1.0 / 7.4)

WSHK0172

Engine Electrical

ENGINE
Engine Electrical
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Service Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-2
General Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-2
Charging System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-3
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-3
Generator (4HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-5
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-5
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-6
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-6
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-7
Generator (6HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-14
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-14
Charging Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-14
Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-15
Disassembly and Inspection of Generator . . . .1D-16
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-20
Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-22
Bench Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-23
Trouble Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-24
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-24
Starting System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-25
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-25
On-machine Service: Starting System . . . . . . .1D-26
Starter (4HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-27
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-27
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-28
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-28
Main Data and Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-29
Starter (6HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-37
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-37
Sectional view (reference) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-38
Output Characteristic (reference). . . . . . . . . . .1D-39
Disassembly and Inspection of Starter. . . . . . .1D-40
Assembly of Starter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-46
No Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-50
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-50
Preheating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-51
Glow Plug Replacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-51
Precautions on Service Work. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-52
A List of Defective Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-52
Main Data and Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1D-53

Engine Electrical

1D-1 Engine Electrical

1D-2 Engine Electrical

Service Precautions
General Procedure
When fasteners are removed, always reinstall them at
the same location from which they were removed. If a
fastener needs to be replaced, use the correct part
number fastener for that application. If the correct part
number fastener is not available, a fastener of equal
size and strength (or stronger) may be used. Fasteners
that are not reused, and those requiring thread locking
compound will be called out. The correct torque value
must be used when installing fasteners that require it. If
the above conditions are not followed, parts or system
damage could result.

Engine Electrical 1D-3

Charging System
General Description
The main charging system components are the
batteries, the generator and the battery discharge
indicator light circuit. The generator is a selfrectifying
type with a built-in regulator.

ACG

11

10

12

13

4
2

WSHK0053
Name
1. Generator
2. Lower Mount Bolt
3. Nut
4. Spring Washer
5. Washer
6. Bracket
7. Bracket Mount Bolt

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Plate
Bolt
ACG Adjust Bolt
Sliding Piece
Washer
Adjust Nut

1D-4 Engine Electrical


Maintenance
The most common indication of charging system
troubles is an undercharged or overcharged battery.
Since the battery itself may be defective, the first step
should be to check its condition. In the case of an
undercharged battery, check for battery drain caused
by grounds or by accessories left turned on.
Keep the generator and all other electrical system
terminals clean and tight. A loose or badly corroded
terminal connection will create excessive resistance in
the system and result in hard starting, dim lights etc.
Inspect the generator system at regular intervals and
correct any potential causes of trouble before machine
performance is affected.
Diagnosis of Charging System
Trouble in the charging system will be evidenced as
one or more of the following three conditions:
1. The battery discharge warning light will stay on.
2. An undercharged battery as evidenced by slow
cranking.
3. An overcharge, or overvoltage, condition.
Undercharged Battery
Inspection
1. Accessories to be sure none were left on for
extended periods.
2. Drive belt for proper tension.
3. The ECM main relay has been ON stuck at the key
switch OFF position. (Battery voltage is
consumed.)
4. Wiring and connections for corrosion or looseness.
Overcharge (or Overvoltage) condition
A charging rate in excess of 29.5-volts for a prolonged
period may cause early electrical system failure.
Blown fuses. light bulbs burned out, and even battery
failure may result. If this condition exists, test the
generator as described under Generator Output Test
later in this section.
Noisy Generator
Inspection
1.
2.
3.

Drive pulley for looseness.


Mounting bolts for looseness.
Bearings for dirt, damage, or wear.
Generator noise may also be caused by worn or
damaged diodes and/or starter.

Electrical Tests
Before performing the following generator electrical
tests on the vehicle, be certain that the system wiring is
not defective and generator belts are not slipping. Also,
the battery must be fully charged for a valid test of the
charging system.

Notice:
To avoid damage to the vehicle electrical system,
always observe the following precautions:
Do not polarize the generator.
Do not short across or ground any of the terminals
in the charging circuit except as specifically
instructed herein.
NEVER operate the generator with the output
terminal open-circuited.
Be sure the generator and battery have the same
ground polarity.
When connecting a charger or booster battery to
the battery, connect negative to negative and
positive to positive.
1. With the engine control switch ON and engine not
running, connect a voltmeter from terminal E to
ground. The voltmeter should show 0 volts.
2. With the engine control switch ON, and engine
not running, connect a voltmeter from terminal B
to ground. The voltmeter should read at least 24
volts.
3. With the engine control switch ON and the engine
not running, connect a voltmeter from white wire
side of the connector to ground. The voltmeter
should show 24 volts.
4. With the engine control switch ON and the engine
not running, the charge light should be on. This
shows that the other circuit in the connection is
working.
5. With the engine running and the headlight high
beams (if equipped) turned on, read the voltage at
the B post on the generator. The voltmeter should
read at least 24 volts.
6. If steps 1 through 4 are not OK, check connectors
in the harness for looseness or corrosion and
retest.
7. If step 5 voltage is low, substitute a known good
regulator and test again. If the voltage is still low,
bench test the generator.

Engine Electrical 1D-5

Generator (4HK1)

Removal

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Battery negative cable.


Electrical wiring at the generator.
Loosen the adjust nut.
Loosen the ACG adjust bolt.
Loosen the lower mount bolt.
Drive belt

1D-6 Engine Electrical


6. Generator.

2. ACG Adjust bolt.


3. Adjust nut.
Tightening torque:
Adjust Nut 68 Nm (6.9 kgm/50 lb ft)

Installation
1. Generator.
Tightening torque:
Lower Mount Bolt 127 Nm (13.0 kgm/94 lb ft)

4. Electrical wiring at the generator.


Battery negative cable.

Torque Specifications
N m(kg m/lb ft)

52(5.3 / 38)

ACG

68(6.9 / 50)

127(13 / 94)

52(5.3 / 38)

WSHK0054

Engine Electrical 1D-7


Specifications

Connector terminal

Isuzu Part No.

8973750170

Nominal output

(V-A)

24-50

Rated speed

(rpm)

5000

Regulator-type
Regulated voltage
Weight

IC type
(V)

28.51

(kg)

9.5

Terminal symbol

Lead wire color

Wire
specifications

AEX 0.75f

AEX 0.75f

WSHK0101
Name
1. R Terminal
2. L Terminal

Internal connections

SG

IC
REGULATOR

WSHK0102

1D-8 Engine Electrical


Disassembly of generator

5
6

12

8 3
11

10 9
13
18
15
14

19

23

21
20
2

17
16
22

WSHK0103
Disassembly Procedure
1. Screw
2. Cover
3. Through Bolt
4. Rotor, Front Bracket Assembly
5. Nut, Washer
6. Pulley
7. Fan
8. Collar
9. Screw
10. Retainer
11. Ball Bearing
12. Front Bracket

13. Collar
14. Ball Bearing
15. Rotor Assembly
16. Screw
17. Field Coil Assembly
18. Stator Assembly
19. Holder
20. Regulator Assembly
21. Bolt (B terminal)
22. Condenser
23. Rectifier Assembly
Assembly is the reverse order of disassembly.

Engine Electrical 1D-9


Inspection and repair of generator
1. Diode
Check the continuity of forward and inverse
directions with a tester. Normal diodes show low
resistance in forward direction and high resistance
in inverse one.
Judge that they are faulty other than those above.

WSHK0104
2. Condenser
Charge the condenser with a tester (at 1000
range), and connect a tester lead inversely. Judge
it as normal if the needle on a meter deflects a little
and returns to the original position.
Judge that they are faulty other than those above.

3. Diode for initiating excitation, Resistor


Check the continuity between connector terminals
R and L with a tester (at 100 range). Normal
diodes and resistors show low resistance in
forward direction and high resistance in inverse
one.
Judge that they are faulty other than those above.

WSHK0106
4. Field coil
To judge the insulating condition of field coil,
measure between the protrusion portions and core
of the coil with a tester (at 1000 range). Judge
as faulty if it has continuity.

WSHK0107
WSHK0105

1D-10 Engine Electrical


Measure between the protrusion portions of field
coil with a tester, and judge as normal if the
resistance is about 6.7 (20C {68F}).

WSHK0108
5. Stator coil
To judge the insulating condition of stator coil,
measure between the stator coil and core with a
tester (at 1000 range). Judge as faulty if it has
continuity.

WSHK0109

Judge as normal if there is continuity between N


lead of stator coil and three leads.

WSHK0110
6. Bearing
Check if the bearing rotates smoothly or has no
noise.
If the result of the inspection is unsatisfactory,
replace the bearing.

