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UVR ALEXANDRU IOAN CUZA, IAI

FUL D PSIHOLOGIE I TIINE ALE EDUCAIEI

LURR D GRAD I

RDR F:
RF. UV. DR. ____________________

LV: ...............................

IAI,
2015
1

UVR ALEXANDRU IOAN CUZA, IAI


FUL D PSIHOLOGIE I TIINE ALE EDUCAIEI

MODALITI DE ACTIVIZARE A PRECOLARILOR N ACTIVITI


DE MATEMATIC

RDR F:
RF. UV. DR. ___________________

LV: ....................

IAI,
2015
2

PLANUL LUCRRII
I. Matematica- importana i necesitatea studierii ei
1.1. Importana i rolul activitilor matematice n nvmntul precolar
1.2. Caracteristici psiho-pedagogice ale copiilor de vrst precolar
1.3. Formarea reprezentrilor i a noiunilor matematice la precolari

II. Strategii de activizare a prscolarilor in activitatile matematice


2.1. Activizarea metodelor active in invatarea matematicii
2.2. Aspecte metodologice privind abordarea metodelor active in activitatile matematice
2.3. Materiale si mijloace didactice utilizate in scopul activizarii prescolarilor
2.4. Forme de organizare a activitatilor matematice care sustin activizarea
2.5. Jocul- forma de organizare care sustine valente activizatoare in activitatile matematice

III. Modalitati de activizare a prescolarilor in activitatile matematice si integrate


3.1. Modalitati de utilizare a metodelor active-participative in activitatile matematice la grupa
mare
3.2. Strategii de organizare ale activitatilor matematice pe centre de interes
3.3. Exemple de activitati matematice cu caracter interdisciplinary

Bibliografie

ATLUL
ATATA RTAA TATA
TUDR
1.1. mrtana rlul atvtlr matmat n nvmntul rlar
Fnaltl urn n urulumul ntru duaa tmur mbn dzvltara al
a lulu u a gntv bazaz urmtarl rn:
Runatra lr a ta fundamntal n frmara ndvdulu, u ant rr
f;
Runatra lulu a ndvd u nv rr d dzvltar nu a un adult n mnatur;
Runatra lulu a agnt al rr al dzvltr.
Fnaltl urmrt vzaz dzvltara gnral a lulu agur rgtra lu
ntru al va. untl h unt: ntata dzvltara fz, tara d bn
mnal mtna al, abltl d munar, abrdara ztv a nvr,
gna untinl gnral, u rtara nvlr ndvdual, a rtmulu rru d
dzvltar al fru l, mlara lulu n rra dzvltar utlzara julu a
atvtat fundamntal n at ntrval.
Atfl, n rada rlar, nfrmaa tnf t rmannt ubrdnat
dzvltr, lulu nu rdau untn, faltaz amdara u dfrtl
dmn al v. umrl, ral ml, nttu ntru rlar ntrumntul ntru
rzlvara unr tua zln, nrt, lgat d rra ran.
n aat vzun, atvtl matmat nu trbu rvt a dln d tudu
aart, aa um t d xmlu matmata n nvmntul rmar, rlat, mbnat
ntgrat u atvt dn alt dmn.
ul rnal al atr atvt t dzvltara gndr lg a lulu,
nztrara lu u ntrumnt rat ntru rzlvara unr rblm nrt, rgtra
ntru tudul matmat n al.
tda atvtlr matmat n grdna d urmrt rgtra adrulu
ddat n vdra atngr btvlr ru d rgram rn mtd mjla advat,
rn tratg f atr atvt.
4

Dfurara tm a atvtlr matmat bazaz unatra hlg


lulu rlar, a artulartlr ndvdual, a fulu frmr nunlr matmat
la aat vrt.
tda atvtlr matmat analzaz n rtul lg tnlr mdrn
btvl, nnuturl, tratgl ddat, mjlal d nvmnt, frml d atvtat
d rganzar a lr, mdaltl d valuar a rgrulu, bazl ultvr unr rrtr
mtvanal favrabl nvr. fr altrnatv trt-mtdlg, nrm mdl d
atvt ar agur tmzara rulu ddat.
unnd bn rtara ddat, ntgrara rurlr n atvtata la grua d
rlar valuara rzultatlr a rgrlr lr rn rartara la btvl ru,
adrul ddat nu t un mlu ratan ar al rt mtd, un nvtgatr ar
tudaz atnt fnmnl rfnaz ntnuu rra atvtat, ntrbund la
rdara alt nvmntulu.
Atvtatl u ntnut matmat dn gradnta vzaza tmulara dzvltar
ntltual a lr, ntrbu la trra trtata d la gandra nrt-ntutva la gandra
mbla, abtrata, rgatnd ntru ntlgra nura matmat n laa .
atnt dbta trbu a ard rnulu valrfar maxmal a funtlr
frmatv al julu a atvtat fa a lulu rlar a frma d dfaurar a
unr atun ntrutv-duatv dn gradnta, a mjl mtda fa nvatar d t
rlar n vdra rgatr lr ntru ala. (Enache, 2000, p. 42)
ntruat lmntul d baza al atvtatlr d ntrur l nttu lmbajul, vlumul
altata vabularulu nfluntaza nmjlt randamntul mun lar adatara lulu
la vata n ltv-araa vabularulu tangaa n xrmar t frana nu numa rgrul
ntltual muna d nvatar, dar t rdu mdfar n tarl aftv al lr
(tmdtat, tama) n attudna lu fata d ala.
D aa, mbgatra rtara vabularulu, a a mjlalr d xrmar n
adrul un varat frm d atvtat, ar trbu a ii ru ma ntn duatr.
t unut fatul a matmata a avut nttdauna un rl htaratr n dzvltara
gandr, aa dmnun f umana ar ta la baza rgrulu nttu mulul
dnam al. Dar matmata nvata dn vata ntru vata, ntlgra
ntlr , rara u l ndu la frmara un gandr mru lg ratar. u
5

at duata rrmara un ant rn mjla f dzvltara ntltuala, u atat


ma rfrmanta va f attudna ntru rlartat.
Rlul atvtallr matmat n gradnt t d a nttu ntr n rul d
matmatzar, a agura ntlgra unr mdl uzual al raltat. rul d
matmatzar la m t nut a uun d atvtati brvar.
ntnutul matmat d la laa trbu a f ntnuar fraa a atvtatlr
matmat dn gradnta. n at duatarl d la grua mar tudaza rgrama la ,
ar nvatatr d la laa tudaza rgrama d la gradnta. nfrm rgram d matmata
d laa , n rmul trmtru lar vr fa:
a) rzntara unr multm d bt, runatra btlr ntura lr, frmara
ntun d multm lmnt. La at atl am u ant n rml lt frmara
multmlr u dn trua Dn, dua dfrt rrtat (ular, frma, marm, zt).
n at tm frmaza drdra d a runat n laa btl u rrtat
amanatar au dfrt, u l dn trua. A am u ant rzara dmnulu d
dfnt a rrtat. (Enache, 2000, p. 72)
xmlu: multma lr r d maa, multma lr dn laa natra, t.
trbu a vna la gradnta u drndra d a frma multm dua rrtat, dar u
vrbalzara nara. Daa unm multma lr nu t mlt dfnt, trbu rzat
lul, dmnul (multma lr dn bana). n at n duatarl fl alatur d
bt nrt f lraza btl d aa frma d hart u anumta ular
au ara rn nrur dua ular, marm au frma, fgurl gmtr d f,t.
Atat duatarl at nvatatr ar rdau la laa au n vdr ntata
rzar rt a ntun d lmnt aartnnta, at a vrbalzar rt a ntun d
multm: rnul t un lmnt al multm ranlr d maa nu rnul t un
lmnt al ranlr au rnul t al lu nl, t. Atfl la afrmata rnul t un
lmnt al ranlr nu rzaza ar multm d ran, d und t. ar n al dla
az rnul t al lu nl nfunda aartnnta la multma ranlr dat u a.
da ran, dar aartn multm lr dn laa , ar ranl
aartn multm ranlr d banl lr dn laa . xtnta unu frnt mun d a da
ntun bn mlt dfnt, du la rtra fnt rdar matmat.

