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Curs

Utilizarea Sistemelor
de Operare

1. Introducere in SO
2. Procese si fire de executie
3. Memorie
4. Sistemul I/O
5. Retelistica
6. Securitatea SO

2012 - 2015
SL. dr. ing. Stefan Mocanu

7. SO embedded, distribuite, mobile

Curs 1

SL dr. ing. Mihnea Moisescu

Obiective

Laborator

1. Dobandirea/aprofundarea unor notiuni teoretice (c)


2. Dobandirea/aprofundarea unor abilitati practice (l)

1. Sisteme de Operare: Windows, Linux

3. Familiarizarea cu noi concepte (c+l)

2. Organizare, comenzi uzuale, instalare, retelistica, securitate

4. Cresterea gradului de intelegere a functionarii unui SO (c+l)


5.

Imbunatatirea abilitatilor de configurare/utilizare a unui SO (c+l)

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Evaluare/notare

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Ce este un calculator ?

1. Punctaj laborator:
1. Activitate practica
2. Evaluari pe parcurs (diverse forme)

Observatii:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Prezenta la laborator este obligatorie !


Laboratoarele nu se pot reface
Nu se pot face mai multe laboratoare odata !
Este OBLIGATORIE obtinerea a cel putin 50% din punctajul de
laborator pentru a putea sustine examenul final !
5. Lipsa sau insuficienta punctajului de laborator (vezi 4) duce la
repetarea materiei !!!

Evaluare/notare

Ce este un calculator ?

2. Punctaj examen final:


1. Examen scris, intrebari -> raspunsuri scurte si la obiect

Observatii:
1. Nu se obtin puncte suplimentare pentru prezenta !
2. Se pot obtine puncte bonus prin activitati suplimentare sau
implicare in derularea cursului
3. Prezenta la examenul final este conditionata de promovarea
laboratorului (vezi slide-ul anterior !)
4. Examenul final va avea loc in sesiune !
5. Examenul final NU va fi sub forma de grila !

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Cronologie

Ce este un calculator ?
Definitie:
Un dispozitiv electronic capabil sa primeasca
informatii (date) intr-un format si sa execute o
secventa de operatii, in concordanta cu un set
predeterminat de instructiuni (program), pentru a
produce un rezultat sub forma informatiilor sau
semnalelor.

Generatia
Zero

Prima
Generatie

A doua
Generatie

A treia
Generatie

1945

1955

1965

1980
1970

ELECTRONICS ERA

Oxford dictionary

A patra
Generatie

prezent
1989

MINI MICRO
ERA ERA
NETWORK ERA

!!!

Ce este un calculator ?
Un calculator este un dispozitiv care:
Accepta intrari
Executa in mod automat o procedura (lista de pasi)
Genereaza iesiri

Fig 34 a, b

http://www.computingbook.org/

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Cronologie - Generatia zero

Prima generatie
(1945-1955)

1926, Julius Edgar Lilienfield


patenteaza tranzistorul

Fig 1

1940 ENIGMA - familie de masini


electromecanice criptografice
utilizate pentru criptarea i decriptarea de
mesaje secrete

Pionieri: Howard Aiken (Harvard), John


von Neumann (Princeton), Konrad Zuse
(Germania)
Relee mecanice la inceput
Tuburi cu vid continuare
Limbaj masina absolut
fire de legatura pe placa de conexiuni
cartele perforate, ulterior
NU exista un limbaj de programare
propriu-zis
Exemplu de utilizare:
tabele de sin, cos, log

Fig 3

Ref 1

1941 Konrad Zuse - Germania, realizeaza


primul calculator programabil

Fig 4

Fig 2

1943 Colossus Anglia, calculator folosit


pentru decriptare mesaje ENIGMA

Fig 9

Ref 2

Prima generatie
(1945-1955)

Cronologie - Prima generatie (1945-1955)


1945 - ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator
Analyzor and Computer) dezvoltat de Ballistics
Research Lab si contruit la University of
Pennsylvania primul calculator electronic
1947 Tranzistorul este dezvoltat de Bell
Telephone Laboratories.

