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Inginerie biomedical

Curs 1

CUPRINS
INTRODUCERE
CLASIFICAREA APARATELOR BIOMEDICALE
APARATE PENTRU DIAGNOSTIC
IMAGISTICA MEDICALA
APARATURA PENTRU
TERAPIE

INTRODUCERE
Ingineria biomedical studiaz aparatura de
investigare, terapie, monitorizare i de
laborator utilizat n biologie i n medicin,
precum i principiile, metodele i tehnicile
care stau la baza exploatrii acestei aparaturi.
Inginerul Biomedical :
Proiecteaza produse i proceduri care rezolv
probleme medicale.
Aici sunt incluse organe artificiale, proteze,
instrumentar medical, sisteme informationale
medicale, i de managementul sntii
precum i sisteme de furnizare a serviciilor de
sntate.

Country

Life

Life

Healthy years

Average years

% of total life

expectancy at

expectancy at

remaining at

spent in poor

expectancy

birth

age 60

age 60

health

spent in poor
health

Australia

79.7

83.3

17.6

8.4

10.5

Austria

78.6

82.4

17.1

7.9

10.1

Belgium

78.0

81.8

16.3

8.3

10.6

Canada

79.7

82.5

16.6

9.4

11.8

France

79.2

83.1

17.6

8.1

10.2

Germany

78.5

81.6

16.4

7.9

10.0

Italy

79.8

82.3

16.9

8.2

10.2

Japan

81.5

84.2

18.9

7.7

9.4

Netherlands

78.3

81.4

16.2

8.4

10.7

Spain

79.3

82.4

16.7

8.1

10.2

Sweden

79.9

82.7

17.5

8.2

10.2

Switzerland

80.2

82.3

18.8

7.3

9.1

U.K.

78.1

81.0

16.0

7.8

10.0

USA

77.1

81.6

15.8

9.4

12.1

Country

Health spending per capita

Health spending % of GDP

(PPP$)

Public health spending as %


of total

Australia

3,120

9.6

67.5

Austria

3,124

9.6

70.7

Belgium

3,044

10.1

71.1

Canada

3,165

9.9

69.8

France

3,159

10.5

78.4

Germany

3,043

10.6

76.9

Italy

2,467

8.7

75.1

Japan

2,249

8.0

81.5

Netherlands

3,041

9.2

62.3

Spain

2,094

8.1

70.9

Sweden

2,825

9.1

84.9

Switzerland

4,077

11.6

58.4

U.K.

2,508

8.1

86.3

USA

6,102

15.3

44.7

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2010

Ramurile ingineriei biomedicale


conform clasificrii IEEE - EMBS (Societatea de Inginerie n Medicin
i Biologie ) sunt:
Biomecanica
Biomateriale
Biotehnologii medicale
Biosenzori
Modelarea, simularea i controlul sistemelor biologice
Instrumentaie biomedical
Analiza semnalelor n medicin i biologie
Bioingineria de recuperare
Implanturi - proteze i organe artificiale
Efecte biologice ale cmpului electromagnetic
Informatica medical
Imagistica medical
Inginerie clinic

Ingineria biomedical o tiin


interdisciplinara
Comunicarea dintre medicul practician i inginer
este dificil
Este mai uor pentru un inginer s neleag
jargonul medical dect vice versa
Esenial este sa fie nteleasa problema medical
Diferite filozofii
Medicina este o art care necesit judecati de valoare
Ingineria este mai mult stiinific, matematicai
ierarhica

Similaritati ale ingineriei biomedicale


cu medicina

Colectarea de date (monitorizarea pacienilor)


Analiza datelor (reducere sau transformare)
Luarea deciziilor (diagnostic)
Terapie
Medicin preventiv

SCOP
Studiul principiilor din inginerie n ingineria
biomedical implica urmtoareale idei :
De a nelege mecanismele, modificrile fizice si de
eficien a diferitelor subsisteme ale corpului.
Pentru a concepe i realiza un sistem de
instrumente folosite n diagnosticare n terapie
sau pentru suplinirea unei funciuni a corpului.
Pentru a obine cunotine cuantitative i calitative
privind diferite instrumente care pot ajuta la
analiza afeciunilor i a altor elemente folosite n
procesul de tratare a afeciunilor

Scop 2
Studiul principiilor medicale din ingineria biomedical
implic:
1. nelegerea aciunilor i modificrilor Bio-ChimicoElectro Termo- Hidraulico- Pneumatico- FizicoMagneto- Mecano Dynamic diferitelor sisteme ale
corpului n stare normal.
2. Pentru a nelege aciunile i modificrile de mai sus n
diferite subsisteme ale corpului in stari anormale n
Patologie.
3. Pentru a obine cunotine calitative i cantitative
legate de efectul medicamentelor asupra organismului
( Farmacodinamica ) i a modului n care corpul uman
interacioneaza cu medicamentele ( farmacocinetica )
n timpul i dup prescrierea medicamentelor.