b) unatra ntutva a fgurlr gmtr. Atvtat ub frma d j u rurl


gmtr. ntru a rla untntl d la gradnta u l d la laa , rvtr la rdara
matmat, atat duatarl at nvatatr rganzaza atvtat d artt (arar) a
lr dn trua Dn au Lg , Lg , dua frma. A rzaza a l dn
trua unt margnt d ft n frma drtunghulara, trunghulara, r,
) Atvtat rat ntru unatra ulrlr :ru, galbn, albatru, vrd, vlt,
ngru, rtalu. Rzulta arna n lu ntru duatar - a langa untntl d la
gradnta, a nt aura runatr majrtat ulrlr. bn a n adrul flr
ndvdual a flaa tat ulrl u nura dnumr lr, atat rn nvrbr
ndvdual u , at rn utlzara unr jur runzatar.
d) ntrdura ntunlr a trmnulu d rrtat (nur). Runatra
rrtatlr rnal al lmntlr dntr- multm. Aa um tm, lul fa untnta
u ntuna d rrtat na d la grua ma. D, dn at unt d vdr, ralzam
rlar runzatar a untntlr matmat d la gradnta u l d la laa .
) n adrul gru, rn atvtat zln, t frma lr drndr d a mara
btl runzatar rgram d la laa , atfl : ma mar, ma m (ba t
ma mar dat aunul), ma lung, ma urt (bana t ma lunga dat maa), ma nalt,
ma und ( t fl : nl t ma nalt dat arn). rvtr la rlatl atal
rmanda a rn xml nrt a frmz ntun a: daura, ddut, la
tanga, la drata, u, j, n fata,n at. Trra d la gradnta la laa
rrznta un alt altatv dn tat untl d vdr. uul au nuul lr la
matmata, datrt n mar maura mdulu um unt ndrumat a traa at
rag.
nvatatrul ar rda la laa , va baza nlnara lr r j d aa vr
ntnua ub frm dvrfat unl jur a: Gat-t lul, Aaza-ma la lul mu.
Atfl atvtatl matmat d dbandr d n untnr, vntl d rzntar a
ntnutulu drjara nvatar, ralzaza nmtent, uand zt rvlgata. n
atvtatl matmat d nldar tmatzar, vntl d ratualzar, drjara
nvatar btnra rfrmant unt dmnant, ar nul ntnut aar ub frma unr tuat
rblma n adrul atra. n lan mtdlg, tratga ddata lta dntfara a dua
frm f d rganzar a atvtatlr matmat:
7

-atvtat matmat baza d xrt;


-atvtat matmat ub frma d jo ddat matmat.
Atvtatl matmat baza d xrt matmat unt frm d rganzar
f rmt ralzara u fnta a tuturr turlr fundamntal d atvtat
matmat.
l au la baza urmatarl aratrt:
-mbna atvtata frntala u a dfrntata ndvduala;
-mun flra d matral ndvdual;
-xrtl unt truturat vnt ddat;
-arnl xrtlr nttu tm n valuara d rgr;
-frmaza drndr ndndnt d muna autntrl;
-agura nura flra unu lmbaj matmat rt rn mtvara atun.
nvatamantul rlar t a ma mrtanta vrga n tmul d nvatamant
rman. ul atua t bn dfnt urmart frmara lr ub at
hntltual -aftv, ntru at ma uara adatar la atvtata d t lar.
btvl rnal al nvatamantulu rlar vzaza u radr atl
frmatv, antul unandu- n rnal dzvltara rlr ntltual. Un rlar
at ntru ala va f ala ar ar baza lda frmata dn aatat, abltat rat
ntltual ar a-l ajut n atul nvatar. (Breben, 2008, p. 32)
n atngra atu , atvtatl u ntnut matmat au un rl dbt d
mrtant ntru a l tmulaza l ma mult dzvltar ntltuala. Atvtatl matmat
ralzaza trra d la gandra nrt-ntutva la gandra abtrata. n rmul rand,
l ntaza lul n rul d matmatzar at at va ndu r ma buna
ntlgr a raltat. Vartata ntnuturlr atvtatlr matmat, ndu r
xrar ntna tmata a rlr gandr: analza, marata, ntza, abtratzara,
at a nurlr : radtata, flxbltata, ndndnta.
n rul d nur a untntlr u ntnut matmat t ntn antrnata
mmra lr ntru a trbu a rtna, a atrz a rrdua n md ntnt unl
untnt dbandt, a mmrz rgull unu j ddat au lg. u alt uvnt, lul
frmaza drndr d luru, drndr d a rzlva anumt tuat rblma n ntxt

varat. At drndr dvn utl n atvtata lr rata -l t nflunta n lan attudnal


al.
rn ntrmdul atvtatlr matmat, lul t u n tuata d a dvn ntnt
d rra gandr, d a t ,, fa ,,ntru fa, d a xrma ntr-un lmbaj rt
r. Atfl, nant d a unat numrl natural, lul trbu a tablaa ntat
nmjlt u multml d bt, a l dr rrtatl, aratrt, a tablaa
rlat ntr l a ftuz dvr rat dn ar a rzult n multm u n rrtat.
xmlu: dn multma d juar t ralza ma mult gru lafand juarl:
-

dua frma (gru d au, gru d ura, gru d aruar);

ala juar t rta du aular (grua d juar r, t.);

dua marm (mar, m, mjl).

D brvat este a ala bt at ntra n alatura unr gru dfrt. At


atun trbu faut u multa rabdar, trtat, flnd a u a rgrl nrgtrat n
dzvltara judat lr, rum n mbunatatra vabularulu u xr ar a rda
at ma advat rlatl dntr multml d bt.
n urma atvtat matmat tmat, trtat mlat rmannt ntntzat
d , ajung r fartul rad rlar la mmntul n ar gandra lr
nrgtraza n altur altatv. baza atra, ma r a rlr d analza,
marat gnralzar, t a ntuaa numarul, ar t ntun abtrata.
m, u a numr atva juar, ar unt ntrbat at juar unt, dua au
trmnat d numarat, nu t raund, rau numaratul d la nut, aata ntru a nu
ntlg mnfata ntun d numar nu t ftua na gnralzara. D aa, rtand
tal d dzvltar ha a lr, trbu a- ltam n rmanntala atvtat
ntnta, ar a dua, ma tarzu la maturzara rlr d unatr, la frmara unr
rrzntar dr multm dr mdaltatl n ar at ra u l.
n rul frmar rrzntarlr matmat, raund rmt, ma nta, rn
atun, rund ma gru a xl ratl ar l-au ftuat au rzultatl ar l-au
btnut, dn auza ramanr n urma a lanulu vrbal. D a, ntata a duatarl a
nt ntru nura utlzara d atr far l a lmbajulu matmat advat a
xrmar rt lg. rnnd d la brvara atnta a lr ub atul xrmar
untntlr matmat n tmul rzlvar nr a rblmlr n j, n utm da ama
9

