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Welcome to Adams/Car

2 Adams/Car
About Adams/Car

About Adams/Car
Adams/Car, part of the MD Adams 2010® suite of software, is a specialized environment for modeling
vehicles. It allows you to create virtual prototypes of vehicle subsystems and analyze the virtual
prototypes much like you would analyze the physical prototypes.
Using Adams/Car, you can quickly create assemblies of suspensions and full vehicles, and then analyze
them to understand their performance and behavior.
You create assemblies in Adams/Car by defining vehicle subsystems, such as front and rear suspensions,
steering gears, anti-roll bars, and bodies. You base these subsystems on their corresponding standard
Adams/Car templates. For example, Adams/Car includes templates for double-wishbone suspension,
MacPherson strut suspension, rack-and-pinion steering, and so on.
If you have expert-user access, you can also base your subsystems on custom templates that you create
using the Adams/Car Template Builder.
When you analyze an assembly, Adams/Car applies the analysis inputs that you specify. For example, for
a suspension analysis you can specify inputs to:
• Move the wheels through bump-rebound travel and measure the toe, camber, wheel rate, roll
rate, and side-view swing arm length.
• Apply lateral load and aligning torque at the tire contact path and measure the toe change and
lateral deflection of the wheel.
• Rotate the steering wheel from lock to lock and measure the steer angles of the wheels and the
amount of Ackerman, that is, the difference between the left and right wheel-steer angles.
Based on the analysis results, you can quickly alter the suspension geometry or the spring rates and
analyze the suspension again to evaluate the effects of the alterations. For example, you can quickly
change a rear suspension from a trailing-link to a multi-link topology to see which yields the best
handling characteristics for your vehicle.
Once you complete the analysis of your model, you can share your work with others. You can also print
plots of the suspension characteristics and vehicle dynamic responses. In addition, you can access other
users' models without overwriting their data.

Benefits of Adams/Car
Adams/Car enables you to work faster and smarter, letting you have more time to study and understand
how design changes affect vehicle performance.
Using Adams/Car you can:
• Explore the performance of your design and refine your design before building and testing a
physical prototype.
• Analyze design changes much faster and at a lower cost than physical prototype testing would
require. For example, you can change springs with a few mouse clicks instead of waiting for a
mechanic to install new ones in your physical prototype before re-evaluating your design.
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About Adams/Car

• Vary the kinds of analyses faster and more easily than if you had to modify instrumentation, test
fixtures, and test procedures.
• Work in a more secure environment without the fear of losing data from instrument failure or
losing testing time because of poor weather conditions.
• Run analyses and what-if scenarios without the dangers associated with physical testing.
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About Adams/Car
Learning the Basics
6 Adams/Car
Starting Adams/Car

Starting Adams/Car
In the Windows environment, you start Adams/Car from the Start button. In the UNIX environment, you
start Adams/Car from the Adams Toolbar. For more information, see Running and Configuring Adams.
This topic describes how you start the two Adams/Car Interface Modes, standard interface or template
builder.

Adams/Car Standard Interface


Adams/Car has two interface modes: Standard Interface and Template Builder. This topic explains how
to start Adams/Car Standard Interface.

To start in the Windows environment:


1. From the Stat menu, point to Programs, point to MSC.Software, point to MD Adams 2010,
point to ACar, and then select Adams - Car.
The Welcome Dialog Box appears on top of the Adams/Car main window.
2. Do one of the following:
• If the Welcome dialog box contains the options Standard Interface and Template Builder,
select Standard Interface, and then select OK.
• If the Welcome dialog box does not contain any options, then Adams/Car is already
configured to run in standard-interface mode. Select OK.
The Adams/Car Standard Interface appears.

To start in the UNIX environment:


1. At the command prompt, enter the command to start the Adams Toolbar, and then press Enter.
The standard command that MSC.Software provides is mdadamsx, where x is the version
number, for example mdadams2010.
The Adams Toolbar appears.
2. Select the Adams/Car tool .
The Welcome Dialog Box appears on top of the Adams/Car main window.
3. Do one of the following:
• If the Welcome dialog box contains the options Standard Interface and Template Builder,
select Standard Interface, and then select OK.
• If the Welcome dialog box does not contain any options, then Adams/Car is already
configured to run in standard mode. Select OK.
The Adams/Car Standard Interface appears.
Learning the Basics 7
Starting Adams/Car

Adams/Car Template Builder


Adams/Car has two interface modes: Standard Interface and Template Builder. This topic explains how
to start Adams/Car Template Builder.
Before you start Adams/Car Template Builder, make sure that your private configuration file, .acar.cfg,
shows that you have expert-user access. Your private configuration file is located in your home directory.

To check user access:


1. In a text editor, such as jot or notepad, open .acar.cfg.
2. Verify that the following line appears as shown:
ENVIRONMENT MDI_ACAR_USERMODE EXPERT
This line sets the user mode for the Adams/Car session.

To start in the Windows environment:


1. From the Start menu, point to Programs, point to MSC.Software, point to MD Adams 2010,
point to ACar, and then select Adams - Car.
The Welcome Dialog Box appears on top of the Adams/Car main window.
2. Select Template Builder.
3. Select OK.
The Adams/Car Template Builder window appears.

To start in the UNIX environment:


1. At the command prompt, enter the command to start the Adams Toolbar, and then press Enter.
The standard command that MSC.Software provides is mdadamsx, where x is the version
number, for example mdadams2010.
The Adams Toolbar appears.
2. Select the Adams/Car tool .
The Welcome Dialog Box appears on top of the Adams/Car main window.
3. Select Template Builder.
4. Select OK.
The Adams/Car Template Builder window appears.
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Interfaces and Access

Interfaces and Access


You can use Adams/Car through two different interfaces depending on your user access.

Interface Modes
Adams/Car has two interface modes:
• Standard Interface - You use it when working with existing templates to create and analyze
assemblies of suspensions and full vehicles. Users with standard and expert access can use the
Standard Interface.
• Template Builder - If you have expert-user access, you use the Template Builder to create new
templates for use in the Standard Interface.
When you create a new component in the Template Builder, your product automatically adds a
prefix based on the entity type and the symmetry. Your product uses a naming convention to let
you easily determine an entity’s type from the entity’s name. Learn about the naming convention
and see a table that lists the prefixes of various entities. If you have expert-user access, you use
the Template Builder to create new templates for use in the Standard Interface.
Using the Template Builder, you can assemble standard components, such as springs, parts, and
bushings, to define the topology of your system, such as a suspension or a single valvetrain in an
engine.

To switch between modes:


Do one of the following:
• From the Tools menu, select [Product Name] Standard Interface or select [Product Name]
Template Builder.
• Press F9.

About User Access


Your access to the standard-interface or template-builder mode depends on your assigned user access:
• Standard user - Standard users do not have access to the Template Builder, only to the Standard
Interface. Therefore, the standard user cannot make topological modifications to templates, but
can operate on subsystems, varying design parametrics and analysis inputs.
• Expert user - Expert users have access to modeling capabilities available in theTemplate
Builder. Therefore, expert users can open templates and modify their topological information, as
well as create new templates.
If you are an expert user, when you launch your Adams product, it prompts you to select either
Standard Interface or Template Builder.
Learning the Basics 9
Interfaces and Access

Setting User Access


You use the MDI_ACAR_USERMODE keyword in your private configuration file to set your user access,
which determine you access to the Template Builder and other development tools. Your private
configuration file is found at $HOME/.acar.cfg, where $HOME is the location of your home directory.

Note: The private configuration file is not located in the installation directory. Never change the
acar.cfg file located in the installation

You can set USERMODE to:


• STANDARD - User can only access the Standard Interface.
• EXPERT - User can access the Template Builder and create and modify templates. User can
access the Template Builder and other development tools that are located under the Tools menu.
Expert users can use the MDI_ACAR_PLUS_AVIEW keyword in the private configuration file
to access Adams/View. Learn about accessing Adams/View.
To change the value of this keyword, you must edit the private configuration file (.acar.cfg) using a text
editor and modify the corresponding string. The following gives you expert access:
! Desired user mode (standard/expert)
ENVIRONMENT MDI_ACAR_USERMODE EXPERT
When you start a new session, your template-based product reflects the changes to the private
configuration file.
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Navigating Through a Modeling Database

Navigating Through a Modeling Database


The Database Navigator helps you view, select, and modify objects in your Modeling database.
Learn more:
• About the Database Navigator

Viewing Objects
• Showing, Hiding, and Selecting Objects in the Database Navigator
• Managing the Select List
• Filtering Objects in the Database Navigator
• Sorting Objects in the Database Navigator
• Setting Highlighting in the Database Navigator

Changing Objects
• Setting Appearance of Objects Through the Database Navigator
• Renaming Objects Through the Database Navigator
• Adding Comments Through the Database Navigator

Viewing Information About Your Model


• Viewing Model Topology Through the Database Navigator
• Viewing the Associativity of Objects
• Viewing Object Information Through the Database Navigator
• Viewing Model Topology Map Through Information Window

About the Database Navigator


The Database Navigator has several modes in which you can display object information. It can be set to
just let you browse for objects or you can set it to rename objects, view information about the objects,
such as view how the object relates to other objects, and view dependencies.
The Database Navigator only displays the types of objects that are appropriate for the command you are
executing. For example, if you are renaming a model, it only displays models in your database. On the
other hand, if you are searching for any modeling object in the database, it displays all types of modeling
objects. You can also set a filter for the types of objects that the Database Navigator displays.
The Database Navigator shows objects in their database hierarchy. The following figure shows the
Database Navigator with the top-level modeling objects in a small database that contains one model,
Learning the Basics 11
Navigating Through a Modeling Database

model_1 . These objects do not have parents. Double-click the name of a model, in this case model_1, to
find all the objects belonging to that model.

To display the Database Navigator, do any of the following:


• From the Tools menu, select Database Navigator.
• Execute an editing command, such as Modify, from the Edit menu when no object is currently
selected.
• Request to view information about an object using the Info command on the Edit pop-up menu.
• Browse for the name of an object to enter in a dialog box using the Browse command.
Your template-based product displays the Database Navigator.

Showing, Hiding, and Selecting Objects in the Database


Navigator
In the Database Navigator Tree list,a plus (+) in front of an object indicates that the object has children
below it but they are hidden. A minus (-) indicates that all objects immediately below the object are
displayed.
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Navigating Through a Modeling Database

To show or hide objects below a single object:


• Double-click an object with a plus or minus by it.

To expand or collapse all objects by one level:


• In the lower right corner of the navigator window, select the + or - button.

To hide all objects:


• In the lower right corner of the navigator window, select the - button.

You can use the Database Navigator to select any object in the database. You can also select more than
one object to complete a command. You can create a list of selected objects on which to perform options
by choosing Select List from the pull down menu at the top of the Database Navigator.

To select a single object:


• In the tree list, click the object and select OK. If the Database Navigator is not in multi-select
mode, you can also double-click the object to select it.

To use the mouse to select a continuous set of objects:


1. In the tree list, drag the mouse over the objects you want to select or click on one object, hold
down the Shift key, and click the last object in the set. All objects between the two selected
objects are highlighted.
2. Select OK.

To use the Up and Down arrow keys to select a continuous set of objects:
1. In the tree list, click on the first object, hold down the Shift key, and then use the Up or Down
arrows to select a block of objects.
2. Select OK.

To select a noncontinuous set of objects:


1. In the tree list, click on an object, hold down the Ctrl key, and click on the individual objects you
want to select.
2. Select OK.

To clear any selection in the tree list:


• Hold down the Ctrl key and click the selected object to clear its highlighting.

Managing the Select List


You can use the Database Navigator to view objects you've selected using the procedures explained in
Showing, Hiding, and Selecting Objects in the Database Navigator. The list of objects is called the Select
list. You can also add and remove objects from the Select list.
Learning the Basics 13
Navigating Through a Modeling Database

To view the select list:


• From the pull-down menu, select Select List.
The selected objects appear in the text box to the right.

To add objects to a select list:


1. From the pull-down menu, select Select List.
2. From the Tree list or Main Window, select the objects to be on the select list as explained in the
previous section.
3. Select Add.
4. Select Apply.

To remove objects from the select list:


1. From the pull-down menu, select Select List.
2. From the list that appears on the right, select the objects to be removed.
3. Select Remove.
4. Select Apply.

To clear all objects from the select list:


1. From the pull-down menu, select Select List.
2. Select Clear.
3. Select Apply.

Filtering Objects in the Database Navigator


You can filter the types and names of objects that you want displayed in the Database Navigator to narrow
the display to exactly what you want or to broaden the display using wildcards. For example, you can
narrow the display to only parts or broaden the display to include all objects that begin with a particular
character, such as an h.

To set the filter of the Database Navigator:


1. In the Filter text box, enter the name of the objects that you want to display. Type any wildcards
that you want to include.
2. From the pull-down menu, select the type of object or objects that you want to display in the
Database Navigator. To select from all the different object types in the modeling database, select
Browse.
3. Select OK.
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Navigating Through a Modeling Database

Sorting Objects in the Database Navigator


You can sort objects in the Database Navigator by their name or type, such as parts or geometry. You can
also select to not sort the object so the objects appear in the Database Navigator in the order they are
stored in the modeling database.
Note that sorting by name can be slow for objects with very long names. Setting no sorting is the fastest
way to see objects.

To sort objects in the Database Navigator:


• At the bottom of the Database Navigator, from the Sort by pull-down menu, select how you'd
like the objects sorted.

Setting Highlighting in the Database Navigator


You can set up the Database Navigator so that whenever you select an object in the tree list, it also appears
selected in the main window and the reverse. Highlighting is off by default.
To toggle highlighting:
• Select Highlighting.

Setting Appearance of Objects Through the Database


Navigator
Through the Database Navigator, you can set how individual, types of objects, and children of objects
appear in your template-based product.
You can set:
• Visibility of the object and of its name on the screen.
• Color, line style, line width and transparency of the object. For example, you can set the color of
the object’s outline or its name.
• Size of the screen icons that represent the object in your model. Note that these changes take
precedence over the size you specify globally for the modeling database.
• State of the object during a simulation: active or inactive.

To set the appearance of objects:


1. Select an object from the Database Navigator Tree list.
Learning the Basics 15
Navigating Through a Modeling Database

2. Use the options in the dialog box to set the appearance of the object. To inherit an attribute from
a parent of the object, select None from any of the pull-down menus. Learn more with Display
Attribute dialog box.

Tip: For transparency, the higher the value, the more transparent the object is, allowing
other objects to show through. The lower the value, the more opaque the object is,
covering other objects. However, setting the transparency of objects can have a
negative impact on graphical performance if you are using a graphics card without
hardware acceleration for OpenGL. Instead of setting an object’s transparency,
consider setting the object’s render mode to wireframe.

3. To set the scope of the appearance changes, you can select either:
• Object - Only apply to the selected object.
• Siblings - Apply changes to all objects of the same type that are children of the parent of the
selected object.
• All - Apply changes to objects matching the filter you set in the Filter text box.
4. Select Apply.

Renaming Objects Through the Database Navigator


You can use the Database Navigator to rename any object.

To rename an object:
1. From the Database Navigator pull-down menu, select Rename.
2. From the Tree list, select the object to rename.
3. In the text box that appears to the right, type a new name for the object.
4. Select Apply.

Adding Comments Through the Database Navigator


You can use the Database Navigator to associate comments with any object in the Modeling database.

To associate comments with an object:


1. From the Database Navigator pull-down menu, select Comments.
2. From the Tree list or Main Window, select an object.
3. In the text box that appears to the right, type or modify the comments associated with the object.
4. Select Apply.
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Navigating Through a Modeling Database

To save the comments in a file:


• Select Save to File.

Viewing Model Topology Through the Database Navigator


The model topology map displays information about the parts in your model and determines what
constraints are owned by the model and what parts the constraints connect. The information appears in
the window on the right of the Database Navigator.
You can view the part connection information in the following ways:
• By part - Lists each part in the model, along with the parts it is connected to and what
constraints or forces are affecting it. See Model Topology by Part.
• By connections - Displays each constraint and force with the parts they connect and act on. Also
displays any unconnected parts. See Model Topology by Connections.
• Graphically - Displays a representation of the selected part and shows its connections to other
parts. See Graphically Viewing Model Topology.

To display model topology of parts and connections:


• From the Database Navigator pull-down menu, select Topology by Parts or Topology by
Constraints.

To graphically view the topology of parts:


1. From the Database Navigator pull-down menu, select Graphical Topology.
2. From the Tree list or Main Window, select an object.

Model Topology by Part


You can select to have your template-based product list each part in the Model, along with the parts it is
connected to and what constraints or forces are affecting it. For example, the following shows the
information that appears in the Information window or Database Navigator when you display the
connections by parts for a model called model_1.
Topology of model: model_1
Ground Part: ground

Part ground
Is connected to:
LINK_1 via JOINT_2 (Revolute Joint)
LINK_6 via JOINT_1 (Revolute Joint)
LINK_1 via FORCE_1 (Single_Component_Force)

Part LINK_1
Is connected to:
LINK_5 via JOINT_3 (Revolute Joint)
ground via JOINT_2 (Revolute Joint)
ground via FORCE_1 (Single_Component_Force)
Learning the Basics 17
Navigating Through a Modeling Database

Part LINK_5
Is connected to:
LINK_1 via JOINT_3 (Revolute Joint)
LINK_6 via JOINT_4 (Revolute Joint)

Part LINK_6
Is connected to:
LINK_5 via JOINT_4 (Revolute Joint)
ground via JOINT_1 (Revolute Joint)

Model Topology by Connections


When you select to display model topology by connection, your template-based product displays each
constraint and force with the parts that they connect and act on. Your template-based product also
displays any unconnected parts. The following sample shows the information that appears when you
select to display topology by connections for a model with three parts, named model_1.
Topology of model: model_1
Ground Part: ground

JOINT_1 connects LINK_2 with ground (Revolute Joint)


JOINT_2 connects LINK_3 with LINK_4 (Revolute Joint)
JOINT_3 connects LINK_2 with LINK_3 (Revolute Joint)

Unconnected Parts:
LINK_1

Graphically Viewing Model Topology


In graphical topology, the Database Navigator displays a representation of the selected part and shows
its connections to other parts. The connections represent the joints or forces between the parts.
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Navigating Through a Modeling Database

Each time you select a different part in the Tree list of the Database Navigator, the graphical display
changes to show the select part at its center.

