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Capitolul 1 ECONOMIA )250

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1.1. 7HQVLXQHDGLQWUHQHYRLLUHVXUVH5DULWDWHLDOHJHUH
1.2. Economia -IRUP

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1.3. Legile economice

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CONCEPTE

Nevoi umane;
Interese economice;
Resurse economice;
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Alegere;
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ilor de productie;

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Macroeconomie;
Microeconomie;
Sector economic;
Fenomen economic;
Proces economic;
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1.1. TENSIUNEA DINTRE NEVOI SI RESURSE. RARITATE SI ALEGERE

Nevoile umane

QDQDOL]DDFWLYLW

LLHFRQRPLFHVHSRUQHWHGHODRPLQHYRLOHVDOH1R LXQHD

de nevoie sau de

WUHEXLQ

XPDQ

 GHVHPQHD]  vQ DFFHS LX

nea cea mai

JHQHUDO  VHQWLPHQWXO GH SULYD LXQH DFRPSDQLDW GH GRULQ D GH D R IDFH V 
GLVSDU  /LSVD VDX SULYD LXQHD GHVHPQHD]  QHYRLD vQF  QHVDWLVI FXW  HD QDWH
GRULQ D FD VWDUH SVLKRORJLF  D FHOXL FDUH FUHGH F  vL OLSVHWH FHYD

. Pe plan
economic, sentiPHQWXO SULYD LXQLL FRQGXFH OD  D GRUL XQ EXQ PDWHULDO VDX
serviciu.
Nevoile umane constituie impulsulWXWXURUDFWLYLW LORUXPDQHLDUVDWLVIDFHUHD
lor - scopul acestora.

NEVOILE UMANE VXQW SUHIHULQ H GRULQ H UHVLP LUL DWHSW UL DOH RDPHQLORU
de a DYHD GH D IL GH D WL L GH D FUHGH UHVSHFWLY GH D-L vQVXL EXQXUL WRDWH
DFHVWHD ILLQG FRQGL LRQDWH L GHYHQLQG HIHFWLYH vQ IXQF LH GH QLYHOXO GH]YROW ULL

economico-VRFLDOH

FRQGL LRQDUH RELHFWLY  L GH QLYHOXO GH GH]YROWDUH D

LQGLYLGXOXL FRQGL LRQDUHVXELHFWLY 

Clasificarea
nevoilor

QIXQF LHGHFHOHWUHLGLPHQVLXQLDOHILLQ HLXPDQH ELRORJLF VRFLDO L


UD LRQDO QHYRLOHSRWILclasificate ca:
- fiziologice VRPDWLFHFDUH LQGHH[LVWHQ DILHF UXLRPn raporturile
lui cu mediul natural);
- sociale, de grup FHOH UHVLP LWH GH RDPHQL FD PHPEUL DL GLIHULWHORU
socio-grupuri);
- UD LRQDOH
- spiritual-psihologice FDUH GHFXUJ GLQ WU V WXULOH LQWHULRDUH DOH
RDPHQLORU L FDUH GHYLQ WRW PDL LPSRUWDQWH SH P VXUD SURJUHVXOXL

lor instructLYLPRUDO 
QIXQF LHGHJUDGXOGH]YROW ULLHFRQRPLFHLGHQLYHOXOGHFXOWXU
FLYLOL]D LHSRWIL

GHED]

sau inferioare;
complexe sau superioare.

L

7U

WXULOH

nevoilor

1HYRLOH XPDQH VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]  SULQ DQXPLWH WU V WXUL ILHFDUH FDUDFWHULVWLF 


UHIOHFWkQGvQIDSWXQSULQFLSLXHFRQRPLFHVHQ LDO
D VXQWQHOLPLWDWHFDQXP

U DSDUL LDGHQRLWUHEXLQ HSHP VXUDVDWLVIDFHULL

FHORUYHFKLLvQFRQWLQXDUHDORU

;
b) sunt limitate n capacitate- satisfacerea unei anumite nevoi presupune
FRQVXPDUHDXQHLFDQWLW LGDWHGLQWU-un
bun ceea ce face ca intensitatea
UHVLP LULLXQHLQHYRLV VFDG 

c) sunt concurente- XQHOHQHYRLVHH[WLQGvQGHWULPHQWXODOWRUDF


nlocuiesc, se substituie ntre ele ;
d) sunt complementare-DGLF HYROXHD] vQVHQVXULLGHQWLFH ;
e) orice nevoie se stinge momentan prin satisfacere