DOCTOR
PACIENT
PACIENT

SiMPTOME

SiMPTOME

INSTRUMENT

PHYSICIAN

PHYSICIAN

TRATAMENT

DIAGNOSTIC
TRATAMENT

Exemplu
Tratament:
1. Doctorul diagnosticheaza i
trateaz bolile pacientului.
2. In laboratoarele biomedicale este
analizat sngele prelevat de la
pacient astfel nct doctorul s
tie cum s pun diagnosticul i s
trateze pacientul.
3. Inginerul biomedical proiecteaz
echipamentul folosit pentru
analiza sngelui.

Exemplu
Transplantul de inim:
1. Se determin i se analizeaz
fluxul de snge i funciunile
inimii
2. Ingineria biomedical
folosete aceste informaii
pentru a proiecta o inim
artificial
3. Doctorul chirurgical introduce
inima artificial i
monitorizeaza pacientul

Exemplu
nlocuirea tesutului distrus
1. Se stabileste modul prin care
pielea artificial va fi tolerat de
organism.
2. Inginerii biomedicali
proiecteaz, opereaz i menin
procesele de cretere a pielii
artificiale (tissue engineering).
3. Doctorul aplic chirurgical
(gref) pielea artificial pe corp.

Exemplu
Repararea unui old distrus
1. Se stabilete care sunt
funciunile articulaiei oldului
n organism
2. Inginerul biomedical concepe
proteza (old artificial)
3. Doctorul opereaz pacientul i
monitorizeaza recuperarea sa

Exemplu
Repararea oaselor distruse
1. Se stabilesc funciunile oaselor n
organism.
2. Inginerul biomedical proiecteaz
echipamentul care urmeaza a fi
folosit n intervenia chirurgical
pentru a asigura un aliniament
corect.
3. Doctorul opereaz pacientul i
monitorizeaza recuperarea sa

Clasificarea aparatelor medicale


Principalul criteriu
dup care pot fi
clasificate aparatele
medicale const n
scopul pentru care
acestea sunt folosite.

Din punct de vedere al destinaiei,


aparatele biomedicale pot fi grupate n:

Aparatur de laborator destinat efecturii diferitelor teste ;


Aparatur pentru diagnostic i cercetare (aparatur pentru explorri funcionale);
Aparatur pentru terapie, destinat tratamentului unei anumite afeciuni;
Aparatur i instrumentar pentru chirurgie, destinat interveniilor chirurgicale;
Aparatura pentru anestezie, destinat proceselor de anestezie i monitorizrii
pacientului pe perioada anesteziei;
Aparatur pentru monitorizare;
Aparatur pentru sterilizare;
Aparatura si echipamente pentru asistenta medicala de urgenta;
Aparatur pentru implantare/protezare, destinat reabilitrii sau suplinirii
funciilor naturale ale corpului uman;
Organe artificiale au ca scop primordial meninerea vieii;
Aparatur pentru cosmetic destinat tratamentelor cosmetice;
Aparatur pentru Fitness, destinat exerciiilor pentru ntreinerea i modelarea
corpului;
Home medical equipments, destinate investigaiilor funcionale i tratamentului,
respective monitorizrii la domiciliul pacientului;

n funcie de metodele care stau la baza


funcionrii, respectiv a prelucrrii i
interpretrii rezultatelor:
Metode cu radiaii X, folosite att pentru
diagnostic, ct i pentru terapie (angiografia,
computer tomografia);
Metode pe baz de curent electric
(electroterapie);
Metode bazate pe ultrasunete (efectul Doppler,
ecografia);
Metoda rezonanei magnetice nucleare (RMN);
Metode bazate pe imagistic (tomografia, RMN,
ecografia, radiografia clasic).

CONTINUARE
Un alt criteriu de clasificare a aparatelor
biomedicale const n gradul de periculozitate
al metodelor folosite: metode invazive sau
neinvazive. Unele din metode sunt neinvazive,
ceea ce constituie un mare avantaj
(vizualizarea cu ajutorul ultrasunetelor,
rezonana magnetic nuclear). Exist i
metode care necesit cateterizri, injectarea
unor substane de contrast i/sau utilizarea
unor radiaii ionizante.