Viewing the Associativity of Objects


You can use the Database Navigator to display the objects that a selected object uses. For example, you
can select a joint in the Tree list to show the I and J markers that the joint uses. You can also select to view
the objects that use the selected object.

To view the associativity of objects:


1. From the Database Navigator pull-down menu, select Associativity.
2. Set the associativity:
• To show the objects that the selected object uses, select Uses
• To show the objects that use the selected object, select Is Used By.
3. From the tree list or Main Window, select an object.
The objects associated with the selected object appear in the text box to the right.

To set up automatic navigation of the objects:


• Select Auto Navigate.
Learning the Basics 19
Navigating Through a Modeling Database

To save the current associativity information to a file:


• Select Save to File.

About Auto Navigation


When you select Auto Navigate, the Database Navigator lets you view the associativity of objects that
you select from the Tree list and any objects listed in the window on the right. For example, if you have
a model with a joint motion, and then select to view the associativity of that motion, you see a joint listed
in the right window, as shown below.
With Auto Navigate selected, you can just select that joint from the right window to view its associativity.
If it were not selected, you would have to select the joint from the tree list to view its associativity. In
addition, when you select the joint in the right window, the Database Navigator also highlights it in the
tree list.

Viewing Object Information Through Database Navigator


You can use the Database Navigator just as you would use the Information window to display information
about an object.
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Navigating Through a Modeling Database

To display object information:


1. From the Database Navigator pull-down menu, select Information.
2. From the Tree list or Main Window, select an object.
The information about the object appears in the window to the right.

To save the information to a file:


• Select Save to File.

To return to the information about a previous object:

• Select .

Viewing Model Topology Map Through Information Window


The model topology map displays information about the parts in your Model and determines what
constraints are owned by the model and what parts the constraints connect. The information appears in
the Information window.
You can view the part connection information in two ways:
• By part - Lists each part in the model, along with the parts it is connected to and what
constraints or forces are affecting it. See Model Topology by Part.
• By connections - Displays each constraint and force with the parts they connect and act on. Also
displays any unconnected parts. See Model Topology by Connections.

To display model topology by parts, do one of the following:


• From the Tools menu, select Model Topology Map.
• In your template-based product, on the Status Bar, from the Information tool stack, select the

Model Topology by Parts tool .

To display model topology by connections:


• On the status toolbar, from the Information tool stack, select the Model Topology by

Constraints tool .
Learning the Basics 21
Working with the Information Window

Working with the Information Window


Your template-based product uses the Information window to display many different types of information
about your model, Simulation, and so on. In addition to just viewing information about your model, you
can perform a variety of operations in the Information window. For example, you can display additional
information about the current object's parent or child, print the information, display information about a
different object in the database, and more.

Displaying Information
• Displaying Object Information and Accessing the Information Window
• Displaying Parent and Children Information
• Displaying an Object's Modify Dialog Box

Managing Information
• Clearing the Information Window
• Saving Information in the Information Window
• Displaying a Text File in the Information Window
• Copying Text in the Information Window
• Setting the Information Mode

Displaying Object Information and Accessing Information


Window
You can display information about each object in your Modeling database, including parts, geometry,
motion, and markers. Learn about Markers.
You can view the information about an object currently on the screen or any object in the database,
including the Main window or dialog boxes.
When you display information about the objects in your modeling database, your template-based product
displays information specific to that type of object. For example, when you display information about a
rigid body in your model, your template-based product displays information about its material content,
inertial properties, initial conditions, orientation, velocity, and more. When you display information
about a motion, your template-based product displays information about the type of motion it is, its
function, and time derivative.

To display information about a modeling object displayed on the screen:


• Right-click the object on the screen, and then select Info.

Tip: You may want to zoom in on the object on the screen to more easily place the cursor
over just that object.
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Working with the Information Window

Information about the object appears in the Information window.

To use the Database Navigator to display information about objects in the Information
window:
1. On the Status bar, select the Info tool from the Information tool stack.
The Database Navigator appears.
2. Select the object about which you want to display information. Learn about selecting objects.
3. Select OK.
The information window appears.

To display object information once you've displayed the Information window, do one of
the following:
• In the text box at the top of the Information window, enter the name of the object, and then select
Apply.
• If the object name already appears in the Information window, place the text cursor in the name
of the object, and then select Apply.

Displaying Parent and Children Information


Each object in the database has an object that owns it, called its parent, and many objects own other
objects, called their children. The top-level objects in the database are models, plots, and interface
objects, called gui objects. These objects do not have parents. You can display information about the
parent or children of the object currently displayed in the Information window.
If an object has a parent, the type of parent it has appears in the Information window under the heading
Parent Type and the name of the parent is placed in front of the name of the object in the Object Name
heading. For example, for the part LINK_2, its parent type and name appear in the Information window,
as shown next:

To display an object's children:


• In the Information window, select Children.

To display an object's parent, do one of the following:


• In the Information window, select Parent.
• In the Information window, place the text cursor in the name of the parent and select Apply.
Learning the Basics 23
Working with the Information Window

Displaying an Object's Modify Dialog Box from the Information


Window
When information about an object is displayed in the Information window, you can access that object's
modify dialog box so you can modify the object.

To access an object's modify dialog box from the Information window:


• In the Information window, place the text cursor in the name of the object and select Modify.

Clearing the Information Window


Each time you request information in the Information window, your template-based product adds the
information to the bottom of the Information window without removing the current information. You can
remove all current information.

To clear the Information window:


• In the Information window, select Clear.

Saving Information in the Information Window


You can save the contents of the Information window to a text file.

To save the contents of the information to a text file:


1. In the Information window, select Save to File.
The Select File dialog box appears.
2. Select the directory in which you want to place the file.
3. In the File Name text box, enter the file name.
4. Select Open.

Displaying a Text File in the Information Window


You can display any text file in the Information window. You will find this helpful if you want to display
an information file that you saved or you are creating a demonstration of your model using a command
file and you want to display information about a particular object or aspect of the demonstration.

To display a text file when the Information window is already displayed:


1. In the Information window, select Read from File. dialog box appears.
2. Select the directory in which you want to place the file.
3. Highlight the file that you want to open in the list, or type the file name in the File Name text box.
4. Select Open.
24 Adams/Car
Working with the Information Window

To display a text file when the Information window is not displayed:


1. On the Tools menu, select Show File.
The Info Window Read dialog box appears.
2. In the File Name text box, you can either:
• Enter the name of the file.
• Browse for a file: right-click the File Name text box, and then select Browse to display the
File Selection dialog box.
3. Select OK.
The Information window appears with the text of the file as its content.

Copying Text in the Information Window


You can copy any text in the Information window for use in another window, dialog box, or application.
You cannot paste or delete any text in the window.

To copy text in the Information window:


1. Highlight the text that you want to copy.
2. Right-click the Information window and select Copy.

Setting the Information Mode


By default, the Information window displays only a part's parent and type. To display more information
about the part, you can turn on verbose mode. When you turn on verbose mode, the Information window
displays the children of the object, its geometry, whether or not comments are associated with it, and its
attributes, such as its color and visibility.

To turn on verbose mode:


• Select the Verbose check box.

Using Wildcards
You can use wildcards to narrow any search, set the type of information displayed in a window, such as
the Database Navigator or the Log file, or specify a name of an object in a dialog box.

This Character:
* (asterisk) Zero or more characters
? Any single character
[ab] Any one of the characters in the brackets
Learning the Basics 25
Working with the Information Window

This Character:
[^AB] Any character other than the characters following the caret symbol (^) in the
brackets
[a-c] Any one character in a range enclosed in brackets
{AB, bc} Any of the character strings in the braces

Tips on Using Wildcards


Here are some tips for entering wildcards:
• Case is insignificant, so xYz is the same as XYz.
• You can match alternative sequences of characters by enclosing them in braces and separating
them with commas. For example, the pattern a{ab,bc,cd}x matches aabx, abcx, and acdx.
• You can form character sets that match a single character using brackets [ ]. For example, [abc]d
matches ad, bd, and CD
• You can use a dash (-) to create ranges of characters. For example, [a-f1-4] is the same as
[abcdef1234].
• You can use a backslash (\) to include a special character as part of the character set. For
example, [AB\]CD] includes the five characters a, b, ], c, and d.
Here are some examples of more complex patterns and possible matches:
• x*y - Matches any object whose name starts with x and ends with y. This would include xy, x1y,
and xaby.
• x??y - Matches only those objects with four-character long names that start with x and end with
y. This would include xaay, xaby, and xrqy.
• x?y* - Matches all of those objects whose names start with x and have y as the third character.
This would include xayee, xyy, and xxya.
• *{aa,ee,ii,oo,uu}* - Matches all those objects whose name contains the same vowel twice in a
row. This would include loops and skiing.
• [aeiou]*[0-9] - Matches any object whose name starts with a vowel and ends with a digit. This
would include eagle10, arapahoe9, and ex29.
• [^aeiou]?[xyz]* - Matches any object whose name does not start with a vowel and has x, y, or z
as the third letter. This would include thx1138, rex, and fizzy.
26 Adams/Car
Setting Preferences

Setting Preferences

Setting Screen and Printer Fonts


You can change the font your template-based product uses to display text in a view, such as the name of
a part or a note on the screen, or to print text to a printer. The fonts available for displaying text in a view
are those available with your operating system. The fonts available for printing text are a fixed set of 12
fonts. Note that your printer may not support all of these printer fonts. Learn about Printing Models.

To select a screen or printer font:


1. On the Settings menu, select Fonts.
The Fonts dialog box appears.
2. In the Screen Font text box, enter the name of the font you want your template-based product to
use to display text in a view. To browse for a font, right-click the text box, select Browse, and
then select a font.
3. Set Postscript Font to the font you want to use to print text.
4. Select OK.

Specifying Working Directory


By default, your template-based product searches for and saves all files in the directory from which you
ran your template-based product. You can change the working directory.

To change the working directory for the current session:


1. On the File menu, select Select Directory.
Select the directory in which your template-based product should save files.
2. Select OK.
You can also set the working directory when you start your template-based product. Learm about Starting
a New Modeling Session.

To change the working directory for all sessions:


On UNIX:
1. From the Adams Toolbar, right-click your template-based product's tool, and then select Change
Settings.
2. In the Registry Editor, select WorkingDirectory, and then change the working directory.
For more information see Running and Configuring Adams.
On Windows:
1. On the Desktop, right-click your template-based product's shortcut, and select Properties.
Learning the Basics 27
Setting Preferences

2. In the Start In text box, enter the working directory.


For more information, see your Windows online help.

Setting Units of Measurement


You can set the units that your template-based product uses in modeling, importing, and exporting files.
You can select individual units or select a set group of units. Learn about Units of Measurement in
Adams/View.

To set the unit of measurement:


1. On the Settings menu, select Units.
The Units Settings dialog box appears.
2. Select the unit of measurement for each of the dimensions using the table below for assistance.
3. Select OK.

To Select: Do the following:


Unit for a specific Select the individual unit from the pull-down menu associated with the dimension.
dimensions
Predefined unit Select one of the following buttons. In all the unit systems, time is in seconds and
system angle is in degrees. When you select a predefined unit system, the units selected
appear in the upper portion of the dialog box.

• MMKS - Sets length to millimeters, mass to kilograms, and force to


Newtons.
• MKS - Sets length to meters, mass to kilograms, and force to Newtons.
• CGS - Sets length to centimeters, mass to grams, and force to Dyne.
• IPS - Sets length to inches, mass to pound mass, and force to PoundForce.
28 Adams/Car
Setting Screen Icon Display

Setting Screen Icon Display


When you first start your template-based product, it displays Screen icons. As you add objects to your
model, however, these icons can clutter your view of the model. To clear the display of a window, you
can turn off the icons. You can select to turn off:
• All icons
• Only icons of certain types of objects, for example, all joints
• Only icons for individual objects, such as FORCE_1

In addition, you can set the size of the icons either in current units or as a factor of their current size.
Learn more about how to set the display of screen icons by database and object type.
• Setting Screen Icon Display by Database
• Setting Screen Icon Display by Object Type

For information on quickly toggling the display of all screen icons, see Displaying View Accessories. For
information on setting the display of icons for individual objects, see Setting Object Appearance through
Edit -> Appearance Command.

Setting Screen Icon Display by Database


You can set up how you want Screen icons to be displayed for an entire Modeling database. By default,
all models and objects in the modeling database inherit the screen icon settings that you specify for the
database. You can, however, override the inheritance for different types of objects as explained in Setting
Screen Icon Display by Object Type, or for individual objects as explained in Setting Object Appearance
through Edit -> Appearance Command.

To set up the screen icon display for the entire database:


1. On the Settings menu, select Icons.
The Icon Settings Dialog Box appears.
2. Set New Value to one of the following to select whether or not you want to turn on screen icons:
• No Change - Select No Change to not change the current settings.
• On - Turns on all icons regardless of how you set the icon display for individual objects or
types of objects.
• Off - Turns off all icons regardless of how you set the icon display for individual objects or
types of objects.
3. In the New Size text box, enter the size you want for the screen icons. Note that any changes you
make to the size of icons for individual objects or types of objects take precedence over this size
setting.
4. To save the settings for each new database in your template-based product settings file
(*BS.cmd), select Save new size as default. Learn about Saving and Restoring Settings.
Learning the Basics 29
Setting Screen Icon Display

5. Select OK.

To reset the screen icon display to the previous values:


• On the Icon Settings dialog box, select Reset.

Setting Screen Icon Display by Object Type


You can set up how you want Screen icons displayed for a particular type of object, such as all parts or
joints. By default, all objects inherit the screen icon display options that you specify for the modeling
database. You can set screen icon options for the following types of objects:

• Part (also called Bodies)


• Joints
• Forces
• Motion
• Markers (Note that markers belong to parts and, therefore, by default, inherit screen icon display
options for parts.)
• Points
• Data elements
• Equations (System elements)

To set screen icon display options for objects of a particular type:


1. On the Settings menu, select Icons.
The Icon Settings Dialog Box appears.
2. Set Specify Attributes for to the type of object for which you want to set the screen icon options.
3. From the Visibility area of the Icon Settings dialog box, select whether or not you want to turn on
screen icons for the selected object type. You can select:
• On - Turns on the display of screen icons for the selected type of object.
• Off - Turns off the display of screen icons for the selected type of object. Remember, however,
that turning on the display of screen icons for the entire database overrides this setting.
• Inherit - Lets the object type simply inherit the display settings from its parent. For example,
a coordinate system marker inherits settings from its parent part.
• No Change - Does not change the current settings. Lets you make changes to other display
options without affecting the visibility of the icons.
4. Enter the size you want for the icons or select the amount by which you want to scale the icons.
The scale factor is relative to the current size set. A scale factor of 1 keeps the icons the same size.
A scale factor less than 1.0 reduces the size of the icons and a scale factor greater than 1.0
increases the size of the icons. Note that these changes take precedence over the size you specify
globally for the modeling database.
5. Enter the color you want to use for the icons.
30 Adams/Car
Setting Screen Icon Display

6. To browse for or create a color, right-click the Color text box, and then select Browse or Create.
7. Set Name Visibility Option to whether or not you want the names of objects of the selected type
displayed in the view. Refer to Step 3 for an explanation of the choices.
8. Select OK.
Learning the Basics 31
Setting Display Options

Setting Display Options


Learn about:
• Setting Part Display
• Displaying View Accessories
• Setting Rendering Mode
• Displaying the Status Toolbar

Setting Part Display


You can set the Main window so it displays a particular part in the current Model. You will find this helpful
when you want to compare or work with different parts at the same time.

To display a single part in the main window:


1. Click the main window.
2. From the View menu, select Part Only.
The Database Navigator appears listing the parts in the current model.
3. Select the part you want to display.
4. Select OK.
The selected part appears in the currently active view.

Displaying View Accessories


When you first start your template-based product, it displays several accessories to help you manage the
view of your model:
• Working grid
• Screen icons
• View triad
• View title

To use a dialog box to toggle on and off the display of view accessories:
1. Click the Main window.
2. On the View menu, select View Accessories, and then select the accessories that you want to turn
on or off from the View Accessories dialog box that appears.
3. Enter the title you want displayed in the main window, and then press Enter.
32 Adams/Car
Setting Display Options

4. On the Window menu in the View Accessories dialog box, select Exit.

Tip: • Type a lowercase g while the cursor is in the main window to toggle on and
off the display of the working grid.
• Type a lowercase v to toggle on and off the display of screen icons.

Setting Rendering Mode


Your template-based product provides six Rendering modes in which you can display a model in the
Main window.

To select a rendering mode:


• Click the main window.
• On the View menu, point to Render Mode, and then select a rendering mode.

To toggle the display between wireframe and smooth shaded mode:


• Type an uppercase S in the main window.

