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Negocierea este un joc de comunicare, o comunicare structurata, o cale de a rezolva

conflictele! Negocierea este o discuie ntre doi sau mai mul i parteneri care ncearc prin acest
proces de comunicare s rezolve conflicte de interese existente ntre ei. Este o comunicare
interpersonal sau intergrup care are loc pentru c o decizie afecteaz i alte pr i sau pentru
c este nevoie de rezolvarea unei dispute. Este un proces dificil care necesit insu irea unor
tactici bine definite i abiliti de comunicare.
Structura trainingului:
1.1. Ce inseamna negocierea? Etapele unei negocieri
1.2. Oponentul si stilurile de comunicare
1.3. Rezultatul unei negocieri. Abordarile corecte ale unei negocieri
Obiective:
1. Formarea abilitatilor de negociere si relationare corecta;
2. Identificarea punctelor forte si a punctelor slabe ale negociatorilor. Limbajul corpului in cadrul
unei negocieri;
3. Formarea competentelor de abordare corecta in cadrul unei negocieri;
4. Obtinerea cunostintelor privind stilurile de comunicare;
Beneficii:
1. Obtinerea cunostintelor despre negociere corecta si etapele acesteea;
2. Acumularea cunotinelor privinddesfasurarea unei negocieri;
3. nvarea elementelor definitorii ale unei negocieri;
4. Acumularea de cunotine i aptitudini pentru o negociere corecta;
Comunicare
Principiul influenei. Nu putem s comunicm nu este o afirmatie valida. Orice
coportament la nivel verbal sau non-verbal d natere la semne sau mesaje i ca
atare la indicii de interpretare. Acest lucru se ntampl tocmai pentru c suntem
ntr-o interaciune constant, ntr-o relaie de influen cu ceilali, care poate fi
pasiv ori se poate nscrie ntr-o strategie construit, voluntar.

Tema: Puterea, autoritatea, stilurile de conducere.


1.Relatia- influena-puterea - autoritate.
2. Stiluri de management
1

Despre succesul managerului se judec nu dup lucrul efectuat de el, dar dup felul n
care el reuete de ai impulsiona la lucrul pe subalterni. Impulsionarea sau motivarea
personalului de a activa se poate de exercitat numai prin intermediul influenei.
Influena-este un act intenional prin care un individ ncearc s determine alt individ
s gndeasc sau s comit un alt lucru pe care acesta singur nu l-ar gndi sau
realiza. Deci la baza procesului de conducere st influena care se manifesta prin
aciunea emoional sau raional pe care un om o exercit asupra altuia in scopul
modificrii comportamentului. In sens negativ influena se manifesta prin manipulare.
In sens pozitiv ea este instrumentul care managerul direcioneaz activitile
subalternilor. Influena este bazat pe putere.
Puterea - este capacitatea de a influena asupra altora, de ai supune voinei proprii.
n dependen de cine exercit influena - puterea poate fi a individului, a grupei sau
organizaiei. Indiferent de faptul dac se aplic sau nu puterea exist. Astfel ea poate fi
formala sau reala. Puterea este o funcie de interdependen. Cu ct o persoan
depinde mai mult de alt persoan, cu att este mai mare puterea la unul i la altul.
Puterea este utilizat att de manageri ct i de subalterni pentru realizarea obiectivelor
i ntrirea poziiei sale n organizaie. Organizaia nu poate exista fr putere.
Deinerea puterii este o posibilitate de a influena satisfacerea nevoilor. Puterea n
organizaie niciodat nu este absolut astfel cel asupra cui ea se exercit are o careva
libertate n aciune.
Autoritatea - dreptul de folosi puterea asupra comportamentului celorlali.
Autoritatea este puterea formala sau legitima ce decurge din rolul poziiei oficiale
acordat cuiva si acceptat de subalterni i considerat just. Caracteristicile autoritii:
- Este putere obiectiva, specificat prin norme, regulamente i simboluri.
- La baza ei se afla consimmntul i conformitatea.
- Este o ierarhie a rolurilor sociale.
Att puterea ct i autoritatea se manifesta prin influena pe care un individ o exercita asupra celorlali.
Puterea devine autoritate cnd este legitimat, oficial i acceptat. Autoritatea poate sa rmn doar un drept
recunoscut cnd este lipsit de putere i de abilitatea de ai influena pe alii. In organizaie liderul informal are
putere i nu autoritate. Managerul este cel cui i se acord autoritate, dar care poate fi limitat n posibilitatea de
a influena n cazul cnd nu posed calitile, aptitudinile i cunotinele necesare.
Iniial specialitii delimitau 5 surse ale puterii: constrngerea; expertiza; dreptul la decizie; charisma;
recompensa. Ulterior la aceste surse sau adugat informaia i relaiile. n prezent toate sursele puterii sunt
divizate n dou categorii: individuale i organizaionale
Surse individuale ale puterii
Surse organizaionale ale puterii
1 puterea de expert
1 adoptarea deciziilor
2 charisma (puterea exemplului)
2 recompensa
3 dreptul la putere
3 constrngerea
4 puterea informaiei
4 controlul resurselor
5 nevoia de putere
5 puterea relaiilor
Puterea de expert capacitatea conductorului de a influena pe alii prin faptul c este bine pregtit ntr-un
domeniu oarecare, este instruit, are practic, talent, deprinderi. Cu ct omul are mai multe cunotine in