und ntamna ata grutat, ar unt xrl ar nu l-au nut ar trbu


a l fxam, nfuz fa ar trbu a l nlaturam dn gandra vrbra lr.
t unut fatul a matmata a avut nttdauna un rl htaratr n dzvltara
gandr, aa dmnun f umana ar ta la baza rgrulu nttu mulul
dnam al. Dar matmata nvata dn vata ntru vata, ntlgra
ntlr , rara u ea, ndu la frmara un gandr mru lg ratar. u at
duata rrmara un ant, rn mjla f, dzvltara ntltuala, u atat ma
rfrmanta va f attudna ntru rlartat.
1.2. aratrt h-dagg al lr d vrt rlar
rada rlar t rada unr bazlr rnalt lulu. xtnd
ml rlal al ntrrnal al lulu rn ntrara lu la grdn. nflunl
duatv dvn ma varat ma mlx. Atvtata rdmnant t jul. l rla
nua frm d atvtat nur la dzvltara ntn a rlr ntltual, aftv
vlnal al lulu. dzvlt urztata, ntrl d unatr, rl
magnatv.
rn trbu vghz ntru a ta un anamblu d trtur mral
ntltual nar un frmr al rnalt urar. duara lr trbu f drjat
r bnra mdfrlr d aratr favrabl un mrtr urar ndvdual
al. D aa, rn trbu lut ntru a rzntul mral ntltual al lulu
f n ntnu lrgr. lul nu trbu ndrat a tatu d brnz, ar ar un l fx, dn
ar nu ma at f hmbat. l trbu f atv adatabl, ar rn au datra
rmannt d al fa rgrz, rfnz - mra valara uman.
Frmara rnalt la l t dndnt d ntlgna lu, d guturl lanurl lu, d
ntrutajul rmt antrr.
rnaltata lulu n nturz du vrta d d an. t vrta la ar
lul n ra f atnt la a tr n jurul lu. Du vrta d tr an,
atna ra unt ma atv dt n trut. lul nar fa m trbur. Vrbra
dvn ma mlt. lul fa ur rr. rn trbu -l nurajz -l ndmn
uun unr blgaun ndvdual:
10

1 nu- murdra hanl, mnn ngur t at ma rdnat,


az du utlzar, jurl la lul lr. Trbu lmbat n jurul a fut brv urta

anmall vnlr.
2 Trbu famlarzz u amn ar vn n a
3 La tr an, jul t rnala ruar a lulu. rn jur, lul
ntrut aura mdulu d va al adullr vn n ntat u rlal xtnt n lum.
4 La atru an lul frvntaz grdna d . rn trbu ajut
duatar n duara n drjara frmr rnalt, a trturl mral ntltual.
mun, atfl da t t au fam, da t frg au ra ald, da t mn t.
Unl dn rflx unt nndnat, altl unt ndnat. nd ntar dn
lmbar, runat al dn vntat. La lul ma mar aar nva d a muna u
amn, d a vrb mru, mrndu- atfl fra duanal a ntltual. Trbu
tina nt d ml lu. La at ml unt ntabl. tr rd d la ln u
larm la r. Va t un bun mjl d a fa un l rgrz. l trbu f
mulumt nd t ludat, urat nd t mutrat. Trtat, u rbdar trbu f nat n
a t rm fa t rt. Trtat ntmntl trbu dvn multlatral.
At md aratrt d a- rrznta rgull a ft dnumt "ralm mral", ar
J. agt l dfnt rn "tndna lulu d a ndra trbunl valrl rra l
rartaz a xtnd n n, ndndnt d ntn, a munndu- blgatru rar
ar f rumtanl n ar t angajat ndvdul".
n d la vrta d tr an, rn flul n ar anaz, lul at da luza
brvatrulu -a ntrrzat r d rrzntr rgul mral. n raltat, at
rgul ar dtrmn mrtamntul u, atun nd t vrba d mdul n ar l l
rrznt, aar a nt ml rn d mrtamnt, mu d adul. Dn aat
rat a rgul, mura lrgr , vr rzulta trtat rrzntr mral advat.
rul d frmar al rrzntrlr mral t arum mlar rulu d gnz
a aunlr mntal n gnral. l n aar a un r d dr a xrn mr
cnrt, ar ralzaz, n n, rn ntrrzara aunlr nrt, aftv ub frm
d magn mntal. Atfl, frmara rrzntrlr mral aar a rzultat al unu r d
rdar trtat a lulu d la bltata d a ana dar n lan nrt, la bltata d
a rnttu ut d aun lan mntal.
11

Famla fr lulu un mdu aftv, al ultural. dul famlal t al a


ntmntlr n ar mdlaz ub at at rnaltata. lul trt n famla a
gam varat d rla ntrndvdual ndu-l rn j n rra ndut. u trla
fun (rglatar, alzatar ndvdualzatar), famla ntrbu n mar mur la
dfnra rnalt nturara ndvdualt fru l.
Dn unt d vdr rat, rnabltata al a rnlr ralzaz n rart
nmjlt u mdaltata n ar ntru duara lulu n rtul dalulu d va ata
tu fla autrtata lr rnta. Autrtata rnlr nu trbu nmn tn
autrtar, n rdn au dz dat lr n anun, tar d rarhzar a
mdaltlr d rdur ar n u "aultar" rut d rn frt u "nlgra"
drt d .
duaa, unul dn fatr dzvltr rnalt, rmt lulu - dfna
rra rnaltat fr a nglja nurl fz, ndvdual, aftv, al-mral vltv
aratral. rnnd d la aat rmz, lul trbu rvt a un ndvd un nztrat u
un bagaj d alt dft nu trbu marat u n un alt l, har da n are
amn fart mult.
hmbara mdulu famlal u l d nttu, l uun l la n frtur
adatv. Ata trbu dzat n rart u aatata lulu d a ralza, dar n ala
tm, ntnuat u xrul aat d a ralza n frtur. n at n, adatara t
nar har dn rml zl a nd a rvnr un vntual dvr mrtamntal
mlat n rul adatr/intgrr n nul mdu.
rlarul t dja un rdu al dua antrar, ma mult au ma un
runztar. Anumt manm hm ranal d amlar - amdar au ft
lbrat, dar nufnt nldat atfl, mult nvatul rag f nutulu unu
lu d ntrur, un l d fr mar frtur, al l vr rm a un btal
nurtabl. (rtu, lvra, 1999, ag. 57-58)
tdlga unatr lulu t labrat dn rtva n, n lumna
ra, tmul bh uman a natr dzvlt avnd la baza l du rn:
ntrant - tmat funnal-dnam.
trvt at tz, lul t dfnt a:

12

a) untata ndtrutbl dntr h (lanul btv-xtrn), rtv untata dntr


ntn atvtat;
b) tat truturl mnnt al tmulu h, la tat nvlurl rarh afl
ntr- rft ntrdndn, nxun;
) hul t fatrul ar rglaz mdaz ntrauna dntr m mdu, atfl,
ar valar ntrumntal-adatv.
d) Tat truturl hmrtamntal unt rzultatul ntrndnr fatrlr
rdtar u dn mdul xtrn, rndrnt d n ultural / duanal;
) trutura rnalt t ntza trturlr ndvdual u l t-gnral (mul
nat a m frmaz a m);
f) tmul bh uman - a r tm blg - rganzaz, truturaz, n
lan ndvdual, n dua ta vlutv, ngal:
-mbrgnza, ar xtnd durata arxmatv d 276 - 280 d zl;
-mgna tnatala n la frtul v, ar vluaz lur ma urt a durat
n rma art a v, n n jurul vrt d 18-20 an nd ndr ndvdul uman a
atn lafnul tm d maturzar.
labrara rflulu bh al lulu atual rtara dvnr al,
rjn datl bnut rn rtara nvtgara lngtudnal nar njugat u a
d tranfr. ndl adatr nldat un alr dvn rz ntru urmtarl (ru
lvra, 1999, ag 61).
Vrta rlar n d b u faz rt xrmat rn ngatvm rtat
zvrt dn dfultl trr d la rada dfuz a rmlr mr u aratr fantat,
tr faza ntntzr ralt, a drr ran rr ub atul ulu rnal, a
dfrnlr d x t. t vrba dr dalt ntn a dzvltr rlr h ar
t u n vdn d ntrada dntr nl blt h fz al lulu
frml vh al atvt ntraun lu u dn jur, d alt art.
ntradl t nu at n md blgatru frma unr ndut dvat, ma al
da fl mtd runztar d drjar a atvt lulu. Da trra
rtv nu t ajutat la tm, a du la fnmn d dzadatar dzntgrar dn adrul
rlalr al tt ma larg n ar lul trund la aat vrt.
!^+a?

