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PROIECT

NANOMATERIALE

PROFESOR COORDONATOR :
STUDENT:
C. Crciunescu
Martinescu Cosmin

TIMIOARA
2014

TEMA PROIECT:

CRISTALE FOTONICE

PROFESOR COORDONATOR :
STUDENT:
C. Crciunescu
Martinescu Cosmin

TIMIOARA
2014

Cuprinsul proiectului
INTRODUCERE
CRISTALE FOTONICE
METODE DE OBINERE I CARACTERIZARE OPTIC A

CRISTALELOR FOTONICE
REALIZAREA I CARACTERIZAREA OPTIC A CAVITILOR

CRISTALELOR FOTONICE
BIBLIOGRAFIE

INTRODUCERE
Lumina influeneaz vieile noastre de zi cu zi n diverse moduri, greu de imaginat cu
cteva decenii n urm. Lumina va juca un rol semnificativ n viitor, uurnd calea spre progrese
n comunicaiile prin fibr optic, n noi modaliti de a practica medicina, biotehnologia, detecia
optic etc.

Fotonica a devenit un domeniu important att pentru tiin ct i pentru


tehnologie,cuprinznd fenomenele fizice i tehnologiile asociate generrii, transmisiei,
manipulrii, detectrii i utilizrii luminii. Datorit dezvoltrii continue a unor domenii cum ar fi
nanotehnologia, tiina materialelor, optica, etc., precum i datorit dezvoltrii rapide a tehnicilor
de fabricare la scar micro/nano, fotonica a cunoscut o dezvoltare tot mai rapid.

Obiectivul proiectului este acela de a studia proprietile optice ale unor materiale
pentru aplicaii n fotonic. Principalele materiale studiate sunt cristalele fotonice i materialele
organice, scopul proiectului fiind de a analiza unele aplicaii ale cristalelor fotonice, de a vedea n
ce msur materialele organice pot influena performanele cristalelor fotonice, i de a studia noi
substane organice

CRISTALE FOTONICE
Un cristal este definit ca o aranjare periodic de atomi sau molecule. Modelul
dup care atomii i moleculele se repet n spaiu constituie reeaua cristalului.
Reeaua cristalin poate bloca propagarea anumitor unde. Exist benzi de energie
interzise n structura de benzi a cristalului, ceea ce nseamn c electronii cu
anumite energii nu se pot propaga n cristal.
Cristalele fotonice sunt mprite dup periodicitatea straturilor periodice din care
sunt alctuite n: uni-, bi- i tri-dimensionale , aa cum se observ n Figura 1. Cel
mai simplu cristal fotonic este cristalul unidimensional (1-D) , format din dou
materiale care alterneaz periodic pe o direcie. n mod similar, ntr-un cristal
fotonic bidimensional constantele dielectrice alterneaz pe dou direcii, n timp ce
cristalul fotonic tri-dimensional ofer un control complet al radiaiei
electromagnetice, datorit periodicitii pe toate cele trei direcii.

Figura 1. Cristale fotonice uni-, bi- , tridimensionale

Pentru a nelege modul de formare a benzilor interzise n cristalele fotonice, ne

folosim de ecuaiile lui Maxwell scrise pentru undele electromagnetice care se


propag ntr-un mediu fr cureni i sarcini libere.

Proiectarea unui mediu periodic


Proiectarea unui mediu periodic const n

aflarea poziiilor benzilor permise i interzise


n funcie de indicii de refracie i de grosime
a straturilor

Figura 2. Structura strat peste strat

Microcavities: Confinement of light


to small volumes by resonant
recirculation

http://mpalffy.lci.kent.edu/Optics/Pres
entations%202012/Photonic
%20Crystals%20Libo%20Weng.pdf

METODE DE OBINERE I CARACTERIZARE OPTIC A CRISTALELOR FOTONICE

Tehnica de litografiere prin fascicul electronic


Aparatura de litografiere cu fascicul de electronireprezint un sistem
experimental complex utilizat pentru activiti de nanostructurare
geometric.

Figura 3.Microscop electronic de baleiaj JEOL JSM 6390A echipat


cu modul de litografiere cu fascicul de electroni XENOS XP G2

REALIZAREA I CARACTERIZAREA OPTIC


A CAVITILOR CRISTALELOR FOTONICE
Datorit dificultilor ntlnite n fabricarea

cristalele fotonice tridimensionale, structurile


bidimensionale sunt cele mai intens studiate.
n acest capitol se detaliaz modul de
realizare a cavitilor n cristale fotonice
bidimensionale fabricate n membran de
nitrur de siliciu. Au fost realizate caviti n
cristale fotonice folosind tehnica de
litografiere prin fascicol electronic prezentat
anterior.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

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Va multumesc !!!