domeniu cu att el este mai influent. Puterea de expert nu este strict legat de postul ocupat, dar de competena
demonstrat de individ.
Puterea exemplului - capacitatea conductorului de influena comportamentul subalternilor datorit
atractivitii sale personale, existena unei charisme. Charisma puterea bazat pe fora calitilor individuale
i a stilului conductorului( idolul), atractivitatea pentru oameni a unor caliti individuale, dorina de a se
identifica cu persoana adorat, de a o imita. De obicei este o putere iraional, bazat pe emoii.

Dreptul la putere. Conductorii de acelai nivel au drepturi similare, dar fiecare utilizeaz dreptul acordat lui
de subalterni n limita capacitilor individuale. Se primete c fiecare conductor are drept diferit la putere.
Dreptul la putere este puterea primit de la subalterni, se manifest prin recunoaterea de ctre acetia a
dreptului de ai conduce i depinde de msura n care ei v stimeaz, v sunt devotai.
Puterea informaiei - se bazeaz accesul la informaia necesar i capacitatea de o folosi la influenarea altora.
Ex. puterea secretarei, ajutorului etc.
Nevoia de putere - dorina de a influena pe alii. Aceast surs se manifest prin faptul c persoan insistent
dorete s v acord sfaturi i ajutor, e preocupat de reputaia personal.
Adoptarea deciziilor - ca surs a puterii se manifest n gradul n care purttorul acestea poate influena
asupra adoptrii unei sau altei variante pe durata ntregului proces de adoptare a deciziei.
Recompensa Efortul depus de subaltern pentru realizarea indicaiilor primite este n funcie de ateptrile
privind nivelul recompenselor acordate de ctre manager. Efectul acestei surse de putere poate fi diminuat n
cazul cnd managerul nu-i respect promisiunea de a recompensare a unor eforturi ,sau cnd sunt remunerate
persoanele care nu au executat indicaiile primite.
Consrngerea - se realizeaz prin capacitatea managerului de a influena comportamentul subalternului prin
intermediul pedepsei, amenzii, mustrrii, retrogradrii n post, concedierii. ntruct la baza acestei puteri se afl
frica, ea limiteaz iniiativa i creativitatea indivizilor. Fora acestei puteri poate fi diminuat n cazul
pedepselor ne justificate.
Controlul resurselor reiese din dreptul de a repartiza resursele din organizaie, deci puterea depinde de
postul pe care-l are persoana. n special aceast surs a puterii se manifest n cazul deficitului, n aa fel
pentru a avea o influen mai sporit asupra oamenilor se creeaz contient deficitul de resurse.
Puterea relaiilor se bazeaz pe capacitatea individului de a influena alte persoane prin asocierea sa cu
persoanele influente din organizaie sau exterior. Puterea relaiilor nu necesit existena acestor relaii, dar
perceperea de ctre cel asupra cruia se execut influena c o asemenea relaie exist.

How Does An Influence Tactic Work?


Leaders tend to use different tactics and to have somewhat different objectives depending
on the direction of the influence. For instance, this typically can be seen when a leader
attempts to influence someone above them or below them.
An important reason for choosing a specific influence tactic may depend on what the
leader wishes to accomplish. For example, a manager in an organization may want to
influence employees to:
Modify their plans and schedules

Approve and support manager plans and proposals


Accept and carry out new assignments
Provide relevant and timely information
Discontinue inappropriate behavior
In a community or volunteer setting, a leader may wish to influence participants to:
Increase their commitment toward a goal
Influence the outcome of a decision
Increase pressure to get something done
Gain support for a specific project
Types of Influence Tactics
The Power Use Model predicts someones choice of influence tactics in terms of its
softness versus hardness. This dimension is defined in terms of how much freedom a
tactic leaves the person to decide either to yield or to resist the influence attempt: Hard
tactics leave individuals less freedom than soft tactics. Hard tactics include exchange,
legitimating, pressure, assertiveness, upward appeal and coalitions. These
behaviors are perceived as more forceful and push the person to comply. Soft tactics, on
the other hand, are influence behaviors which are considered thoughtful and constructive.
Soft tactics include personal appeal, consultation, inspirational appeal,
ingratiation and rational persuasion.
Soft tactics allow the person to be influenced with more latitude in deciding whether or
not to accept the influence than do hard tactics. Hard influence tactics can place more
strain on the relationship between the influencing person and the target, especially when
the action was unwarranted.
Influence tactics can also be divided into push and pull tactics. Both categories can
get results. Push tactics tend to get short-term results, while pull tactics garner support
rather than compliance.