13

ntr mtdl duatv, n rada rlart, un l mrtant l u dalgul.


Dfultata rtr nlr uvnt n rul d mbgr rad a vabularulu, nnura
ufnt a nulu uvntlr n nfltl n ar lul afl u dn aat auz u
ranl dn jur, a , ar a ft rdura unr tr d rabltat, d ln, d
mulvtat, d nnar, rz d fur au tmdtat, fug, dvr d ndut.
rblml duatv unt ma mlat ma gru d lunat n adru v d
faml u un ngur l. Grja rnlr n amna mrjurr t d a urmr mutara
dfultlr rn analzara natv lr lanul ntrulu ntru j, rgtndu- n
vdra unr ua rru-z, rn tranfrmara frm d atvtat mun-j, att d
nar rad lar d ma trzu.
duatr trbu t unl manftr atlg al lulu au un aratr
blg unt tranztr. Atfl, n lul rt ar, a d au abandnr, vr trata
u rbdar u alm, ajutndu- travrz t ma dgajat mmntl dfl al vrt lr.
rflaxa h la aat ta d vrt afl n trn lgtur u analzara
frturlr d rtr a aat d rntar u rvr la rra ran, d dlmtar a
ntrlr rnal, fa d ntrl altra d rr a bagajulu d untn gnral.
brvara, magnara rflxa unt un , dar thn d a ndmna rn.
Dar vrta rlar aratrzaz rntr-un rt d mtar fart dzvltat,
mun rra xgn rnlr fa d rrl lr attudn r a xrta rn aata
ttdauna nflun ztv. Trbu vtat vrbra lna, nrttudnl n
mrtar, gturl mrmtar tt ar uta du la dra autrt
rtgulu rnal. D amna, vr f ultvat n faml bunl rartur dntr rn,
vtndu- dul au rturl n rzna lulu.
rdl artular d dua, vr rla n fun d unatra trturlr
ndvdual d vrt al lr, fr a ajung la frml trt, la rtnl
dagg. n la vrta lar, fndul vrt h a lulu t frmat dn fra
mnal. trl al mtv aratrzaz rn radr rad, l d adnm mar
blt d nflunar a mtablmulu. Dar n d la mjlul vrt rlar,
ml dvn tt ma dfrnat, ma tabl, ntrbund la dzvltara magn ratar a
lulu la aara mulu ntru rdn frum.

14

l ubrdnz trtat gndr, ar ntrt tr ragul vrt lar, dnd


bun art dn autnma ava aura v h a lulu. n dn rada vrt
rlar ntlnm la l manftr trr al m, ubr, glz, nvd, uunr,
mtmr, antat, manftr u aratr al, manftat rn tndna d a manda, d
a lga rtn rum n nutur d jur ltv m ar tau la baza trturlr
mral al rnalt lulu d ma trzu.
V.A.Grbava ublnaz ntrul vu al rlarulu fa d arra mral a
fatlr vrt d ranl dn jurul u, nundu- nrml mral d mrtar ntr-un
md urr ml mta.
Gh. Buhlr arta, n d la nutul atu l n rlartat aar ntmnt
mral dtul d mlx, rntr ar ntmntul rdn al datr, ar t la baza
dzvltr atvt vluntar a lulu, ntrbund atfl la frmara trutur mral a
rnalt al.
Tulburrl vt n fra mnal a lulu gnraz ada mdfr aratral
manftat rn tmr, tr ar nu t f tt a frm al mulurlr mtr bnut.
At ndut aar unr drt nn a nnrdr au a ntrdlr duatv al
rnlr, ar ntr rdnl lr u lmnt autrtar du la x, ntru a- agura
ftul drt, fr a ara n ftl nv ma adn rdu aura lulu rntr-
atfl d mdaltat.
Tt aa, maml ar n lul nglu r arat ngrjrar xv ntru ml
nlr vt n vaa lulu l hrnblzaz rn ml nlut ar l
manft. ult dn manftrl u aratr ur bnal, aa ntlnt nu ra d la
l, dar dat u nlturara tualr anxgn, nmlnd ttdauna mur artular
ntru adatara lulu la raltat, ma al atun nd l nu t un hrmtv.
a durabl dvd manftrl d ndut nut dn ra mnal
datrt dttr tmat au nfrrt rgan, rum l datrat rfulu au
hrrtnmulu.
n rmul az, rmndu- lan d-aftv d nnrdr la d bunvn
artat d rn au d tr dn jur, lul va manfta nguran n attudn, fal au
tmdtat har n mrjurr njutfat. l va uta ajung u tmul la adtara unr
attudn ln d dumn au la ra antal grav
15

n azul al dla rful l laaz l n tara d mnrat, ar n ntat u al


nar d durra, nd ata nu unt du - runa rlul u "un" juat n
b#% l!^+a?

faml. a urmar, famla trbu rljua afrmara d n a lulu n dn


rlartat . Famla a fatr nal d duar al, ar blgaa d a favrza rtul d
ntraun, dvrtata d tl n rlal u al r a uta vaa d gru, dzvltnd
rtna ahza rnallr vrtu al.
n rvna mtdlr d adatar, ar thna rzntr unr mdl arntal
ntant rmn nfalbl. dll aratrzaz rn aatata d a rvn d a
vta dfultl nrnt d natur matral au rzultnd, la fl d nrnt, dn rlal aftv au dn nflt ntrafamlal d a un la lul atra autntrlul, nrtata,
rum untata dntr nrml famlal valrl al a mdalt duatv gur,
alabl d la a ma fragd vrt.
"untm rft nvn r frm d rvnr ar lung ta al r nut
rru t n faml nu a aburd rtn d munr ndrt, rt n mdfrl
lg ar aratrzaz vrmurl natr, rn gra unu nu n a un n
ntn dagg" (Brtln, 1955, p. 228).
n gnral, n rm sase an d va a lulu, famla un bazl trturlr al d
aratr unl manftr ngatv ntlnt ma trzu n nduta lulu au rgna n
aat rad, nd ar f utut f rvnt.
Du lul mlnt vrta d a an, rlul faml n dmnu rflax h
dmnuaz. Ttu, aum, n rmul lan tuaz ala ar ar blgaa d a ua, n
labrar u famla, d frmara dzvltara trturlr mral al lulu.(trhnaru).
n rada rlar t ntata unl manftr aratral rum fra,
ndlna, furtul d almnt, t. At manftr rznt mnfa aratral nu
numa nd aar a ml ra, atun nd au trutur hgn.
Anrxa ar mnfa multl. at f d t trd, rht, ndrn au
mntal. t ndrat dvr d ndut aratral nd nfaz a un aru
almntar, nd almntara nttu un trn d nfruntar ntr duatr l. Anrxa,
aar nd t aratral a mdaltat d rttar a lulu fa d nnlgrl
njugal, ar au l n unl faml n tmul m.