WSHK0111

Engine Electrical 1D-11


Performance test
In the performance test of generator, connect as
follows and measure the regulated voltage and output
current.
Actual wiring diagram for performance test of IC regulator built-in generator

SW 1

SW 2

WSHK0112
Disassembly Procedure
1. Voltmeter
2. R Terminal
3. L Terminal
4. Charging Lamp 24 V-3 W

5. Clamp Tester Ammeter


6. Battery 24 V
7. Variable Resistor

Regulated voltage measurement of regulator

Measurement of the output current

Close SW1 switch, and warm-up five to ten minutes at


approx. 1500 rpm in generator until an ammeter shows
6 A or less.
After confirming that an ammeter shows between 2 and
6 A, set the generator between approx. 3000 to 4000
rpm. If an voltmeter shows between 27.5 and 29.5 V,
the regulated voltage of regulator is normal.
If the ammeter shows 6 A or more, charge the battery
for a while or replace it with full-charged battery.
Replace the regulator if the voltmeter shows out of
range between 27.5 and 29.5 V.

Close SW1 and SW2 switches, and raise the generator


speed to 5000 rpm. While keeping the voltmeter
showing 27 V, measure the maximum value of output
current with a variable resistor.
In this time, judge as normal if the output current is 50
A or more.

Specified value of regulated voltage


27.5 V 29.5 V (+25C {77F})

Caution:
Do not cut off battery circuit during generator
rotating.
Do not connect to L terminal if the charging lamp
(24 V-3 W) is not used.
Never connect L terminal and B circuit directly.
Diode for excitation may be broken.

1D-12 Engine Electrical


Handling of generator
Be careful with the following when handling a
generator.
Connecting the polarities of battery inversely
causes generator diode to be broken.
While the engine runs, NEVER disconnect the
wiring of battery terminal and charging circuit.
Wiring connection to terminal must be performed
properly according to terminal symbol.
Do not perform megger test on semiconductor
device.
Be sure to disconnect the battery terminal ()
before inspection on equipment.
Do not open/close the battery relay switch while
the engine runs.
Disconnect the battery terminal when charging
from external source such as quick charge.
Do not pour steam cleaner or water directly on it.
After connecting to B terminal and E terminal,
tighten them to the following torque.
B terminal 4.9 Nm {50 kgfcm/43 lb in}
E terminal 4.9 Nm {50 kgfcm/43 lb in}
Refer to Belt Adjustment for tension adjustment
of V-belt.

Engine Electrical

1D-13

Trouble and Action


Trouble symptom
Charging is
impossible.

Trouble location

Action to be
taken

Wiring and
ammeter

Open or short circuit, disconnection

Generator.

Open circuit, short to ground, short circuit in each coil

Replace

Broken diode

Replace

Defective regulator.

Replace

Regulator
Insufficient
charging

Trouble cause

Repair

Poor contact in terminal of regulator

Repair

Wiring

Open or short circuit, looseness in connection

Repair

Generator.

Looseness of generator driven belt

Repair

Layer or short circuit in field coil

Replace

Layer or short circuit in stator coil

Replace

Defective diode

Replace

Poor contact in each terminal


Regulator

Defective regulator.
Poor contact in terminal of regulator

Repair
Replace
Repair

Excessive
charging

Regulator

Defective regulator.

Unstable charging
current

Wiring

Intermittent contact or nearly disconnected connection


in wiring

Repair

Generator.

Looseness of generator driven belt

Repair

Short circuit or nearly disconnected connection in field


coil

Repair

Short circuit or nearly disconnected connection in stator


coil

Repair

Poor contact in each terminal

Repair

Regulator
Noisy generator

Generator.

Defective regulator.

Replace

Replace

Poor contact in terminal of regulator

Repair

Improper installation of generator

Repair

Defective bearing
Contact of rotor core and stator core

Replace
Repair

Defective diode

Replace

Short circuit in stator coil

Replace

1D-14 Engine Electrical

Generator (6HK1)
Specifications
Manufacturer

Mitsubishi Electric Co.

Isuzu Part No.

1-81200-633-0

1-81200-603-2

Model by manufacturer

A009TU3782

A004TU6285

Nominal voltage

(V)

Output current

(A)

Rated speed

24
90

50

(rpm)

Output current/Voltage

5000

(A/V/rpm)

No load voltage

114/27/5000

50/27/5000

(V/rpm)

24/900

Revolution direction

Clockwise

Polarity

()

Pulley diameter (P. C. D)

(mm/in)

90/3.543

80/3.150

Charging Circuit

N
B
3

L
R

7
E
8

WSHK0091
Name
1. Field Coil
2. Stator Coil
3. Diode Trio
4. Charging Lamp

5.
6.
7.
8.

Key Switch
Battery 24 V
IC Regulator
Generator

Charging circuit and internal circuit are shown in the illustration above.
Charging system consists of IC regulator built-in generator, battery, charging lamp and wires to connect them.

Engine Electrical

1D-15

Structure

4
7

9
10

Name
1. Rear Bracket
2. IC Regulator
3. Bearing
4. Rectifier
5. Stator
This generator has no brush.
Main parts are a rotor, stator, rectifier assembly, front
bracket, rear bracket, IC regulator, bearing, pulley and
so on.
Moving parts are a rotor and pulley. A field coil is
secured to rear bracket.
Six main diodes and two additional diodes are used to
convert three-phase alternating current, generated in
stator coil, into direct current. Among six main diodes,
there are three positive diodes and three negative
diodes.
In addition, three tiny diodes, called trio diode, are used
to supply field current.
This generator has three terminals, which are B

WSHK0092
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Rotor
Bearing
Pulley
Front Bracket
Coil Assembly (Field Coil)

terminal (for direct current output), L terminal and R


terminal.
The L terminal is connected to field coil. Therefore, as
well as R terminal, it becomes input terminal for
initiating excitation current until the generator starts to
generate electric power.
It also provides function as output terminal. (Current
capacity is 1 A.)
The charging lamp will be off if the voltage on L
terminal reaches battery voltage.
Both bearings are sealed, therefore periodic lubricant is
not necessary.
IC regulator cannot be disassembled. Handle it as
assembly.

1D-16 Engine Electrical

Disassembly and Inspection of Generator


9
8
10
7

5
6
4
2
1

11
12
13

14
15

Name
1. Nut Washer
2. Pulley, Fan
3. Collar
4. Through Bolt
5. Front Bracket
6. Ball Bearing
7. Retainer
8. Rotor Assembly

WSHK0160
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Ball Bearing
Screw
Cover
Rectifier Assembly
Regulator Assembly
Stator Assembly
Field Coil Assembly

Engine Electrical

1D-17

11
10
9
8

6
7
5
3
2
1

12
13

14

15
16
17

18

Name
1. Nut Washer
2. Pulley, Fan
3. Key
4. Collar
5. Through Bolt
6. Front Bracket
7. Ball Bearing
8. Retainer
9. Rotor Assembly

Disassembly
Caution:
To facilitate re-assembly, put alignment marks on front
bracket and rear bracket before disassembly.
1. Remove out the four through-bolts.
Pry between stator and front bracket with a tip of
flathead screwdriver and separate the front bracket
pulley rotor assembly from stator rear bracket
assembly carefully.
Caution:
Take care not to damage the stator coil.

WSHK0161
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Ball Bearing
Field Coil Assembly
Connector Set
Screw
Terminal Set
Cover
Rectifier Assembly
Regulator Assembly
Stator Assembly

2. Hold the rotor with a vise without deforming the


rotor ball.
Remove the nut which fixes pulley, and remove the
pulley, fan, spacer and front bracket.
Caution:
Do not lose a half-moon key when removing the pulley.
Caution:
To hold the rotor with a vise, grip the portion A. Portion
B is not strong enough to be gripped.

1D-18 Engine Electrical

5. To remove the coil assembly from rear bracket,


firstly remove the screw A (which fixes coil terminal
portion to IC regulator).
Removing a screw B (which fixes the coil assembly
to rear bracket) prior to screw A may cause
damage to terminal portion.
Hold the coil assembly by hand not to damage to
terminal portion.
Then, remove the screw B and remove the coil
assembly.

A
1
1

WSHK0093
Name
1. Ball
3. If the front bearing needs to be removed, remove
the screw which fixes retainer, and push out the
bearing using appropriate socket.
Caution:
Do not remove it if not necessary. Do not reuse the
removed bearing.
4. If the rotor bearing needs to be removed, it can be
done by a general bearing puller.
Caution:
Do not remove it if not necessary. Do not reuse the
removed bearing.

WSHK0094
Name
1. Connector
6. Disconnect the connector.
7. Remove the cap and nut from terminal bolt of
rectifier.
Pry between rear bracket and B terminal assembly
to remove the B terminal. A tube remains on rear
bracket.
Caution:
Do not lose the tube.

Engine Electrical

1D-19

3
2

5
6
12
7
8

13
11

10

WSHK0095
Name
1. IC Regulator
2. Rectifier
3. B terminal
4. Terminal Bolt
5. B terminal
6. Cap
7. Nut

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Cap
Nut
Terminal Bolt
Terminal Bolt
Terminal Bolt
Rectifier

1D-20 Engine Electrical

2
4

5
1
N

WSHK0159
Name
1. IC Regulator
2. Terminal Bolt
3. Nut

4. B terminal
5. Tube
6. Rectifier

8. Remove two screws which fix rectifier and two


screws which fix regulator.
Remove the stator and rectifier assembly from rear
bracket as a unit.
Then, remove the IC regulator.
9. Disconnect four lead wires of stator coil and
remove the stator from rectifier.
1

Caution:
Lead wires of stator coil are soldered (melting point:
230C {446F}) on rectifier terminal.
Disconnect them quickly (within five seconds) not to
heat the rectifier causing damage to diode.