Programarea ENIAC

Fig 5

1951 - UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)


prima memorie cu mercur- 12,000 cifre.
1952 - EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable
Computer) realizat pentru armata SUA
Fig 6

1953 - IBM 650 primul computer produs


in masa 500 tuburi cu vid

Fig 9
Fig 7

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Prima generatie
(1945-1955)

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A doua generatie
(1955-1965)
Tranzistoare
Au condus la aparitia sistemelor mari de
calcul (mainframes)
Specializare: proiectant, constructor,
programator, depanare
Cartele perforate: limbaj de asamblare,
FORTRAN
Sisteme cu procesare pe loturi de lucrari
(batch processing)
Lot de cartele transferat pe banda
magnetica
Banda magnetica citita de sistem
Rezultatele scrise pe banda si transferate
la imprimanta
Exemple de utilizare:
rezolvare ecuatii diferentiale, inginerie

Tuburi cu vid

A doua generatie
(1955-1965)

Fig 14

Fig 13

A doua generatie
(1955-1965)

1959 -Texas Instruments si Fairchild


Semiconductor dezvolta circuitul integrat
1960 - Digital Equipment Corporation
(DEC) primul mini-computer cu ecran PDP-1 - Programmed Data Processor

Fig 11
Fig 11

1964 - IBM System/360, - Era Supercomputerelor, software ce putea fi


schimbat, periferice
Fig 13
Fig 12

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A treia generatie
(1965-1980)

A treia generatie
(1965-1980)
1968 - Doug Engelbart primul mouse si
tastatura, primul procesor word = editor
de text
Fig 15

1969 ARPAnet - Advanced Research


Projects Agency Network un stramos al
Internet-ului.
1970- Fairchild Semiconductor - cip 256bit RAM.

Fig 16

1971-Intel - 4004 Microprocessor


primul microprocesor pe 4 biti

A treia generatie
(1965-1980)

A treia generatie
(1965-1980)

1975 -Popular Electronics lanseaza MITS


Altair 8800 primul Personal
Computer = PC
1976 -Steve Wozniak si Steve Jobs
lanseaza Apple I

Fig 24
Steve Wozniak

11

Fig 23
Steve Jobs

Fig 19

Fig 18

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A patra generatie
(1980-prezent)

A patra generatie
(1980-prezent)
Calculatoare personale circuite integrate LSL (Large
Scale Integration) -> microprocesor
Intel 8080 primul CPU pe 8 biti (scara larga)
Sisteme de operare: CP/M (Control Program for
Microcomputer)
IBM PC -> DOS / Basic (Disk Operating System)
MSDOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) tastatura, consola
Apple Macintosh -> GUI (Graphical User Interface):
ferestre, iconite, meniuri, mouse
Windows initial peste MSDOS -> Windows 95
independent

A patra generatie
(1980-prezent)

Sistem de calcul
1984
Macintosh
Sistem de calcul

1981 - IBM PC (model 5150)

1985 Felix HC

Hardware

Software

1982 - Spectrum

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Sistem de calcul

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Hardware

CPU
Motherboard
Fig 25

I/O

Hardware Mother board

Sistem de calcul
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Memorii

Scanner
CPU = Central processing unit (Microprocessor)
Memory (RAM)
Expansion cards (graphics cards, etc.)
Power supply
Optical disc drive
Storage (Hard disk)
Motherboard
Speakers
Monitor
System software
Application software
Keyboard
Mouse
External hard disk
Printer
Fig 26

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Hardware - Mother board


Module de memorie:
SIMM Single Inline Memory Module
DIMM Dual Inline Memory Module
RIMM RamBUS Inline Memory Module
Fig29

Fig30

Arhitectura Mother-board

Fig 27

Hardware - Mother board

Hardware Mother board

Format standard (eng: motherboard form factor):


ATX (Advanced Technology eXtended),
BTX (Balanced Technology eXtended),
NLX (New Low profile eXtended)

Magistrale de date:
Magistrale - procesor
Magistrale extinse:
PCI Peripherical Component Interconnect
PCIe Express
AGP Accelerated Graphics Port
IDE Integrated Device Electronic
ATA Advanced Technology Attachment
PATA Parallel ATA
SATA Serial ATA
Fig 28

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Hardware - CPU

Hardware - CPU
www.amd.com

Producatori importanti Central Processing Unit:


Intel
AMD
IBM
NVIDIA
MOTOROLA
QUALCOM
VIA

Hardware - CPU

Hardware memorii

www.intel.com

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Sistem de calcul

Hardware I/O

Computerul contine unul sau mai multe elemente din


urmatoarele categorii:

Mouse ?!