16

D rgul, anrxa dtrmn, la rn dzla d attudna lulu, flra un


gam nbnut d d, rmun, ntrrtr lamntr (Dr, p. 61). Frml
aratral ma dbt d anrx ntln la ftl radlnt, har
adlnt fnd nt d un anamblu d manftr gatr-nttnal. n gnral, anrxa
at n vdn nufnt maturzar aftv dfl adatar la vaa ambntal.
nurztul (mun nvluntar d urn, d rgul n tmul n, du vrta d tr
an) ntlnt ma frvnt la b dt la ft daz ntan n urul ubrt au
adln. Fnmnul afl n lgtur u dfrt vnmnt dn vaa lulu d natur
hal, n azul n ar nu t dtrmnat d lzun rgan. l at nttu fxa
aratral rdu n rada frmr ntrlulu fntran, fxa ar rvt rlal
njut dntr l mdul famlal.
Aat fxa trbu nla a ra d rfuz nntnt dn arta lulu d-a
ata ntrngrl, u alt uvnt, a rrznt mdaltat d rtt. nurztul raz
lulu tar aratral artular d nfrrtat, rfund umltar, a at
dtrmna rn ntrandr attudn d agrun mtrva mdulu ambant , vntual,
dvr tua nfltual ar ngra ma mult trturl aratral rrbabl arut
n nduta lulu (Dr, 63)
Ttu, l ma mult dn amna manftr unt ra d t nvrt numa n
nd u ttul artular dbnd, la un numr fart rtrn d azur, un nnut d tul
ndut aratral.
Fra au tmra fr mtv ntmaz la l tranfrmara n grj xagrat a
unr rau natural, datrt un ndur ngatv au a unr grl d dua dn mdul
famlal. Tama d ntunr, d al , d trn, tama d a rmn au d a mrg ngur
t dbnd tablul un rz ntaga gnrat har d rn n. rn rd dvr
d la tama xagrat d f, d a, d anmal. nd n manft n
tam arum blnva, rn arat nlnt, fnd advrat "fxa" dn fra
lr. D rgul, lbraz ngur d ndutl nadvat rdu d tmr, nd
ntr n ltvtl d , dar unr tmrl ntnf dvn ranal, tnd
frma unr anxt ar rturb atvtata nrmal a lulu.
dat u vrta nd lul ajung rn xrna d va - dmn mulurl,
mdf tndnl anxa rn nu rul maturzr. Dar afuna hlbrat
17

nrdra dn arta adullr, ad ntmntul d urtat dln ar lul l trt


at rvn aara trlr anrmal d anxtat.
nfaga (radra unghlr), turl t ava lratur aratral, xrmnd
unr attudn d rtt u mnfa al. Un l adu la nulta numa u at
mtm nu t n n un az aratral. Rfl amntar rljuc nraxa,
ntrzrl d lmbaj, blbal, ar, n afara unr mutm hgn, fart rar, nu au
mnfaa aratral a dvrlr d ndut.
At manftr aar u rdr n mdul famlal t lua xra un tlt
la adra unra dntr mmbr faml, tltat btvat n gtur d naultar, dtrrar
d bt nlt tmat au brzn alulat, unr har njur lvtur. D
amna t tranfrma n manftr d glz fa d tat, d mam au d nu - nu.
n amna mrjurr, adtara unr attudn mralzatar dn arta rnlr at du
la ft ntrar lr ntat, fxnd har dzvltnd avdtata aratral a lulu
dmulat rn attudna d glz.
Vrta rlar t unanm runut a nrgtrnd un rtm d dzvltar fz
h dbt d rad mbl d galat n rada lart (u, vanu, p
235). Far vrt a rlart, rznt un anamblu dtat u anumt urfaltat,
Vgtk ndr nal t urnd tul d ntraun dntr rl h
rul ar u lul ntral. Atfl, n rada ant rlar, rul ntral t
ra. n a rlar, tat atvtata h -ar nntra n jurul mmr, d und
aratrul rrdutv al atvt rlarulu.
azz brv hlg unt ma dgrab d ard aura xtn lmtlr
tadlr dt aura nnutulu lr. Ttu, nu unt xlu rtvl un nvrgn a
dvr ntatr unt d vdr. Aata dnd d flul um unt nut tadl.
agt nhldr au tablt urmtarl 5 rtr d dfnr a tadulu:
1 Aa rdn d uun (fr fxa rnlg ablut);
2 ntgrara trutur tadulu rdnt n tadul rdnt atfl nt rma dvn
mnnt a und;
3 Aa trutur d anamblu;
4 Far tadu ar un nvl d rgtr altul d mlnr, ar hvalaz u
rgtra unu nu tadu;
18

5 Far tadu, fnalmnt nag n nu (agt, 1956, p. 33).


n hlga gnt, un du flur d tad: gnral al. rml
rfr la truturl d anamblu, undl rv fununl h. ntrund tadl ma
mult n lanul dzvltr ntltual, agt nu t nnvnt u rrl rtr rmn
l mult la dfnra un anumt tadalt al.
tadl h vr f d aa n md frm dfnt n lgtur u dvrl ta al
vlu rnalt runztr a trturl mrtamntulu (u, vanu, p.
258). Dn at unt d vdr, un ntr dbt l rznt tratara tadlr h d tr
Walln.
n durul lu d-al trla an d va, lul ajung la rm frmul d hlbrar
rnal, ntrut dlaaz lbr, t aabl d aun ml rlaz utl uvntl
u magnl.
dat u ntrara n l d-al atrula an d va, lul tr n tadul
rnalmulu, aratrzat rntr- rlatv ndndnt ntnu mbgr a ulu. At
"u", d ar lul dvn ntnt, ntrut nu ma vrbt dr n la rana a- - a,
t arat ntr-un h nrt. n tadul rnalmulu, rma faz t aa a aar
nhb, mnt alvgardz autnma rnal. t, n at mmnt ntata unl
manftr d gntrm, n l nu trbu f ablutzat. Lna nal a dzvltr
h, n tadul d la 3 la 5 an, t aa a ubrdnr mtvlr rmar, dar nfrar
lr undar urar.
n jurul vrt d 4 an, t ntatat tndna d a da rrtat mtvlr ma nalt d
munar, j, dftar rn bam. mulvtata t trtat, lmtat, - fa l tndna
d utar a arr adullr. dat u aata, aar -a d-a du faz, numt d tr
Hamburgr, a gra, d tr hanalt, a narmulu , d tr Walln, a valrfr
rnal. lul d ra 4 an vra dutr, ntrant, aabl n h altua ntru
rra a atfa.
Urmaz a tra faz, amlaat n jurul vrt d 5 an, ar aratrzaz rntr-
mar nbltata aftv. lul n nu a t dn rlaa d ubrdnar, n lt
rt fa d rra a ran n azul n ar nu t tratat atftr at auza unl
rturba, at fxa unl mlx.

19

l d-al ala an d va marhaz un nu tadu n ar lhdaz att


nrtmul rnal t l al ntlgn , n urma unr frmntr, afrm rntar
ranal. n at tadu al rlart, lul t zgudut d ntrada dntr rtnl
al bltl al rma n urm.
rlarul d 5-6 an n rz r d dfrnr ntr n al, ntr
dvrl al rartur u luma. l d-al dla tadu al rlart nh u luara n
tnr a unr dntr rrl blt d gndr aun. Ata hvalaz n u
dlanara lu d -al trla tadu, d du a an, aratrzat rn hlbru, att dn unt

b#%l!^+a?

d vdr al ralr ntltual t dn l al rr u lal au adul.