Inspection
1. Stator
Check visually for damage, loose connection and
discoloration of coil.
Check the continuity between two lead wires of
stator coil with a circuit tester. Replace the stator if
no continuity is present.
Check the continuity between lead wire of stator
coil and core with a circuit tester. Replace the
stator if continuity is present.

WSHK0096
Name
1. Stator Coil Lead

Engine Electrical
2. Rotor
Check the bearings for noise, rattle or grease
leakage (wipe off if tiny amount of grease).
Replace it if faulty. It is easier to check for noise
and rattle when it is press-fitted into shaft than
when it is a single unit.

WSHK0097
Name
1. Stator Coil Lead
2. Core

1D-21

4. Rectifier assembly
Check the continuity between positive diode,
additional diode positive heat sink on positive side
and four diode terminals with a circuit tester.
The positive diode has short circuit if continuity is
present in both directions. Replace the rectifier
assembly.
The positive diode has open circuit if no continuity
is present in both directions. Replace the rectifier
assembly.
Negative diode and additional diode on negative
side
Check the continuity between negative heat sink
and four diode terminals with a circuit tester.
The negative diode has short circuit if continuity is
present in both directions. Replace the rectifier
assembly.
The negative diode has open circuit if no continuity
is present in both directions. Replace the rectifier
assembly.
Diode trio (three tiny diodes)
Check the continuity in both directions with a circuit
tester.
The diode is faulty if continuity is present in both
directions or no continuity is in both directions.
Replace the rectifier assembly.

3. Coil assembly
Measure the resistance between terminal portions
with a circuit tester.
Replace the coil assembly if the value is out of
specified value.

WSHK0099
Name
1. Diode Terminal Portion
2. Positive Diode
3. A Part of Negative Diode

WSHK0098
Name
1. Terminal
2. Terminal Portion

5. Front bearing
Check the bearings for noise, rattle or grease
leakage (wipe off if tiny amount of grease).
Replace them if faulty. It is easier to check for
noise and rattle when the bearing is press-fitted
into bracket than when it is a single unit.

1D-22 Engine Electrical


6. Regulator
The regulator cannot be checked with a circuit
tester. After re-assembling the generator, check it
to make sure that regulator controls the voltage for
generator.

Assembly
Assembly can be performed in the reverse order of
disassembly. However, be careful with the following.
1. Lubrication is not necessary. Bearing is filled with
grease and is sealed.
Caution:
Keep a bearing with resin band for rotor shaft away
from oil. Wipe off oil on bearing box area of rear
bracket. Oil may cause creep.
2. Use a high temperature solder (melting point:
230C {446F}).
Using a soldering iron (with 180 270 watt),
soldering must be performed quickly (within five
seconds) not to heat the rectifier.
3. Tightening torque
Pulley fixing nut:
132 162 Nm {13.5 16.5 kgm/97 119 lb
ft}
Through bolt:
12.8 18.6 Nm {1.3 1.9 kgm/9 14 lb ft}
Bearing retainer fixing screw:
2 5.3 Nm {20 54 kgfcm/18 47 lb in}
Coil assembly fixing screw:
2 5.3 Nm {20 54 kgfcm/18 47 lb in}
Rectifier fixing screw:
2 5.3 Nm {20 54 kgfcm/18 47 lb in}
Regulator fixing screw:
2 5.3 Nm {20 54 kgfcm/18 47 lb in}
Nut for B terminal bolt:
4.9 8.7 Nm {50 88 kgfcm/43 77 lb in}
4. Assembly of rear bracket to stator assembly and
front bracket to rotor assembly
The rotor bearing and rear bracket are engaged
tightly. Heat the bearing box area of rear bracket to
50 60C (122 140F) prior to assembly.
After re-assembling the generator, rotate the pulley
to confirm that the rotor rotates smoothly.

Engine Electrical
Bench Testing
Bench testing is performed as follows.
Regulated voltage check
1. Wire as shown in the illustration.
Use an ammeter with 100 A rating and a voltmeter
with 30 V rating.

1D-23

4. Set the generator speed to approx. 5000 rpm and


read an ammeter. If the value is 5 A or less, read
indication on a voltmeter. This is regulated voltage.
If an ammeter shows 5 A or more, keep charging
for a while until it shows below 5 A or replace the
battery with full-charged one.
If regulated voltage is out of specified value,
replace the regulator.
Output current test

A
B
1

L
R
5

WSHK0100
Name
1. Voltmeter
2. Ammeter
3. Lamp (24 V, 3 W or less)
4. Key Switch 1
5. Battery (24 V)
6. Key Switch 2
7. Load Resistance
2. Close the switch 1. Leave the switch 2 open.
In this time, the lamp comes on.
If it does not, check the voltage on L terminal.
If the voltage is almost the same as battery
voltage, check the generator.
If the voltage is low, lamp or the circuit is open.
3. Increase the generator speed gradually.
Make sure that the lamp goes off before the speed
reaches approx. 1300 rpm.
Notice the voltage. If the voltage is not controlled
and exceeds 30 V, the IC regulator may be faulty.
If the voltage does not exceed battery voltage, the
generator does not generate electric power.
Check the generator again.
If the lamp does not go off, check the generator
again.

Output current test is performed to check if the


generator generates rated output.
1. After checking regulated voltage, decrease the
generator speed until it stops.
2. Close the switch 1. The lamp should come on.
3. Set the value of no load resistance to maximum
(minimum current) and close the switch 2.
4. Increase the generator speed to 5000 rpm and
keep it. Adjust the load resistance so that output
current becomes maximum.
Keep this condition 15 minutes and increase in
temperature of the generator.
15 minutes later, set the generator speed to the
specified speed (2500 and 5000 rpm) and then
adjust the load resistance so that output current
becomes maximum in this condition.
In this time, if indication of ammeter is within
specified value, the generator is normal.
If it is less than specified value, check the
generator again according to Inspection page.

1D-24 Engine Electrical


Trouble Diagnosis
Symptom

Trouble cause

No generation of
electric power

a. Defective IC regulator
b. Open circuit in field coil

Low output

a. Defective diode
b. Defective stator coil
c. Defective rectifier
d. Internal short circuit in field coil

Too high regulated


voltage

a. Defective IC regulator

Noise

a. Defective bearing
b. Defective rectifier
c. Foreign material in generator

Specifications
Item

Standard value and limit

Isuzu Part No.


Manufacturer code No.
Rated output
Output
characteristic (hot)

(V-A)

1-81200-633-0

1-81200-603-2

A009TU3782

A004TU6285

24-90

24-50

Voltage

(V)

27

27

Current

(A)

105 or more

42 or more

2,500

2,500

Revolution speed

(r/min)

Voltage

(V)

27

27

Current

(A)

114 or more

50 or more

5,000

5,000

(: at 20C)

4.3-5.0

4.4-5.1

(V)

28-29

28-29

Clockwise

Clockwise

Revolution speed
Field coil resistance

(r/min)

Regulated voltage by regulator


Revolution direction (viewed from pulley side)

Engine Electrical

1D-25

Starting System
General Description
Starter and Glow Plug Relays
The starter is a 5 kilowatt, reduction drive model.
The gear housing and armature end bearing housings
are aluminum. The brush ASM has replaceable
brushes. The commutator bars are mica insulated and
are undercut.

The starter circuit starts at the batteries. The battery


cable goes to the large terminal on the starter.
From that terminal wires lead to the engine control
switch and the starter relay.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. Starter
2. Nut
Maintenance
Keep the starters exterior clean. Remove corrosion
from the terminals, leads, and connectors.
Tighten the starter to engine mounting bolts and the
electrical cable retaining nuts.

3. Ground Cable
4. Bolt

1D-26 Engine Electrical


Diagnosis of Starting System

On-machine Service: Starting System

No Cranking, No Sound

Maintenance

Discharged batteries. Check for the cause of the


discharged batteries.
Sulfated battery terminals. Clean all the battery
terminals and cable ends.
A starter that draws too much current.
Starter relay wont work. Attempt to start and listen
for a click at the starter relay. If there is no click,
check the starter relay control terminals with a test
light. If the test light shows that power is getting to
the starter relay, check the ground circuit with the
test light. If the ground circuit is OK, replace the
starter relay.
Engine control switch start circuit wont close.
With the engine control switch turned to start,
check the starter relay with a test light. If the test
light doesnt come on, check the starter circuit at
the engine control switch with the test light. If the
test light comes on, check the harness for an open
and repair. If the test light does not come on,
replace the engine control switch.
Starter relay power circuit isnt closing. Attempt to
start. The starter relay clicks. Check the
secondary terminals with a test light. If the test light
lights on the battery side only, replace the starter
relay. If the test light lights on both terminals, check
for an open at the starter.
Starter clicks when start is attempted. Check all
power
connections
for
corrosion.
Clean
connections if corrosion is present. Terminal on
starter should have at least 18 volts on it when
cranking the engine. If voltage is OK, replace the
starter.
Slow Cranking, Solenoid Clicks or Chatters
Discharged batteries. Check for cause of
discharged batteries.
Check the battery terminal for corrosion. Hint: Test
for warm terminals. Clean all the battery terminals
and connectors.
Loose or dirty connections. Measure the cranking
voltage at the battery terminals. If the voltage is
less than 18 volts, load test the battery. If the
battery is bad, replace the battery. If the battery is
good, repair the starter.
If the voltage is 18 volts or more, measure the voltage
from the battery NEGATIVE terminal to the engine
block. If the voltage is 0.5 volt or more, repair the
ground cable and connections.
If the voltage is less than 0.5 volt, measure the voltage
at the battery cable terminal on the starter. If the
voltage is 18 volts or more, repair the starter. If the
voltage is less than 18 volts, clean and tighten the
positive cable connections. If the voltage is still less
than 18 volts, replace the positive cable.

