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11.2.

INTERACTIVE ACTIVITIES
Exercise 1. Comment on the use of tenses in direct object clauses and illustrate your
explanations with examples for each relationship.
Exercise 2. Discuss on the sequence of tenses rules in sentences including time clauses.
Exercise 3. Comment on the exceptions to the sequence of tenses rules and give examples
of your own.
Exercise 4. Put the verbs in brackets in the right tenses:
He (remember) when he first (start) to talk aloud when he (be) by himself.
He (sing) when he (be) by himself in the old days and he (sing) at night
sometimes when he (be) alone steering on his watch in the smacks or in the turtle
boats. He (start) to talk aloud after the boy (leave).
When he and the boy (fish) together they usually (speak) only when it (be)
necessary.
They (talk) at night or when they (be) storm - bound by bad weather. It (be)
considered a virtue not to talk unnecessarily at sea and the old man always
(consider) it so and (respect) it. But now he (say) his thoughts aloud many times
since there (be) no one that he (can) annoy.
If the others (hear) me talking out loud they (think) that I (be) crazy, he (say)
aloud. But since I (be) not crazy I (not care). And the rich (have) radios to talk to them
in their boats and to bring them to baseball.
(E. Hemingway, The Old Man and the Sea)
Exercise 5. Translate into English paying attention to the sequence of tenses
rules:
1. Toi presupuneam c el a ajuns naintea noastr i ne-am mirat grozav c nu se
afl deja acolo.
2. Sora lui a recunoscut c ea a fcut propunerea.
3. Directorul spera c ea va nelege i va sprijini toate schimbrile pe care au
promis c le vor face.
4. I-a prut foarte ru c trebuie s spun adevrul, dar nu se mai putea preface c
nu tie nimic.
5. Simeam c nu mai am chef s ncerc nc o dat deoarece eram sigur c nu voi
reui.
6. Cnd i-am reproat c a uitat s-i scrie celei mai bune prietene, mi-a explicat c
n-a avut deloc timp, dar c se va duce s-o vad ct se poate de curnd.
7. A spus c n-a avut timp s citeasc romanul, pentru c l-a gsit abia de cteva
zile.
8. N-am putut veni pentru c de trei zile nv pentru un concurs care se va ine
luni.
9. tiai c a vrut s se fac actor?
10. Dup ce le-am povestit cartea toi s-au dus s vad filmul.
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11. Cnd l-am ntrebat la ce se gndete mi-a rspuns c are de gnd s fac o vizit
unui vechi prieten.
12. Fata aceea brunet i nalt cu care se ceart Ion a fost prietena lui Dan.
13. Mi-a spus c vrea s ia examenul deoarece a nvat foarte mult; nva de vreo
trei luni.
14. Anul trecut nva mai bine dect anul acesta; cred c se ntmpl ceva cu el.
15. M ntrebam cu cine a lucrat i eram curios s vd dac are vreo ans.
16. M gndeam c tie toate aceste lucruri.
17. i era greu s le spun tot ce fcuse ntre timp.
18. M-a sunat s m ntrebe dac i aici este la fel de frig ca la Braov.
Exercitiul 6. Translate into English:
Pentru un om cu educaia lui, pn i o simpl cltorie cu trenul era ncrcat de
necazuri mrunte. i ddea seama c are o stare general de nelinite Trsura cu ponei
care urma s-l duc la gar nu fusese comandat din timp i cnd se apropia momentul
plecrii lui, argatul era de negsit n timp ce trenul aluneca uor afar din gar,
imaginaia lui tulburat l acuz c rspndete un uor miros de grajd, i c are vreo dou
paie mucegite pe hainele lui de obicei bine periate Trenul n-avea s se mai opreasc
pn la staia final Nu-i atinsese trenul viteza normal, cnd Theodoric i ddu
seama c nu este singur cu doamna pe care o vedea c moia...
- Cred c am rcit, spuse el cu jumtate de glas
- Presupun c v-ai mbolnvit la tropice, nu?
Era evident c ea face haz de starea lui jalnic
Theodoric observase cu groaz courile unor locuine mici i urte; tia c ele
anun sfritul cltoriei. Ca o fiar hituit care-i prsete ascunztoarea i se
npustete cu spaim nebun ctre un alt liman de siguran momentan, el arunc la o
parte ptura i se lupt demenial s reintre n hainele rvite.
Cnd czu din nou pe canapea, mbrcat, trenul ncetini pn cnd abia se mai
