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Who needs speech?












Poor Encoding This occurs when the message source fails to create the right sensory stimuli to meet the
objectives of the message. For instance, in person-to-person communication, verbally phrasing words poorly so
the intended communication is not what is actually meant, is the result of poor encoding. Poor encoding is also
seen in advertisements that are difficult for the intended audience to understand, such as words or symbols that
lack meaning or, worse, have totally different meaning within a certain cultural groups. This often occurs when
marketers use the same advertising message across many different countries. Differences due to translation or
cultural understanding can result in the message receiver having a different frame of reference for how to
interpret words, symbols, sounds, etc. This may lead the message receiver to decode the meaning of the message
in a different way than was intended by the message sender.
Poor Decoding This refers to a message receivers error in processing the message so that the meaning given to
the received message is not what the source intended. This differs from poor encoding when it is clear, through
comparative analysis with other receivers, that a particular receiver perceived a message differently from others
and from what the message source intended. Clearly, as we noted above, if the receivers frame of reference is
different (e.g., meaning of words are different) then decoding problems can occur. More likely, when it comes to
marketing promotions, decoding errors occur due to personal or psychological factors, such as not paying
attention to a full television advertisement, driving too quickly past a billboard, or allowing ones mind to wonder
while talking to a salesperson.
Medium Failure Sometimes communication channels break down and end up sending out weak or faltering
signals. Other times the wrong medium is used to communicate the message. For instance, trying to educate
doctors about a new treatment for heart disease using television commercials that quickly flash highly detailed
information is not going to be as effective as presenting this information in a print ad where doctors can take their
time evaluating the information.
Communication Noise Noise in communication occurs when an outside force in someway affects delivery of the
message. The most obvious example is when loud sounds block the receivers ability to hear a message. Nearly
any distraction to the sender or the receiver can lead to communication noise. In advertising, many customers are
overwhelmed (i.e., distracted) by the large number of advertisements they encountered each day. Such
advertising clutter (i.e., noise) makes it difficult for advertisers to get their message through to desired customers.

Rate your generation:

Whats implied?

How does excessive online

communication affect teens? (NYT)
The Pew Research Center found that
half of American teenagers defined in
the study as ages 12 through 17 send
50 or more text messages a day and that
one third send more than 100 a day.
Two thirds of the texters surveyed said
they were more likely to use their
cellphones to text friends than to call

How does excessive online

communication affect teens? (NYT)

Todays youths may be missing out

on experiences that help them
develop empathy, understand
emotional nuances and read social
cues like facial expressions and body

How does excessive online

communication affect teens? (NYT)
However, a few experts think that
technology may not be a bad thing after
all and is actually bringing kids closer, as
it allows them to be connected to each
other at all times. Supporting this
argument are those who believe that
texting and online communication may
make it easier for shy kids to open up
and connect with others.

How does technology affect family

communication? (

Technology in todays world offers a

plethora of ways to communicate
effectively so that every member of a family
can keep in touch. From text messaging,
Skype, webcams, Facebook, Twitter and
emails, the facilitation of communication
has never been more available. However,
there are times when the one-on-one
communication between human beings falls
through the cracks and technology can take
control over a family.

How does technology affect family

communication? (
Social interactive online networking such as
Facebook and MySpace has changed the way
families communicate. A study done at
Indiana University asked parents for their
opinions on these technologies. Some
parents stated that a socially isolated child
may become more socially isolated because
all of her networks are through the
computer. However, other parents believed
the Internet could help a potentially
depressive child.

How does technology affect family

communication? (
Dr. Jeffrey S. McQuillen, assistant professor of
speech communication at Texas A&M University,
warns that the influence of technology can be a
hindrance to interpersonal relationships. To
McQuillen, the advent of the Internet has made
the world smaller in terms of global interaction,
but wider in terms of one-on-one relationships.
He believes the more children are left to
themselves and the Internet, the less likely we
are to see familial interdependence. He believes
companies that produce all of these
technologies are making virtual interaction
synonymous with face-to-face interaction. He
believes this can be disastrous for family life.


Are free and spontaneous

Are impulsive risk-takers
Are active
Are optimistic
Resist commitment
Can become virtuosos
Thrive on crises
Are drawn to tools
Like to be the center of
Have great endurance
Are drawn to action jobs
Need variety

Are dynamic, animated

Are competitive
Deal with the here and now
Are bold in relationships
Are generous
Have difficulty finding
Like to live in a casual
Bring excitement to society

Are innovative and logical

Seek to understand the

Need to be competent

Require intellectual freedom

Are curious

Question authority
Push themselves to improve
Seek perfection in play

May become intellectually

Are slow to make decisions

Value concise

Look for intellectual

Enjoy intriguing discussions
Are sometimes oblivious to
Are detached
Believe work is play
Are drawn to technical
Analyze and rearrange
Focus on the future
Bring innovation to society

Are in search of themselves

Need to feel unique

Must be true to themselves

Look for symbolism

Value close relationships

Encourage expression

Desire quality time with

loved ones
Need opportunities to be

Compromise and cooperate

Nurture people, plants and
Look beyond the surface

Share emotions
Make decisions based on
Need harmony
Are adaptable
Are drawn to literature
Are drawn to nurturing
Get involved in causes
Are committed to ideals
Bring unity to society

Are dutiful and stable

Need to be useful
Want to be self-sufficient
Value organization
Desire punctuality
Schedule their lives
Make and keep
Measure worth by
Are goal-oriented
Value rules
Prepare for the future

Are inclined to join groups

Believe work comes before
Safeguard tradition
Prefer order and cleanliness
Are responsible and
Are drawn to respected
Enjoy positions of authority
Desire structure
Bring stability to society