Keep starter terminals and all other terminals in the


electrical system clean tight. A loose or corroded
connection or terminal will cause excessive resistance
in the system that will result in hard starting. At regular
intervals, inspect the starting system to locate and
correct potential causes of trouble before the system
performance is affected. Starting motors do not require
lubrication.

Engine Electrical

1D-27

Starter (4HK1)

Removal
1.
2.
3.
4.

Battery negative cable from the battery.


Cables and electrical leads from the starter.
Two mount nuts.
Starter.

1D-28 Engine Electrical


Installation
1. Starter
2. Two mount nuts.
Tightening torque:
Mount nuts 82.4 Nm (8.4 kgm/61 lb ft)

Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

3. Cables and electrical leads to the starter.


4. Battery negative cable to the battery.

Engine Electrical
Main Data and Specifications
Model (Manufacturer)
Rating

Nikko Electric Industry Co., Ltd

Voltage
Power output
Time

24

kw

Sec.

30

Number of pinion teeth

11

Revolution direction (viewed from pinion side)


Weight (approx.)

Clockwise
N {kg}

78.4 {8}

No load
characteristic

Current/Voltage

A/V

85 or less/24

Speed

rpm

3300 or more

Load characteristic

Current/Voltage

A/V

500 or less/18.5

Locking
characteristic

Torque

Nm {kgfm}

Speed

rpm

1250 or more

Current/Voltage

A/V

1400 or less/9

Torque

Nm {kgfm}

28.4 {2.9} or more

88.2 {9.0} or more

1D-29

1D-30 Engine Electrical


Connections (Nikko Electric Industry Co., Ltd)

S.S
S
B

P1

C3

P2
B
C2

C1

M
2
Fc

Ar

E
1

WSHK0113
Name
1. Starter Relay
2. Battery
S.S
Ar
Fc
C1
C2
C3
P1
P2

Starter switch
Armature
Field coil
Pressure coil
Holding coil
Starter relay coil
Sub contactor
Main contactor

3. Motor
4. Magnetic Switch

Engine Electrical

1D-31

Disassembly of starter
24 V

5.0KW (Nikko Electric Industry Co., Ltd)


5

19

18
27

21

17

16
12

20

13
14

4
1

15

26

25
24
22
23

3
7
6
8
9

10

11

Name
1. Clip Ring
2. Pinion Stopper, Pinion, Spring
3. Lead Wire
4. Bolt
5. Magnetic Switch
6. Screw
7. Bolt
8. Rear Bracket
9. Brush Holder ASM
10. Yoke ASM
11. Armature
12. Cover
13. Packing
14. Idle Gear

WSHK0114
15. Ball
16. Rubber Bushing
17. Plate
18. Spring
19. Pin
20. Holder
21. Shift Lever
22. E Clip
23. Overrunning Clutch ASM
24. Internal Gear
25. Washer
26. Drive Shaft ASM
27. Front Bracket ASM
Assembly is the reverse order of disassembly.

1D-32 Engine Electrical


Inspection and repair of starter
1. Magnetic switch
Never perform operational check on magnetic
switch as single unit.
Inspection of coil
Check the pressure coil C1 and holding coil C2 for
open circuit using a tester.
Check the continuity between magnetic switch and
M terminal. It has open circuit if no continuity.
(Resistance approx. 1.6)

Contact Point Check


Service limit of contact point is judged by damaged
condition on contact surface in the following procedure.
Measure the load current on starter. Replace it if
voltage drop between terminals B and M is 0.3 V or
more per 100 A.
Caution:
Use a digital voltmeter to measure voltage drop. Using
an analog voltmeter may damage itself.

WSHK0117
WSHK0115
Supply 24 V between M terminal of magnetic
switch and case, push the plunger by hand, and
then release it. It is normal if it is not sucked. Coil is
defective if it is sucked.

2. Armature
Bentness measurement of shaft
Measure with a dial gauge, and repair or replace if
bentness is 0.05 mm (0.0020 in) or more.

Caution:
Perform this while the magnetic switch is set up.

WSHK0118

WSHK0116

Engine Electrical
Inspection of commutator
Check the surface of commutator. File the
surface smooth with No.400 to 600 sand paper
if it is rough. Repair with a lathe if deflection is
0.1 mm (0.004 in) or more.

WSHK0119
Measure the depth of undercut and repair if it is
0.2 mm (0.008 in) or less.
mm(in)

1D-33

Inspection of armature coil


Using a growler tester, put probe on a armature
core. It is normal if probe does not vibrates.
Check with a tester. It is normal if there is no
continuity between commutator and shaft.

WSHK0121
3. Field Coil
Check the field coil for open circuit with a tester. It
is open circuit if there is no continuity between M
terminal in field coil and lead wire on brush side.
Check between field coil and yoke with a tester. It
is normal if there is no continuity between them.

2
3
1

0.5-0.8
(0.02-0.03)

WSHK0120

Name
1. Repair is needed
2. Improper repair
3. Good

WSHK0122

Outside diameter of commutator


Measure the outside diameter of commutator with
a slide-caliper. If the measured value is less than
the limit, replace it.
mm (in)
Standard

Limit

32.4 (1.276)

31.4 (1.236)

4. Overrunning clutch
Rotate the pinion by hand. It is normal if it is
rotated smoothly in one direction only.
Check the pinion tooth surface. Replace if it has
worn or damage.
Caution:
If the entire overrunning clutch is soaked in liquid when
washing it, internal grease flows out, causing seizure.

1D-34 Engine Electrical


6. Bearing
Check if the bearing outer race rotates smoothly by
hand.

WSHK0123
5. Reduction gear
Check the reduction gear. It is normal if it has no
wear.

WSHK0125
7. Brush height
Measure the brush height. If it is less than the limit,
replace the brush.
mm (in)

WSHK0124

Standard

Limit

17 18 (0.669 0.709)

10 (0.394)

Engine Electrical
Handling of starter
1. Precautions on handling
Improper gap between pinion and ring gear causes
faulty mesh. (Gap 2 5 mm {0.079 0.197 in})
Also, the front bracket is installed on the engine
side securely.
Be sure to turn off the battery switch before
removal/installation of stater.
Tightening/inserting wiring must be performed
properly. Improper work causes starting trouble
due to high contact resistance.
2. Precautions on starting
Be careful with charging status of battery.
Insufficiently-charged battery causes starting
trouble.
After checking engine starting, turn off the stater
switch immediately.
One continuous use should be less than 10
seconds. If re-starting is needed, wait until the
pinion stops completely.
If the starter does not stop rotating when the starter
switch is turned off, turn off the battery switch
immediately. In this case, check the wiring, switch,
etc.

1D-35

1D-36 Engine Electrical


Trouble countermeasure
Trouble symptom
Starter does not operate when
starter switch is turned on.

Pinion moves forward but it does not


engage with ring gear.

Trouble cause
1.

Full discharge of battery

2.

Open circuit, poor contact

3.

Poor contact in starter switch or improper tightening of terminal

4.

Poor contact in starter relay or plug terminal

5.

Short or open circuit in magnetic switch coil

1.

Insufficient capacity of battery

2.

Improper gap of pinion and ring gear

3.

Wear of pinion or ring gear tooth edge

4.

Dust on pinion shaft

5.

Insufficient auxiliary rotation of armature due to insufficient thrust gap


of motor

Pinion engages and rotates motor


but it does not run engine.

1.

Slippage of clutch

2.

Breakage of reduction gear

Pinion engages but it does not run


engine.

1.

Insufficient capacity of battery

2.

Too high rotational resistance of engine

3.

Improper tightening of wiring circuit terminal

4.

Short circuit of armature or field coil

5.

Contamination of commutator

6.

Fatigue or wear of brush spring

7.

Locking of bearing

8.

Poor contact in magnetic switch

When turning starter switch off,


starter does not stop after engine
starts.

1.

Retuning failure of starter switch contact

2.

Retuning failure of starter relay contact

3.