lul d a an unat n a ran lvalnt, d ama d lmtl
al rut adataz atftr la nd d atvtat mlx. tadul lulu d
a an nn rml gndr atgral al ranamntulu. nlgra dbndt un
m tt ma larg lul ntr n zna nvr ratv, a -l fa at d ntru lar.
tudul dhd n jurul vrt d 6 an ar durat ma mar, tmndu- n la 11-12
an. hlg, vrta numt nvnnal rlar nh nu la 7, la 6 A.
Vrta d 7 an nu t lmt, gran, un mmnt dntr-un tadu ar afl n
dfurar. tadl t f rzntat nu numa dn unt d vdr al trutur lr ntrn,
ub unghul mrtamntal. Atfl d dr al mrtamntulu nfantl aar, um t
d attat, n hlga bhavrt, ultvat n .U.A.
Du Gll, lul d 4 an t autrtar xrv, amatr d fabula d j. t
n urfal ntabl, aabl d mrvza, naabl d nntrr durabl, flt
uvntl ntr- rdn u mnfa duba, dar t fart atv dn unt d vdr
lngvt, am uta un t un vrbr (A. Gll t F.L lg., L\'nfant d 5-10 an. ar,
.U.F.,1953).
n an t, du Gll, vrt ndal au vrt d aur. Aum, lul
rganzaz xrna, t ma rnut ubrdnaz u uurn adullr. n
lanz n m avntur n utara nunutulu. l xagraz tual , unr, aut
a d ub ntrlul adullr.
nfrm alua autr, vrta d 6 an adu hmbr fundamntal n rdna
hlg, t vrt d tranz. lul t dfl, ntru afl n vlu, dar t
dbt d atv drtr d ndndn. Du 6 an, lul dvn aabl nlag
20

mblurl mabtraunl, uun anumtr nrm. rnall aratrt al


atu mmnt unt: afrmara, xtnuna arfundara ulu, dra nflunlr dn
adrul famlal, valara mrtana rnd atrbut altra.
Du agtaa dlar n jurul vrt d 6 an, urmaz amlara ntn a unr n
xrn. lul d 7 an ault atnt a un, dar nu at f ntrrut dn
rvrl al t njt nd nu t lat xun va n la at. n l d-al 7-la an
d va, lul nu t un zlat, t dh tr vaa al ntr-un adru ma larg dt
l famlal. Dvnnd va ma ralt, araz arxmatv rt bltl d aa
nar unr mmntul nnrdr n frl rr, l -l fa f trt. Aba n jurul
vrt d 8 an, lul dvn dn nu nrg xanv.
n gnral, tadl dzvltr h al lulu unt ubrdnat un lg a
abrbr d xrn labrr d manm adatv, urmat, d rguraa unra n
valar a datlr adatrlr aumulat, n nd ata, dvnnd nufnt, nttu
nu ta d abrb labrar.
n al trmn, tadl aratrzaz rntr- uun a rganzr rrganzr,
ndut truturat a rtruturr ndut. Fatul ztra tadlr dt nu t
nlturat, ntgrat n nl tad, raz, n lul hgnz, tua ntradtr,
rnd , da dn anumt unt d vdr lul rgraz, dn altl rgraz. a
ntr-un tadu rdnt ra fnmn ntral dvn fnmn undar ubrdnat, nnal.
1.3. Frmara rrzntrlr a nunlr matmat la rlar
arurul lr atru an d grdn, datl nzral mbg fart mult,
datrt lrgr fr d ntat a lr u n varat bt at al mdulu
ambant a urmar a atvt dn n ma dfrnat a analzatrlr.
D ld, da la 3 an r glbal btl, n al frma lr, mura
r, r dr ala bt atrbutl mnfatv, ar, la nut, l trau u
vdra.
Atfl, la nut, tat atgrl d dmnun unt rut ub dnumra gnral
d mar au m. Trtat, a urmar a xrulu tmat u btl, n tat atgrl d
jur ratat n grdn, datrt rfnr analzatrlr, a a dzvltr gndr
21

lmbajulu, rl dfrnaz. lrgt gama ulrlr ar l r , a


zl aal ar l au dfrtl bt. l run ur dnum za lr
n au u uvntl runztar.
vlua frmr rrzntrlr matmat nu rmn numa la nvlul nrgtrr unr
?

dat, la mmrara dnumra lr. baza datlr nzral, n anz gndra.


Furnzat n md tmat gradat, ata nttu un rmannt rlj ntru atvzara
gndr. ndundu- n atvtata lr du un anumt rtru, t altu mulm d
bt, t rta dntr- mulm dat ma mult gru.
xmlu: dn mulma d jur t ralza ma mult gru lafnd jurl
du frm (gru d u, gru d ura, gru d ruar); ala jur t rta
du ular (grua d jur r, t.); du mrm (mar, m, mjl). D brvat
ala bt at ntra n altura unr gru dfrt. At aun trbu fut u mult
rbdar, n md trtat, flnd a u a rgrl nrgtrat n dzvltara jud
lr, rum n mbuntra vabularulu u xr ar rda t ma advat
rlal dntr mulml d bt.
rl gndr (analza, ntza, maraa), a nurl (radtat,
flxbltat, ndndn) xraz ntn tmat, a urmar a atvt rmannt
varat, dfurat u n ul altur mulmlr du anumt rtr. Ata t un
rm a ar-l fa lul n nlgra rlalr dntr btl lum nnjurtar
numa du aata at nlg un alt t d rla, ma abtrat - rla anttatv.
t mara mulml, nt rn arr glbal, a, ma r, rn unr n
rndn a lmntlr un mulm u lmntl alt mulm. Tt baza datlr
aumulat al nzral, t mar mulml dat ntru a vrfa htna
au nhtna lr. Tt a urmar a atvt gndr, a rlr d analz mara,
t rdna mulml.
n urma atvt matmat tmat, trtat mlat rmannt ntntzat
d , ajung r frtul rad rlar la mmntul n ar gndra lr
nrgtraz n altur altatv. baza atra, ma r a rlr d analz,
mara gnralzar, t ntua numrul, ar t nun abtrat.
m, u numr tva jur, ar unt ntrba t jur unt, du au
trmnat d numrat, nu t rund, rau numratul d la nut, aata ntru nu
22

nlg mnfaa nun d numr nu t ftua n gnralzara. D aa, rtnd


tal d dzvltar h a lr trbu - ltm n rmann la atvtat
ntnt, ar du, ma trzu, la maturzara rlr d unatr, la frmara unr
rrzntr dr mulm htna lr, dr mdaltl n ar at ra u l.
n rul frmr rrzntrlr matmat, rund rmt, ma nt, rn
aun, rund ma gru xl ral ar l-au ftuat au rzultatl ar l- au
bnut, dn auza rmnr n urm a lanulu vrbal. D a, ntata a duatarl
nt ntru nura utlzara d tr far l a lmbajulu matmat advat a
xrmr rt lg.
rnnd d la brvara atnt a lr ub atul xrmr untnlr
matmat n tmul rzlvr nr a rblmlr n j, n utm da ama und ntmn
ata grut, ar unt xrl ar nu l-au nut ar trbu l fxm,
nfuz fa ar trbu l nlturm dn gndra vrbra lr. na ntrutvt a nvr bazaz rlul atv al lulu, ar ntrut untnl
lnd d la rrzntrl, nl untnl al antrar.
htuna ar ntrvn atun ntru duatar t d a t um adu lul
tra d la n nal la n nu vzaz nun dat. btvl
matmat urrnd uuna trtlr d nvar n dmnul gntv, ar rganzara
nvr matmat trbu ralzz nnd nt d mlal ar agt l atrbu
dzvltr tadal:
rdna ahzlr matmat f ntant ahza ntulu d numr t
ultrar ahz nun d mulm, ar n uuna tmlr rgt numrul xt
rdn lg (gruar, lafar, rdnar, rr, unr n rh, nrvar, numr);
far tadu aratrzaz rntr- trutur unatra ndlr f
fru nvl ntrmdar nflunaz dzvltara ja un rl mrtant n mtdlga
btulu;
aratrul ntgratr al truturlr truturl f unu ubtadu dvn art
ntgrant n truturl vrt urmtar dtrmn mla matmat n ahza
ntulu. Ahzl matmat dntr-un anumt tadu unt rluat valrfat n nd
n la nvlul urmtr; d xmlu, ahza ntulu d nrvar a ma trbu
valrfat la nrvara numr ntru a f nla dmunra numrulu.
23

. . Dn valrf mlal matmat al tr lu agt n labrara unu


tm d nvar a ntlr matmat u ant nvara rn aun xrn
rr a lulu flra matrallr truturat ( lg, rglt). n at tm,
truturl matmat unt dbndt ub frma aun, magn au mblulu, matrall
truturat nttund mjla d ntru rn aun a truturlr.
Valara matralulu truturat rt n mura n ar l rut vdnz
atrbutl nal al nun ar jul at z rvlgat, n nul , rn j
ndb rn jul lg, nlnt dbndra nun d mulm, a nun d rla
?