Researchers disagree over the exact number of tactics. However, the following table
gives a definition for the most common tactics and the effectiveness of their use.
Tactic

Definition

Effectiveness

Pressure

Behavior includes demands, threats or intimidation to Low


convince others to comply with a request or to support
a proposal.

Assertiveness

Behavior includes repeatedly making requests, setting Low


timelines for project completion or expressing anger
toward individuals who do not meet expectations.

Legitimating

Behavior seeks to persuade others that the request is


something they should comply with given their
situation or position.

Low

Coalition

Behavior seeks the aid of others to persuade them to


do something or uses the support of others as an
argument for them to agree.

Low

Exchange

Behavior makes explicit or implicit a promise that


Moderate
others will receive rewards or tangible benefits if they
comply with a request or reminds others of a favor
that should be reciprocated.

Upward
Appeals

Behavior seeks the approval/acceptance of those in


higher positions within the organization prior to
making a request of someone.

Moderate

Ingratiating

Behavior seeks to get others in a good mood or to


think favorably of them before asking them to do
something.

Moderate

Rational
Persuasion

Behavior uses logical arguments and factual evidence Moderate


to persuade others that a proposal or request is viable
and likely to result in task objectives.

Personal
Appeals

Behavior seeks others compliance to their request by Moderate


asking a special favor for them, or relying on
interpersonal relationships to influence their behavior.

Inspirational
Appeals

Behavior makes an emotional request or proposal that High


arouses enthusiasm by appealing to others values and
ideals, or by increasing their confidence that they can
succeed.

Consultation

Behavior seeks others participation in making a


decision or planning how to implement a proposed
policy, strategy or change.

High

Outcomes of Influence Attempts


The success of any influence attempt is defined in terms of the response of the follower
or object of the influence effort. There are three possible outcomes of influence attempts:
1. Resistance: The person you are trying to influence resists your efforts to influence
his or her behavior and either avoids, ignores or actively resists your efforts at
influence. This resistance can take several forms, which may include the
following:
o Refuse outright to agree to your attempts to influence them.
o Ignore your efforts at influence.
o Make excuses why they cannot do what you want.
o Ask higher authorities to overrule your request.
o Attempt to persuade you to withdraw your attempt at influence.
o Delay acting on your influence efforts.
o Make a pretense of complying while actively attempting to sabotage your
efforts.
2. Compliance: The person you are trying to influence accepts your influence
attempt, but apathetically or unenthusiastically. When the response to your
influence attempt can be described as compliance, it is likely you have been

successful in influencing the behavior, but not the attitudes of your influence
target.
3. Commitment: The object of your influence attempt agrees with your decision or
influence effort and makes an enthusiastic, voluntary effort to do what you have
asked. The response comes not because the person has to but because he or she
wants to.
Examples of the Effective Use of Influence
Here are three scenarios in which influence could be used. For each situation, ask the
following questions:
1. What influence tactic would be the most effective?
2. What influence tactic would be the least effective?
3. What is the objective of the influence?
Situation #1: You have heard several accounts from reliable sources that one of your top
performers in your department has been sexually harassing a coworker. You would hate
to lose this employee, but you strongly disapprove of people who abuse their power. You
want the behavior stopped before the company is slapped with a lawsuit.
Rational persuasion and pressure are the most effective in this particular situation. This is
an example where a soft or pull tactic would be ineffective. This situation does not allow
for the individual to have a choice. Action is needed now. The objective of the influence
is to stop the behavior.
Situation #2: You are concerned that the other managers in your somewhat conservative
company have not completely grasped the need to be more competitive. Even though the
firms profit and loss statement and other statistics have been slipping steadily, most of
them do not yet perceive a need for change. You want to encourage them to implement a
Total Quality program.
The objective in this scenario is to influence the employees to see the need for increased
motivation for improved economic gain. Personal and inspirational appeals could provide

the greatest effect as these create long-term behavior change. Hard or push tactics would
be the least effective, and could lead to a further decline in motivation.
Situation #3: You are the chairperson of the Administrative Council for your local
community organization. Looking at the end of year financial report, you realize that the
budget must be increased by $5,000 to meet an increase in insurance premiums. You
must address the entire membership to influence increased monetary giving.
Increased financial giving is the objective of this influence. Rational persuasion and
inspirational appeals could serve to influence the membership of the benefits of the
increased monetary needs. Hard or push tactics would be the least effective. It could
anger the members into not providing any financial help.