mica
(adapted after Saki, oricelul)
Exercise 7: Put the verbs in brackets in the right tenses according to the sequence of
tenses rules:
Even when he (to feel) that objection melt away, however, the practical difference (to
be) small; the long stretch of his interval (to take) the colour it (will), and if he (to live)
on thus with the sinister from hour to hour it (to prove) an easier thing than one (may) (to
suppose) in advance. He (to revert) in thought to his old tradition, the one he (to be
brought) up on and which even so many years of life but little (to wear) away
What (to strike) him now rather (to be) the ease of it for nothing in truth (to appear)
easier The day (to turn) to heat and eventual thunder, and he now and again (to go)
back to his hotel to find that Chad (not to be) there. He (not to strike) yet himself, since
leaving Woollett, so much as a loafer, though there (to be) times when he (to believe)
himself touching bottom He almost (to wonder) if he (not to look) demoralized and
disreputable; he (to have) the fanciful vision, as he (to sit) and (to smoke), of some
accidental, some motived, return of the Pococks, who (to pass) along the Boulevard and
(to catch) this view of him.If therefore her presence (to be) now quite other than the
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one she (to show) him the night before, there (to be) nothing of violence in the change - it
(to be) all harmony and reason... The only thing (to be) that, if he (to leave) all to her,
why exactly she (to send) for him?
She (to know) she really (to throw) dust in his eyes; this, the previous night, before
they (to separate), practically (to pass) between them; and, as she (to send) for him to see
what the difference thus made for him (may) (to amount) to, so he (to be) conscious at the
end of five minutes that he (to be) (to try) and (to test).
(adapted from H. James, The Ambassadors)
Exercise 8: Translate into English applying the sequence of tenses rules to the following
sentences including time clauses and if clauses:
1. Te-a ruga s nu m mai ntrerupi pn cnd nu-mi voi expune tot planul.
2. Plou ntr-una de cnd suntem noi aici.
3. Toat lumea e mai vesel de cnd a venit mtua lui.
4. O s plece pn ai s termini toate treburile.
5. Nu aud nimic interesant de cnd ascult toat povestea asta.
6. De cnd suntem prieteni nu m-a minit niciodat.
7. Dac nu va ploua vom pleca de ndat ce se va crpa de ziu.
8. De dou sptmni de cnd s-a mbolnvit, st n pat i nc nu s-a deprins cu ideea c
timp de o lun nu se va putea ocupa de treburile lui curente.
9. Nu-i dau prjitura pn cnd nu mnnci toat mncarea.
10. S-a schimbat mult de cnd nu l-am mai vzut.
11. l cunosc de cnd am intrat la facultate, dar ne-am mprietenit abia n ultima vreme.
12. Ce-ai mai fcut de cnd nu ne-am vzut?
13. Nu a mai ntrziat de cnd s-a schimbat ora la care ncepem serviciul.
14. Au trecut cteva zile de cnd sunt la Sinaia, dar n-am reuit s ies din cas deoarece
plou n continuu.
15. Dac totul va merge bine vor pleca n iulie.
16. i voi da cartea cnd o voi citi.
17. Sunt mai bine de zece ani de cnd o cunosc dar nu mi-a plcut niciodat.
18. Vom merge cu trenul n cazul n care nu vei ajunge pn dup-amiaz
Exercise 9: Translate into English paying attention to the sequence of tenses rules:
1.
S nu fi fost foarte ocupat, m duceam s vd filmul acesta.
2. Am fi vrut s aflm mai multe, dac am fi avut pe cine s ntrebm.
3. Nici nu apucasem bine s m dezbrac cnd a venit verioara mea s-mi spun c
trebuie s-i facem o vizit unchiului Dan.
4. Dac citeai mcar cteva piese n original, te descurcai mai bine la dezbatere.
5. S nu-l fi vzut cu ochii mei prednd lucrarea, puteam s cred c n-a adus-o.
6. Dac tiam c nu vine nu-l mai invitam.
7. Nici nu m-a zrit bine c a i venit la mine i mi-a spus c m invidiaz pentru
excursia pe care urmeaz s-o fac n strintate.
8. Acceptam cu plcere invitaia dac o primeam la timp.
9. Dac ai trimite dup el, ar veni imediat.
10. Nici n-a terminat bine de spus toat povestea c i-au i pus o grmad de ntrebri.