Displaying the Status Toolbar


You can turn on and off the display of the Status bar. You can also set where the status toolbar appears—
either at the top of the main window under the menu bar or at the bottom of the window. By default, the
status toolbar appears at the bottom of the window.

To turn the status toolbar on and off:


1. On the View menu, select Toolbox and Toolbars.
2. Select Status Toolbar and its placement in the main window. Your changes take place
immediately.
3. Close the dialog box.

Refreshing the Model Display


You can redraw the Main window to return the model to its initial configuration and display all geometry
in the Model . This is particularly useful if you selected to view only certain parts and now want to view
the entire model.

To refresh the model display:


• On the View menu, select Refresh.
Learning the Basics 33
Setting View Background Colors

Setting View Background Colors


By default, your template-based product uses a blue background to display the Main window. It also
provides a set of colors in which you can display the background. You can set the view to any color by
setting the red, green, and blue colors directly.

Selecting a Preset Background Color


You access the palette of background colors using View Background Color command on the Settings
menu.

To select from the entire palette of background colors:


1. From the Settings menu, select View Background Colors.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Edit Background Color.
3. Select OK.

Creating a Background Color


You can create a background color by setting its red, green, and blue light percentages and change the
background of the Main window to this new color. You cannot add the color to the preset palette of colors
or change the colors in the preset palette.

To create a color:
1. From the Settings menu, select View Background Colors.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Edit Background Color.
3. Select OK.

To reset a color to the original background color:


• Select the R tool in the Edit Background Color dialog box.
34 Adams/Car
Using Template-Based Product Tools

Using Template-Based Product Tools


Learn about using the following template-based product tools:
• Coordinate Window
• Command Navigator
• Command Window
• Message Window
• Information Window
• Database Navigator

Working with the Coordinate Window


You can use the Coordinate window to help you identify the coordinates of any location in the Main
window. You can also measure the distance between objects based on their coordinate locations.

The sections below explain how to work with the coordinate window:

Displaying the Coordinate Window

To toggle on and off the display of the coordinate window, do one of the following:
• On the View menu, select Coordinate Window.
The coordinate window appears in the lower right corner of the screen. You can move and size it
as you do any window in your operating system.

Tip: Press the F4 key to toggle the display of the coordinate window.

Measuring the Distance Between Points


In Delta mode, you can use your mouse and the coordinate window to find the distance between two
points.

To measure the distance between two points:


1. Move the cursor to the point in the main window where you want to begin, and press and hold
down the mouse button.
2. Drag the cursor to the next point. As you drag the cursor, your template-based product displays
the distance the cursor moves in the coordinate window.
3. To end delta mode, release the mouse button.
Learning the Basics 35
Using Template-Based Product Tools

Command Navigator
Enables you to enter Adams/View commands without having to know the entire syntax of the commands.
See Command Navigator dialog box help.
The Command Navigator displays a list of all Adams/View command Keywords. A plus (+) in front of a
keyword indicates that the command has more keywords below it but they are hidden. A minus (-)
indicates that all keywords below the keyword are displayed. No indicator in front of a keyword indicates
that there are no more keywords below the object. When you select an object with no indicator, a dialog
box appears in which you enter parameters for executing the command.

Using the Command Window


The command window provides a text-based way to enter commands. It assumes that you understand the
command language underlying your template-based product's interface. The command window contains
both a command entry area for entering commands and a command information area for displaying
informational and error messages:

Learn about using the command window:


• About Commands
• Syntax Rules for Entering Commands
• Syntax Rules for Entering Values
• Miscellaneous Command Information
• Getting Help Completing Command Parameters
• Grouping Operations into an Undo Block
36 Adams/Car
Using Template-Based Product Tools

About Commands
The commands that you enter in the command window or Command Navigator are made up of keywords,
parameters for the keywords, and parameter values as shown next:
{keywords} {parameters=values}
In a command:
• Keywords correspond to menu selections.
• Parameters correspond to dialog box choices.
• Parameter values correspond to values you enter or select in the dialog boxes.

For example, the following command contains the keyword constraint followed by other keywords, then
by parameters, such as the name of the joint. In the example, an ! indicates a comment and an & at the
end of a line indicates that the command continues onto the next line.
constraint create joint revolute & !{keywords}
joint_name=.model_1.JOINT_1 & !{parameter=value}
i_marker_name=.model_1.PART_1.MAR_3 & !”&” for continuation
j_marker_name=.model_1.ground.MAR_1 &
friction_enabled = no

Syntax Rules for Entering Commands


There are several rules that you must follow when you enter commands in the command window. For
example, the commands must be entered in the order shown below. Because commands are case
insensitive, you can type upper or lowercase letters or a mix of both.

To help you enter commands correctly, your template-based product checks for syntax errors whenever
you enter a space, comma, or equal sign (except in a string or expression) in the command window. If it
detects an error, it displays a message above the command information area. You cannot proceed until
you correct the error.
Learning the Basics 37
Using Template-Based Product Tools

Syntax Rules for Entering Values


The values that you can enter in commands are data that have a particular type. There are five data types
that template-based product commands support: integer, real, string, matrix, and database object
references. The following table lists the data types and their use.

Data type: Use:


Integer Whole numbers in the range -maxint ... +maxint, where maxint is machine dependent
(usually around two billion)
Real Most numeric values
String Character strings of varying length
Object Database objects

The rules for entering values are that they:


• Can contain letters, numbers, and underscore characters.
• Must begin with a letter or underscore character.
• Can contain any characters that are enclosed by double quotation marks.
• Have separators (blank space or tab) between keywords and parameters. Placing separators
between parameters and their values is optional.
For strings, you must use a backslash (\) in front of special characters to ensure that your template-based
product does not try to interpret the characters. These characters include quotation marks (") and
backslashes. For example, to be sure to include the quotation marks in the string: This is a "string", you
would enter:
string "This is a \"string\"."
To get a single backslash into the string, you, therefore, enter double backslashes. For example, to specify
d:\users, you would enter:
"d:\\users..."
Note also for path names on Windows, you can use backslashes as the separators, but you are not required
to do so. You can write portable path names by using the forward slash so your template-based product
interprets the following as the same path:
"d:\\users\\efhl\\some.file"
"d:/users/efhl/some.file"
38 Adams/Car
Using Template-Based Product Tools

Miscellaneous Command Information

Continuing Commands
You can continue a command you enter in the command window for as many lines as necessary. To
continue a command, place an ampersand (&) at the end of a line and then continue the command on the
next line. Note that a command must be entered all at once.

Mixing Comments and Commands


If you want to mix comments and commands (so that your comments appear in the Log file), use one of
the formats below:

To create: Enter:
A comment alone on one line !comment <CR>
A command followed by a comment on one line command !comment<CR>
A command followed by a comment on one line, with the command continuing on &!comment<CR>
the next line command continue
command
A command followed by a comment on one line, with the comment continuing on &!comment<CR>
the next line, and the command continuing on the following line command &!comment<CR>
continue
command

Entering Abbreviations
You can enter abbreviations for commands and parameters when you are entering commands directly in
the command window. You should always use full keywords for macros and command files to avoid any
future compatibility problems. Also note that if you use abbreviations, your template-based product takes
longer to execute your commands because it must substitute an abbreviation with its full command.

Verifying Command Input


Your template-based product verifies command input whenever you enter a space, comma, or equal sign
(except in a string or expression) in the command window. If your template-based product detects an
error, it displays a message above the command information area. You cannot proceed until you correct
the error.

Reviewing Commands
You can use the scroll bar at the side of the command information area to view the last 50 commands that
were entered.
Learning the Basics 39
Using Template-Based Product Tools

Getting Help Completing Command Parameters


In the command window, you can get help with possible parameter values for modeling objects and files.
For example, you can get a list of possible marker names in your model or you can display the File
Browser to help you find a file. Learn about Markers.

To get assistance with values for a parameter:


1. Enter the parameter name but do not include the parameter value. For example, enter the
command mar del mar=.
2. Type ? in the command line.
If the parameter value requires a modeling object, the command window displays a list of possible
objects in your current model. If the parameter value requires a file, the File Browser appears.
3. Copy or select the desired object and place it in the parameter value.

Grouping Operations into an Undo Block


As you issue commands from the command window, you can group them into undo blocks. By grouping
them into undo blocks, you can use a single Undo command to reverse all the operations in the block.
You can define undo blocks around macros, command files, or any group of commands. You can nest
them to any level.

To create an undo block:


1. Enter the following command in the command window to mark the beginning of the block:
UNDO BEGIN_BLOCK
2. Issue all the commands to be included in the undo block.
3. To close the block, enter the command:
UNDO END_BLOCK
Once you have closed the undo block, any individual commands that you issue that are not in the undo
block or any nested undo blocks within the undo block are not affected by an Undo command. Once you
close the undo block, you cannot open it again.
The following is an example of an undo block with individual commands surrounding it and several undo
operations that were issued. The undo commands reverse all operations that were performed to create the
model and part.
MODEL CREATE...
UNDO BEGIN_BLOCK
PART CREATE...
MARKER CREATE...
UNDO BACKWARD ! Undo the MARKER CREATE above, not entire undo
block
MARKER CREATE...
GEOM CREATE...
UNDO END_BLOCK
PART DELETE...
40 Adams/Car
Using Template-Based Product Tools

UNDO BACKWARD ! Undo the PART DELETE command


UNDO BACKWARD ! Undo the entire undo block
UNDO FORWARD ! Restore the entire undo block
UNDO BACKWARD ! Undo the entire undo block again
UNDO BACKWARD ! Undo the MODEL CREATE command
Note the following about the example:
• The first UNDO BACKWARD within the undo block undoes only the preceding MARKER
CREATE command.
• The third UNDO BACKWARD command after the Undo block undoes the entire contents of the
undo block.
• The UNDO FORWARD reverses the undo of the entire undo block as if the undo block were a
single command.
The limit on the number of commands your template-based product remembers does not apply to
commands within an undo block. You may notice slowed system performance if you store too many
commands in a single undo block.

Message Window
Provides you with messages on the status of Adams/View and displays helpful information while you are
using Adams.
Adams/View displays messages about the execution of a command in the message window. By default,
the message window only displays messages about commands you execute from the user interface. You
can also set it to display messages about commands that you execute from the Command window,
Command Navigator, and Adams/View command files.

Learn about Managing Messages.

Information Window
Adams/View uses the Information window to display many different types of information about your
model, simulation, or motion data. In addition to just viewing information about your model, you can
perform a variety of operations in the Information window.
The information includes:
• Topology on the different objects in your model
• Object information, such as information about a part or a view
• Model verification results
• Measurements from one coordinate system marker to another
• Result set component information
• View attributes
• Results from a system command you run using the Tools -> System Command
Learning the Basics 41
Using Template-Based Product Tools

Learn about:
• Displaying Object Information and Accessing Information Window
• Viewing Model Topology Map Through Information Window
• Verifying Your Model

The Option: Does the following


Apply Executes the command but leaves the dialog box open so you can execute the
command again.
Parent Displays an object's parent.
Children Displays an object's children.
Modify Select to display the modify dialog box for the object displayed in the text box
at the top of the Information window.
Verbose Select if you want to display more information about the object such as
children of the object, its geometry, whether or not commands are associated
with it, and its attributes like color and visibility.
Clear Removes all current information in the window.
Read from File Allows you to read information from a saved file.
Save to File Allows you to save the information.

Database Navigator
Displays the types of objects appropriate for the command you are executing and shows objects in their
database hierarchy. You can browse for objects or set it to rename objects, view information about the
objects and view dependencies. You can also set a filter for the types of objects displayed in the Database
Navigator.
42 Adams/Car
Using Template-Based Product Tools

Learn more about Database Navigator.

For the option: Do the following:


Pull-Down Menu Use the pull-down menu to choose a mode option. Select one:

• Browse (the default; the options on this page describe Browse)


• Display Attribute
• Rename
• Comments
• Information
• Topology By Parts
• Topology By Connections
• Graphical Topology
• Associativity
• Select List
Filter Select if you want to filter the types and names that you want displayed in the
Database Navigator. Then, enter the name of the objects you want to display in
the text box and use the pull-down menu to the right to select the type of
object(s) you want to display. You can also use the pull-down menu below the
Filter text box to only display those objects that are active or inactive.
Sort by Use the pull-down menu to choose how you want the objects sorted. You can
also select to not sort the objects so they appear in the order they are stored in
the modeling database.
Highlight Off by default. Select if you want an object to appear selected in the main
window and the reverse.
Use the plus sign (+) or the minus (-) (--) signs to display or hide all of the
children hidden/shown in the tree view.
Learning the Basics 43
Files and Commands

Files and Commands

Executing a System Command


You can execute an operating system command from within your template-based product so that you do
not have to leave your template-based product window.
You can select to display the results of the command in the Information window or the Log file. If you select
to display the results of the command in the Information window, you can:
• Clear the window and only view the results of the command.
• Save the results of the command to a file.

If you select to display the results in the log file, you can keep the command results with the other
commands that you execute so that you can cut and paste the information together into a new file.

To execute a system command within your template-based product:


1. On the Tools menu, select System Command.
The Execute System Command dialog box appears.
2. In the Command Text text box, enter the operating system command that you want to execute.
See your operating system documentation for more information.
3. Select whether or not you want the output of the command to be displayed in the Information
window or the log file.
4. Select OK.

Using the Log File


Your template-based product generates a log file during each session, called *.log.
While you are running Adams, you can display the current contents of the log file. In addition, you can
display the log file in a text editor. The following sections explain how to display the log file in your
template-based product and set the type of messages displayed.
• Viewing the Log File in Your Template-Based Product
• Updating the Log File
• Setting the Log File Information

Note: You can change the name of the log file through the initialization file .mdi_init. For more
information, see Running and Configuring Adams.
44 Adams/Car
Files and Commands

Viewing the Log File in Your Template-Based Product


You can use the Log File command on the Tools menu to display the log file. You can keep the dialog
box open as you execute commands so you can keep track of the commands and messages that you
receive.
To help you use the log file as a command file, your template-based product marks any messages as
comments so that it does not try to execute them when you import the command file. It indicates a
comment by placing an exclamation mark (!) in front of the message. Your template-based product also
displays as comments any commands that it executes when it starts up. To help you distinguish the startup
commands from messages, your template-based product follows the exclamation mark (!) with the
command prompt (>>).

To display the log file:


1. On the Tools menu, select Log File.
The Display Log File dialog box appears.
2. Select Info to display all messages written to the log file. The default is to display only warnings,
errors, and fatal messages.

Updating the Log File


Your template-based product does not update the Display Log File dialog box each time you execute a
command. Therefore, if you want to see the commands that you executed since you opened the dialog
box, you must update the log file.

To update the contents of the log file:


• From the Display Log File dialog box, select Update.

Setting the Log File Information


When you display the log file, your template-based product displays only warnings, errors, and fatal
messages that you have received. You can change the type of messages that your template-based product
displays as well as display the commands that your template-based product has executed. You can also
display only lines that contain certain information, such as display only commands that create links, and
remove any duplicate lines that occur if you encounter the same error again.

To set the type of information displayed in the Display Log File dialog box:
1. Select the Show only lines of type check box and then select one of the following:
• Info - Displays all commands that you have executed in your template-based product.
• Warning - Displays non-fatal messages that warn you of possible problems with commands
you entered.
• Error - Displays fatal messages that your template-based product did not understand and,
therefore, did not successfully process.
• Fatal - Displays messages that indicated that your model would not simulate.
Learning the Basics 45
Files and Commands

2. If desired, select Show only lines containing and enter the text that the line must contain in the
text box. You can also enter wildcards.
3. Select Apply.

To remove duplicate lines:


• From the Display Log File dialog box, select Suppress duplicate lines.

Loading and Unloading Plugins


MSC has many add-on modules or plugins to template-based products, which expand their functionality.
The plugins include Adams/Driveline, Adams/Car Ride, Adams/Vibration, Adams/Controls, and
Adams/Durability. You run these products from within your template-based product. You can set your
template-based product to load them automatically when you start up. You can also unload them while
in your template-based product's current session. To run a plugin, you must have a license to it.

To see if there is a license available to run a plugin:


1. From the Tools menu, select Plugin Manager.
The Plugin Manager appears.
2. At the top of the Plugin Manager, select a plugin.
3. At the bottom of the Plugin Manager, in the text box Licenses, view the number of licenses
available.

To load an available plugin:


1. From the Tools menu, select Plugin Manager.
2. In the Load column, next to the plugins you want to load, select Yes.
3. Select OK.
The commands or menus for the plugins are added to your template-based product.

To unload a plugin:
1. From the Tools menu, select Plugin Manager.
2. In the Load column, next to the plugin you want to unload, clear the selection of Yes.
3. Select OK.
Your template-based product removes any plugin menus or commands.

To set up a plugin so it loads automatically when you start your template-based


product:
1. From the Tools menu, select Plugin Manager.
2. In the Load at Startup column, next to the plugin you want to load automatically, select Yes.
3. Select OK.
46 Adams/Car
Files and Commands

Displaying Product Information


When using any Adams product, you can display the following information:
• Software version number and the date it was built
• Directory where Adams is installed
• Copyright statement

To display information about your product:


1. From the Help menu, select About <product name>.
2. View the information, and then select OK.

Tip: From the Status bar, select .