Procesorul - unitate centrala de procesare (CPU)


controleaza functionarea computerului
proceseaza datele

Memoria principala memorie reala sau primara


stocheaza date si programe.
Este, de regula, volatila (se pierde la inchiderea computerului)

Modulele I/O
Asigura transferul datelor intre computer si exterior
Ex: dispozitive de memorie secundare, echipamente de
comunicare, unitati de disc

Magistrale (de date, de adrese si de control ):


comunicarea intre procesoare, memoria de baza si modulele I/O.

Toate sunt interconectate pentru a asigura functionarea


computerului, adica executia programelor.

Sistem de calcul arhitectura UCP (CPU)

Hardware I/O

Intrare

Citire
Instructiune

Decodare

Executie
Instructiune

Eng: Fetch

Eng: Decode

Eng: Execute

Iesire

Fig. Unitatea Centrala de Procesare - Ciclu de baza al instructiunilor

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Modelul von Neuman

Unitatea Centrala de Procesare


Functii de baza:
Fetch - preluarea instructiunilor din memorie
Decode decodarea instructiunilor
Execute executia instructiunilor

Numit si Princeton architecture


1) Un calculator compus din subsisteme legate printr-o
magistrala:
Memorie
ALU (Arithmetic/Logic Unit)
Unitate de control
Sistem Input/Output (I/O)

Activitati efectuate:
Executia de operatii de baza (logice si aritmetice)
Planificarea si controlul operatiilor
Memorarea instructiunilor si datelor (operanzilor)

2)

Distinctie intre adresa si continut al memoriei


3)

Modelul von Neuman vs. modelul Harvard

John von Neumann

Instructiunile din program se executa secvential.

Datele si instructiunile sunt stocate separat


Procesorul poate simultan:
Citi o instructiune din memorie
Accesa memoria de date
Modelul Harvard Modificat
Nu prevede o separare atat de stricta intre instructiuni si date
Separarea se face in functie de implementare
Aceasi memorie separata ierarhic dupa tip: date si instructiuni

Magistrala adrese

CPU
Magistrala date

vs.

Fig31

Modelul Harvard

Modelul von Neuman


Memorie

Atat programul cat si datele sunt stocate in memorie in


timpul executiei.

Modelul Harvard
Memorie
date
Memorie
instructiuni

IBM
Automatic Sequence
Controlled Calculator (ASCC),
Harvard Mark I

Magistrala adrese

CPU
Magistrala date

Magistrala instructiuni

Fig 33

Magistrala de adrese

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Bibliografie imagini 1
Fig1: A Enigma G machine on display at the National Cryptologic Museum in 2005. Photographer: Austin Mills - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Enigma-G.jpg
Fig2: Colossus codebreaking computer in operation, This file is from the collections of The
National Archives (United Kingdom), catalogued under document record FO850/234,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Colossus.jpg
Fig3: http://transistorselect.blogspot.ro/2010/11/blog-post.html
Fig4: de|Nachbau des Z1 im deutschen Technik Museum in Berlin, Sursa:
de.wikipedia.org: 22:33, 27. Dez 2005 . . ComputerGeek
Fig5: ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Glen Beck (background) and Betty Snyder (foreground) program the ENIAC in BRL building
328, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eniac.jpg
Fig6: Photo by U. S. Navy Electronics Supply Office as part of the Report Department of the
Army, Ballistic Research Laboratories - Maryland, A third survey of domestic electronic digital
computing systems, Report No 1115, 1961, The UNIVAC II,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Univac-I-Navy-Electronics-Supply-Office-BRL61-0992.jpg
Fig7: w:IBM 650 computer at Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, opened to show
storage drum and rear of front panel. Author: Cushing Memorial Library and Archives, Texas
A&M, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IBM_650_with_front_open.jpg