Aparatura pentru diagnostic


Principalele tipuri de aparate pentru investigarea organismului uman
sunt:
Termometrele;
Aparatele pentru msurarea frecvenei cardiace
(cardiofrecvenmetre);
Aparatele pentru msurarea pulsului (pletismografe);
Aparatele pentru msurarea presiunii sngelui pot fi folosite
pentru determinarea presiunii arteriale, a presiunii venoase,
intrapulmonare, intraoculare, etc;
Aparatele pentru msurarea debitului sanguin se bazeaz pe
metode directe (debitmetre cu bul, manometre difereniale,
rotametre, debitmetre cu ultrasunete, debitmetre
electromagnetice) sau metode indirecte;
Aparatele pentru determinarea impedanei esuturilor
funcioneaz pe baz de punte de curent alternativ sau pe baza
metodei celor patru electrozi;

Aparatura pentru diagnostic

Aparatele pentru investigarea sistemului respirator furnizeaz informaii


despre volumele i capacitile respiratorii (spirometre), despre
temperatura n fosa nazal (pneumografe), despre impedana toracic;
Aparatele pentru nregistrarea semnalelor bioelectrice

nregistrarea biopotenialelor electrice generate de inim (vectorcardiografia,


electrocardiografia, fonocardiografia);
nregistrarea biopotenialelor generate de creier (electroencefalografia);
nregistrarea biopotenialelor electrice generate de muchi (electromiografia);
nregistrarea biopotenialelor generate de ochi electrooculografie,
electroretinografie)

Aparatele de diagnostic cu raze X (Rntgen) ofer o vizualizare a formei i


densitii diferitelor organe, a elementelor de structur ale scheletului
uman

Radioscopia
Radiografia
Tomografia
Tomografia computerizat

Aparatele de diagnostic cu ultrasunete ofer informaii despre diferite


organe, despre vasele sanguine i circulaia sngelui;
Aparate de diagnostic bazate pe Rezonana magnetic nuclear
Aparate de diagnostic bazate pe imagistica medical

Imagistica medical
Medical Imaging reprezint orice metod, respectiv
orice procedur de investigare n care diagnosticul este
bazat pe obinerea i interpretarea imaginilor. n
general, imagistica medical include nu numai
diagnosticul prin imagine, ci i microscopia,
endoscopia, etc.
Orice metod devine imagistic atunci cnd are:

surs de energie;
un sistem de detectare;
un sistem de preluare-prelucrare analog-digital, stocare pe
calculator sau microprocesor;
un sistem de redare digital-analog.

Principalele metode de
investigaie bazate pe
imagistic sunt:
ultrasonografia (ecografia,
metoda Doppler),
radiologia digitizat,
computer tomografia,
rezonana magnetic
nuclear,
tomografia prin emisie
monofotonic i biofotonica,
scintigrafia cu anticorpi
monoclonali i
endoscopia virtual

Radiologia digitizat permite obinerea unei imagini radiologice


asemntoare celei clasice, dar cu o rezoluie mult crescut.
Radiologia digitizat se realizeaz prin adugare-interpunere la
receptorul clasic a unui sistem de conversie analog-digital, care
transform informaia n date numerice. Acestea sunt transferate n
memoria unui calculator unde sunt prelucrate n vederea creterii
valorii lor informative.
Computer tomografia este o metod extrem de valoroas datorit
rezoluiei deosebite a imaginilor pe care le ofer. Ea permite
obinerea unor detalii anatomice i o evaluare a funciei i
circulaiei. Din punct de vedere tehnic computer tomografia
folosete o surs de radiaii X i un sistem detector, iar formarea
imaginii presupune intervenia unui procesor care preia datele, le
nregistreaz, le analizeaz i apoi construiete imaginea.
Rezonana magnetic nuclear este o metod care permite
obinerea unor imagini de seciune multiplanare, deosebit de
precise i clare prin corpul uman. Principiul de formare a imaginii se
realizeaz prin punerea n eviden a protonilor mobili din
organism. Aceti protoni se afl predominant n ap. Plasarea
corpului ntr-un cmp magnetic artificial va determina alinierea
cmpului magnetic al protonilor, paralel cu liniile cmpului magnetic
extern.

CLASSIFICAREA INSTRUMENTELOR
INGINERIE

Medical

De Indicatie

Diagnostic

De nregistrare
Terapeutic
De monitorizare
Data Logging
Analiza
Control

Suplimentar

FUNCTIUNILE INSTRUMENTELOR
Functiune

Termometru

Indicatie

E.C.G.