Interesele
economice

VH

0DQLIHVW UL FRQWLHQWL]DWH DOH QHYRLORU XPDQH GHYHQLWH PRELOXUL L FDUH


GHWHUPLQ 

DQXPLWH

FRPSRUWDPHQWH

vQ

YHGHUHD

UHDOL] ULL

SHUIRUPDQ HORU

HFRQRPLFHQHFHVDUHGREkQGLULLEXQXULORUFDSDELOHV VDWLVIDF QHYRL

Acestea pot fi: personale, de grup, generale; private, publice; curente, de


SHUVSHFWLY UHJLRQDOHQD LRQDOH etc.
Armonizarea diferitelor interese se poate asigura printr-un cadru democratic de
IXQF LRQDUHDHFRQRPLHLLVRFLHW

LL

ECONOMICE UHSUH]LQW  WRWDOLWDWHD HOHPHQWHORU L


direct sau indirect sau utilizabile ca premise la
SURGXFHUHDLRE LQHrea de bunuri economice.
RESURSELE

vPSUHMXU ULORU XWLOL]DWH

Resursele
economice

Q UHDOL]DUHD DFWLYLW

LL ORU RDPHQLL DX vQ YHGHUH QX QXPDL VFRSXULOH HL

FRQIRUP F URUD R RULHQWHD]  FL L UHVXUVHOH FDUH SRW IL XWLOL]DWH vQ YHGHUHD
DWLQJHULLVFRSXULORUXUP ULWH

Din punct de veGHUH FDQWLWDWLY VWUXFWXUDO L FDOLWDWLY UHVXUVHOH SRW IL vPS U LWH
astfel:
Resursele naturale- SUHPLVD L VXUVD VDWLVIDFHULL FHOHL PDL PDUL S U L D
nevoilor umane este natura;
Resurselor umane- ce au ca rol desprinderea resurselor naturale din
mediul lor n vederea folosirii ;
5HVXUVHOHLQIRUPD LRQDOHIRORVLWHvQVFRSXULGHFXQRDWHUHGHFL]LHVDX
DF LXQH

'LQSXQFWGHYHGHUHDOSUHOXFU ULLUHVXUVHOHVHvPSDUWvQ

Resursele primare sau originareFHFXSULQG UHVXUVHOH QDWXUDOH vPSUHXQ 


FXSRWHQ LDOXO demografic
Resursele derivate IRUPDWH SH ED]D SULPHORU FH SRWHQ HD]  HILFLHQ D FX
care sunt utilizate toate resursele.

RARITATEA

H[SULP  UHOD LD GH LQWHUGHSHQGHQ

 vQWUH FDQWLWDWHD FDOLWDWHD L

VWUXFWXUDUHVXUVHORU SHGH RSDUWH LYROXPXOVWUXFWXUDLLQWHQVLWDWHDQHYRLORU


SH GH DOW  SDUWH VWDUH GH WHQVLXQH SHUPDQHQW  GDU FX JUDGH GH LQWHQVLWDWH
GLIHULWH vQWUH UHVXUVHOH LQFOXVLY EXQXULOH HFRQRPLFH  OLPLWDWH L QHYRLOH

nelimitate privite agregat.

/(*($ 5$5,7

,, FRQVW  vQ DFHHD F  YROXPXO VWUXFWXUD L FDOLWDWHD

UHVXUVHORU HYROXHD]  PDL vQFHW GHFkW YROXPXO VWUXFWXUD L LQWHQVLWDWHD QHYRLORU


XPDQH $OWIHO VSXV H[LVW  XQ HFDUW vQWUH QHYRLOH QHOLPLWDWH UHVLP LWH GH F WUH
RDPHQLLUHVXUVHFDUHU PkQOLPLWDWHLQVXILFLHQWH

Q FRQGL LLOH vQ FDUH UHVXUVHOH UHVSHFWLY YHQLWXULOH VXQW OLPLWDWH DJHQ LL

Alegere

HFRQRPLFLVHFRQIUXQW SHUPDQHQWLFRQWLQXXFXDOHJHUHDGHVWLQD LLORUVXPHORU


FKHOWXLWH

DGLF 

DOHJHUHD

DOWHUQDWLYHORU

satisfacerea nevoilor.
Fiecare agent economLF

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GH

V 

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D

UHVXUVHORU

XQHOH

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L

vQ

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,QVXILFLHQ D UHVXUVHORU vQ UDSRUW FX QHYRLOH FRQMXJDW  FX H[LVWHQ D PDL
PXOWRUDOWHUQDWLYHGHIRORVLUHDUHVXUVHORUIDFFDDOHJHUHDXQHLDGLQWUHHOHV ILH
vQVR LW GHVDFULILFDUHDFHORUODOWH