Bibliografie imagini 2

Bibliografie

Fig8: The Basic 650 Configuration. Photo: IBM Archive,


http://www.columbia.edu/cu/computinghistory/650.html
Fig9: IBM vacuum tube module in the museum "Haus zur Geschichte der IBM
Datenverarbeitung" in Sindelfingen, Germany, Author: JuergenG,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:RoehreIBM_090325.jpg
Fig10: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/computinghistory/eniac.html
Fig11: PDP-1 computer, Author: Matthew Hutchinson, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PDP1.jpg
Fig12: Ein System/360 zur Elektronischen Datenverarbeitung im VW-Werk Wolfsburg (1973),
PhotographerSchaack, Lothar, German Federal Archive,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_B_145_Bild-F038812-0014,_ Wolfsburg,
_VW_Autowerk.jpg
Fig13: Punch card from a typical Fortran program, Arnold Reinhold,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:FortranCardPROJ039.agr.jpg
Fig14: Assorted discrete transistors. Packages in order from top to bottom: TO-3, TO-126,
TO-92, SOT-23. AuthorTransisto , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Transistorer_(croped).jpg

http://elec.widgetlifes.com/the-10-most-influential-computer-history-newstechradar-uk/
http://www.lovendal.net/wp52/uluitorul-mecanism-din-antikythera-uncomplex-computer-antic/
http://www.computer-history.info/Page4.dir/pages/Univac.dir/index.html
http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/samp-collection.html
http://www.palvenn.no/ITkonsulent.lnk/main02achievements/cdc/default.h
tm?path=main02achievements/cdc
http://www.computer-hardware-explained.com/what-is-amotherboard.html
http://www.technogeek.ro/solid-state-disk.html
http://www.c-jump.com/CIS77/CPU/VonNeumann/lecture.html
http://web.engr.oregonstate.edu/~traylor/ece112/lectures/comp_arch.pdf
Andrew S. Tanenbaum Sisteme de operare moderne
William Stalling Operating Systems Internals and design Principles

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Bibliografie imagini 3

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Bibliografie imagini 5

Fig15: SRIs first computer mouse prototype, Douglas Engelbart AuthorSRI International
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SRI_Computer_Mouse.jpg
Fig16: Intel 4004, Photo by John Pilge. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:C4004_(Intel).jpg
Fig17 CPU Intel C8008-1 AuthorKonstantin Lanzet
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:KL_Intel_C8008-1.jpg
Fig18: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apple_II_tranparent_800.png
Fig19 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Altair_8800_Computer.jpg
Fig20: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arpanet_logical_map,_march_1977.png
Fig21: Paul G. Allen at Flying Heritage Collection, AuthorMiles Harris,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Paul_G._Allen.jpg
Fig22: Bill Gates in Berlin (2013), Authorwww.dts-nachrichtenagentur.de, http://www.dtsnachrichtenagentur.de/kostenlose_bilder.php
Fig23: Steve Jobs shows off the iPhone 4 at the 2010 Worldwide Developers Conference,
AuthorMatthew Yohe http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Steve_Jobs_Headshot_2010CROP.jpg
Fig24 Steve Wozniak, Photo taken by Al Luckow,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Steve_Wozniak.jpg

Fig 32: A Macintosh 128K, Authorw:User:Grm wnr,


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Macintosh_128k_transparency.png
Fig 33: IBM MARK I http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/markI/markI_intro.html
Fig 34 a,b : http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/antikythera.htm,
http://www.giovannipastore.it/ANTIKYTHERA.htm, http://www.antikythera-mechanism.gr/

Bibliografie imagini 4
Fig25 Exploded view of a personal computer, Self-published work
by User:HereToHelp and File:Personal computer, exploded 5.svg,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Personal_computer,_exploded_6.svg
Fig26 labeled diagram of Acer E360 Socket 939 motherboard by Foxconn (labels in
English), Derivative works of this file: Acer E360 Socket 939 motherboard by
Foxconn hr.svg,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Acer_E360_Socket_939_motherboard_by_Foxconn.s
vg
Fig27 block diagram of a modern motherboard (legend in English), user:Moxfyre.
Original uploader was Moxfyre at en.wikipedia,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Motherboard_diagram.svg
Fig28 Comparison of (personal) computer motherboard form factors, VIA
Gallery from Hsintien, Taiwan, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VIA_MiniITX_Form_Factor_Comparison.jpg
Fig29: Crop from :Image:RAM n.jpg, Original uploader
was Grendelkhan at en.wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIMMs.jpg
Fig 30: 3 SDRAM DIMM Slots, Benjamin albert,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:3SDRAM-DIMMs.jpg
Fig 31: http://www.lanl.gov/history/atomicbomb/images/NeumannL.GIF (Archive
copy at the Internet Archive), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:JohnvonNeumannLosAlamos.gif

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