Inregistrare

Bio Monitor

Monitorizare

Computer

Data Logging

Analiza sngelui

Analiza

Dializa

Aparatura pentru terapie

Aparatura pentru terapie poate fi cu cureni electrici, n cmp


electromagnetic i cu ultrasunete:
Aparatura pentru electroterapie reprezint aparatele al cror principiu de
funcionare se bazeaz pe utilizarea curentului electric i a cmpului
electromagnetic n scop terapeutic. Prin aplicarea, n condiii bine
determinate, a curentului electric sau a unui cmp electromagnetic
diferitelor esuturi se pot obine efectele terapeutice dorite.
Aparatura cu raze X se bazeaz pe efectul radiaiilor X asupra celulelor vii,
fiind folosit n terapia antitumoral i antiinflamatorie. Problema cu care
se confrunt terapia cu raze X este delimitarea ct mai precis a zonei
iradiate, n vederea limitrii iradierii pacientului.
Aparatura cu ultrasunete se bazeaz pe aciunea terapeutic a
ultrasunetelor, care const n efecte mecanice i termice locale. Efectele
mecanice constau n stimularea irigaiei sanguine, n creterea oxigenrii
esuturilor, n apariia unor reacii neuromusculare.
Aparatura laser Stimularea electrica functionala este o procedura utilizata
in mod frecvent pentru restabilirea controlului asupra muschilor fara
inervatie

Key Areas

The world of Biomedical Engineering

Biosensors
Biomechanics
Biomaterials
Biotechnology
Biomedical
Instrumentation
Bionanotechnology
Clinical Engineering
Medical &
Bioinformatics

Medical & Biological


Analysis
Medical Imaging
Neural Engineering
Physiological Modeling
Prosthetic devices &
Artificial Organs
Rehabilitation Engineering
Tissue Engineering

Bioinformatics
It is the field of science in which
biology, computer science, and
information technology merge to
form a single discipline. The ultimate
goal of the field is to enable the
discovery of new biological insights
as well as to create a global
perspective from which unifying
principles in biology can be
discerned.
Involves developing and using
computer tools to collect and
analyze data related to medicine and
biology.
Work in bioinformatics could involve
using sophisticated techniques to
manage and search databases of
gene sequences that contain many
millions of entries.

BioMEMS
Microelectromechanical systems
(MEMS) are the integration of
mechanical elements, sensors,
actuators, and electronics on a
silicon chip.
BioMEMS are the development
and application of MEMS in
medicine and biology.

Timed-Release Drug Capsules

Examples of BioMEMS work


include the development of micro
robots that may one day perform
surgery inside the body, and the
manufacture of tiny devices that
could be implanted inside the
body to deliver drugs on the
bodys demand.
Bio MEMS

Biomaterials
These are substances that are
engineered for use in devices
or implants that must interact
with living tissue.
Examples of advances in this
field include the development
of coatings that fight infection
common in artificial joint
implants, materials that can
aid in controlled drug delivery,
and scaffolds that support
tissue and organ
reconstruction.

Biomechanics
It is mechanics applied to
biology. Study of motion,
material deformation, fluid flow.
For example, studies of the
fluid dynamics involved in
blood circulation have
contributed to the development
of artificial hearts, while an
understanding of joint
mechanics has contributed to
the design of prosthetic limbs.
Application of classical
mechanics to biological or
medical problems.
Study of movement of biologic
solids, fluids and viscoelastic
materials, muscles forces.
Design of artificial limbs.

Biosignal Processing

1.

2.

3.

It involves extracting
useful information from
biological signals for
diagnostics and
therapeutics purposes.
e.g.
Studying cardiac signals
to determine whether or
not a patient will be
susceptible to sudden
cardiac death.
Developing speech
recognition systems that
can cope with background
noise.
Detecting features of brain
signals that can be used to
control a computer.

Biotechnology
A set of powerful tools that employ
living organisms (or parts of
organisms) to make or modify
products, improve plants or
animals, or develop
microorganisms for specific uses.
Modern biotechnology involves the
industrial use of recombinant DNA,
cell fusion, novel bioprocess
techniques, which can all be used
to help correct genetic defects in
humans. It also involves
bioremediation degradation of
hazardous contaminants with the
help of living organisms.

Clinical Engineering
Clinical engineers support and
advance patient care by applying
engineering and managerial
skills to healthcare technology.
Clinical engineers can be based
in hospitals, where
responsibilities can include
managing the hospitals medical
equipment systems, ensuring
that all medical equipment is
safe and effective, and working
with physicians to adopt
instrumentation to meet the
specific needs of the physician
and the hospital. In industry,
clinical engineers can work in
medical product development,
from product design to sales and
support, to ensure that new
products meet the demands of
medical practice.