&2678/ 2325781,7

aprecierea (Q H[SUHVLH IL]LF

,,

DO DQVHL VDFULILFDWH  FRQVW  vQ SUH XLUHD

 LVDX PRQHWDU  DFRUGDW  FHOHL PDL EXQH GLQWUH

DQVHOH VDFULILFDWH DWXQFL  FkQG VH IDFH R DOHJHUHFkQG VHDGRSW  R GHFL]LH GHD
SURGXFH D FXPS UD D vQWUHSULQGH  R DQXPLW  DF LXQH GLQWU R SODM  SRVLELO  (O
P VRDU  FkWLJXO RE LQXW S

rin pierderea celei mai bune dintre variantele

sacrificate.

Problema
JHQHUDO D

economiei

Preocuparea dintotdeauna a oamenilor de a alege resursele pentru satisfacerea


FkW PDL EXQ   D QHYRLORU FRQVWLWXLH SUREOHPD JHQHUDO  D HFRQRPLHL. Aceasta
poate fiFRQWXUDW LHYLGHQ LDW SULQU VSXQVXULOHFDUHVHGDXvQWUHE ULYLWDOHFX
FDUHVHFRQIUXQW RULFHDJHQWHFRQRPLF
FHLFkWV SURGXF

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Frontiera
posibilLW LORU
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SURGXF

"

"

LORUGHSURGXF LHSXQHvQHYLGHQ

- ntr-un orizont scurt de

timp -GLIHULWHOHDOWHUQDWLYHSRVLELOHGHSURGXF LHDGRX

EXQXULHFRQRPLFHFDUH

SRW IL RE LQXWH SULQ XWLOL]DUHD GHSOLQ  L HILFLHQW  D XQRU UHVXUVH HF


GLVSRQLELOH 3ULQ LQWHUPHGLXO V X VH

onomice

FHUFHWHD]  FRPELQD LLOH SRVLELOH GH D

SURGXFH

GRX 

EXQXUL

SULQ

IRORVLUHD

LQWHJUDO 

L

HILFLHQW 

D

UHVXUVHORU

disponibile la un moment dat.


3DQWD )33 DUH R vQFOLQD LH QHJDWLY  GHRDUHFH vQWU

-o economie, n care se
-un bun

IRORVHVF GHSOLQ L HILFLHQW UHVXUVHOH SHQWUX D SURGXFH PDL PXOW GLQWU

HVWH SRVLELO GRDU GDF  VH SURGXFH PDL SX LQ GLQ FHOHODOWH vQ FRQGL LLOH vQ FDUH

toate resursele de care dispune un agent economic sunt utilizate eficient iar
tehnologiile nuVHPRGLILF 
)LHFDUH SXQFW GH SH FXUED FRQFDY  D )33 LQGLF  XQ DQXPH QLYHO GLQ ILHFDUH

gen de bun produs.


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a

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F

X
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Figura 1.1 &XUEDSRVLELOLW

Caseta 1.1.)URQWLHUDSRVLELOLW
n Figura 1.1VHHYLGHQ LD]

LORUGHSURGXF LH

LORUGHSURGXF LH )33

 WRDWHFRPELQD LLOHSRVLELOH GH SURGXFHUHD GRX  EXQXUL PLOLWDUH 0 LFLYLOH & 

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)33VHSDU FRPELQD LLOHGHFDQWLW LGHEXQXULFHSRWILSUoduse (a,b,c) de cele care nu pot


produse la un moment dat (d).
Punctele a L b LQGLF  R IRORVLUH HILFLHQW  D UHVXUVHORU GH FDUH VH GLVSXQH vQ WLPS FH SXQFWXO c VHPQLILF
IRORVLUHLQHILFLHQW VDXXQHHFvQFHHDFHSULYHWHIRORVLUHDORULQWHJUDO 

DQVDVDFULILFDW

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LGHEXQXULFLYLOHUHSUH]LQW FRVWXO

RSRUWXQDOVSRULULLFXRXQLWDWHDSURGXF LHLPLOLWDUHDGLF &0

3HP

/M = C/M.