a lmntlr d lg.
. . Dn dntf tr tad n frmara ntlr matmat la vrta rlar,
rra l unt f dfrt tur d jur:
- tadul rlmnar n ar lul manulaz unat bt, ulr, frm, n
adrul unr jur rganzat fr un aarnt;
- tadul julu drjat jur truturat rganzat n ul vdnr ntantlr
varabllr mulm;
- tadul d fxar alar a ntlr ar agur amlara xltara
ntlr matmat n aa-numtl jur rat analt.
. . Dn frmulaz atru rn d baz d ar trbu n nt n
nra rru mdl d ntrur ntrat frmara unu nt matmat:
- rnul ntrutvt rntaz nvara ntlr ntr- uun lg, d
la ntruturat la truturat. Atfl, t ndat tra d la jul manulatv (ntruturat)
la jul d ntru (truturat), n ul larfr nunlr;
- rnul dnam t rfltat n drumul arur d l n ntrur rn atvt
lud. Atfl, nvara rgraz d la un tadu ntruturat, d j, la un tadu ma
truturat, d ntru, n ar agur nlgra unu fat matmat ar a
ntgraz ntr- trutur matmat;
- rnul varablt matmat agur frmara gndr matmat ar ar la
baz rl d abtratzar gnralzar. mun, d, a famlarzara u nunl
matmat fa n tua matmat varat, rn xrn. rnul varablt
rtual xrm fatul frmara un trutur matmat ralzaz ub frm

24

rtual varat. Rtara atu rnu ndu la aara ra d abtratzar,


va rjn frmara gndr matmat.
ntgrara n rata duanal a atr rn ndu la dbndra unr
rrzntr matmat. ntl unt rznt ub frma nrtzrlr matral
truturat n ul tranfrulu ala trutur matmat rn aun drjat, magn,
mbl vrbal au nnvrbal. Aata jutf rn fatul dvrl nur al btulu
nu aar n ala nd n r n rrzntar.
Atfl, rtrl au dvdt n rrzntrl rlarlr, au rrtat nurl
funnal, mnnt rn ar anaz, har da ata nu unt dmnant.

Rrzntara frmaz d a ntru aar n nd al.


Jan agt ndr rrzntara rzult dn mtaa ndut uman, xrl d
mtar rganzat vr rjn rrdura rn magn a btulu, da unt ntgrat ntr-un
ntxt ranal rtv, rrzntatv ntru l. Atfl, funa d mblzar ar
ndlnt rrzntara t dtrmnat d ntxtul atvt.
rada rlar t aratrzat rntr- nvar ar fa al la xrna
lulu, ar ltratura d altat dmntraz alrara dzvltr h a
rlarulu at bn rn ntrdura d rntr ntutv vrbal advat.
rntara vrbal n rada rlar t urar l ntutv, dar uvntul dvn
fnt numa aat u ntutvul (rrzntrl).
n frmara gndr, rntara vrbal ar un rl atvzatr, ar n atvtl
matmat t utl valrfara bltlr al funnal; uvntl t ndln fun
d lanfar n aun numa da mnfaa lr rflt anumt xrn lgat d
btl u ar anaz.
Atfl, rtrl ftuat d hlg rlv fatul rlar nlg rarturl
aal ndat rn uvntl ub daura anaz rt numa da at uvnt
rfr la rartur bnut, nrmal, dntr lurur aun unut: arna un arul
daura a ar n ntru l. n az ntrar, da arna r az arul ub
a, gr, unt dzrnta gnr nul uvntulu ntru rarturl aal
rut dn nrmal.
La lul d 3-4 an, xrna nttu urtul mant al uvntlr t d
rdn nzr-mtr rtv. lul afrm, dar nu xl; gndra ar nt
25

lmbajul nu t d fat gndr lg, ntlgn ntutv-anal, ntrut gndra


rlarulu nu raz u nt abtrat (t rlg).
J. agt afrm lga gndr nfantl t ntua. Rtruturara at frm d
gndr rdu rn ntrrzara aunlr. xt d lgtur ntraun drt
ntr lanul nrt anal l vrbal. At lanur afl n trn rla
mbg rr. La vrta d 5-6 an aunl vrbal nu ma unt ubrdnat tualr
nrt, uun lg btlr, n mura n ar unt drjat d rgul.
Lv Vgtk ntrdu n rul nvr uvntul lmbajul a ntrumnt d
ntrur n mltara r brva rn aun. Frmara nunlr matmat

b?

nt rlvara, marara runra ma multr aratrt rum: numrul btlr


ntr- mulm, rlal anttatv ntr mulm ntru a dtrmna rl atvt
rtv btual a l mntal, nar ntru frmara nunlr runztar.
D, ntru a- frma rrzntr ntual rt, lul trbu - nua
rd d atvtat mntal u ajutrul rra ralzaz ntza aratrtlr un
anumt la d bt, ral mntal runztar truturl gntv
(rrzntrl ntl) rzult dn aunl rat, fxaz n uvnt n ral
u uvnt unt rntat rn ul ndl atvt rat. (Galperin, 1970, p. 84)
Rlul atvt matmat n grdn t d a na lul n rul d
matmatzar, ntru a agura nlgra unr mdl uzual al ralt avnd a tz d
luru ful frmr rrzntrlr matmat nvl d vrt. rul d
matmatzar trbu nut a uun d atvt brvar, ddur, nrtzar,
abtratzar far ndund la un anumt rzultat.
La vrta d 3 an, lul r mulma a ltvtat ndtrmnat ar nu
ar n trutur lmt r (Piaget, 1976, p. 48). l dfrnaz rn lmbaj btl
ngular d gruur d bt (un l mul ), dar mulma nu t rut a un
gru dtnt. d 3-4 an au manftr t n ntat u nuna d mulm datrt
aratrulu r la aat vrt.
Atfl, xrmntl au vdnat urmtarl at aratrt:
r gruar d bt a mulm numa da t mu dn ala
fl d bt (jur);
ra dfrnat a antt rflt n lmbaj (u u);
26

nu r lmtl mulm n rtrul d gruar (rlaa lg dntr


lmnt);
nu r hmbrl anttatv ar t ntrvn (nu brv da la mulm
u 6-7 bt adaug, au au dn a, 1-2 bt) n nur altatv; ulara
frma unt dmnant ub rart rtv;
ntul lmntar al numrulu unt rnumr, lt d nrvar; lul
brv da dn n bmban l tr, dar nu brv abna un ngur bmban
dntr- mulm.

La vrta d 4-5 an rrzntrl dr mulm dzvlt lul r


mulma a ttaltat aal-truturat. Auna manual nt d uvnt d
r vzual ndu la nlgra mulm lul fa abtra d dtrmnrl
nrt al lmntlr al. Rrzntrl lr rmn ubrdnat n ndlr aal
nrt n ar r mulma.
rzna uvntulu n arnalul lngvt al lulu nu nd dbndra nun
dmnat rn uvnt (d xmlu, nuna d la ndr dbndt da t nla,
n lan hlg, a ra dnt a ubtulu fa d btl ar l l ndr ntr-
la , n lan lg, a hvaln altatv a tuturr lmntlr la).
D la auna nt d uvnt n la nt, rul (L.. Vgtk, J. agt)
dfar n ta ar t hmatza atfl:
taa ntatulu l-bt: urztata lulu dlanat d nut l fa
ntrz rtv aura lr, l brv;
taa d xlrar anal: lul dr dvr atrbut al la d bt, ar
unatra analt l ndu la bnra un tmatzr a altlr rtv al
mulm;
taa xlatv: lul ntut numt rla ntr bt, laf, rdnaz,
raz brv hvaln anttatv;
taa d dbndr a ntulu dmnat rn uvnt: uvntul nttu
nalzar a tuturr datlr nzral a rrzntrlr ar valar d nntrat.
umrul numraa rrznt abtraun ar frmaz baza analz
rrtlr aal al btlr a lafrlr. una d mulm ja un rl
unfatr al ntlr matmat, ar numrul aar a rrtat fundamntal a mulm.
27

Fundamntal n frmara numrlr unt, du J. agt B. nhldr, ral d:


lafar: n gru mgn nmgn, marara grulr d bt, tablra
amnrlr dbrlr; rr: rdnar du atrbut dtnt.
umrul t xra un aratrt btv a lururlr t nur d gru.
Aat aratrt nu rzult ntan dn ra lururlr, dar analza rn r
nttu untul d lar.