Short circuit in magnetic switch coil

Engine Electrical

Starter (6HK1)
Specifications
Manufacturer

Mitsubishi Electric Co.

Isuzu Part No.

181100-4140

Manufacturer code No.

M008T60971

Power output
Rating
Outside diameter of yoke

(V-kw)

24-5.0

(Sec)

30

(mm/in)

Revolution direction

Right

Protection

Dust-proof, drip-proof

Reduction mechanism

Internal gear

Weight
Pinion

(kg)
Module

14.5

The number of teeth

11

Gear ratio {ring gear/pinion gear}

12.8 {129/11}

Voltage

(V)

23

Current

(A)

85 or less

Revolution speed
Restraint

7.2
3

Pressure angle

No load

85/3.346

(rpm)

3,300 or more

Voltage

(V)

Current

(A)

1,400 or less

Torque

Nm {kgfm}

Pinion engagement voltage

(V)

88 {9} or more
16.0 or less

1D-37

1D-38 Engine Electrical


Sectional view (reference)

7
8

3
2

9
1

13

12

11

10

WSHK0069
Name
1. Through Bolt
2. Bearing
3. Rear Bracket
4. Brush Holder
5. Magnetic Switch
6. Shift Lever
7. Gear Shaft

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Pinion
Bearing
Front Bracket
Gear
Yoke
Armature

Engine Electrical

1D-39

Output Characteristic (reference)

Rotation Rotation
speed
force

Output Terminal
voltage

r/min

N.m

kW

6000

120

24

5000

100

20

4000

80

16

3000

60

12

2000

40

Output

Rotation force

Rotation
speed

Terminal voltage
1000

20

0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1500

Current (A)

WSHK0070

1D-40 Engine Electrical

Disassembly and Inspection of Starter


Disassembly diagram: disassemble in the order of the numbers.

18
27

21

19
9

28
29
14
16
17
15
20

4
1

5
8

26

22

10

25
13

24
12

23
30
11
12

WSHK0071
Name
1. Snap Ring
2. Stop Ring
3. Pinion
4. Pinion Spring
5. Lead Wire with Terminal
6. Screw
7. Magnetic Switch
8. Screw
9. Through Bolt
10. Rear Bracket
11. Yoke Assembly
12. O-Ring
13. Brush Holder
14. Armature
15. Ball

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

Plate
Packing
Packing
Plate
Planetary Gear
Lever
E-shaped Retaining Ring
Overrunning Clutch
Internal Gear
Washer
Gear Shaft
Front Bracket
Bearing
Washer
Brush

Engine Electrical

1D-41

Disassembly
Caution:
Before disassembling the starter, put alignment
marks on each magnet switch, yoke front bracket
and rear bracket to facilitate re-assembly.
In normal condition, if tap the pinion or stop ring
toward the front bracket side, the front bracket will
be broken. Therefore, tap the stop ring when the
pinion come out to cranking position.
1. Connect the starter to battery as shown in the
illustration.
When closing the switches SW1 and SW2, the
pinion move forward to the cranking position and
the armature rotates.
Then, open the switch SW2 to stop the armature
rotating.
Caution:
Remove the pinion within 10seconds since heat is
generated during electric discharge.

SW 1

B
SW 2

S
M

Battery
24V

5
4
3
2

WSHK0073
Name
1. Pinion
2. Clutch Shaft
3. Snap Ring
4. Stop Ring
5. Pipe
6. Pinion Spring
3. Remove the nut on M terminal of magnet switch
and remove the lead wire with terminal.

Wiring diagram to move pinion forward

Caution:
Tightening screw is tight. Use a shock driver to loosen.
4. Remove the brush holder-tightening screw and
through bolt.
Then, remove the rear bracket and O-ring
together.

2. Apply the pipe, which just fits the stop ring, on the
ring and tap the pipe with a hammer to remove the
stop ring toward the pinion side once.
Then, remove the snap ring and remove the stop
ring, pinion and pinion spring.

Caution:
Do not reuse the removed O-ring.
Also, do not reuse also O-ring on tightening screw.
5. Apply a socket (outside diameter 32 mm
{1.260 in}) on a commutator of armature.
Then, slide the brush on the socket to yoke
assembly and O-ring.
This facilitates to re-assemble.

Disconnect the lead wire


(attached with terminal)
from the M terminal.

WSHK0072

Caution:
Do not reuse the snap ring.

Caution:
Do not reuse the removed O-ring.
6. Remove the brush from brush holder by pulling up
the brush spring, and then remove the brush
holder.
7. Remove the armature.
Remove a bearing using a general puller.
8. Remove the plate in planetary gear and remove
the packing.
Then, remove the packing and plate on the lever
support.
9. Remove the internal gear, gearshift, overrunning
clutch and lever as a unit from front bracket.

1D-42 Engine Electrical


10. Remove the lever.
Caution:
Remember the direction of lever.
11. Remove the two E-shaped retaining ring.
To remove the overrunning clutch, rotate the spline
by one tooth to remove it from gearshift assembly.

Check the armature coil for grounding (faulty


insulating) with a circuit tester.
Replace the armature if grounding is present.

Caution:
Do not reuse removed E-shaped retaining ring.
12. Remove the internal gear.
In this time, take out one washer which adjusts
axial play of gearshift.

Inspection and maintenance


1. Armature
Check the armature coil for internal short circuit
with a growler tester.
Replace the armature if internal circuit is present.

WSHK0075
Check the outside of commutator for wear.
Replace the armature if wear exceeds limit.

WSHK0074
WSHK0076

Engine Electrical
Check the depth (undercut) of insulating mold of
commutator.
Remove abrasion powder on brush, and repair if
faulty.

1D-43

Check the coil for grounding (faulty insulating) with


a circuit tester.
Repair or replace the yoke assembly if grounding
is present.

2
3

WSHK0077
Name
1. Good
2. Insulating
3. Commutator Segment
4. Defective
Check the gears for wear or damage.
Replace the armature if fault is present.
Check the bearings for noise, rattle or grease
leakage.
2. Field coil
Check the coil for open circuit with a circuit tester.
Replace the yoke assembly if open circuit is
present.

WSHK0078

WSHK0079
3. Brush
Measure the length of the brush.
If it is worn to the limit, replace the brush holder
assembly on the brush holder as a unit and only
brush on the yoke assembly side.
Make sure the brush moves smoothly in the brush
holder. Also, check the brush spring pressure.

1D-44 Engine Electrical


Check the brush holder for grounding (faulty
insulating) with a circuit tester.
Clean the brush holder before checking.
Replace the brush holder assembly if the
continuity is present when putting one probe of
circuit tester to brush holder plate (metal part) and
another one to insulated holder.

WSHK0081

WSHK0080
Name
1. Brush Length
2. Insulated Holder
4. Overrunning clutch and pinion
Hold the housing of overrunning clutch by hand.
Make sure that the pinion can be rotated by hand
with a light resistance in one direction and cannot
be in the opposite direction. Replace the
overrunning clutch if faulty.
Check the pinion, and replace it if wear or scratch
is present.

5. Front bracket
Check the bearing and oil seal, and replace the
front bracket assembly (including bearing, oil seal)
if faulty.
6. Internal gear and planetary gear
Check the internal gear and planetary gear, and
replace them if excessive wear or damage is
present.
7. Lever
It the portion which contacts the overrunning
switch is worn, the protruded position of pinion will
be faulty.
(Refer to 4. Assembly section to adjust the
protruded position of pinion.)

Caution:
Grease is present in overrunning clutch. Do not use
wash oil or cleaning agent for cleaning.
Wipe off stain on overrunning clutch with a cloth.

WSHK0082
Name
1. Worn Part

Engine Electrical
8. Magnetic switch
Check the continuity between the M terminal and
the body, and replace the magnet switch if no
continuity is present.
Then, make sure that no continuity is present
between B terminal and M terminal. Replace the
magnet switch if continuity is present.

WSHK0083
Name
1. M Terminal
2. S Terminal
3. B Terminal

1D-45

1D-46 Engine Electrical

Assembly of Starter
Assembly diagram: Assemble in the order of the numbers.

24

13
4

10

12
22

25

3
2
17
15
14
16
11

27
30

29

26
23

28

21

6
18

7
19

8
1
20
19

WSHK0084

Name
1. Brush
2. Washer
3. Bearing
4. Front Bracket
5. Gear Shaft
6. Washer
7. Internal Gear
8. Overrunning Clutch
9. E-shaped Retaining Ring
10. Lever
11. Planetary Gear
12. Plate
13. Packing
14. Packing
15. Plate

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

Ball
Armature
Brush Holder
O-Ring
Yoke Assembly
Rear Bracket
Through Bolt
Screw
Magnetic Switch
Screw
Lead Wire with Terminal
Pinion Spring
Pinion
Stop Ring
Snap Ring

Engine Electrical
1.