Building Models
48 Adams/Car
Subsystems

Subsystems
You only use subsystems in the Standard Interface. You can either create new subsystems or read in
existing ones. When you create a new subsystem, you must reference an existing template. When you use
an existing subsystem, the template associated with it is automatically read in.
Subsystems are based on templates and allow standard users to change the parametric data of the template
as well as the definition of some of the components. For example, you can change the location of
hardpoints and modify parameter variables. See Generating a Subsystem.
The template-based products organize the basic components that make up a full assembly or subassembly
into subsystems. For example, subsystems can include suspensions, wheels, drivelines, chassis, and so
on.
Subsystems contain descriptions of the component that they model. These descriptions consist of:
• Design data, such as wheel radii, toe angles, and locations of various points in the subsystems,
named hardpoints, mass properties of parts, and so on.
• References to property files that contain design data for bushings, bumpstops, dampers, engines,
springs, and tires. A bushing property file, for example, contains a description of the bushing's
stiffness and damping characteristics.
• Reference to a template that defines the subsystem's construction, including the kinds of parts
and how the parts interact and attach to one another. For example, a template that defines a rack
and pinion steering system defines a rack part, a pinion part, and a housing part. It also defines
that the rack slides in the housing, that the pinion rotates in the housing, and that the rack and
pinion are geared together. Since the construction of all rack and pinion steering systems is
similar, all subsystems describing a rack and pinion steering system can reference the same
template.
Learn more about subsystems:
• Opening Subsystems
• Getting Subsystem Information
• Creating Subsystems
• Updating Subsystems
• Synchronizing Subsystems
• Adding Subsystems
• Replacing Subsystems
• Removing Subsystems
• Setting Subsystem Activity
• Saving Subsystems
• Closing Subsystems
• Subsystem Modes
Building Models 49
Subsystems

• Minor Roles
• Publishing Subsystems

Opening Subsystems
When you open a subsystem that specifies a flexible representation of a rigid part, your template-based
product replaces the equivalent rigid body from the template with the flexible body. Learn about flexible
bodies.

To open an existing subsystem:


1. In Standard Interface, from the File menu, point to Open and then select Subsystem.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Open Subsystem.
3. Select OK.
Notice that once the subsystem is open, the Edit and Adjust menus become active. We
recommend that you familiarize yourself with each menu item.

Getting Subsystem Information


You can get detailed information about subsystems in the current session.

To get information about a subsystem:


1. In the Standard Interface, from the File menu, point to Info, and then select Subsystem.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Subsystem Info.
3. Select OK.

Creating Subsystems
You create subsystems by selecting a template that defines the topology and default data for your
subsystem. Using the Standard Interface, you can modify the default data to match your design. We
supply several templates with each product. For example, for Adams/Car users, we supply templates that
represent MacPherson strut and double-wishbone suspension subsystems. Using the Template Builder
you can create templates for your company-specific topologies.
When creating a new subsystem, you can reference the property files that the template references, or
reference other property files held either in a different database or with a different file name, as indicated
by the dashed lines in the Example Model Architecture. A collection of subsystems merged together forms
an assembly.

To create a subsystem:
1. In the Standard Interface, from the File menu, point to New, and then select Subsystem.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for New Subsystem.
50 Adams/Car
Subsystems

3. Select OK.

Updating Subsystems
Resets the values of a subsystem to those stored in a subsystem file. You can update a subsystem using
any subsystem file that is based on the same template as the subsystem in session.
When you update a subsystem, your template-based product does not reload the template.

Note: The subsystems is not renamed during the update.

To update a subsystem:
1. In the Standard Interface, from the File menu, point to Manage Subsystems, and then select
Update.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Update Subsystem.
3. Select OK.

Synchronizing Subsystems
When you synchronize a subsystem, you apply the values of the selected master subsystem to one or
more subsystem instances using the automated subsystem update feature. You can synchronize the
subsystems in session that are based on the same subsystem file. The subsystem mode flags (kinematic
or compliant) of the target subsystems will be retained.
For example, you may have several instances of one subsystem open in your session under several
assemblies. If you modify one subsystem and want to propagate those changes to every instance of the
subsystem, you can use the synchronize subsystems functionality.

To synchronize subsystems:
1. In the Standard Interface, from the File menu, point to Manage Subsystems, and then select
Synchronize.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Synchronize Subsystem.
3. Select OK.

Adding Subsystems
When you add a subsystem into an assembly, your template-based product disassembles the assembled
model, opens the subsystem, and then reassembles the model to include the new subsystem.

To add a subsystem:
1. From the File menu, point to Manage Assemblies, and then select Add Subsystem.
Building Models 51
Subsystems

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Add Subsystem.
3. Select OK.
Your template-based product does the following:
• Disassembles the assembly, which includes 'unassigning' communicators.
• Opens the new subsystem under the existing assembly.
• Reassembles the assembly, which includes re-assigning the communicators.

Replacing Subsystems
When you replace a subsystem in an assembly with a new subsystem, your template-based product
disassembles the assembled model, deletes the subsystem, opens the new subsystem, and then
reassembles the model to include the new subsystem.

To replace a subsystem:
1. From the File menu, point to Manage Assemblies, and then select Replace Subsystem.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Replace Subsystem.
Select OK.
Your template-based product does the following:
• Disassembles the assembly, which includes 'unassigning' communicators.
• Deletes the subsystem from the existing assembly.
• Opens the new subsystem underneath the existing assembly.
• Reassembles the assembly, which includes re-assigning the communicators.

Removing Subsystems
When you remove a subsystem from the assembly to which it belongs, your template-based product
disassembles the assembled model, deletes the subsystem, and then reassembles the model.

To remove a subsystem:
1. From the File menu, point to Manage Assemblies, and then select Remove Subsystem.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Remove Subsystem.
3. Select OK.
Your template-based product does the following:
• Disassembles the assembly, which includes 'unassigning' communicators.
• Deletes the subsystem from the assembly.
• Reassembles the assembly, which includes re-assigning the communicators.
52 Adams/Car
Subsystems

Toggling Subsystem Activity


Toggles the activity status of an existing subsystem. Your template-based product disassembles the
assembled model, sets the subsystem activity accordingly, and then reassembles the model to take into
account the subsystem’s activity status.
When you set the subsystem activity status to inactive, your template-based product ignores the
subsystem during model assembly, and will not write it to the Adams/Solver files.
Note that compared to the Remove Subsystem functionality, which deletes the subsystem, the Toggle
Subsystem Activity functionality only de-activates the subsystem and all objects in it.

To toggle subsystem activity:


1. From the File menu, point to Manage Assemblies, and then select Toggle Subsystem Activity.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Toggle Subsystem Activity.
3. Select OK.
If activating the subsystem, your template-based product does the following:
• Disassembles the assembly, which includes 'unassigning' communicators.
• Activates the subsystem, which means that it will now be considered a valid part of the
assembly.
• Reassembles the assembly (with the activated subsystem now taking part), which includes re-
assigning the communicators.
If deactivating the subsystem, your template-based product does the following:
• Disassembles the assembly, which includes 'unassigning' communicators.
• Deactivates the subsystem, which means that it is not actually removed from the assembly, but
simply ignored.
• Reassembles the assembly (with the deactivated subsystem not considered), which includes
re-assigning the communicators.

Saving Subsystems
You save subsystems in ASCII format, and you can publish subsystems to databases so other users can
share them. We support two formats: TeimOrbit File Format and XML File Format.
If your subsystem contains a flexible part, your template-based product saves information about the part,
as well as the marker-node association, in the PART_ASSEMBLY block of the subsystem file. Your
template-based product writes one block for a single flexible part or two for paired parts, of which one is
flexible.

To save a subsystem:
• While viewing a subsystem, from the File menu, do one of the following:
Building Models 53
Subsystems

• Select Save (or use the keyboard shortcut, Ctrl + s) - Your template-based product saves the
TeimOrbit version of the subsystem to the default writable database and prompts you if a
subsystem already exists. For save options, select Save As.
• Point to Save As, and then select Subsystem - Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the
dialog box help for Save Subsystem. Select OK.

To save a subsystem that is part of an assembly:


1. View the subsystem you want to save:
• From the View menu, select Subsystem.
• Set Subsystem to the subsystem you want to save.
• Select OK.
2. Do one of the following:
• Select Save (or use the keyboard shortcut, Ctrl + s) - Your template-based product saves the
TeimOrbit version of the subsystem to the default writable database and prompts you if a
subsystem already exists. For save options, select Save As.
• Point to Save As, and then select Subsystem - Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the
dialog box help for Save Subsystem. Select OK.

Closing Subsystems
You can close a subsystem without first saving it to a Database.

To close a subsystem:
1. In the Standard Interface, from the File menu, point to Close, and then select Subsystem.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Close Subsystem.
3. Select OK.

Subsystem Modes
A subsystem exists in one of two modes - kinematic or compliant. When you toggle a subsystem between
these two modes, certain elements such as joints and bushings may be enabled or disabled. When you
create a joint, you define it to be active always or only in kinematic mode. Conversely, when you create
a bushing, you define it to never be inactive or be inactive only in the kinematic mode. This allows you
to use the same subsystem for both Dynamic Analysis and Kinematic Analysis.

Minor Roles
You assign a minor role, or function, to every subsystem. The minor role of a subsystem is stored in a
variable as a string. This string will also be written to the subsystem file. You select a minor role to
54 Adams/Car
Subsystems

identify how your product should use the subsystem when creating an assembly of subsystems for
Analysis.

A minor role defines the subsystem's location.


• Adams/Car - A minor role can be front or rear. The following are the minor roles for
Adams/Car: any, front, rear, and trailer.
If you create a new subsystem with the minor role front based on a steering template, during
assembly Adams/Car connects your front steering subsystem to a front suspension subsystem,
but not a rear suspension subsystem.
If you create a new subsystem with the minor role any, during assembly Adams/Car connects
your new subsystem to any other active subsystem having matching communicators.

Publishing Subsystems
When you publish a subsystem, you copy the subsystem file and all its associated property files to the
target database, which is the database where your template-based product saves all files. You can also
select to publish the subsystem's template file. As you publish the subsystem, you can choose to write
over existing files or create backups of the files.
You can also select to update the in-session subsystem data to point to the target database or to have the
subsystem retain the existing references.
The subsystem you are publishing must be currently opened in the standard interface, and the target
database must be writable. Learn about setting the writable database.
You can also publish an entire assembly. Learn about publishing an assembly.

To publish a subsystem:
1. From the Tools menu, point to Database Management, and then select Publish Subsystem.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Publish an Open Subsystem.
3. Select OK.
Building Models 55
Assemblies

Assemblies
Assemblies represent a collection of subsystems, along with a test rig, which when assembled form a
system that you can analyze using Adams/Solver.
In Adams/Car for example, a steering subsystem and a front-suspension subsystem, plus a suspension
test rig, form the basis of a suspension assembly that you can analyze for kinematic behavior.
In the Standard Interface, you can create, open, save, and analyze assemblies. You can also publish
assemblies to databases so other users can share them. Learn about publishing assemblies.
Learn more about assemblies:
• Opening Assemblies
• Getting Assembly Information
• Creating Generic Assemblies
• Updating Assemblies
• Saving Assemblies
• Closing Assemblies
• Publishing Assemblies

Opening Assemblies
To open an existing assembly:
1. In Standard Interface, from the File menu, point to Open and then select Assembly.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Open Assembly.
3. Select OK.
Notice that once the subsystem is open, the Edit, Adjust, and Simulate menus become active. We
recommend that you familiarize yourself with each menu item.

Getting Assembly Information


You can get detailed information about assemblies in the current session.

To get information about an assembly:


1. In the Standard Interface, from the File menu, point to Info, and then select Assembly.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Assembly Info.
3. Select OK.
56 Adams/Car
Assemblies

Creating Generic Assemblies


You can create a generic assembly from specified subsystems.

To create a generic assembly:


1. From the Tools menu, point to Dialog Box, point to Display, and then select
dbox_fil_ass_new_gen.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for New Generic Assembly.
3. Select OK.

Updating Assemblies
You can re-read an assembly file, in case you modified the file by an alternative process. For example, if
you edit in a text editor an assembly file stored in the shared database, you can reflect this change in your
template-based product by using the update assembly functionality.

To update an assembly:
1. In the Standard Interface, from the File menu, point to Manage Assemblies, and then select
Update.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Update Assembly.
3. Select OK.

Saving Assemblies
You save assemblies in ASCII or binary format:
• ASCII Assemblies - An ASCII assembly file references subsystems, but does not contain
subsystem data. If you want your assembly to be updated with the current template/subsystem
files, you should save your assemblies in ASCII format. When you open an ASCII-format
assembly, your template-based product opens each individual subsystem, which in turn accesses
the current version of each corresponding template.
• Binary Assemblies - A binary assembly is a static snapshot of what's currently in your session.
That is, when you reopen a binary assembly, you will return to the exact state at which you left.
Adams/Car ignores any subsequent modifications made to templates and/or subsystems, which
were originally used to create the assembly, when you open the binary assembly. Therefore, if
you want your assembly to be updated with the current template/subsystem files, you should
save your assemblies in ASCII format.
Binary assemblies can be very useful, however, if you are working on a project where the
templates will not change, and a static snapshot of the assembly is sufficient.
Note that saving an assembly as a binary will not save the plots, nor the setting for simulation
(hold_solver_license). It will, however, save the analyses associated with the assembly, and you
could re-create plots using a plot configuration file. Learn about plot configuration files.
Building Models 57
Assemblies

To save an assembly:
1. From the File menu, select Save or Save As.
2. If you selected:
• Save - Your template-based product saves the ASCII version of the assembly to the default
writable database. Your template-based product prompts you if it detects subsystem changes.
It also prompts you if the assembly already exists in the database. For save options, select Save
As.
• Save As - Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Save Assembly.
Select OK.

Closing Assemblies
To close an assembly:
1. In the Standard Interface, from the File menu, point to Close, and then select Assembly.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Close Assembly.
3. Select OK.

Publishing Assemblies
When you publish an assembly, you copy each subsystem file included in the assembly definition,
including the associated property files for each subsystem, to the target database, which is the database
where your template-based product saves all files. You can also select to publish each subsystem's
template file. As you publish the assembly, you can select to write over existing files or create backups
of the files.
You can also select to update the in-session assembly data to point to the target database or to have the
assembly retain the existing references.
The assembly you are publishing must be currently opened in the standard interface, and the target
database must be writable. Learn about setting the writable database.
You can choose to publish only a subsystem, not an entire assembly. Learn about publishing a subsystem.

To publish an assembly:
1. From the Tools menu, point to Database Management, and then select Publish Assembly.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Publish an Open Assembly.
3. Select OK.
58 Adams/Car
Property Files

Property Files
Property files are ASCII-based files that contain data for modeling components, such as valve spring,
cams, and bushings. Because property files are flat text files, you can use any text editor to create or
modify them.
You use property files to:
• Apply the same characteristics or parameters to many components within a template or
subsystem. In Adams/Car for example, a suspension might contain many bushings with the same
properties. In this case, all the bushings could reference the same property file.
• Share a component between different templates and subsystems.

You can reference property files in different subsystems and templates, as shown in the Example Model
Architecture.

All property file types are specified in the configuration file (acar.cfg). When you edit property files, you
can save them either with the existing file name or with a new file name. Learn about managing property
files through configuration files.

Property files are grouped in classes and stored in databases. Every class (such as bushings and dampers)
is filed in the corresponding Database table (in this case, bushings.tbl and dampers.tbl).
A subset of property files define force-displacement or force-velocity characteristics for springs,
dampers, bumpstops, reboundstops, and bushings. For those components, you use the Curve Manager or
Property File Editor to create, edit, and view property files. You can access the Curve Manager from the
Tools menu. From within dialog boxes, you can edit property files using the Curve Manager/Property

File Editor tool and view property files using the View File tool .
Learn about Modifying Component Property File.
Building Models 59
Templates

Templates
Templates are parametric models, built by expert users within the Template Builder. Templates define the
default geometric data and topology of models, such as a double-wishbone suspension, an engine
cranktrain, or an aircraft landing gear. The components within a template are parametrically defined such
that you can use a single template within numerous subsystems.
Templates are intended to be a generic representation of a mechanical system, such that a template that
is common to a number of different vehicles can be reused in each of those vehicles. For example, assume
that you have two cars, a small car and a large car and that each of the two cars have a double-wishbone
front suspension. You could use a double-wishbone template in each of the two vehicles. The only
difference is that the large car requires stiffer springs, larger A arms, different dampers, and so on. The
basic topology is the same: it is the components/properties that are changed. It is the subsystem file that
references the topology of the template but changes the characteristics of the suspension by referencing
different springs, parts, dampers, and so on.
Templates provide a quick way to experiment with different subsystems and still retain the basic design
components that are required.
A template in its most fundamental form cannot be used in the Standard Interface without first being
referenced by a subsystem file. See Generating a Subsystem.
You can modify the data of a template by changing the values of design parameters. Hardpoints,
parameter variables, and property files are the design parameters of templates, where:
• Hardpoints define locations for geometry, attachments, and construction frames.
• Parameter variables contain strings, integers, and real values that you can modify in the Standard
Interface and store in the subsystem file.
• Property files are referenced by some components.

Templates contain communicators to enable the exchange of information with other templates.
Learn more about templates:
• Opening Templates
• Creating Templates
• Saving Templates
• Closing Templates
• Major Roles
• Location of Templates

Opening Templates
When using the Template Builder for the first time, we recommend that you first open some of the
example templates we provide and familiarize yourself with them.
60 Adams/Car
Templates

To open an existing template:


1. From the File menu, select Open.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Open Template.
3. Select OK.

Note: Notice that once the template is open, the Edit and Build menus become active. We
recommend that you familiarize yourself with each menu item.

Creating Templates
To ensure that an analysis will work with your new template, when you create a template you must make
sure that the template is compatible with other templates and with the test rigs. The template must contain
the proper output communicators.