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11. Dac n-ar fi nimeni acas n-ar fi lumin n bibliotec.


12. Nici nu adormisem bine c am i auzit ua deschizndu-se i pe cineva intrnd n
camer.
13. Nici n-am apucat s m mic c s-a i trezit.
14. De-abia am ajuns la gar cnd au i anunat c trenul va pleca peste 5 minute.
Exercise 10: Translate into English paying attention to the sequence of tenses rules:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Nu tiam ce vei crede dup ce i voi explica ce tiu.


Am crezut c m vei nelege cnd i voi spune c nu am de ales.
tiam c a plecat n China i c st acolo doi ani.
Ai spus c veneai dac te chemam, dar eu cred c ai fi stat acas i te-ai fi uitat la
televizor.
5. Eram sigur c ai s vrei s vorbeti cu ea dac se va ntoarce mai devreme.
6. Ce ai s faci cnd, dup ce se vor ntoarce de la Paris, vor cumpra casa n care stai de
zece ani?
7. Ce ai s spui cnd el o s afle cine te-a adus aici?
8. Cnd ai s-mi spui ce intenii ai, am s-i spun i eu ce am hotrt.
9. I-am spus cine sunt, de unde vin, unde m duc, de ce am venit att de trziu, pe cine
atept i ct voi sta acolo, dar nu cred c m-a auzit.
10. N-am mai vorbit cu el de cnd a fost ultima oar aici.
11. M ntrebam ce intenii are i de ce este att de nervos.
12. Cnd l-am ntrebat ce tie despre sora cea mic, mi-a rspuns c n-a mai vorbit cu ea
de vreo dou sptmni, de cnd i-a sunt s-i anune c pleac ntr-o scurt vacan la
Veneia.
Exercise 11. Comment on the sequence of tenses rules in the following excerpt and turn
it into the past:
Charles, returning to Lyme, realises that he has been taking risks and decides to
end this involvement with Sarah by putting the whole matter in Mrs. Tranters hands.
When he arrives back, however, he is positively relieved to find an urgent telegram
bidding him to visit his uncle. He believes that his uncle may be about to give him
Winsyatt, the family manor, or at least a slightly smaller house in the village, and he
conveys this thought to Ernestina, who urges him to try to get Winsyatt itself.
(John Fowles, The French Lieutenants Women)
Exercise 12. Explain the use of tenses in the following excerpt:
In his normal condition, nothing could have exceeded Charless terror and shame
in such a situation. He had been the cause of a disturbance! He had broken the sacred law
of self-effacing, mute compliance he had made, the phrase ran, an exhibition of himself!
Normally, he would not have waited, except to stammer out his apologies; the burnt
mans injured shout of Its his fault! Throw the clumsy bastard out! [...] But now the
healing mist of alcohol, half gentle detachment and half fierce arrogance, protected him
even against the menacing approach of the landlord. Instead of quailing before the

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hailstorm of abuse that swept at him from behind the bar, he merely blinked benignly for
a moment at the landlords whirling face now dominated by the out-thrust nose, now
grotesquely receding under the overhanging eyebrows and then, turning coolly on his
heel, calmly opened the door and went out, to be greeted by the warm silence of the
summer night, and the village street opening and closing like a huge oyster shell.
Leaning against a wall, he waited for it to make up its mind, and soon it had
settled down to a gentle heaving over which it was possible to walk. He had nowhere to
go, no money and no plans, but the night was warm to the point of oppressiveness, the
moon shone powerfully, casting deep shadows, and he had enough drink inside him to
protect him from his anxiety. Unsteadily, but happily, he began to wander down a side
turning between the gardens of cottages. And as he walked his mind gathered speed, until
it was racing at the frantic speed which he had learnt to associate with drunkenness.
(J. Wain, Hurry On Down)
Exercise 13. Translate and comment on the sequence of tenses in the following excerpt:
Snt vise ce parc le-am trit cndva i undeva precum snt lucruri vieuite despre
care ne ntrebm dac n-au fost vis. La asta m gndeam deunzi seara cnd rvind
printre hrtiile mele ca s vd ce se mai poate gsi de ars hrtiile ncurc am dat peste
o scrisoare care mi-a deteptat amintirea unei ntmplri ciudate, aa de ciudat c de n-ar
fi dect apte ani de cnd s-a petrecut, m-a simi cuprins de ndoial, a crede ca ntradevr am visat numai, sau c am citit-o ori am auzit-o demult.
Era n 1907. Fusesem greu bolnav n Bucureti i m ntorsesem la Berlin acas
nsntoirea mea se fcea cu anevoin cernd ngrijiri mari. La plecare doctorul m-a
sftuit s m feresc pn i de cele mai uoare zguduiri sufleteti. Am dat din umeri,
zmbind, i i-am spus s fie pe pace.
Dup un surghiun de doi ani revedeam Berlinul. Am de Berlin o mare slbiciune;
nici mprejurri foarte triste nu m-au mpiedicat s-l revd cu plcere. L-a regsit aa cum
l lsasem: tot numai flori. Aa frumos ca n acel nceput de iunie nu mi pruse totui
niciodat.
Ca s-l vntur, ns, i s-l colind ca odinioar nu mai mergea. Oboseam repede i
oboseala putea nlesni reivirea boalei. M-am resemnat dar ctva vreme am stat pe-acas,
jertf de care m pgubea n parte frumuseea muzicii vechi ce se fcea la noi de
diminea pn seara.
(Mateiu Caragiale, Remember)
Exercise 14.Translate and explain the use of tenses according to the sequence of tenses
rules:
Nimeni nu ntreba cine urmeaz s vin, nici mcar cnd. Nimeni nu punea nici
un fel de ntrebare, ca i cum toate vorbele acelea bolborosite ar fi fost pe deplin nelese.
Asta m-a frapat mai trziu, cnd, sptmni n ir, am ncercat s neleg ce se ntmpl...
Nimeni nu comunica, nimeni nu prea c afl sau nva ceva, ci numai descoper din
sine, cu ajutorul ei. M frmntam, ateptam ploile mai mult ca oricnd, ncercam rar s
vorbesc, dar nu eram ascultat.