1D-47

Lubricant locations and tightening torque


N m(kg m/lb ft)

4.9~8.8
(0.5~0.9 / 3.6~6.5)

19.6~25.5
(2.0~2.6 / 14.4~18.8)

2.4~4.4
(0.25~0.45 / 1.8~3.2)

7.8~12.7
(0.8~1.3 / 5.8~9.4)

WSHK0085

Lubricant locations
Shown in
the
illustration

Lubricant locations

Lubricant agent

Sleeve bearing and ball

Clutch shaft sliding surface

MULTEMP 6129

Spline portion and sliding portion of gearshift

MULTEMP 6129

Sliding portion of lever and overrunning clutch

Molycote AG650

Armature shift gear, planetary gear, internal gear

Molycote AG650

Under pinion

MULTEMP 6129

Outer surface of armature bearing (tiny amount)

MULTEMP 6129

Oil seal

MULTEMP 6129

Surface of plunger (tiny amount)

MULTEMP 6129

2. Axial play of armature shift


Adjustment is unnecessary (assemble the ball into
a tip of shaft.)
3. Axial play of gear shaft
Adjustment is unnecessary
Appropriate gap will be obtained automatically
when one washer (removed in step 12 of
disassembly procedure) is inserted between
internal gear and gearshift.
4. Assembly of gearshift

Molycote AG650

Pass the gear shaft through washer, internal gear


and overrunning clutch. Then move the
overrunning clutch by one tooth of spline to make
sure that the clutch cannot be pulled out.
Assemble the E-shaped retaining ring.
Caution:
Do not reuse removed E-shaped retaining ring.

1D-48 Engine Electrical


If assembling the E-shaped retaining ring prior to
the overrunning clutch, the clutch cannot be
assembled. Be careful with it.
4
3

5
1

4
5

WSHK0087

WSHK0086
Name
1. Overrunning Clutch
2. Washer
3. Gear Shaft
4. E-shaped Retaining Ring
5. Internal Gear
5. Assembly of pinion
Assemble the pinion spring, pinion and stop ring to
clutch shaft in this order, then assemble the snap
ring to the groove of clutch shaft at the end.
Then, pull strongly the stop ring toward the snap
ring side with a gear puller and fix both of them.
Caution:
Assemble the pinion before assembling the
magnet switch to front bracket.
Do not reuse the removed snap ring.

Name
1. Pinion
2. Clutch Shaft
3. Snap Ring
4. Stop Ring
5. Pinion Spring
6. Check of the pinion protruded position
After assembling the starter, check the protruded
position of pinion.
How to measure and adjust
Connect the starter to battery.
When closing the switches SW1 and SW2, the
pinion move forward to the cranking position
and the armature rotates.
Then, open the switch SW2 to stop the
armature rotating.

Engine Electrical
Push into or pull back a tip of the crankshaft
lightly by hand and measure the moving
distance of it.
Adjust by using one or two packings (0.5 mm
{0.020 in}) of magnet switch and front bracket
so that this measurement value is between 0.5
2.0 mm (0.020 0.079 in).
If this adjustment cannot be done, replace the
lever.

SW 1

B
SW 2

S
M
1

WSHK0088
Name
1. Battery 24 V

Amount of shaft moved

Push back the clutch


shaft lightly by hand.

Check of pinion moving out position

WSHK0089

1D-49

1D-50 Engine Electrical


No Load Test
1.

After adjusting the protruded position of pinion,


connect the starter as shown in the illustration
above.

Caution:
Use a thick electric wire and tighten the connected
portion securely.
2. Close the switch and read the speed, current and
voltage.
If the measured values are out of specified value,
disassemble and inspect again.

SW

B
S
M

WSHK0090
Name
1. Battery 24 V
2. Ammeter
3. Voltmeter

Specifications
Item
No load
characteristic

Voltage

(V)

23

Current

(A)

85 or less

Speed
Commutator

Standard value or limit

(rpm)

3,300 or more

Outside diameter

(mm/in)

32/1.260

Limit

(mm/in)

31.4/1.236

Undercut

(mm/in)

0.5/0.020

Limit

(mm/in)

0.2/0.008

Length

(mm/in)

18/0.709

Limit

(mm/in)

11/0.433

Pressure

(N)

29 39

Limit

(N)

13.7

Protruded position of pinion

(mm/in)

Commutator
Brush
Brush spring

0.5 2.0/0.020 0.079

Engine Electrical

1D-51

Preheating System
Glow Plug Replacement
Precautions during maintenance
Adequate care should be taken as over-tightening the
glow plug could lead to damage.
Removal Procedure
1. Remove the engine harness, the EGR valve, the
pressure sensor, and all of the fuel injector
connectors.
2. Remove the EGR valve and the EGR adapter.
3. Tape the EGR case holes shut to prevent the entry
of foreign material.

Installation Procedure
1. Install the glow plug.
Tightening torque: 20 Nm (2.0 kgm/15 lb ft)
2. Install and tighten the glow connector with the
designated torque.
Tightening torque: 1.2 Nm (0.1 kgm/11 lb in)
3. Install the EGR valve and the EGR adapter.
Tightening torque: 24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. EGR Valve
4. Remove the glow plug connector.
5. Remove the glow plug.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. EGR Valve
4. Attach the engine harness connectors. Each
composite connector should make a loud click
when it is securely attached.

1D-52 Engine Electrical


Precautions on Service Work
Adequate care should be taken as over-tightening the
glow plug could lead to damage.
Explanations on functions and operation
The preheating system consists the ECM, the glow
relay, glow plugs and the glow indicator lamp. The
preheating system is operated when the engine coolant
temperature is low, and make the engine easy to start.
Glow plug check
Use the circuit tester and measure the resistance
of the glow plug.
If the measured value deviates from the specified
value, then replace the glow plug.
Resistance value of glow plug is approximately
less than 5.
Caution:
Use glow plugs from the same manufacturer.

A List of Defective Phenomena


The glow indicator lamp does not light up.
Preheating does not work.
Preheating time is too long or too short.

Engine Electrical

1D-53

Trouble Shooting
The glow indicator lamp does not light up.
Condition

Possible Cause

The glow indicator lamp does not


light up.

Correction

Slow blow fuse has blown.

Replace the slow blow fuse.

Fuse is unavailable.

Replace the fuse.

Indicator valve is burnt out.

Replace the indicator valve.

Engine control system is faulty.

Refer to the Engine Control


System

Preheating does not work.


Condition

Possible Cause

Preheating does not work.

Correction

Slow blow fuse has blown.

Replace the slow blow fuse.

Defective or faulty glow plug relay


connector contact.

Re-mount or replace the glow plug


relay.

Engine control system is faulty.

Refer to the Engine Control


System

Preheating time is too long or too short.


Condition

Possible Cause

Preheating time is too long or too


short.

Correction

Thermo-sensor fault and break in


circuit or short circuit.

Replace the thermo-sensor. Repair


the circuit.

Fault in glow plug.

Replace or tighten the glow plug.

Engine control system is faulty.

Refer to the Engine Control


System

Main Data and Specifications


Item

Model

Preheating device model


Glow plug rated voltage/ current

Glow plug
(V-A)

23 3.5

1D-54 Engine Electrical

Exhaust System

ENGINE
Exhaust System
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EGR System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-2
Precautions on Service Work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-2
Explanations on Functions and Operation . . . . . 1F-2
EGR Valve and EGR Cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-3
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-3
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-3
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-4
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-4
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-5
Exhaust System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-6
A List of Defective Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-6
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-6
Turbocharger (6HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-7
Table of Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-7
Turbocharger Structured Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-8
Disassembly and Inspection of Turbocharger . . 1F-9
Assembly of Turbocharger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-15
Turbocharger (4HK1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-20
Measurement Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-21
Other Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F-21

1F-2

Exhaust System and Turbocharger

Exhaust System and Turbocharger

1F-1

1F-2 Exhaust System

EGR System
Precautions on Service Work

Explanations on Functions and Operation

Perform EGR related assembly according to the usual


procedure of temporarily fitting and then permanently
tightening the parts so that unnecessary stresses are
not applied on the parts.

Re-circulate a part of the exhaust gas of the EGR


system in the intake manifold. Reduce the combustion
temperature and inhibit NOx generation since inert
gases may be mixed up in the intake air.
An electronic control system is used in this EGR to
balance the requirements of operability and low
emissions. A DC motor is operated using the control
current of the Engine Control Module (ECM) to control
the EGR.
Refer to the chapter on Engine Control System for
details on fault diagnosis of the EGR system.

Name
1. EGR Cooler
2. Engine Control Module (ECM)

3. EGR Valve DC Motor

Exhaust System 1F-3

EGR Valve and EGR Cooler


Components

Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. Cooling Water Pipe (out)
3. EGR Cooler

Removal
1. Drain the coolant.
2. Disconnect the EGR valve connector.
3. Remove the EGR pipe.

4. EGR Pipe
5. Cooling Water Pipe (in)
6. EGR Valve

1F-4 Exhaust System


2. Install the EGR cooler.
Temporarily fit the EGR cooler to the bracket.
Notice:
Temporarily tighten the bolts.
3. Install the EGR adapter.
Temporarily fit the EGR adapter between the EGR
cooler and exhaust manifold.
Notice:
Temporarily tighten the bolts.
4. Install the EGR pipe.
Insert the gasket between the two ends of the EGR
pipe and temporarily fit it.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

Notice:
Temporarily tighten the bolts.
During temporary assembly, tighten the nuts
and bolts to the specified torque in the order
shown in the illustration.