VXU FHFDQWLWDWHDSURGXV GLQWU XQEXQFUHWHFRVWXOGHRSRUWXQLWDWHDOXQHLXQLW

GLQDFHVWEXQDUHWHQGLQ DGHFUHWHUHWHQGLQ

FDUHDUHFDUDFWHUGHOHJHHFRQRPLF 

2GDW FXFUHWHUHDYROXPXOXLLHILFLHQ HLIRORVLULLUHVXUVHORUFXUEDVHGHSODVHD]


dreapta sus, punctele aLbGHVHPQkQGFRPELQD LLSRVLELOHvQQRLOHFRQGL LL

VSUH

L

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$SOLFD LH0RGHOGHUH]ROYDUH
 8Q F O WRU FDUH IRORVHWH DYLRQXO SRDWH DMXQJH GH OD RUDXO $ OD RUDXO % vQWU

-o

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F O WRULHGXUHD] FLQFLRUHFXDXWREX]XO'DF WDULIXOXQXLELOHWGHDYLRQHVWHGHXPLDUSHQWUX


XQELOHWGHDXWREX]WUHEXLHV VHSO WHDVF XPFDUHDUILPLMORFXOGHWUDQVSRUWPDLLHIWLQSHQWUX
R SHUVRDQ  FH SRDWH FkWLJD  XP vQ ILHFDUH RU " 'DU SHQWUX R SHUVRDQ  FDUH DU SXWHD FkWLJD 
XP vQ ILHFDUH RU  FH DOHJHUH DU IDFH" 'DU XQ LQGLYLG FH  FkWLJ   XP SH RU  FX FH DQXPH YD

circula?
5

VSXQV

$WXQFLFkQGLQGLYLGXOFkWLJDXPSHRU LDUPHUJHFXDYLRQXOHODUUHQXQ DODXPSH


FDUH OH SO WHWH vQ SOXV GDU FkWLJD vQ FHOH  RUH HFRQRPLD GH WLPS   XP GHFL YD DYHD XQ FRVW
RSRUWXQDODOHJHULLDYLRQXOXLH[SULPDWSULQSLHUGHUHFkWLJGHGHFLHJDOFX'DF YDGHFLGH
V  XWLOL]H]H DXWREX]XO YD UHQXQ D OD  FHOH  XP FH DU IL IRVW FkWLJDWH GDWRULW  HFRQRPLHL GH WLPS
vQVD YD SO WL GRDU  XP DYkQG DVWIHO XQ FRVW GH RSRUWXQLWDWH GH  XP Q DFHVW FD] HO YD DOHJH

autobuzul.
QFD]XOLQGLYLGXOXLFHFkWLJ XPSHRU

Costul oportun al avionului : 20/80=0,25


Costul oportun al autobuzului 80/20=4
El va alege avionul.
QFD]XOLQGLYLGXOXLFHFkWLJ XPSHRU :
Costul oportun al avionului : 20/20=1
Costul oportun al autobuzului 20/20=1
Lui i va fi indiferent ce mijloc de transport va alege, decizia urmnGDVHOXDvQIXQF LHGH
criterii extraeconomice.