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Aa a durat sptmni n ir, pn au venit brbaii plecai dup bucate n Ardeal.


Veniser aproape toi, n grup, nu rmseser dect civa, cei foarte ncpnai sau cei
foarte disperai, care nu voiau s priveasc n fa ceea ce urma s se ntmple acas.
M-am dus i eu repede n satul acela, de cum am auzit. Niciodat n-am simit mai
bine ct de puin contez, ct de puin exist. Prea c nu m observ nimeni, vedeam c
nimeni nu m salut, treceam pe lng oameni preocupai, femei, btrni, copii atrnai de
fustele mamelor. Nu eram privit nici mcar cu coada ochiului, ca atunci cnd ateptam
misterioasa venire. Treceau doar pe lng mine, ndreptndu-se spre drumul care venea de
la gar (nici nu tiu cum aflaser c vin, c a sosit trenul), sau cel puin ieier la pori, cu
minile streain la ochi. Satul prea c i-a sporit dintr-o dat populaia, i aveam
impresia c nici mcar nu pot trece printre ei... Vedeam ca-mi fac cu greu loc prin
mulime, ncercam s vorbesc, s salut, iar privirile lor parc spuneau c nu neleg ce
caut acolo printre ei.
(Al. Ivasiuc, Interval)
Exercise 15. Translate and comment on the use of tenses in the following excerpt:
Ct de subiri i diafane erau degetele lui, atunci cnd i-a adus paharul cu ap, ca
s ia calmantul i s se liniteasc, reintrnd n normal. ns nu fusese foarte nelinitit
nici cnd a istorisit cum i-a mpucat pe front comandantul de companie, care i se prea
c vrea s trdeze, s treac la inamic. Nu mpucasem nc pe nimeni de att de
aproape; poate de asta i-am auzit, sau mi s-a prut c aud, cum i prie easta. A czut cu
faa n jos i m-am dus s-i scot din buzunare documentele pe care bnuiam c vrea s le
duc la inamic. Am fost puin surprins c n-am gsit nimic. Am presupus c le-a
memorat, c a avut poate n vedere c nu va reui. n buzunar avea tot felul de fleacuri.
Nu m interesau de vreme ce nu erau documentele secrete pe care le cutam... Era un
ofier ru, nu se putea s nu ne fie duman, de altfel cred c voia s dezerteze, i aa a
crezut toat lumea... l suspectam demult c va trda...
(Al. Ivasiuc, Interval)
Exercise 16. Translate and comment on the use of tenses:
- Povestete-mi tot de-a fir-a pr.
El o privi cu ochii pe jumtate nchii i rspunse brusc:
- Ce s-i povestesc ?
- Tot, biatul meu. Privirea unei mame nu se neal. Ce i-a spus ? Trebuie s fi
fost ru cu tine... i nedrept.
- Am s-i explic imediat. Nu e nimic de povestit. Le-am trntit demisia, c prea
m enervau ! Ca s fiu sincer, nu-l puteam suferi pe afurisitul la de ef. Nimic nu-i
plcea. Dac ntrziai puin dimineaa, sau se ntmpla s lipseti o zi, se purta foarte ru...
tii c nu mi-a plcut niciodat ca cineva s-i bat joc de mine. Nu snt omul care s se
lase condus de oricine. De aceea i-am spus pe leau ce gndesc, mi-am luat plria i dus
am fost.

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