Name
1. EGR Adapter
2. Cooling Water Pipe (out)
3. EGR Cooler
4. EGR Pipe
5. Cooling Water Pipe (in)
4.
5.
6.
7.

Remove the cooling water pipes.


Remove the EGR adapter.
Remove the EGR cooler.
Remove the EGR valve.

Caution:
After removing the EGR valve and EGR adapter, seal
so that foreign matter does not enter.

Inspection
Gas leak check
Check for gas leak in various parts of the EGR gas
line.
If the results of the check show abnormalities, repair or
replace the defective parts.
EGR valve check
Refer to the chapter on Engine Control System for
details on the method of checking the EGR valve.

Installation
1. Mount the EGR valve.
Insert the gasket and temporarily fit the EGR valve.
Notice:
Temporarily tighten the bolts.

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.


Name
1 ~ 9 Show the Order of Tighten Bolts and Nuts.
Tightening torque
1, 2:
3, 4, 5, 6:

28 Nm (2.9 kgm/21 lb ft)


24 Nm (2.4 kgm/18 lb ft)

Exhaust System 1F-5


Torque Specifications

* 4HK1 is shown for illustration.

1F-6 Exhaust System

Exhaust System
A List of Defective Phenomena
Vibration or rattling noise from the exhaust system
Clogging of exhaust system
Exhaust leakage or noise

Troubleshooting
Vibration or rattling noise from the exhaust system
Condition
Vibration or rattling noise
from the exhaust system

Possible Cause
Loose or misaligned components

Correction
Match the joints and then re-tighten.
Or, check for damage in the hanger,
mounting brackets and clamps.

Clogging of exhaust system


Condition
Clogging of exhaust system

Possible Cause
Clogging or deformation of the exhaust
piping

Correction
Repair or replace the exhaust piping.

Exhaust leakage or noise


Condition
Exhaust leakage or noise

Possible Cause

Correction

Defect or misalignment in mounting

Match the joints and then re-tighten.

Damage or burn-out of exhaust piping


or silencer

Replace the damaged part.

Defective components in the exhaust


system (clamps, pipes, silencer)

Replace the defective part.

Internal damage to silencer

Replace the silencer

Exhaust System 1F-7

Turbocharger (6HK1)
Table of Specifications
Item
Turbine shaft

Assembly
specifications

Service limit

Axial play

mm (in)

0.06 0.09
(0.00236 0.00354)

0.11 (0.00433)

Radial play

mm (in)

0.10 0.17
(0.00394 0.00669)

0.205 (0.00807)

Journal outside diameter

(A) mm (in)

11.380 (0.44803)

Sealing groove width

(B) mm (in)

1.33 (0.05236)

mm (in)

0.11 (0.00433)

Runout
Sealing
insertion part

Turbine side (bearing housing)

(F) mm (in)

17.03 (0.67047)

Compressor side (seal plate)

(H) mm (in)

14.05 (0.55315)

Oil thrower

Sealing groove width

(G) mm (in)

1.52 (0.05984)

Bearing
housing

Bearing housing inner diameter

(B) mm (in)

16.11 (0.63425)

Thrust bearing inside diameter for


press-fit portion

(L) mm (in)

23.020 (0.90630)

Thrust
bearing

Bearing pad height at compressor side

(J) mm (in)

0.0 0.060
(0.0 0.00236)

Thrust collar thickness

(K) mm (in)

2.950 (0.11614)

F
B

A
K

WSHK0126

1F-8 Exhaust System


Turbocharger Structured Diagram

4
2

10
1

9
8

WSHK0127
Name
1. Turbine Housing
2. Heat Protector
3. Floating Metal
4. Oil Thrower
5. Compressor Housing

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Seal Plate
Compressor Impeller
Seal Ring
Seal Ring
Turbine Shaft

Exhaust System 1F-9


Disassembly and Inspection of Turbocharger
Disassembly diagram: disassemble in the order of the numbers.
1

6
14
17
16

13

16

15

8
18
7
11
12
10
9

WSHK0128
Name
1. Compressor Housing
2. Nut
3. Compressor Impeller
4. Seal Plate
5. Oil Thrower
6. Seal Ring
7. G Coupling
8. Turbine Housing
9. Turbine Shaft

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Seal Ring
Gasket
Heat Protector
Thrust Bearing
Thrust Collar
Snap Ring
Floating Metal
Thrust Bearing
Bearing Housing

1F-10 Exhaust System


Disassembly
Caution:
If you perform inspection with the turbocharger
removed from the engine, plug the oil port opening
before work.
Inspection Prior to Disassembly
Measurement of axial play of turbine shaft
Axial play

mm (in)

Assembly specifications

0.06 0.09
(0.0024 0.0035)

Service limit

0.11 (0.0043)

If it exceeds the service limit, check the thrust


metal, the thrust bushing, and the oil thrower.

WSHK0130
Measurement on the machine of radial play of
turbine shaft
Insert a thickness gauge into the gap between the
compressor impeller and housing, and measure
the clearance.
The thickness gauge to be inserted must be 0.2
mm (0.0078 in) or less.
1. Compressor housing
Put alignment marks between the compressor
housing and the seal plate, and tap the
compressor housing to drive it out.
Liquid gasket is applied to the mating surfaces of
the compressor and the seal plate.

WSHK0129

Caution:
Take care not to damage the impeller during removal of
the compressor housing.

Measurement of radial play of turbine shaft


Radial play

mm (in)

Assembly specifications

0.10 0.17
(0.00394 0.00669)

Service limit

0.205 (0.00807)

If it exceeds the service limit, check the floating


metal.

WSHK0131
Name
1. Alignment Mark

Exhaust System
2. Compressor impeller
Attach the box spanner to the turbine-side shaft
end of the turbine shaft, and remove the nut. The
nut is left-hand screw.
Remove the impeller from the turbine shaft.
Washing of impeller
Soak in the cleaning solvent until the foreign
matters soften, and clean it with a plastic scraper
or hard brush.
Caution:
Do not use a wire brush.

1F-11

4.

5.

Oil thrower
Remove the oil thrower from the seal plate.
G coupling
Loosen the nut and remove the G coupling from
the turbine housing and the center housing.
6. Turbine housing
Remove the center housing from the turbine
housing.
Washing of turbine housing
Soak in the cleaning solvent to remove the foreign
matters.

WSHK0132
Name
1. Left-hand Thread
3. Seal plate
Loosen the pot small screw.
Lightly tap the bearing housing in the seal plate
with a wooden hammer.
Liquid gasket is applied to the mating surfaces of
the seal plate and the bearing housing.

WSHK0134
7. Turbine shaft
Hold the heat protector lightly by hand, and take
out the turbine shaft.
If it is hard to remove, lightly tap the compressorside shaft end with a wooden hammer.
Washing of turbine shaft
Soak in the cleaning solvent until the foreign
matters soften, and clean it with a plastic scraper
or hard brush.
Caution:
Do not use a wire brush.
Foreign matters remaining on the surface causes
the unbalance of weight. Therefore, wash it
thoroughly.
Take care not to damage the floating metal contact
surface of the shaft and the seal ring groove.

WSHK0133

1F-12 Exhaust System


Inspection
Compressor housing
Check the compressor housing for crack or
damage, and replace if defective.

WSHK0135
8. Heat protector
Remove the heat protector from the bearing
housing.
9. Thrust bearing (compressor side)
Loosen the Plate small screw with a screwdriver,
and remove the thrust bearing and the thrust collar.
10. Floating metal
Remove the turbine-side snap ring with snap ring
pliers.
Draw out the floating metal from the bearing
housing.
11. Thrust bearing (turbine side)
Using a brass bar, push out the compressor-side
floating metal from the turbine-side bearing
housing, together with the thrust bearing.

WSHK0136
Turbine housing
Check the turbine housing for crack or damage,
and replace if defective.
Impeller
Check the impeller for scratch, dent or crack.

Caution:
While pushing out with a bar, take care that they do not
run on to damage the snap ring.
12. Snap ring
Remove the 2 snap rings from the bearing housing
with snap ring pliers.
13. Seal ring
Remove the seal rings from turbine shaft and oil
thrower.

WSHK0137

Exhaust System
Heat protector

1F-13

Measurement of turbine shaft runout

Check the heat protector for damage, thermal


deformation or corrosion.