To create a template:
1. From the File menu, select New.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for New Template.
3. Select OK.

Note: Notice that once the template is open, the Edit and Build menus become active. We
recommend that you familiarize yourself with each menu item.

Saving Templates
Using the Template Builder, you can save your files in ASCII or Binary File Format. Saving your files in
ASCII format provides the benefit of small file sizes and being human readable. On the other hand,
saving your files in binary format ensures faster processing, but does not have the benefits associated
with ASCII format.
When saving a template that includes a flexible part, your template-based product saves the part as rigid.

To save a template:
1. From the File menu, select Save or Save As.
2. If you selected:
• Save - Your template-based product saves the binary version of the template to the default
writable database and prompts you if the template already exists. For save options, select Save
As.
• Save As - Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Save Template.
Select OK.
Building Models 61
Templates

Closing Templates
You can close a template without first saving it to a Database.

To close a template:
1. From the File menu, select Close.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Close Template.
3. Select OK.

Major Roles
You assign a major role, or function, to every template. The choices in the Major Role option menu
correspond to the available major roles for a template.
A major role is a property of a template. A subsystem inherits the major role of the type on which it is
based.
In Adams/Car, examples of major roles are: suspension, steering, and body. Note that for each major role
(for example, suspension, steering, and so on) Adams/Car allows only one active subsystem with the
minor role any. The choices in the Minor Role option menu correspond to the available minor roles for
an Adams/Car subsystem.

Location of Templates
The templates are located in the templates.tbl table, or directory, of your template-based product's shared
database. The shared database is usually located in your product's installation directory. For location
details, see your system administrator.
62 Adams/Car
Test-Rig Templates

Test-Rig Templates
You can extend the functionality of your templates by converting them into test-rig templates, also
referred to as test rigs.
In the template-based products, test rigs are almost completely comparable to regular templates. The
basic topological difference between test rigs and regular templates is that besides containing parts that
are attached using attachments and forces, test rigs also contain actuator elements, such as motions and
forces, to excite the assembly. Just like regular templates, test rigs also contain communicators to enable
the exchange of information with other templates.
You use test rigs when creating assemblies. A collection of subsystems and a test rig form an assembly.
Note that the name of a test rig is always preceded by a period and two underscores, that is .__. For
example, .__MY_TESTRIG. This is a convention used by all template-based products to differentiate
between templates (period and one underscore, ._), subsystems (period, .), and test rigs (period and two
underscores, .__).
Learn about test rigs:
• Process Overview
• Creating Test-Rig Templates
• Saving Test-Rig Templates
• Converting Templates into Test Rigs
• Adding Test Rigs to Binaries

Process Overview
The process of working with test-rig templates involves the following steps:

For Adams/Car:
1. Creating a template and saving it in ASCII format as explained in Creating Test-Rig Templates
and Saving Test-Rig Templates.
2. Modifying the ASCII template file to become an ASCII command file, which is now the test rig,
as explained in Converting Templates into Test Rigs.
3. Saving the ASCII command file into a binary file as described in Adding Test Rigs to Binaries.

Creating Test-Rig Templates


You create test-rig templates the same way you create regular templates.

To create a test-rig template:


1. From the File menu, select New.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box for New Template.
Building Models 63
Test-Rig Templates

3. Select OK.

Note: You must specifically set the minor roles of communicators in test-rig templates to any. Do
not set them to inherit. You set the minor roles to any because generally a template test rig
should be capable of connecting with any subsystem.

Saving Test-Rig Templates


You can save test-rig templates to files, just as you would save regular templates. We recommend that
you save test rigs in ASCII format so you can hand edit them. Storing test-rigs in ASCII format also
ensures portability from one machine to another. It allows you, for example, to use the same file when
building a site binary on either a Windows or UNIX machine.

To save a test-rig template:


1. From the File menu, select Save or Save As.
2. If you selected:
• Save - Your template-based product saves the binary version of the template to the default
writable database and prompts you if the template already exists. For save options, select Save
As.
• Save As - Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Save Template.
Select OK.
3. Depending on the template-based product you are using, continue as follows:
• If working in Adams/Car go to Converting Templates into Test Rigs.

Converting Templates into Test Rigs


To convert templates into test rigs you must make the following modifications to your ASCII test-rig
template file generated from your template-based product:

Removing the Header Information


You must remove the header information that is added at the beginning of the ASCII template file
because the command file reader will not understand the information stored in this header and will output
errors.
The following example shows a typical header from an ASCII template file:
$-----------------------------------------------MDI_HEADER
[MDI_HEADER]
FILE_TYPE = 'tpl'
FILE_VERSION = 13.3
FILE_FORMAT = 'ASCII'
HEADER_SIZE = 9
(COMMENTS)
64 Adams/Car
Test-Rig Templates

{comment_string}
'Simple Double Wishbone Suspension'

$--------------------------------------------TEMPLATE_HEADER
[TEMPLATE_HEADER]
MAJOR_ROLE = 'suspension'
TIMESTAMP = '1999/07/15,17:21:32'
HEADER_SIZE = 5
You should remove all the lines from the beginning of the file up to, and including, the line containing
the HEADER_SIZE attribute.

Modifying Adams/View Variables


Templates and test rigs in template-based products have information that is stored in Adams/View
variables to determine how the template is used. All templates, including test rigs, have three required
variables: major role, minor role, and model class. Test rigs, however, have an additional required
Adams/View variable called test rig class.
When you create the test-rig template, your template-based product automatically creates the first three
variables. You must, however, manually create the last variable, the test rig class variable.
The following sections introduce the variables:
• Major Role
• Minor Role
• Model Class
• Test-Rig Class

Major Role
The major role of templates and test rigs is stored in an Adams/View variable called role. The major role
of a test rig is always analysis.
When creating a test rig, make sure that you set the major role as shown next:
variable create &
variable_name = .__acme_4PostRig.role &
string_value = "analysis" &
comments = "Memory for Adams/Car major role"

Minor Role
The minor role of templates and test rigs is stored in an Adams/View variable called minor_role. The
minor role of a test rig is typically any. Setting the minor role to any is very important if you are designing
a test rig that is supposed to work with other subsystems that can have different minor roles.
In Adams/Car for example, a suspension test rig should work with either front, rear, or trailer-type
suspensions. If the minor role of the test rig were defined as front, the test rig would hook up only to front
suspensions.
Building Models 65
Test-Rig Templates

Set the minor role as shown next:


variable create &
variable_name = .__acme_4PostRig.minor_role &
string_value = "any" &
comments = "Memory for Adams/Car minor role"

Model Class
Every assembly in template-based products has a specific model class. The model class of an assembly
is stored in an Adams/View variable called model_class. Your template-based product automatically
creates this variable when you create the assembly.
Currently, in template-based products, there are four model classes defined: template, subsystem, testrig,
and assembly.
Set your model class as shown next:
variable create &
variable_name = .__acme_4PostRig.model_class &
string_value = "testrig" &
comments = "Memory for Adams/Car model class"

Test-Rig Class
You can associate any test rig with a particular class of assembly. In Adams/Car for example, the test rig
.__MDI_SUSPENSION_TESTRIG is associated with suspension assemblies. The assembly class of a
test rig is stored in an Adams/View variable called testrig_class.
Set the test rig class as shown next:
variable create &
variable_name = .__acme_4PostRig.testrig_class &
string_value = "full_vehicle" &
comments = "Memory for Adams/Car testrig class"
You can reference the variable testrig_class directly from the graphical user interface. In Adams/Car for
example, this variable is used in the suspension assembly and the full-vehicle assembly dialog boxes.
Each of these two dialog boxes contains an option menu from which you can select the test rig to be
included in the new assembly. The option menu will only contain test rigs that are compatible with the
particular class of assembly you specified.
The following steps shows how you can reference testrig_class from the Adams/Car interface. You can
follow the same basic steps for the other template-based products.

To reference testrig_class from the Adams/Car interface:


1. From the File menu, point to New, and then select Suspension Assembly.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for New Suspension Assembly.
3. Select OK.
66 Adams/Car
Test-Rig Templates

Adding Test-Rigs to Binaries in Adams/Car


Adding a test rig to your private or site binary makes it available for use whenever you start a private or
site session. See Organizing Custom Code.
You should move the test rig you modified from the template table (templates.tbl) in your template-based
product databases to a directory that contains the source for the custom private or site binary file.
Typically, you will need to create custom analysis macros that work with the new test rig. All these files
should be located in the same directory structure.
For example, you could enter this command in the acar_build.cmd file to read the test rig:
file command read &
file=(eval(getenv("MDI_ACAR_SITE")//"/analysis/models/acme_4PostRig.cmd"))
When you add this command to the acar_build.cmd file, Adams/Car reads in and stores the test rig in the
private or site binary, making the test rig available for use whenever you start an Adams/Car private or
site session.
As as additional option, you can rename your test rig file from the .tpl extension to a .cmd extension to
reflect the fact the test rig is now a command file.
Learn about Creating and Modifying Macros.
Building Models 67
Communicators

Communicators
Communicators are the key elements in template-based products that enable the exchange of information
between subsystems, templates, and the test rig in your assembly.
An assembly requires two directions of data transfer between its subsystems. To provide for these two
directions of data transfer, the template-based products have two types of communicators:
• Input communicators - Request information from other subsystems or test rigs.
• Output communicators - Provide information to other subsystems or test rigs.

In Adams/Car for example, a mount communicator in the rack and pinion steering templates outputs the
rack part name so that tie rods of suspension templates can attach to the rack. In addition, a mount
communicator in the steering template inputs a part name. The steering template uses the part name to
determine where to attach the steering column.
Learn more about communicators:
• Creating/Modifying Input Communicators
• Creating/Modifying Output Communicators
• Communicator Entity Class
• Communicator Roles
• Communicator Naming
• Matching Communicators During Assembly
• Displaying Communicator Information
• Testing Communicators

Creating/Modifying Input Communicators


You can create or modify input communicators as explained next. You must be in template-builder mode
to do this.

To create/modify input communicators:


1. From the Build menu, point to Communicator, point to Input, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Input
Communicator.
3. Select OK.

Creating/Modifying Output Communicators


You can create or modify output communicators as explained next. You must be in template-builder
mode to do this.
68 Adams/Car
Communicators

To create/modify output communicators:


1. From the Build menu, point to Communicator, point to Output, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Output
Communicator.
3. Select OK.

Communicator Entity Class


The class of a communicator indicates the kind of information it exchanges. For example, communicators
of the class marker exchange a location and an orientation through a construction frame name and a part
name. The classes of communicators and the information that each class exchanges are listed in table
Communicator Entity Class. The classes apply to both input and output communicators.

In Adams/Car, and Adams/Driveline, communicators can be either single or be part of a symmetrical


pair, either left or right. The table below provides additional information about entity classes.

The class: Exchanges:


The following entity classes do not have symmetry and, therefore, are always single, by default:
Array Adams/Solver array name.
Differential equation Differential equation name.
Motion Motion name.
Parameter Variables Parameter variable name.
Spline Spline name.
Solver variable Adams/Solver variable name. You must use an Adams/Solver variable, not an
Adams/View variable. Unlike an Adams/View variable, an Adams/Solver
variable's computation occurs during analysis. Your template-based product
generates Adams/Solver variables as state variables.
The following entity classes have symmetry:
Mount Part name to provide connections between subassemblies. As a shortcut, the
template-based products also automatically create input mount communicators
when you create a mount part.
Marker Creation of a marker output communicator results in the creation of a new
marker whose location is defined by a user-input construction frame and which
is located on a user-input part. The identity of this marker is passed through this
communicator to provide both location and part information. If the construction
frame is part of a symmetrical pair, the template-based products create an input
communicator for each construction frame in the pair.
Joint Joint name.
Joint-for-motion Joint name.
Building Models 69
Communicators

The class: Exchanges:


Bushing Bushing name.
Location The location of the named hardpoint or construction frame. If the hardpoint is
part of a symmetrical pair, the template-based products create two input
communicators, one for each hardpoint in the pair.
Part Part name.
Orientation The orientation of the named construction frame.
Real parameter A parameter variable name of the type real.
Integer parameter A parameter variable name of the type integer.

Communicator Minor Roles


Each communicator has a minor role. A minor role defines the communicator's position in the assembly.
The template-based products provide you with minor roles, as shown in the following table:

This template-based
product: Has these communicator minor roles:
Adams/Car • any (see Communicator Minor Role: Any )
• inherit (see Communicator Minor Role: Inherit )
• front (see Communicator Minor Role: Front, Rear, Middle)
• rear (see Communicator Minor Role: Front, Rear, Middle)
• trailer

You can define a communicator's minor role when you create it. For example, if you want to provide input
to or output from subsystems of specific roles, then you set the minor role for communicators when you
create them. We recommend, however, that you do not set a communicator's minor role. Instead, let the
subsystem determine the minor role by setting it to inherit, in which case the communicator inherits the
minor role from the subsystem in which it is embedded. For example, in Adams/Car a suspension
template might be used to define either a front or rear suspension subsystem. By letting the subsystem
determine the minor role, the assembly process attaches a steering system to the front suspension and not
to the rear.

Communicator Naming
After you create a communicator, your template-based product assigns a prefix to the name. For example,
it creates a prefix, cil_ where:
• ci indicates it is an input communicator. If it were an output communicator, the template-based
product would use co.
70 Adams/Car
Communicators

• l indicates it is for the left side of a symmetrical pair. If it were for the right side, the template-
based product would use an r. If it were a single communicator, it would have an s (cis).
If you create a mount part, your template-based product automatically creates an input communicator of
the class mount. It uses the name of the mount part as the name of the communicator and appends the
prefix ci[lrs]_ to it, depending on whether or not it is a left, right, or single communicator. For example,
if you create a mount part of mtl_rack_mount, your template-based product creates an input
communicator with the name cil_rack_mount, where the l indicates it is for the left side.
As you name communicators, you should ensure that any input and output communicators that exchange
information have identical matching names. In Adams/Car for example, the name you give to
communicators that exchange a part name during assembly might be ci_strut_mount and
co_strut_mount, each of which has a matching name of strut_mount. In addition, if you are working with
MSC.Software templates, you must ensure that you use the same naming conventions as the
MSC.Software templates. Learn about matching communicators.

Matching Communicators During Assembly


For a pair of communicators to exchange information during assembly, the communicators must:
• Have identical matching names.
• Be of opposite types (one input, one output).
• Be of the same symmetry type (left, right, or single).
• Be of the same class (exchange the same type of information).
• Have the same minor role or be assigned a role of any.

If all pieces of information match, your template-based product determines an input/output


communicator pair.
If an input communicator does not have a corresponding output communicator, your template-based
product returns a warning message, and, if the input communicator belongs to the class mount, the
template-based product assigns the mount part to ground. You can still analyze the model even if it does
not have matching communicators. In fact, you may find this helpful if you want to run an analysis of a
subsystem without attaching another subsystem to it.
In Adams/Car for example, the following pairs of input and output communicators match and exchange
a part name during assembly.
Sample of Matching Input and Output Communicators

The pair: Belongs to the class: From minor role: To minor role:
cil_strut_mount mount front
col_strut_mount mount front
cil_strut_mount mount any
Building Models 71
Communicators

The pair: Belongs to the class: From minor role: To minor role:
col_strut_mount mount front
cil_strut_mount mount front
col_strut_mount mount any

You can match an input communicator with only one output communicator. You can, however, match an
output communicator with any number of input communicators.
You should always check the warning messages during the assembly, especially if the warning refers to
an input communicator of class mount that does not get assigned and is, therefore, attached to ground.

Displaying Communicator Information


You can display information about communicators in each template or test rig. The communicator
information includes the names of the communicators, their classes, and minor roles. You can choose to
display all types and classes of communicators in the templates and test rigs or display only a specified
set of types and classes.

To display information about communicators:


1. From the Build menu, point to Communicator, and then select Info.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Communicators Info.
3. Select OK.
Information window appears. It displays the communicator information for each template or test
rig, grouped by each class of communicator that you selected.

Testing Communicators
You can perform a test to verify that you have correctly specified input and output communicators in your
template. You can use this test to determine whether or not you need to add or modify communicators to
correctly create an assembly.
When you perform the test, you specify the model names of one or more existing templates or test rigs.
Although you can specify a single template, you should specify all the templates containing
communicators that transfer information between the selected template. You must specify a minor role
for each template, subsystem, or test rig you chose to test.
After you perform the test, your template-based product lists the matching input and output
communicators, the unmatched input communicators, and the unmatched output communicators for the
templates, subsystems, and test rigs you selected. You can save the test information to a file.

To test communicators:
1. From the Build menu, point to Communicator, and then select Test.
72 Adams/Car
Communicators

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Test Communicators.
3. Select OK.
The Information window appears. It contains a list of the communicators that match other
communicators and a list of those that do not. It shows the matched communicators followed by
the unmatched communicators. The lists include the names of the input and output
communicators and the names of the templates to which they belong. Often, you'll see many
communicators that are unmatched. Many of these communicators are related to subsystems or
test rigs that you do not currently have open.
If you want to fully test the communicators in your template, you should open the other templates
with which you want the template to communicate. In Adams/Car for example, if you are creating
a suspenion template, the template must be able to communicate with a steering template and the
suspension test rig.
Working with Components
74 Adams/Car
Introducing the Components

Introducing the Components


The template-based products offer a number of component definitions that allow you to quickly and
efficiently create components such as springs, dampers, and tires in the Template Builder. This allows the
expert user to generate complex components without being overly concerned with the underlying
elements, such as parts, markers, and geometry.
Components provide the building blocks required to define topological systems. Components are
designed to be intuitive, to allow you to create templates quickly and easily.
The expert user can create, modify, and delete components using the Template Builder. In the Standard
Interface, either the standard or the expert user can only modify components. Learn about user access.
The components within a template are parametrically defined such that you can use a single template to
represent numerous subsystems.

