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MAKING A WAVE

MACHINE
A WAVE MACHINE IS A SIMPLE MACHINE USED TO
STUDY WAVE MOTION ON THE SURFACE OF WATER.
BY THE ROTATION OF A MOTOR, WAVES ARE

CREATED ON THE SURFACE OF WATER, AND THEIR


MOTION IS STUDIED.

YOU REQUIRE;
A SMALL ELECTRIC MOTOR FOR 12 VOLT
SUPPLY

ONE BATTERY OF 9 VOLT


A WOODEN BOARD
SCREWS OR RUBBER BANDS
AN EMPTY THREAD SPOOL
SMALL PIECES OF PAPER
A SHORT WOODEN ROD WITH HOOK
A STING
A CORK

WHAT TO DO

TAKE A SMALL ELECTRIC MOTOR AND CONNECT


IT TO A BATTERY OF 9 VOLT OR EVEN LOW.

FIX THE MOTOR ON THE WOODEN PLATFORM


WITH THE HELP OF THE SCREWS OR RUBBER
BANDS, AS SHOWN IN FIGURE.

PUSH THE MOTOR SPINDLE INTO THE HOLE OF


THE EMPTY THREAD SPOOL. TIGHTEN IT WITH
THE SMALL PIECES OF PAPER.

HANG THE SMALL WOODEN ROD ON A LOOP OF


STRING PASSING OVER THE SPOOL AND
THROUGH THE HOOK OF THE SMALL WOODEN
ROD.

SWITCH ON THE MOTOR .THE MOTOR SHOULD


RUN FAIRLY SLOWLY, MAKING THE SPOOL

WOBBLE AND THE ROD BOB UP-AND-DOWN IN


WATER.

TAKE A BATH TUB OR TRAY AND FILL IT WITH

WATER TO HALF OF ITS DEPTH. HOLD THE WAVE


MACHINE OVER THE TRAY SO THAT THE ROD
DIPS IN THE WATER. THE UP-AND-DOWN
MOTION OF THE ROD WILL PRODUCE CIRCULAR
WAVES ON THE SURFACE OF WATER.

BY PUTTING SMALL PIECES OF PAPER ON

THESE WAVES, YOU CAN PROVE THAT THE


WATER DOES DOES NOT MOVE WITH THE WAVES
BUT ONLY MAKES AN UP-AND-DOWN MOTION.

NOW. MAKE THE ROD MOVE THROUGH THE

WATER AS IT BOBS UP AND DOWN. CIRCLES OF


WAVES WILL STILL BE FORMED, BUT EACH
CIRCLE IS CENTERED ON A DIFFERENT POINT. AS
A RESULT THE WAVES ARE COMPRESSED IN
FRONT OF THE ROD, AND SPREAD OUT BEHIND
IT.

THIS WAVE PATTERN SHOWS WHY THE DOPPLER


EFFECT OCCURS. THE WAVES PASS ANY POINT IN
FRONT OF THE ROD AT A GREATER RATE, OR
FREQUENCY, THAN THEY PASS A POINT BEHIND THE

ROD. IN THE CASE OF SOUND WAVES, THIS


INCREASE IN FREQUENCY CORRESPONDS TO AN
INCREASE IN PITCH. THIS IS WHY A TRAIN WHISTLE
SEEMS TO HAVE A HIGHER PITCH WHEN THE TRAIN
IS APPROACHING.
A SIMILAR WAVE PATTERN ALSO FORMS IN FRONT
OF FAST MOVING AIRCRAFT. AT HIGH SPEEDS, THE
WAVES COMBINE TO FORM A SHOCH WAVE. TRY
SIMULATING THIS EFFECT USING A WAVE MACHINE.

NOTE;
THE WAVES PRODUCED ON THE SURFACE OF WATER
BY AWAVE MACHINE IS PROBABLY THE MOST
FAMILIAR KIND OF WAVES, BUT THERE ARE MANY
OTHER KINDS OF WAVES ALL AROUND US.FOR
EXAMPLE SOUND IS PRODUCED BY WAVES.
PEOPLES VOICES TRAVEL TO OUR EARS IN WAVES.
SOUND WAVES ARE LONGI TUDINAL WAVES. RADIO
AND TELEVISION PROGRAMES REACH OUR HOMES
IN THE FORM OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. LIGHT
RAYS AMD X-RAYS TRAVEL IN WAVES. THESE ARE
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES.
SOUND WAVES NEED MATERIAL MEDIUM TO
TRAVEL WHILE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES CAN
TRAVEL EVEN WITHOUT ANY MATERIAL MEDIUM.
WAVES OF ALL KINDS CARRY ENERGY WITH THEM.
ALL MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS PRODUCE WAVES OF
DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES.

THANK
YOU
MAM

INDEX

S. TOPI REM
N C
ARK
O

1. WAV
E
MAC
HINE