Genomics
It is a new discipline that
involves the mapping,
sequencing, and
analyzing of genomes
the set of all the DNA in
an organism.
A full understanding how
genes function in normal
and/or diseased states
can lead to improved
detection, diagnosis, and
treatment of disease.

Imaging and Image Processing


Images from Inside the human body
X-rays, Ultrasound, Magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI), and
Computerized tomography (CT)
Current Research Directions
Developing low-cost image
acquisition systems
image processing algorithms
image/video compression algorithms
and standards
applying advances in multimedia
computing systems in a biomedical
context.

MRI

Instrumentation, Sensors, and


Measurement
It involves the hardware and
software design of devices and
systems used to measure
biological signals. This ranges
from developing sensors that
can capture a biological signal
of interest, to applying methods
of amplifying and filtering the
signal so that it can be further
studied, to dealing with sources
of interference that can corrupt
a signal, to building a complete
instrumentation system such as
an x-ray machine or a heart
monitoring system.

Electromyography
(EMG )

Sonography

Computerized Mandibular Scanning


(CMS)

Micro and Nanotechnology


Microtechnology involves
development and use of devices
on the scale of a micrometer (one
thousandth of a millimeter), while
nanotechnology involves devices
on the order of a nanometer .
These fields include the
development of microscopic
force sensors that can identify
changing tissue properties as a
way to help surgeons remove
only unhealthy tissue, and
nanometer length cantilever
beams that bend with cardiac
protein levels in ways that can
help doctors in the early and
rapid diagnosis of heart attacks.

Neurons

Neural Systems and Engineering


This emerging interdisciplinary field
involves study of the brain and
nervous system and encompasses
areas such as the replacement or
restoration of lost sensory and motor
abilities (for example, retinal implants
to partially restore sight or electrical
stimulation of paralyzed muscles to
assist a person in standing), the study
of the complexities of neural systems
in nature, the development of
neurorobots (robot arms that are
controlled by signals from the motor
cortex in the brain) and neuroelectronics (e.g. developing brainimplantable micro-electronics with
high computing power).

Physiological Systems Modeling


Many recently improved medical
diagnostic techniques and
therapeutic innovations have
been a result of physiological
systems modeling. In this field,
models of physiological
processes (e.g. the control of
limb movements, the
biochemistry of metabolism) are
developed to gain a better
understanding of the function of
living organisms.

Radiology
It refers to the use of
radioactive substances such
as x-ray, magnetic fields as in
magnetic resonance imaging,
and ultrasound to create
images of the body, its organs
and structures. These images
can be used in the diagnosis
and treatment of disease, as
well as to guide doctors in
image-guided surgery.

Robotics in Surgery
It includes the use of
robotic and image
processing systems to
interactively assist a
medical team both in
planning and executing a
surgery. These new
techniques can minimize
the side effects of Surgery
and provide more
precision, while also
decreasing costs.

Telemedicine
Sometimes called telehealth or
e-health, involves the transfer
of electronic medical data from
one location to another for the
evaluation, diagnosis, and
treatment of patients in remote
locations. This usually involves
the use of connected medical
devices, advanced
telecommunications technology,
video-conferencing systems, and
networked computing.

Proteomics
It is the study of proteomes the
location, interactions, structure,
and function of proteins.
Advances in proteomics have
included the discovery of a new
cellular process that explains how
infections occur and new
treatments for infectious diseases.
Method to detect protein patterns
in the blood for early diagnosis of
ovarian cancer. development of
hardware devices that provide
accurate and rapid measurements
of protein levels.

Rehabilitation Engineering
It is the application of science
and technology to improve the
quality of life for people with
disabilities. This can include
designing augmentative and
alternative communication
systems for people who cannot
communicate in traditional
ways, making computers more
accessible for people with
disabilities, developing new
materials and designs for
wheelchairs, and making
prosthetic legs for runners in
the Paralympics.

Job Description and Responsibilities of a


Biomedical Engineer

Along with the specific activities involved within the specialization, a


biomedical engineer is commonly involved with a variety of tasks and
projects such as:
Application of expert systems
Coordinating automated patient monitoring
Working with medical imaging systems
Biomaterials design
Learning and applying sports medicine techniques
Learning the biomechanics of injury
Designing optimal clinical laboratories
Conducting blood chemistry sensors
Career prospects in industry for Biomedical Engineers tend to be
very good as the course is very relevant to today's technology
orientated society and, because the course is not dependent upon
any one industry, graduates are also employed in a variety of areas
other than healthcare industry.