General Information About Components


• Creating Components
• Modifying Components
• Deleting Components
• About the Naming Convention

Information About a Particular Component


• Hardpoints
• Construction Frames
• Parts
• Markers
• Geometry
• Attachments
• Forces
• Wheels, Adjustable forces and Gears
• Actuators
• Condition Sensors
• Feedback Channels
• Data Elements, Requests and Variables
Working with Components 75
Introducing the Components

Creating Components
You can create components only in the Template Builder. The Template Builder design leads you through
a step-by-step process for creating components: the Build menu is organized such that you can start at
the top of the menu, building basic components, and work your way down, attaching these basic
components together and building increasingly complex components.
For information about a certain component, see the topic for that component.
The following example shows how you can create arm geometry. You follow the same basic steps to
create any other component listed under the Build menu.

To create arm geometry:


1. From the Build menu, point to Geometry, point to Arm, and then select New.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Arm Geometry.
3. Select one of the following:
• OK if you want to execute the command and close the dialog box.
• Apply if you want to execute the command but keep the dialog box open so you can continue
to work in it.
• Cancel if you decide not to execute the command and close the dialog box.

Modifying Components
Depending on the component you want to modify, one or more of the following methods will be
available:
• Modifying Component Parameters
• Modifying Component Property File
• Replacing Instance Definition

Modifying Component Parameters


You can modify component parameters in either interface, as follows:
• In the Template Builder - After you create components in the Template Builder, you can
modify any of their parameters, as needed.
• In the Standard Interface - The standard user can reference an existing template by either
opening or creating a subsystem file. The standard user can modify only selected parameters in
the Standard Interface.
The following examples show how you can modify component parameters in either interface. You use
the same basic steps to modify any component’s parameters.
76 Adams/Car
Introducing the Components

In Standard Interface, to modify arm geometry:


1. Right-click an arm geometry, and then select Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Arm.
3. Select OK.

Note: You can only change a limited number of parameters in the Standard Interface.

In Template Builder, to modify arm geometry:


1. From the Build menu, point to Geometry, point to Arm, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Arm Geometry.
3. Select OK.

Modifying Component Property File


You can modify property files using either of the following:
• Any text editor - When working in any of the template-based products, you can open a text
editor, such as vi on UNIX and Notepad on NT, display the property file referenced by the
component you want to change, modify any of the parameters as needed, and then save your
changes.
• The Curve Manager - You can modify some property files as explained in Modifying Property
Files Using the Curve Manager.

Modifying Property Files Using a Text Editor


If you want to modify a property file using a text editor, you can find the location of the particular
database that a property file uses by following the steps outlined next.

To find the location of a database:


• From the Tools menu, point to Database Management, and then select Database Info. The
Information window appears, displaying the path of the database.

Modifying Property Files Using the Curve Manager


You can use the Curve Manager to modify a select set of property files.

To modify Adams/Car property files:


1. From the screen, right-click the component you want to modify, for example a spring, point to the
component name, and then select Modify.
The Modify Spring dialog box appears.
2. Select the Curve Manager tool .
The Curve Manager appears.
Working with Components 77
Introducing the Components

3. Change any parameters as needed.

Replacing Instance Definition


Another way of modifying components is to change the definition of the component you are using with
another definition of the same component. For example, you can replace a coil spring with an air spring.
The following example shows how you can change a component's definition. You follow the same basic
steps to change the definition of other components.
Components currently supported include: air spring, bushing, damper, and spring, as well as application-
specific components.

Note: In Adams/Car you can change the component definition only in the Standard Interface.

To change component definition:


1. In Standard Interface, right-click a component, point to its name, and then select Replace
Instance.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Replace Instance Definition.
3. Select OK.

Deleting Components
You can delete components only in the Template Builder. If you try to delete a component that is
dependent on other components, your template-based product informs you that the component is
dependent on others, and if you delete it, the dependents also are deleted.
Because not all the components you can create and delete in the Template Builder have a graphical
representation, you cannot delete some components by right-clicking on them. The following procedures
explain how you can delete both types of components: those that have a graphical representation as well
as those that don’t.

To delete components that do not have graphical representation:


1. From the Build menu, point to the component you want to delete, and then select Delete.
The appropriate Delete dialog box appears.
2. Fill in the dialog box as appropriate, and then select either of the following:
• OK if you want to execute the command and close the dialog box.
• Apply if you want to execute the command but keep the dialog box open so you can continue
to work in it.
Your template-based product does one of the following:
• Deletes the component.
78 Adams/Car
Introducing the Components

• Checks if the component has dependencies, and if the component does have dependencies, it
informs you and gives you three options:
• Proceed with the delete command
• Highlight and list the dependents
• Cancel the delete command

To delete components that have graphical representation:


• Do one of the following:
• Right-click the component you want to delete from the screen, point to the component name,
and then select Delete.
• Complete steps 1 and 2, above.
Your template-based product does one of the following:
• Deletes the component.
• Checks if the component has dependencies, and if the component does have dependencies, it
informs you and gives you three options:
• Proceed with the delete command
• Highlight and list the dependents
• Cancel the delete command

About the Naming Convention


The template-based products use a naming convention to allow you to easily determine a component’s
type from it name. When you create a new component in the Template Builder, your template-based
product automatically adds a prefix based on the component type and symmetry. The first two letters of
the prefix indicate the component type. The third letter indicates the symmetric information of the entity.
This letter can be l, r, or s, indicating left, right, or single, respectively.
The exception to this rule is the prefix for geometry entities, where the first three letters are always gra.
The next three letters describe the type of geometry. These letters can be arm, cyl, ell, lin, and out,
corresponding to the following types of geometry: arm, cylinder, ellipse, link, and outline.
The following table lists the prefixes associated with the Template Builder entities. The list is sorted
alphabetically by prefix.

Prefix: Entity type:


bg[lrs]_ Bushing (always active)
bk[lrs]_ Bushing (kinematically inactive)
bu[lrs]_ Bumpstop (Adams/Car only)
cf[lrs]_ Construction frame
Working with Components 79
Introducing the Components

Prefix: Entity type:


ci[lrs]_ Input communicator
co[lrs]_ Output communicator
css_ Condition sensor
da[lrs]_ Damper (Adams/Car only)
fb[lrs]_ Flexible body
ff[lrs]_ User-function feedback channel
ge[lrs]_ General part
gk[lrs]dif_ Gear differential (kinematically active)
gk[lrs]red_ Gear reduction (kinematically active)
gp[lrs]_ General parameter
gr[lrs]dif_ Gear differential (always active)
gr[lrs]red_ Gear reduction (always active)
graarm Arm geometry
gracyl_ Cylinder geometry
graell_ Ellipse geometry
gralin_ Link geometry
graout_ Outline geometry
gs[lrs]_ General spline
gv[lrs]_ General variable
hp[lrs]_ Hardpoint
ip[lrs]_ Interface part
jf[lrs]_ Joint force actuator
jk[lrs]_ Joint (kinematically active)
jm[lrs]_ Joint motion actuator
jo[lrs]_ Joint (always active)
mt[lrs]_ Mount part
nr[lrs]_ Nonlinear rod
ns[lrs]_ Spring
ph[lrs]_ Hidden parameter variable
pt[lrs]_ Point torque actuator
pv[lrs]_ Parameter variable
re[lrs]_ Reboundstop (Adams/Car only)
sw[lrs]_ Switch part
80 Adams/Car
Introducing the Components

Prefix: Entity type:


ti[lrs]_ Tire force (Adams/Car only)
ue[lrs]_ User-defined entity
wh[lrs]_ Wheel part (Adams/Car only)
Working with Components 81
Hardpoints

Hardpoints
Hardpoints contain location information and are the basic building blocks for most other components.
Hardpoints have no orientation. If you need components that hold both location and orientation
information, use construction frames.
Hardpoints and construction frames are also referred to as coordinate references.
You use the Template Builder’s Build menu to create, modify, and delete hardpoints. When you create
hardpoints, you can define them symmetrically or as a single point in space. When defining hardpoints
symmetrically, you could, for example, define a left hardpoint and the right hardpoint is automatically
generated as a parametric point.

Creating a Hardpoint

To create a hardpoint:
1. From the Build menu, point to Hardpoint, and then select New.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create Hardpoint.
3. Select OK.

Modifying a Hardpoint

In Standard Interface, to modify a hardpoint:


1. From the Adjust menu, point to Hardpoint, and then select Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Hardpoint Location.
3. Select OK.

In Template Builder, to modify a hardpoint:


1. From the Build menu, point to Hardpoint, and then select Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Hardpoint Location.
3. Select OK.

Modifying Several Hardpoints at a Time


If you want to modify several existing hardpoints at a time, you can use a table editor to do so.

In Standard Interface, to modify several hardpoints at a time:


1. From the Adjust menu, point to Hardpoint, and then select Table.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Hardpoint Modification Table.
3. Select Apply.
82 Adams/Car
Hardpoints

In Template Builder, to modify several hardpoints at a time:


1. From the Build menu, point to Hardpoint, and then select Table.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Hardpoint Modification Table.
3. Select Apply.
Working with Components 83
Construction Frames

Construction Frames
Construction frames contain both location and orientation information, and are the basic building blocks
for many other components. When you need only location and no orientation information, hardpoints are
the correct components to use.
Hardpoints and construction frames are also referred to as coordinate references.
You can define construction frames symmetrically. To easily locate and orient construction frames
without having to worry about complex rotations and translations, you can use various options:
• Summary of Location Dependency Options
• Summary of Orientation Dependency Options

To create or modify a construction frame:


1. From the Build menu, point to Construction Frame, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Construction
Frames.
3. Select OK.
84 Adams/Car
Parts

Parts
You can build the following types of parts in Template Builder:
• General Parts
• Interface Parts
• Flexible Bodies
• Nonlinear Beams
• Mount Parts
• Switch Parts

General Parts
A general part is a rigid part that is defined by its location, orientation, mass, inertia, and center of gravity.
Note that the computed mass properties are not parametric. Your template-based product does not update
the mass properties when the geometry changes, if hardpoints have changed position, for example. If you
want to have the part mass re-computed based upon a part’s geometry, you must explicitly have your
template-based product compute the mass properties based on the changed geometry by calculating the
mass for the general part, using the Build or Adjust menus. Alternatively, you can change the mass
properties to user-defined values by modifying the general part using the Build or Adjust menus.
In the Standard Interface, general parts are enhanced to be either rigid or flexible. Learn about flexible
parts.

Creating or Modifying a General Part

In Standard Interface, to create or modify a general part:


1. From the Adjust menu, point to General Part, and then select Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify General Part.
3. Select OK.

In Template Builder, to create or modify a general part:


1. From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to General Part, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify General Part.
3. Select OK.

Calculating the Mass of a General Part


You can calculate the mass based on material properties (steel, aluminum, and so on) or enter a material
density. The mass will be based on the volume of the associated geometry.
Working with Components 85
Parts

To calculate the mass of a general part:


1. Do one of the following:
• From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to General Part, and then select Modify.
• From create/modify dialog boxes, select
.

Using the General Part Wizard


You can use the general part wizard to create simple geometry. Using the general part wizard allows the
Template Builder to automatically calculate mass and inertia properties. You can create either a link or
an arm and choose the material properties.

To use the general part wizard:


1. From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to General Part, and then select Wizard.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for General Part Wizard.
3. Select OK.

Interface Parts
Interface parts let you connect flexible bodies to the rest of your template. You cannot use joints or
bushings to connect general parts and flexible bodies: you must use interface parts.

To create or modify interface parts:


1. From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to Flexible Body, point to Interface Part, and then
select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Interface Part.
3. Select OK.

Flexible Bodies
Template-based products use descriptions of flexible bodies, named modal neutral files (MNF), from a
finite element (FEM) program. The MNF is a binary, platform-independent file that combines compact
storage and efficiency of data access.
The information in an MNF includes:
• Geometry (locations of nodes and node connectivity)
• Nodal mass and inertia
• Mode shapes
• Generalized mass and stiffness for mode shapes

The Template Builder uses a method of modeling flexible bodies named modal flexibility. Modal
flexibility assigns a set of mode shapes (eigenvectors) to a flexible body. The principle of linear
86 Adams/Car
Parts

superposition is then used to combine the mode shapes at each time step to reproduce the total
deformation of the flexible body. This method can be very useful in problems that are characterized by
high elasticity and moderate deflections.

In Standard Interface, to modify a flexible body:


1. If the displayed subsystem or assembly has a flexible part, from the Adjust menu, point to
Flexible Body, and then select Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Flexible Body.
3. Select OK.

In Template Builder, to create or modify a flexible body:


1. From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to Flexible Body, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Flexible Body.
3. Select OK.

Nonlinear Beams
A nonlinear beam consists of one cylindrical/rectangular segment or several segments connected to each
other at Coordinate References. The cylindrical elements can have hollow cross sections to represent
pipes. The segments form a shaft with a stiffness appropriate to the cross-sectional area and material
stiffness.
Using a nonlinear beam offers you a quick and easy way to deliver flexibility during early design stages.
The mass and inertia properties of a nonlinear beam are determined according to the outer radius, inner
radius, and material type, with the cylinder wall thickness = (outer radius - inner radius).
Nonlinear beams can be:
• Rigid - A rigid nonlinear beam is a sequence of cylinders that belongs to one part. You can use
rigid nonlinear beams to model links that do not have a simple straight-line shape.
• Flexible - For a flexible nonlinear beam, your template-based product creates a separate part for
each hardpoint you specify. Your template-based product cuts into two pieces the cylinder
between two hardpoints, with each belonging to one of the two parts associated with the
hardpoints. The two halves are then connected elastically by a beam element. You can use
flexible nonlinear beam to model components such as anti-roll bars.

To create or modify a nonlinear beam:


1. From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to Nonlinear Beam, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Nonlinear
Beam.
3. Select OK.
Working with Components 87
Parts

Mount Parts
A mount part is a massless part that acts as an alias for another part in a separate template. You can use
this alias part as you would use the real part when creating joints, springs, contacts, and so on. A mount
part is fixed to ground by default. If there are matching communicators of type mount found during the
assembly process, the template-based product fixes the mount part to the part specified as the value of
the corresponding output communicator.

To create or modify a mount part:


1. From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to Mount, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Mount Part.
3. Select OK.

Switch Parts
A switch part is a massless part that enables flexible topology. You can use this switch part as you would
use any real part when creating joints, springs, bushings, and so on. Your template-based product has a
list of real parts related to each switch part. At any time, the switch part is fixed to one and only one of
the parts on the part list.
A switch part lets you explore two different topological solutions. For example, a suspension may
connect either directly to a chassis or to a subframe, depending on the subsystems active during assembly.
The switch part makes these topological solutions possible. Following assembly, switch parts are
automatically deleted.
When you choose a new part in the Switch to Part pull-down menu, the switch part changes the part it is
fixed to, and all the joints and forces acting on the switch part will act on the new part. The switch part
concept allows you to model and investigate different topologies.
See Switch Part Example for Adams/Car.

Creating or Modifying Switch Parts

In Standard Interface, to modify a switch part:


1. From the Adjust menu, select Switch Part.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Switch Part.
3. Select OK.

In Template Builder, to create or modify a switch part:


1. From the Build menu, point to Parts, point to Switch, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Switch Part.
3. Select OK.
88 Adams/Car
Parts

Removing Switch Parts

To remove a switch part:


1. From the Tools menu, select Remove Switch Part.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Switch & Remove Switch Parts.
3. Select OK.
Working with Components 89
Markers

Markers
A marker defines a local coordinate system on any part in your model or on ground. A marker has a
location (the origin of the coordinate system) and an orientation.

To create or modify a marker:


1. From the Build menu, point to Marker, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Marker.
3. Select OK.
90 Adams/Car
Geometry

Geometry
Geometry components in the template-based products allow you to easily build parametric
representations of standard parts. If mass and inertia information is unavailable, you can automatically
calculate the mass of the general part based on the size of the geometry.
You can build the following geometry components:
• Arm Geometry
• Link and Cylinder Geometry
• Ellipsoid Geometry
• Outline Geometry

Note that the computed mass properties, based on geometry, are not parametric. Your template-based
product does not update the mass properties when the geometry changes, if hardpoints have changed
position, for example. If you want to have the part mass re-computed, based upon a part’s geometry, you
must explicitly have your template-based product compute the mass properties based on the changed
geometry, by Calculating Mass for the General Part, using the Build or Adjust menus. Alternatively, you
can change the mass properties to user-defined values by modifying the General Part, using the Build or
Adjust menus.

Arm Geometry
An arm part is a solid triangular plate defined by three Coordinate References and a thickness. If
necessary, you can automatically update the mass and inertia properties of the general part.
In Adams/Car, you could use the arm geometry to view the control arm of a MacPherson suspension.

In Standard Interface, to modify arm geometry:


1. Right-click an arm geometry, and then select Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Arm.
3. Select OK.

In Template Builder, to create or modify arm geometry:


1. From the Build menu, point to Geometry, point to Arm, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Arm Geometry.
3. Select OK.

Link and Cylinder Geometry


The link and cylinder geometry are very similar. The only differences exist in the method used to define
the geometry:
Working with Components 91
Geometry

• The link geometry consists of a cylinder whose ends you define using two hardpoint locations
and a radius. You can use links to view the tie rods of certain suspensions.
• You define the cylinder using a construction frame, rather than two hardpoints. The centerline of
the cylinder follows the z-axis of the construction frame. You can define the cylinder so that it
has length in both the positive and negative z-axis. You can use cylinders to view the strut rods
of certain suspensions.
If necessary, you can automatically update the mass and inertia properties of the general part.