1.2. ECONOMIA - FORMA PRINCIPALA A ACTIUNII SOCIALE

$&7,9,7$7($(&2120,&
XPDQH

&XSULQGH

DQVDPEOXO

- GRPHQLXIXQGDPHQWDOLFRPSOH[DODFWLYLW

IDSWHORU

DFWHORU

L

UHDF LLORU

LL

RDPHQLORU

conFUHWL]DWH vQ FRPSRUWDPHQWH L GHFL]LLOH GH DWUDJHUH L IRORVLUH D UHVXUVHORU


HFRQRPLFHUDUHvQYHGHUHDSURGXFHULLGLVWULEX LHLVFKLPEXOXLLFRQVXPXOXLvQ
IXQF LHGHQHYRLOHLLQWHUHVHOHORU

3URGXF LD

Schimbul

$QVDPEOXO RSHUD LXQLORU FDUH YL]HD]  DFWLYLW

L HFRQRPLFH FH FRQVWDX vQ

RE LQHUHDGHEXQXULHFRQRPLFHGHVWLQDWHVDWLVIDFHULLQHYRLORUXPDQH

&RPSRQHQW  D DFWLYLW

LL HFRQRPLFH FDUH FXSULQGH DFWLYLW

VSD LX D EXQXULORU PDWHULDOH SH FDOHD YkQ] ULL

- FXPS

LOH GH GLVWULEXLUH vQ

U ULL VDX SH DOWH F L

GHSR]LWDUHD L S VWUDUHD DFHVWRUD SUHFXP L VFKLPEXO GH VHUYLFLL vQWUH


SDUWLFLSDQ LLODYLD DHFRQRPLF 

5HSDUWL LD

$FWLYLW

L HFRQRPLFH SULQ FDUH EXQXULOH PDWHULDOH L VHUYLFLLOH VXQW RULHQWDWH

SULQLQWHUPHGLXOSLH HLVSUHGHVWLQD LLOHORUSUHFXPLSURFHVHOHGHGLVWULEXLUHL


UHGLVWULEXLUH SULQ FDUH YHQLWXULOH VH UHSDUWL]HD]  SDUWLFLSDQ LORU OD GLIHULWHOH
DFWLYLW

&RQVXPD LD

Sectoare
economice

L

)RORVLUHDHIHFWLY DEXQXULORU

'RPHQLL GLIHULWH GH DFWLYLWDWH HFRQRPLF  LVDX VRFLDO  GLQWU

-un stat, o

RUJDQL]D LH VDX R LQVWLWX LH /D QLYHOXO vQWUHJLL HFRQRPLL QR LXQHD GHVHPQHD] 
XQ DQVDPEOX GH vQWUHSULQGHUL FDUH H[HUFLW  DFHHDL DFWLYLWDWH HFRQRPLF 
SULQFLSDO 
'LVWLQF LD
SURGXFWLYLW

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ED]DW 

ILH

SH

GLQDPLFL

DOH

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FUHWHULL

LLILHSHID]HOHLVWRULFHDOHGH]YROW ULL WHRULDYDOXULORU SHUPLWHR

SULP FODVLILFDUHFDUHFXSULQGH

sectorul economic primar (agricultura, silvicultura, pescuitul,


LQGXVWULDH[WUDFWLY 

sectorul economic secundar (industria prelXFU

WRDUH FRQVWUXF LLOH L

OXFU ULOHSXEOLFH 
VHFWRUXO HFRQRPLF WHU LDU SUHVW UL VHUYLFLL vQ vQY

PkQW FHUFHWDUH

E QFLDVLJXU ULWUDQVSRUWGLVWULEXLUHHWF 

sectorul economic cuaternar XQLL DXWRUL UHPDUF

 QDWHUHD DFHVWXLD R

GDW  FX GH]YROWDUHD QRLORU VHUYLFLL LQIRUPDWLF  vQY

PkQW VXSHULRU

FHUFHWDUHDWLLQ LILF LWHKQRORJLF 


QIXQF LHGHGLYL]LXQLOHDFWLYLW

LLHFRQRPLFHSHED]DSURSULHW

LLVHGLVWLQJ

sectorul privat -ansamblul ntreprinderilor private n care capitalul

asociativ;
sectorul public -

DSDU LQH

SDUWLFXODULORU

VRFLHW

LORU

DQVDPEOXO

SULYDWH

GH

SUHFXP

vQWUHSULQGHUL

L

VHFWRUXOXL

SXEOLFH

L

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sectorul mixt -DQVDPEOXO GH vQWUHSULQGHUL vQ FDUH VH FRPELQ

 vQ IRUPH

LSURSRU LLGLIHULWHSURSULHWDWHDSXEOLF LFHDSULYDW 

(FRQRPLDFDXQLWDWHFRPSOH[ GDULQGHVWUXFWLELO HVWHVWUXFWXUDW vQ

Microeconomia FRQVW  GLQ SURFHVHOH IDSWHOH DFWHOH L


comportamentele participantLORU LQGLYLGXDOL OD DFWLYLWDWHD HFRQRPLF 
ILUPHJRVSRG ULLIDPLOLDOHDGPLQLVWUD LLE QFLHWF 