#%l!^+a?

n rul d frmar a numrulu lul travraz tr ta:


nzral-mtr (rar u gru d bt);
rar u rla anttatv lanul rrzntrlr (rar u numr nrt);
nlgra rartulu anttatv aratrzaz mulma (rar u numr
abtrat).
umrul, a abtraun, a nur d gru, aar ntr-un r d ndrtar a
tuturr lrlalt nur al mulm al btlr ; lul rn numa mnnta
numr gnralzaz nur numr dmnat vrbal. Arra antt la gru m
d bt (3-5) fa, d b, rn numra la 5-7 an. umrul d nut a
dnumr d gru, dar ntru 3-5 bt, la dnumra ardnalulu mulm ajung u
ajutrul numra.
rtrl au vdnat majrtata rlarlr d tr-atru an rrdu rt
rul numr n la 3-5, dar num a numr rt. Aata xl rn fatul
numrara unu r d bt t mult ma dfl, a arn, dt rrdura man a
rulu numr natural, nttu un autmatm vrbal, fr mnfa ral.
umrara unu gru d bt lt aa vrbal autmatzat, dar atrbura
unu nnut advat uvntlr -a ntatat xrmntal xt lgtur ntr rul
numr btl numrat. umrul numraa unt rzultatul analz ntz ftuat
dvr nvl aura btlr.
umraa nt rfnar a manmlr analt-ntt mlat n
r, rrzntar ntualzar. uma du ra glbal-nrt a ralt
t dt ajung la rr dfrnat, aar bltata nttur trtat a
ra numr a gnralzr numr la nvlul frmal d ntualzar a numrulu
natural.

28

La vrta d 3-4 an, numraa ar un aratr nrt analt numrul t tt


a ml nur a btlr ar l dmnaz n rul numrr, nfundnd
numrul u nu rul numrr. n at az numrul numt lul n rul numr, t
nl a nur a btulu, rul d frmar n lan gntv a ntulu d numr nu
t nhat rlv dfultl d ntz n gndra lulu, datrat aratrulu
rndrnt nrt.
na nun d numr nttu tma atul anttatv ar aratrzaz
mulml. lul nu ar frmat aatata d a za at at anttatv al mulm
rdu frmal rul numrlr ardnal la rul rdnal. La aat vrt, numrul nu t
nl ub atul au ardnal, a numr rdnal, trmn al un r rdnat d la m la
mar, a rr ntr- uun anttatv.
Atun nd lul ajung zz rartul dntr mulm untat, numrul
dbndt aratr ntt dmnaz rrtat d gru, a mnf dbndra
aat d ntz. n frmara unu numr unt mlat att analza, n atvtata rat
u bt dn rul numrr, t ntza, n rrzntara mulm nglbaz
btl numrat. Rrzntara numr ar aratr aal, mnnta numr fnd
lgat d aaltat, n rrzntar dar n r.
mnnta aal rjn rrzntara numr lmtaz datrt fatulu
rrzntrl, a rl, urnd un au lmtat. umrul ardnal t la,
trutur altut dn lmnt nntutv. Aar d ntata ralzr un n arn d
nvar; rra fa n ambl nur, dar rn dunra alatr a lmntlr,
ndfrnt d frma lr nrt, lmntl fnd nut a unt, ntru a rdnaa f
abrbt n numrul ardnal rn lafar, ntz ratr nludra r n la
du gradat.
nttura r btual atgral (lafar, rdnar) raz dfult
n frmara unu alt md d aratrzar a mulmlr, ar lt gnrara nurlr varat
al btlr rn numa rrtata numr. A aar rlul nal al nvr drjat
n ul d a-l rnta angaja l la analz ntz numr. ntul d numr
ndr frmat da dzvlt rartur rvrbl d ar numr la anttat nvr,
anttat la numr, ralzaz ntza rulu numr.

29

lul ntrrzaz raa d numrar r 6-7 an, nd numr numa u rvra


btl altu anumt gruar. Ar l un r d tranunr a ra xtrn n
ra ntrn, ad ntrrzar a aun xtrn, dbndt numrul la nvl frmal.
t rgtt aum ntatul rtv al lulu u nu nun, a d ra artmt.
agt aratrzaz raa artmt drt un at d gndr t rgtt d
rdnr nzr-mtr d rglrl rrzntatv rratr (Piaget, 1976, p. 64)
unatra nlgra rulu d frmar, ta, a rrzntrlr
ntlr matmat gnraz rn d rdn hdagg r rtat n
nra atulu ddat:

b#%l!^+a?

r ahz matmat f dbndt d l rn aun nt d uvnt;


lul bnfz d xrn nrt varat rdnat, n nul
mlalr matmat;
tual d nvar trbu favrzz ral mntal, lul amlfndu-
xrna gntv;
dbndra un anum trutur matmat f rzultatul unr aun nrt u
bt, magn au mblur, ntru ala nnut matmat;
dbndra rrzntrlr ntual durg dn auna lulu aura
btlr, r a favrza rvrbltata ntrrzara ra;
nvara rt aratrul ntgratv al truturlr, urmrndu- tranfrul vrtal
ntr nvll d vrt lga frmr ntlr;
aunl d manular l lud ndu trtat r mblzar.
nura untnlr frmara abltlr, drndrlr rrlr vzat rn
atvtl matmat, au dbt mrtan n dzvltara gnral ntltual a lr,
a n rgtra n vdra ntrr n al.
Famlarzara u mulml d bt al rr lmnt, ntlnt n mdul
nnjurtr, au natur varat, ntrbu la lrgra fr d untn, rum l
rfrtar la anttat, mrm, ular, numrul d lmnt. Drra rra
rt a atr nur ralzaz rn lgtura nmjlt u raltata dn jur, n rul
mnur d tr l a btlr nrt au a magnlr atra.
Aat aun drt u btl favrzaz dzvltara analzatrlr tatl, vzual,
audtv, lfatv, gutatv. baza aata, aumulaz rml untn dr mulm,
30

dr mdul um unt dtrbut n au, dr mdul nrt rn ar nrv, rt


au drt anttat.
n at fl tmulaz dzvltara rlr d unatr a rl,
rrzntrl, mmra.
Gndra, u rl al (analza, ntza, maraa, gnralzara, abtratzara)
nurl (radtata, flxbltata, ndndna, rgnaltata) xraz ntn
tmat, a urmar a atvt rmannt varat dfurat u , n ul altur
mulmlr du anumt rtr (frm, mrm, ular, z aal), al tablr d
rla ntr dfrt mulm (htn, nhtn), al rdnr atra, al ar
!^+a?

numrulu u mulml d bt.


Rzlvara atr arn d tr ntrbu ttdat la duara atn vluntar
a utr d nntrar aura alua gn d atvtat rad d tm dn n ma
lung, a ntrulu ntru atvtat, la rdnara mrlr mn d tr analzatrul vzual
audtv. n rul frmr rrzntrlr matmat, xrt vrbra,
nu trmnlga advat, ar ajut xrm rt u uurn a gnd
rzlv rat dfrt arn. Atvtl dfurat n ul frmr rrzntrlr
matmat rmt ralzara un rmannt rla ntr tat untnl nut d
n adrul altr atvt (brvr, ltur du magn, dn, jur ddat).

31

b#%l!^+a? b#% l!^+a?