Creating or Modifying Link Geometry

In Standard Interface, to modify link geometry:


1. Right-click a link, and then select Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Link.
3. Select OK.

In Template Builder, to create or modify link geometry:


1. From the Build menu, point to Geometry, point to Link, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Link Geometry.
3. Select OK.

Creating or Modifying Cylinder Geometry

To create or modify link geometry:


1. From the Build menu, point to Geometry, point to Cylinder, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Cylinder
Geometry.
3. Select OK.

Ellipsoid Geometry
An ellipsoid geometry is defined by a Coordinate Reference and a user-specification of x, y, and z
dimensions. You can use ellipsoids to represent spherical elements of your template. A sphere is an
ellipsoid whose x, y, and z radii have the same values.
You can use two different methods of defining an ellipsoid:
• Use a link to define the radius and then specify a scaling factor in each of the orthogonal axes
• Define a measurement in each axis

If necessary, you can automatically update the mass and inertia properties of the general part.
92 Adams/Car
Geometry

To create or modify ellipsoid geometry:


1. From the Build menu, point to Geometry, point to Ellipsoid, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Ellipsoid
Geometry.
3. Select OK.

Outline Geometry
You can use the outline to draw a line between different hardpoint locations. You can choose to define
either an open or a closed outline. In general, you would use outlines to visualize the general form of
parts. For example, you would add outline geometry to represent the subframe of a vehicle.
Because the geometry entity has no thickness, you cannot update the mass and inertia properties of an
outline.

To create or modify outline geometry:


1. From the Build menu, point to Geometry, point to Outline, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Outline
Geometry.
3. Select OK.
Working with Components 93
Attachments

Attachments
When working with template-based products, you can use two types of attachments:
• Joints
• Bushings

Joints
Joints define a rigid connection between two parts and help define the motion of the parts. The following
table lists the joints the template-based products support, along with information about their degrees of
freedom (DOF):

Joint name: Number of DOF: Type of motion DOFs allow:


Translational 1 Translation of one part with respect to another while all axes are
co-directed.
Revolute 1 Rotation of one part with respect to another along a common
axis.
Cylindrical 2 Translation and rotation of one part with respect to another.
Spherical 3 Three rotations of one part with respect to the other while
keeping two points, one on each part, coincident.
Planar 3 The x-y plane of one part slides with respect to another.
Fixed 0 No motion of any part with respect to another.
Inline 4 One translational and three rotational motions of one part with
respect to another.
Inplane 5 Two translational and three rotational motions of one part with
respect to another.
Orientation 3 Constrains the orientation of one part with respect to the
orientation of another one, leaving the translational degrees of
freedom free.
Parallel_axes 4 Three translational and one rotational motions of one part with
respect to another.
Perpendicular 5 Three translational and two rotational motions of one part with
respect to another.
Convel 2 Two rotations of one part with respect to the other while
remaining coincident and maintaining a constant velocity
through the spin axes.
Hooke 2 Two rotations of one part with respect to the other while
remaining coincident.
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Attachments

You can use different parametric orientation options to define the location and direction of the joint.

To create or modify a joint:


1. From the Build menu, point to Attachments, point to Joint, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Joint
Attachment.
3. Select OK.

Working with Bushings


Bushings provide a six degree-of-freedom force relationship for connecting two components. The force
is applied between a marker on each component. The force depends on the relative displacement, and (in
the case of hysteretic bushings), the relative velocity of the two markers.
The forces generated due to translational and rotational motion are entirely uncoupled from each other.
In the description of the bushing formulation that follows, you can apply the force dependencies,
described next, to either translational or rotational behavior. Therefore, a statement such as fi = h (relative
displacements, relative velocities) implies the following:
• Forces: fi = g (translational displacements, translational velocities)
• Moments: fi = h (angular displacements, angular velocities)

Learn about bushings:


• Creating and Modifying Bushings
• Stiffness Forces Computation
• Damping Forces Computation
• Bushing Specifications in the Adams Dataset (.adm)

Creating and Modifying Bushings


When working in Template Builder, you can create bushings and then modify them. When working in
Standard Interface, you can only modify bushings. Learn about the Interface Modes.

Nonlinear Bushings

To create a nonlinear bushing:


1. From the Build menu, point to Attachments, point to Bushing, and then select New.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Bushing
Attachment.
3. Select OK.
Working with Components 95
Attachments

To modify a nonlinear bushing in the Template Builder:


1. To display the modify dialog box, do one of the following:
• From the Build menu, point to Attachments, point to Bushing, and then select Modify. To load
the parameters for a specific bushing, you must specify the bushing you want to modify.
• Right-click a bushing, point to its name, and then select Modify. The dialog box has the bushing
parameters already loaded.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Bushing
Attachment.
3. Select OK.

To modify a nonlinear bushing in the Standard Interface:


1. In Standard Interface, right-click a bushing, point to its name, and then select Modify. The dialog
box has the bushing parameters already loaded.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Bushing.
3. Select OK.

Linear Bushings

To modify a linear bushing in the Standard Interface:


1. Right-click a bushing, point to its name, and then select Modify. The dialog box has the bushing
parameters already loaded.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Linear Bushing.
3. Select OK.

Stiffness Forces Computation


In the expressions that follow:
• i, j k, l are indices whose integer values of 1 to 3 indicate application to the x, y, and z coordinate
directions, respectively
• All uppercase letters represent constants

The Transformed Displacement, q


Adams/Solver computes the stiffness forces based on a bushing displacement vector, q, which is
determined by transformation to account for any inter-axial coupling. Therefore:

For uncoupled directions  k  D  , q is given by:

qk = rk

For coupled directions  k  D  , q is given by:


96 Adams/Car
Attachments

q k = m  sgn  r k 

D
2
with m =  rl
l=1

and r k = Hk  xk – Qk
where the Adams internal variables are:

xk - Displacement of the modeled bushing in the k direction


rk - Displacement of the physical bushing in the k direction
qk - Ordinate (lookup point) in the stiffness force characteristic
D - Scalar magnitude of the bushing displacement vector

and the user-specified constants are:

Hk - Horizontal (displacement) scaling for the kth direction (disp_scale); can be used to perform unit
conversions
Qk - Displacement offset for the kth direction (disp_offset);can be used to specify an offset between
the modeled bushing and the physical bushing (perhaps caused by the rotational preload
introduced by the assembly process)

This formulation allows the elements of the displacement vector, x, to be scaled up by a user-specified
factor, H, and/or offset by a user-specified displacement offset, Qk, to determine the transformed
displacement vector, qk, which becomes the lookup point in the selected stiffness force characteristic (see
next).
The Stiffness Force, f

For uncoupled directions  k  D  , the resulting force, f, is given by:

f k = G k – V k  y k  q k' v k 

For coupled directions  k  D  , f, is given by:

f k = G k – V k  w k  y k  q k' v k 

rk
with w k = ------- .
m
Working with Components 97
Attachments

Where the Adams internal variables are:

fk - Stiffness component of the force in the kth direction, determined by accounting for preload,
scaling factors, and inter-axial coupling
yk - Force returned internally by the user-defined (positive-positive) bushing stiffness
characteristic for the kthdirection
wk - Weighting of the returned force for the kth direction (0 to 1, for coupled directions only)

and the user-specified constants are:

Gk - Force offset (preload) for the kth direction (force_offset)


Vk - Vertical (force) scaling for the kth direction (stiffness_force_scale)

See the following sections for the precise mathematical descriptions of the two alternative coupling
formulations.
Note about the scaling factors, V and H:

Note: Regardless of the bushing formulation, a doubling of the scale factor, V, results in a
doubling of the restoring force provided by the bushing for a given displacement in that
direction. In contrast, doubling of H:
• Results in a doubling of the restoring force for bushings whose force-displacement
characteristics are linear.
• Results in a nonlinear change of the restoring force for bushings whose force-
displacement characteristics are nonlinear.

Expressing the Stiffness Force Characteristic


You can use a number of formulations to express the stiffness force characteristic of the bushing, by
appropriately setting the integer value of stiffness_type (see above), and providing the necessary data in
the .adm file.
Learn how the Stiffness Force Characteristics are expressed in the .adm file.
Linear
The linear characteristic is straightforward, and is defined using a stiffness, k:

y i  q i' v i  = y i  q i  =  k i  q i 
Piecewise Linear
The piecewise linear characteristic is defined as:
98 Adams/Car
Attachments

m–1
 
y  q v  = y  q  = k 1 q + 

  kl + 1 – kl   q – bl  q  bl
l=1
where:

qi - The i-direction component of the (transformed) bushing displacement

l - The lth stiffness for the ith direction


k
i
l–1 l
l - The breakpoint where the stiffness changes between k i and ki
b
mi - The number of straight-line slopes that describe the characteristic

l+1 l
Note that bi  b i is a necessary condition for all n.
A typical characteristic from this formulation looks similar to the following:

Figure 1 Example Piecewise Linear Force-Displacement Characteristic


Working with Components 99
Attachments

Smoothed Piecewise Linear


The smoothed piecewise linear definition is similar to the piecewise, but with smoothing across each
change in slope, such that the gradient of the force-displacement curve (for example, the stiffness)
becomes continuous:

m–1  0 l  0
dy spw  2
------------- = k 1 +
dq   kl + 1 – kl   l  3 – 2l  0  l  1
l=1  1 l  1

with:

e
q –  b l – ---
 2
 l = ----------------------------
e
where (noting that for clarity, the subscript i, indicating direction, has been dropped):

q - The (transformed, scaled and offset) bushing displacement


kl - The lth stiffness
l–1
bl - The breakpoint (value of displacement) where the stiffness changes between
l
ki and
ki
e - The displacement over which each change in stiffness is smoothed to prevent discontinuities
in stiffness
m - The number of straight-line slopes that describe the underlying characteristic

This gradient is integrated analytically from zero displacement q, to find the force-displacement curve.
The constant of integration is set such that if there were no smoothing, the curve would pass through the
origin. As smoothing is introduced, this constant of integration (the vertical offset of the force-
displacement curve) is adjusted such that the smoothed curve continues to overlay the unsmoothed curve
in regions where there is no smoothing (such as those for high values of displacement). Note that this
means that if the origin is contained within a smoothing interval, then the smoothed force-displacement
curve may not pass exactly through the origin, but that you can safely vary the smoothing interval,
knowing that as the displacement moves from a smoothed into an unsmoothed region, the behavior will
converge to that of the unsmoothed piecewise curve.

l+1 l
Note that as with the piecewise formulation, b i  b i is a necessary condition for all n. Setting e to
zero collapses this formulation to the piecewise formulation.
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A typical characteristic from this formulation will look similar to the following (where the plot shows the
effect of varying the smoothing interval from 0.3 mm to 10 mm):

Figure 2 Example Force-Displacement Characteristic for a Smoothed Piecewise Linear


Bushing

AKIMA Spline
The nonlinear, AKIMA spline characteristic is defined using a single Adams AKIMA spline. The
restoring force is than determined directly from this spline:

y i  q i' v i  = y i  q i  = AKISPL  q i 0 ID i 

Hysteretic (Dual-Spline)
The hysteretic definition of the stiffness characteristic also incorporates some damping (velocity-
dependence) of the force, according to the following:

y i  q i' v i  = AKISPL  q i v i ID i 
where:
Working with Components 101
Attachments

v i = STEP  p i – P – 1 P 1 
with:

p i = A i  x· i – E i
where:

Ai - Horizontal (velocity) scaling for the ith direction (vel_scale)


Ei - Velocity offset for the ith direction (vel_offset)
Pi - Velocity saturation point (m/s) for the i direction (for hysteretic bushings only)
pi - Scaled and offset velocity in the i direction
- Velocity (rate of change of model bushing displacement) in the i direction
x· i
vi - Transformed, and saturated x· i

Such that, for v < -v, the force_neg_vel_values only are used, and for v > vel_threshold, only the
force_pos_vel_values are used. When v is between these values, the two force characteristics are
interpolated according to the STEP function described above.
Note that for very large values of P, the hysteresis disappears, and the characteristic approaches a simple
displacement-dependent AKIMA spline:

y i  q i' v i   y i  q i  = AKISPL  q i 0 ID i 
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The following is an example of the typical behavior of a hysteretic bushing, excited to increasing
amplitude:

Displacement Force

Damping Forces Computation


Adams/Solver computes the damping forces based on a transformed (scaled, and offset) bushing velocity
vector, p, defined as:

where the Adams internal variables are:

- Rate of change of the true bushing displacement, x


Pi - Scaled and offset bushing velocity (the point in the force lookup)
Working with Components 103
Attachments

and the user-specified constants are:

Ai - Horizontal (velocity) scaling for the ith direction (vel_scale)


Ei - Velocity offset for the ith direction (vel_offset)

This formulation allows the elements of the true velocity vector, , to be scaled up by a user-specified
factor H, and/or offset by a user-specified displacement d, to determine the transformed displacement
vector q, which is used as the lookup point in the definition of the stiffness force characteristic for the
bushing.
For each direction, the damping force, c is given by:

where the user-specified constant:


Bi - Is the vertical (force) scaling for the ith direction (damping_force_scale)

Expressing the Damping Force Characteristic


You can use several methods to specify the damping properties in each coordinate direction, as explained
next.

None
This option simply deactivates damping for the given coordinate direction:

Linear
The linear characteristic is straightforward, and is defined using a damping constant, c:

For a linear characteristic, the parameter damping_value should be set equal to the required stiffness, c.
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AKIMA Spline
The nonlinear, AKIMA spline characteristic is defined using a single Adams AKIMA spline. The
damping-force characteristic is then determined directly from this spline:

Piecewise Linear
The piecewise linear characteristic is defined as:

where:

qi - The i-direction component of the (transformed) bushing displacement


- The lth stiffness for the ith direction
- Breakpoint where the stiffness changes between and

Note that is a necessary condition for all n.


Working with Components 105
Attachments

A typical characteristic from this formulation will look similar to the following:

Figure 3 Example Piecewise Linear Force-Velocity Characteristic

Stiffness Fraction ("k-fraction")


The stiffness fraction damping method simply ensures that the damping coefficient increases in
proportion to the local stiffness of the bushing at the current operating point.
The damping force in each direction is determined by first identifying the local stiffness as being the
modulus of the rate of change of the stiffness force in that direction with respect to a displacement in the
same direction. This stiffness magnitude is then multiplied by the k-fraction, k, (damping_value) and
multiplied by the appropriate component of the transformed velocity, p:

For an uncoupled linear bushing (D = 0 or 1, stiffness_type = 1), this reduces to a constant damping
coefficient and a typical viscous damping characteristic.
Learn how the stiffness damping characteristics are expressed in the .adm file.

Bushing Specifications in the Adams Dataset (.adm)


• Coupling Specification
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• Stiffness Force Characteristic


• Damping Force Characteristic

Bushings are implemented using a FIE(ld)SUB. This FIESUB reads the bushing specifications directly
from the .adm deck, and returns the total (stiffness plus damping) force, fi + ci, for any six-element
bushing displacement and six-element bushing velocity vector.

Coupling Specification
The value of D for the bushing is specified directly as shape in the FIELD statement for the bushing:
FIELD/id, I=idi, J=idj, FUNCTION=USER(branch, shape, txa, tya, tza, rxa, rya, rza)

where the value of the integer shape may be:

0 - Rectangular (no coupling). The force in each direction is dependent only on the
displacement in that direction.
2 - Cylindrical (that is, x-y coupling). The forces in the x and y directions are each dependent
on the displacement of the bushing in both the x and y directions. The force in the z
direction is independent (that is, it depends only on the displacement in z).
3 - Spherical (that is, x-y-z coupling). The force in each direction depends on the
displacements in all translational directions, and the torque in each direction depends on
the angular displacements in all rotational directions.

Note that the selected shape factor (coupling) always applies to both the translational and rotational
behavior of the bushing.
The next six parameters in the FIELD statement, all of which are required, should contain the Adams
array IDs of the arrays containing the data, which expresses the stiffness and damping characteristic for
the direction:
FIELD/id, I=idi, J=idj, FUNCTION=USER(branch, shape, txa, tya, tza, rxa, rya, rza)

Each of the referenced arrays must be included in the .adm file, and should be in the following form:

ARRAY/id, NUM= stiffness_type, stiffness_value, stiffness_force_scale, …


damping_type, damping_value, damping_force_scale, …
force_offset, disp_offset, disp_scale, vel_offset, vel_scale

All of those parameters are required, and are described in detail in the following sections.
Working with Components 107
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Stiffness Force Characteristic


You can use a number of formulations to express the stiffness force characteristic of the bushing, by
appropriately setting the integer value of stiffness_type (see above), and providing the necessary data in
the .adm file.

Linear (stiffness_type = 1)
For a linear characteristic, the parameter stiffness_value should be set equal to the required stiffness, k.

Piecewise Linear (stiffness_type = 4)


When you select this stiffness type, you must provide an additional array in the .adm file, and you must
set the value of stiffness_value (see above) equal to the integer Adams ID of that additional array. That
additional array must be of the form:
ARRAY/id, NUMBERS = n, k(0), b(1), k(1), ... , b(n), k(n)
where:

n - The number of slopes that define the stiffness characteristic. This number must be
an integer and greater than 1 (note that for bushings with a single slope defining the
stiffness characteristic, the linear stiffness type, stiffness_type = 1, should be used)
b(1) ... b(n) - The breakpoints. The values of displacement, or of angular displacement, at which
the slope changes. These values must be real and in ascending order, but may be
negative.
b(m) - The breakpoint where the slope (stiffness) changes from k(m-1), for displacements
lower than b(m), and to k(m) for displacements greater than b(m).
k(0) ... k(n) - The slopes, all of which must be real and positive for a physical, passive bushing.
Their units are stiffness (force/displacement) or angular stiffness (torque/angular
displacement). Note that k(0) extends to minus infinity and k(n) to plus infinity.