Turbine shaft runout

mm (in)

Service limit

0.011 (0.00043)

WSHK0138
Turbine shaft

WSHK0140

Measure the journal outer diameter of the turbine


shaft, and the groove width of the seal ring
insertion part.
Journal outer diameter

mm (in)
11.38 (0.4480)

Service limit
Groove width of the seal
ring insertion part

Seal plate
Inspection of damage on the seal plate,
measurement of inner diameter of the seal ring
insertion part
Inner diameter of the seal
ring insertion part

mm (in)
Service limit

mm (in)
H

Service limit

14.05 (0.5531)

1.33 (0.0524)

WSHK0139
Name
1. Journal outer diameter
2. Ring groove width

WSHK0141
Oil thrower
Inspection of damage on the oil thrower sliding
surface, measurement of the seal ring groove
width

1F-14 Exhaust System


Seal ring groove width G

mm (in)
Service limit

1.52 (0.0598)

Thrust collar
Measure the thrust collar thickness (K), and
replace with new one if it exceeds the service limit.
F

Thickness of thrust collar

mm (in)
Service limit

2.950 (0.11614)

WSHK0143
G coupling
G

Replace with new one.


Seal ring

Replace with new one.


Others
Check the bolts for deformation, and replace with
new ones if faulty. Also, replace the Plate small
screw with new one.

WSHK0142
Thrust bearing
Replace the compressor-side and the turbine-side
thrust bearings with new ones.
Floating metal
Replace the floating metal with new one.
Bearing housing
Check the casting surface for peeling from
oxidation-deterioration, dent or crack. Replace with
new one if faulty.
mm (in)
Location

Service limit

Bearing housing inner diameter

(B)

16.11
(0.6343)

Turbine-side seal ring insertion


part

(F)

17.03
(0.6705)

Turbine-side
thrust
bearing
press-fit part inner diameter

(L)

23.02
(0.9063)

Exhaust System

1F-15

Assembly of Turbocharger
Assembly diagram: Assemble in the order of the numbers.
18

17

15

16

13

14

11
1
12
10
6
5
7

WSHK0144
Assembly Procedure
1. Bearing Housing
2. Snap Ring
3. Floating Metal
4. Thrust Bearing
5. Seal Ring
6. Heat Protector
7. Turbine Shaft
8. Thrust Collar
9. Thrust Bearing

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Gasket
Turbine Housing
G Coupling
Seal Ring
Oil Thrower
Seal Plate
Compressor Impeller
Nut
Compressor Housing

1F-16 Exhaust System


Assembly
1. Bearing housing
Check that the bearing housing is free of damage
and foreign matters.
2. Snap ring
Install the 2 snap rings to the bearing housing with
snap ring pliers.
After assembling the floating metal (turbine side),
install the snap ring at the position shown in the
figure.

WSHK0146
Name
1. Apply Oil.

WSHK0145
Name
1. Turbine-Side Floating Metal
3. Floating metal
Apply oil to the floating metal, and assemble it to
the bearing housing.
After securing it with a snap ring, assemble the
compressor-side floating metal.
Caution:
Place the snap ring with its rounded-side facing to
the floating metal.
Assemble the inner snap ring with its end gap
facing to the oil outlet-direction of the housing, to
prevent it from blocking the oil path.
Assemble the turbine-side snap ring to the housing
with its end gap facing to the direction as shown in
the illustration.
Apply oil to the floating metal before assembly.
Besco super engine oil

4. Thrust bearing
a. Press-fitting of turbine-side thrust bearing
Press-fit the turbine-side thrust bearing into the
bearing housing.
Position the pawl of the turbine-side thrust
bearing for more than 2 mm (0.0787 in) apart
from the existing press-fitting part.
Do not press the thrust bearing pad surface
during press-fitting.
The press-fit pressure must be between 215.6
N {22.0 kgf} and 1862 N {190 kgf}.
After press-fitting, remove the dust powder
using vacuum.

Exhaust System

1F-17

b. After press-fitting, check the depth and flatness


of the turbine-side thrust bearing.
(Depth 3.080.02 mm {0.12130.0008 in},
Flatness is below 0.01 mm {0.0004 in}: See
illustration)
mm(in)

1
12

3.08 0.02
(0.1213 0.0008)

WSHK0149
Name
1. Apply Oil.

120

WSHK0147

Name
1. Common Tolerance
5.

6.

7.

Seal ring
Insert the seal ring to the turbine shaft.
Use new seal ring.
Heat protector
Install the heat protector to the bearing housing.
Turbine shaft
Apply engine oil to the journal portion of the turbine
shaft, and insert it from the turbine side of the
bearing housing.
Take care not to damage the floating metal with the
turbine shaft. Also, insert with the end gap of the
seal ring facing to the oil inlet side so that its core
matches with the turbine shaft.

8. Thrust collar
Apply engine oil to the thrust collar, and install ti to
the turbine shaft.
9. Thrust bearing
Apply engine oil to the metal portion of the thrust
bearing, and insert it to the bearing housing.
Apply Loctite to the Plate small screw threads, and
install it using torque screwdriver.
Tightening torque: 3.7 Nm (0.38 kgfm/33 lb in)

WSHK0150
Name
1. Apply Oil.
10. Gasket
Set the gasket to the turbine housing, and install it
to the bearing housing.

1F-18 Exhaust System


11. Turbine housing
Assemble by aligning the phase of the turbine
housing and the bearing housing with the turbine
housing positioning pin and the bearing housing
hole.

3
1

2
6

WSHK0152

WSHK0151
12. G coupling
a. Check that it does not run on the turbine
housing or the bearing housing.
b. Tighten temporarily to the specified torque
using a torque wrench.

Name
1. Approx. 60
2. Approx. 60
3. Torque Wrench
Hammering procedure
1)

Using a metal hammer (Approx. 250g in


weight), lightly tap 2 to 3 times (same place),
from the outer portion toward the center.

2)

Do not hammer the G coupling directly. Place


brass bar between as shown in the illustration.

Tightening torque: 83 Nm (8.5 kgfm/61 lb ft)


c. Hammering: Perform the hammering of (1) to
(6) in the numerical order, using the following
procedure.
d. Tighten to the specified torque using a torque
wrench.
Tightening torque: 83 Nm (8.5 kgfm/61 lb ft)
e. Perform (c) and (d) of the above step again.

150 ~ 200 mm
(6 ~ 8 in)

4
5

WSHK0153

Name
1. Approx. 13 mm (0.5 in)
2. Hammer
3. G Coupling
4. Bearing Housing
5. Gasket
6. Heat Shield Plate
7. Turbine Housing

Exhaust System
13.

14.

Seal ring
Install the seal ring to the oil thrower.
Use new one.
Oil thrower
Insert the oil thrower into the seal plate.
Insert with the end gap of the seal ring facing to the
oil inlet side.
15. Seal plate
Apply liquid gasket to the turbine-side flange
surface. Application thickness 0.1 0.2 mm
(0.004 0.008 in) (B)

1F-19

Align the alignment marks that marked during the


disassembly, and assemble the compressor
housing to the seal plate.
Tightening torque: 7.9 Nm (0.81 kgfm/70 lb in)

ThreeBond No. 1207


Install the seal plate to the bearing housing.
Apply Loctite (B) to the Pot small screw threads,
and install it using torque screwdriver.
Tightening torque: 23 Nm (2.3 kgfm/17 lb ft)

WSHK0156
Check after assembly
Make sure that the axial play and radial play of
rotor are within the specified value.
Refer to the section on inspection.

WSHK0154
16.

17.

Compressor impeller
Insert the compressor impeller to the turbine shaft.
Nut
Attach the box spanner to the turbine-side shaft
end of the turbine shaft, and tighten the nut.
The nut is left-hand thread. Make sure the turning
direction.

Tightening torque: 7.8 Nm (0.80 kgfm/69 lb in)


18. Compressor housing
Apply liquid gasket to the compressor-side flange
surface of the seal plate. Illustration shown in the
previous page (A)
Application thickness 0.1 0.2 mm (0.004
0.008 in)
ThreeBond No. 1207

1F-20 Exhaust System

Turbocharger (4HK1)
Inspection of Turbocharger
Inspection
Caution:
Turbocharger on 4HK1 engine cannot be overhauled
structurally.
Perform only the following inspection.
Measurement of axial play of turbine shaft
Axial play
Service limit

mm (in)
0.11 (0.004)

WSHK0129
Inspection of radial play of turbine shaft
Insert a thickness gauge into the gap between the
compressor impeller and housing, and measure
the clearance.
The thickness gauge to be inserted must be 0.2
mm (0.0078 in) or less.

Exhaust System

1F-21

Measurement Tool
Shape

Name

Part number

Usage

Measurement of the seal ring groove width


Measurement of inner diameter of the seal ring
insertion part
Measurement of turbine shaft journal outer
diameter
Measurement of thrust bushing groove
clearance
Measurement of thrust bearing thickness
Measurement of floating metal inner/outer
diameter
Measurement of inner diameters of the center
housing metal portion and ring portion

Caliper

WSHK0157

Dial gauge

Measurement of turbine shaft axial gap, radial


gap and runout

WSHK0158

Other Material
Name

Usage

Besco super engine oil

Floating metal sliding portion


Thrust bushing sliding portion
Thrust bearing sliding portion
Turbine shaft journal portion

ThreeBond No. 1207

Housing installing surface of the seal plate


Flange of the compressor housing

Loctite No. 242

Seal plate tightening screw thread

1F-22

Exhaust System and Turbocharger