Mezoeconomia FRQVW

GLQSURFHVHOHIDSWHOHDFWHOH

WHU LDUFXDWHUQDU ODUDPXULOHDFWLYLW

si comportamentele

FDUH VH UHIHU  OD VHFWRDUHOH GH DFWLYLWDWH HFRQRPLF  SULPDU VHFXQGDU
LLHFRQRPLFH VLGHUXUJLHFKLPLH

transport, educD LHV Q WDWHHWF ODRUHJLXQHWHULWRULDO-DGPLQLVWUDWLY


Macroeconomia UHSUH]LQW  SURFHVHOH IDSWHOH DFWHOH
FRPSRUWDPHQWHOH

HFRQRPLFH

UHIHULWRDUH

OD

JUXSXUL

GH


L

VXELHF L

HFRQRPLFLUHXQL LvQFDWHJRULLRPRJHQHLGHJDMDWHGHFRPSRUWDPHQWHOH

lor indivLGXDOHSUHFXPLODvQWUHDJDHFRQRPLHSULYLW FDDJUHJDW


Mondoeconomia FXSULQGH SURFHVHOH IDSWHOH DFWHOH
FRPSRUWDPHQWHOH

VXELHF LORU

HFRQRPLFL

L

DOH

FRPXQLW

L
LORU

LQWHUQD LRQDOH SULYLWH DWkW SULQ SULVPD OHJ WXULORU HFRQRPLFH GLQWUH
HFRQRPLLOH QD LRQDOH FkW L FD vQWUHJ FRQVLGHUDW OD VFDU  SODQHWDU  VDX

zonal-LQWHUQD LRQDO

1.3. LEGILE ECONOMICE

LEGEA ECONOMICA H[SUHVLH D UHOD LLORU HVHQ LDOH QHFHVDUH UHODWLY VWDELOH L
UHSHWDELOH GH GHSHQGHQ  FDX]DO  VDX PXWXDO  vQ L vQWUH IHQRPHQHOH L Srocesele
economice.

FENOMENUL ECONOMIC

UHSUH]LQW  IRUPD H[WHULRDU  D DFWLYLW

LL HFRQRPLFH

UHVSHFWLY DFHOH HOHPHQWH DVSHFWH LVDX DFWH DOH YLH LL HFRQRPLFH FDUH DSDU L  VH
PDQLIHVW ODVXSUDID DDFHVWHLDSXWkQGILFXQRVFXWHGHF WUHRDPHQLGLUHFWSHED] 
GHH[SHULHQ



PROCESUL ECONOMIC

H[SULP  WUDQVIRUP ULOH vQ VWDUHDDFWLYLW

DFHVWHDHYLGHQ LLQGGH]YROWDUHDHLvQWLPSLVSD LX

LL HFRQRPLFH

%,%/,2*5$),(6(/(&7,9

Abraham-Frois, Gilbert

(FRQRPLH3ROLWLF (GLWXUD+XPDQLWDV%XFXUHWL

Angelescu, Coralia;

(FRQRPLHSROLWLF (OHPHQWHIXQGDPHQWDOH(GL LDD

6W

(GLWXUD2VFDU3ULQW%XFXUHWL

QHVFX,OHDQD

(FRQRPLFDYDORULL(GLWXUD(FRQRPLF %XFXUHWL

Bran, Paul
&LXFXU'*DYULO

-II-a

,OLH

(FRQRPLH 0DQXDO XQLYHUVLWDU (GLWXUD (FRQRPLF  (GL LD D

Popescu, C.

%XFXUHWL

Colectivul Catedrei de

(FRQRPLH(GL LDD9 D(GLWXUD(FRQRPLF %XFXUHWL

-II-a,

(FRQRPLHL3ROLWLFL

Economice
Economie -$SOLFD LL(GL LDD,,,-D(GLWXUD(FRQRPLF
2001

%XFXUHWL

Colectivul Catedrei de

'LF LRQDU

(FRQRPLF 

(FRQRPLHL3ROLWLFL

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Colectivul Catedrei de
(FRQRPLHL3ROLWLFL

Economice
GH

(FRQRPLH

(GL LD

D

,, D

(GLWXUD

Economice
Georgescu Roegen, N.

/HJHD HQWURSLHL L SURFHVXO HFRQRPLF (GLWXUD 3ROLWLF   %XFXUHWL

1979
Galbraith, J.K.

6RFLHWDWHDSHUIHFW (GLWXUD(XURVRQJ %RRN%XFXUHWL

R.G.Lipsey, A. Chrystal

(FRQRPLDSR]LWLY (GLWXUD(FRQRPLF %XFXUHWL

Madgearu, Virgil

Curs de economie pROLWLF

&UDLRYD(GLWXUD5DPXUL

175(%

5,'($872(9$/8$5(

'HILQL LQHYRLOHSHFDUHOHDYH LLvQFHUFD LV UHDOL]D LFODVLILFDUHDORUGXS 

diversele criterii.

WLLQG

F 

LQGLYLGXO

HVWH

SXUW WRUXO

WXWXURU

FDWHJRULLORU

GH

LQWH

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unui exemplu concret!

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