Note that the set k(0), b(1), k(1), ... , b(n), k(n) must contain precisely 2n-1 values, so that the total number
of elements in the array must be 2n.

Smoothed Piecewise Linear (stiffness_type = 5)


When you select this stiffness type, you must provide an additional array in the .adm file, and you must
set the value of stiffness_value (see above) equal to the integer Adams ID of this new array. For the
smoother piecewise characteristic, the new array must be of the form:
ARRAY/ID, NUMBERS = s, n, k(0), b(1), k(1), ... , b(n), k(n)
108 Adams/Car
Attachments

where:

s - The interval over which changes of slope are smoothed. This number must be a real
value greater than zero, in units of displacement.
n - The number of slopes that define the stiffness characteristic. This number must be
an integer and greater than 1 (note that for bushings with a single slope defining the
stiffness characteristic, the linear stiffness type, stiffness_type = 1, should be used).
b(1) ... b(n) - The breakpoints. The values of displacement, or of angular displacement, at which
the slope changes. These values must be real and in ascending order, but may be
negative.
b(m) - The breakpoint where the slope (stiffness) changes from k(m-1), for displacements
lower than b(m), and to k(m) for displacements greater than b(m).
k(0) ... k(n) - The slopes, all of which must be real and positive for a physical, passive bushing.
Their units are stiffness (force/displacement) or angular stiffness (torque/angular
displacement). Note that k(0) extends to minus infinity and k(n) to plus infinity.

Note that the set k(0), b(1), k(1), ... , b(n), k(n) must contain precisely 2n-1 values, so that the total number
of elements in the array must be 2n+1.

AKIMA Spline (stiffness_type = 2)


The nonlinear, AKIMA spline characteristic is defined using a single Adams AKIMA spline, specified
by setting stiffness_value equal to the Adams ID of the spline. That spline must be supplied in the dataset,
but can be shared among several directions and/or bushings.

Hysteretic Dual-Spline (stiffness_type = 3)


To specify this stiffness characteristic, the .adm file must include both a two-element array (whose integer
ID is placed in stiffness_value), of the form:
ARRAY/id, NUM = sid, P
where the terms are defined as:

sid - The Adams ID of the 3D spline that specifies the hysteretic characteristic
P - The (positive) velocity threshold above which the bushing characteristic becomes
independent of the velocity

and the associated Adams spline, of the form:


SPLINE/sid,
,X= [displacement_values]
,Y= -1.0, [force_neg_vel_values]
,Y= 1.0, [force_pos_vel_values]
Working with Components 109
Attachments

Damping Force Characteristic


For the stiffness characteristic, a number of methods exist for specifying the damping properties in each
coordinate direction:

None (damping_type = 0)
This setting of damping_type simply deactivates damping for the given coordinate direction:

Linear (damping_type = 1)
For a linear characteristic, the parameter damping_value should be set equal to the required stiffness, c.

AKIMA Spline (damping_type = 2)


The nonlinear, AKIMA spline characteristic is defined using a single Adams AKIMA spline, specified
by setting damping_value equal to the Adams ID of the spline. The damping force characteristic is then
determined directly from this spline:

Note the sign convention here. Within the spline definition, an increase in x (transformed velocity) should
generally yield an increase in the y value (damping force).
The same Adams AKIMA spline can be used for more than one direction of the same bushing (optionally,
with different scaling), and/or for more than one instance of a bushing within the same model.

Piecewise Linear (damping_type = 3)


When you select this damping type, exactly as with the equivalent stiffness type, you must provide an
additional array in the .adm file, and you must set the value of damping_value (see above) equal to the
integer Adams ID of that additional array. That array must be of the form:
ARRAY/id, NUMBERS = n, k(0), b(1), k(1), ... , b(n), k(n)
where:

n - The number of slopes that define the damping characteristic. This number must be
an integer, and greater than 1 (note that for bushings with a single slope defining the
damping characteristic, the linear damping type, damping_type = 1, should be used).
b(1) ... b(n) - The breakpoints. The values of velocity, or of angular velocity, at which the slope of
the damping characteristic changes. These values must be real and in ascending order,
but may be negative.
110 Adams/Car
Attachments

b(m) - The breakpoint where the slope (damping coefficient) changes from c(m-1), for
velocities lower than b(m), to c(m) for velocities greater than b(m)
c(0) ... c(n) - The slopes, all of which must be real and positive for a physical, passive bushing.
Their units are those of damping (that is, force/velocity) or rotational daming (that is,
torque/angular velocity). Note that c(0) extends to minus infinity and c(n) to plus
infinity.

Note that the set c(0), b(1), c(1), ... , b(n), c(n) must contain precisely 2n-1 values, so that the total number
of elements in the array must be 2n.

Stiffness Fraction ("k-fraction") (damping_type = 4)


For the stiffness-fraction damping characteristic, the parameter damping_value should be set equal to the
required stiffness fraction, k.
Working with Components 111
Forces

Forces
You can build the following types of forces in Template Builder:
• Springs
• Dampers
• Bumpstops
• Reboundstops

In Template Builder you can also modify air springs.

Working with Springs


A spring element defines a force-displacement relationship between two parts. The spring force acts on
the two parts at user-specified coordinates. The spring’s force-displacement properties, free length,
number of coils and other parameters are given in the designated property file.
Learn about springs:
• Creating and Modifying Springs
• About Linear Springs
• About Nonlinear Springs
• About Spring Property Files

Your template-based product models air springs as simple action-reaction forces between two parts. Each
air spring references an air-spring property file that tabulates spring force against trim load and deflection
from trim length. Trim load is the nominal load in the spring for a given trim length and internal pressure.
Before analysis, your template-based product reads the data from the referenced property file and stores
it in a three-dimensional SPLINE. During analysis, Adams/Solver computes the air-spring force by
interpolating the SPLINE data using the Akima method.
Air springs include an auto-trim feature, where you can specify a desired trim height of the suspension
and the air spring's trim load is automatically adjusted during static equilibrium analysis to achieve the
trim height.
To use an air spring in a subsystem, select a coil spring and use the replace option from the shortcut menu
to replace the coil spring with an air spring.
Learn about air springs:
• Modifying Air Springs
• Auto Trim Load
• Calculation of Air-Spring Force
112 Adams/Car
Forces

Creating and Modifying Springs


When working in Template Builder, you can create springs and then modify them. When working in
Standard Interface, you can only modify springs. Learn about the interface modes.

Nonlinear Springs

To create a nonlinear spring:


1. From the Build menu, point to Forces, point to Spring, and then select New.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Spring.
3. Select OK.

To modify a nonlinear spring in the Template Builder:


1. To display the modify dialog box, do one of the following:
• From the Build menu, point to Forces, point to Spring, and then select Modify. To load the
parameters for a specific spring, you must specify the spring you want to modify.
• Right-click a spring, point to its name, and then select Modify. The dialog box has the spring
parameters already loaded.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Spring.
3. Select OK.

To modify a nonlinear spring in the Standard Interface:


1. In Standard Interface, right-click a spring, point to its name, and then select Modify. The dialog
box has the spring parameters already loaded.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Spring.
3. Select OK.

Linear Springs

To modify a linear spring in the Standard Interface:


1. Right-click a spring, point to its name, and then select Modify. The dialog box has the spring
parameters already loaded.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Linear Spring.
3. Select OK.

About Linear Springs


Your template-based product (using the Adams/Solver SPRINGDAMPER) calculates the spring force
as follows:
Spring Force = - K*(DM(I,J) - OffsetCalc)
where:
Working with Components 113
Forces

• K - The linear stiffness defined in the spring property file.


• DM - The instantaneous distance between the I and J coordinate references.
• OffsetCalc - Depends on the free length defined in the spring property file and in the spring
install methods.

Spring Install Methods


The three spring install methods are:
• Preload - The desired spring load at the current position of the I and J coordinate references.
• Installed Length - The installed length of the spring at the current position of the I and J
coordinate references.
• Use Hardpoints - The installed length of the spring equals the distance between the I and J
coordinate references.
When you submit the model to Adams/Solver, the spring-damper statement that your template-based
product creates, has the form:
SPRINGDAMPER/id, I=I_id, J=J_id
, K=K
, C=0
, LENGTH=OffsetCalc
, FORCE=0
, TRANSLATIONAL

About Nonlinear Springs


Your template-based product (using the Adams/Solver SFORCE) interpolates a force versus spring
length or spring deflection table using Akima's method.
If you are using a force versus length table, the force is calculated as follows:
Spring Force = AKISPL(OffsetCalc + DM(I, J), 0, Spline)
If you are using a force versus deflection table, the force is calculated as follows:
Spring Force = AKISPL(OffsetCalc - DM(I, J), 0, Spline)
where:

• AKISPL - Adams/Solver function that interpolates data stored in a SPLINE.


• OffsetCalc - Depends on the free length defined in the spring property file and in the spring install
methods.
• DM - The instantaneous distance between the I and J coordinate references.
• Spline - A reference to a SPLINE statement.

Spring Install Methods


The three spring install methods are:
114 Adams/Car
Forces

• Preload - The desired spring load at the current position of the I and J coordinate references.
• Installed Length - The installed length of the spring at the current position of the I and J
coordinate references.
• Use Hardpoints - The installed length of the spring equals the distance between the I and J
coordinate references.
When you submit the model to Adams/Solver, the SFORCE statement that your template-based product
creates, has the form:
SFORCE/id, I=I_id, J=J_id
, FUNCTION=AKISPL(OffsetCalc + DM(I_id, J_id), 0, Spline)\
, TRANSLATIONAL

About Spring Property Files


The spring component supports the following types of Property Files:
• TeimOrbit linear-spring property files (extension .lsf). See TeimOrbit File Format. Learn more
about this file format with the help of Spring dialog box.
• TeimOrbit nonlinear-spring property files (extension .spr). Standard TeimOrbit nonlinear-spring
property files correspond to nonlinear, deflection-based spring formulation, as explained in
About Nonlinear Springs.
• XML spring property file (See XML File Format). The XML spring property file supports linear
and nonlinear force characteristics and allows you to choose between specifying force versus
spring deflection or spring length, as described in About Nonlinear Springs. You work with XML
files in the Property File Editor.

Modifying Air Springs

To modify an air spring in the Standard Interface:


1. In Standard Interface, right-click an air spring, point to its name, and then select Modify. The
dialog box has the air-spring parameters already loaded.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Spring.
3. Select OK.

Auto Trim Load


An Adams/Solver differential equation sets an air spring's trim load. The differential equation calculates
the trim load that corresponds to the desired trim length during static equilibrium analyses. Its value is
then locked to the last value calculated during static analyses for all the subsequent transient simulations.
F = USER (1117, trimLength, Imarker, Jmarker)
where:

• 1117 - Branch ID
Working with Components 115
Forces

• trimLength - The desired displacement, as specified in the property file, which you can edit
using the Property File Editor.
• I/J marker - The air spring's I and J markers of the SFORCE.

Calculation of Air-Spring Force


An Adams/Solver SFORCE computes the air-spring force. The SFORCE function is:
force = AKSIPL((trimLength – DM (marker I, marker j)),
(trimLoad), splineID)
where:

• AKSIPL - Is the Adams/Solver function that interpolates data using Akima’s method.
• trimLength - Is the distance between the upper and lower spring seats when the suspension is at
trim height. trimLength is a positive real value read from the air-spring property file.
• DM(marker I, marker J) - Is the distance between the upper and lower spring seats.
• TrimLoad is the load in the spring when the suspension is at trim height. The load corresponds to
the trim load you specified, or, if you select auto trim load, it corresponds to a differential
equation.

Working with Dampers


A damper defines the force-velocity relationship between two parts. The damper is defined as acting
between user-specified Coordinate Reference points on each part, and conforms to the force-velocity
curve described in the designated property file.
Learn about dampers:
• Creating and Modifying Dampers
• About Linear Dampers
• About Nonlinear Dampers

Creating and Modifying Dampers


When working in Template Builder, you can create dampers and then modify them. When working in
Standard Interface, you can only modify dampers. Learn about the interface modes.

Nonlinear Dampers

To create a nonlinear damper:


1. From the Build menu, point to Forces, point to Damper, and then select New.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Damper.
3. Select OK.
116 Adams/Car
Forces

To modify a nonlinear damper in the Template Builder:


• To display the modify dialog box, do one of the following:
• From the Build menu, point to Forces, point to Damper, and then select Modify. To load the
parameters for a specific damper, you must specify the damper you want to modify.
• Right-click a damper, point to its name, and then select Modify. The dialog box has the
damper parameters already loaded.
• Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Damper.
• Select OK.

To modify a nonlinear damper in the Standard Interface:


1. Right-click a damper, point to its name, and then select Modify. The dialog box has the damper
parameters already loaded.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Damper.
3. Select OK.

Linear Dampers

To modify a linear damper in the Standard Interface:


1. Right-click a damper, point to its name, and then select Modify. The dialog box has the damper
parameters already loaded.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Linear Damper.
3. Select OK.

About Linear Dampers


In addition to the standard definition of a damper (based on an AKIMA spline interpolation of a force
velocity two-dimensional spline), Adams/Car offers a linear-damper model. The linear-damper model
allows you to define a single damping term. The force exerted by the damper between the I and J parts
at the desired locations follows the well-known formula:
Force = -c dx/dt
where dx/dt is the time derivative of the radial relative displacement between marker I and marker J.

About Nonlinear Dampers


The force-velocity formula is based on:
• VR - Relative velocity of marker I with respect to marker J
• Damper property file
Force = akispl(VR(marker i, marker j),0, Spline)
Working with Components 117
Forces

The damper property file defines the two-dimensional spline. The independent variable is the
translational velocity of the I and J markers, and the dependent variable is the force exerted between the
two parts at the I and J marker locations.
You can also specify gas preload force for nonlinear dampers using XML-format property files.
To specify gas preload:
1. Right-click a damper, point to its name, and then select Modify.
The Modify Damper dialog box appears.
2. Specify an XML property file.
3. Select the Curve Manager tool .
4. Select the Properties tab.
5. Under Gas Preload, select one:
• None - No preload is added to the damper force calculations.
• Constant - A constant force is added to damper force calculations.
• Nonlinear - Preload is calculated by interpolating a spline. The independent value of the spline
is the relative displacement between the I and J markers.

Working with Bumpstops


A bumpstop defines a force-displacement relationship between two parts. The bumpstop acts between
user-specified coordinate reference points on each part, and conforms to the force-displacement
properties described in the designated property file.
The bumpstop force is activated when the displacement between the two coordinate references exceeds
the clearance defined for the bumpstop.
The force-displacement formula is based on:
• Instantaneous distance between the user-specified coordinates defined on each part
• Impact length or clearance
• Bumpstop property file (polynomial or nonlinear stiffness with or without linear or nonlinear
damping).
Learn about bumpstops:
• Creating and Modifying Bumpstops
• Calculation of Force Characteristics
• About Bumpstop Property Files

Creating and Modifying Bumpstops


When working in Template Builder, you can create bumpstops and then modify them. When working in
Standard Interface, you can only modify bumpstops. Learn about the interface modes.
118 Adams/Car
Forces

To create a bumpstop:
1. From the Build menu, point to Forces, point to Bumpstop, and then select New.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Bumpstop.
3. Select OK.

To modify a bumpstop in the Template Builder:


• To display the modify dialog box, do one of the following:
• From the Build menu, point to Forces, point to Bumpstop, and then select Modify. To load
the parameters for a specific bumpstop, you must specify the bumpstop you want to modify.
• Right-click a bumpstop, point to its name, and then select Modify. The dialog box has the
bumpstop parameters already loaded.
• Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Bumpstop.
• Select OK.

To modify a bumpstop in the Standard Interface:


• In Standard Interface, right-click a bumpstop, point to its name, and then select Modify. The
dialog box has the bumpstop parameters already loaded.
• Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Bumpstop.
• Select OK.

Calculation of Force Characteristics


The XML (XML File Format) bumpstop property file supports various methods and options for calculating
force characteristics. It supports the following methods to determine the elastic-force component:
• polynomial - The formulation of the force is based on a third-order polynomial whose equation
can be expressed as follows:
F elastic = POLY(MAX(0, impact_length – DM ( marker i, marker j )), 0,
0, LinearRate, QuadraticRate, CubicRate)
• nonlinear (spline based) - The formulation of the force is based on the Akima spline
interpolation of a nonlinear characteristic:
F elastic = akispl(MAX(0, impact_length - DM( marker i, marker j )), 0,
Spline)

The elastic force becomes active only when the instantaneous distance between the markers on the two
parts is less than the impact length. The impact length term depends on the distance type. If you select
Clearance, the impact length becomes:
dmCalc - Clearance
where:

• Clearance - Value you specify


• dmCalc - Initial displacement computed between the I and J markers
Working with Components 119
Forces

The following figure shows the clearance and impact length.

In an XML bumpstop property file, you can also enable a damping characteristic. If you enable the
damping characteristic, the force is dependent on the deflection and velocity of the I and J markers.
Damping (viscous) forces can be:
• linear - If you include in the property file a linear damping value other than zero, then the total
force exerted between the I and J parts is equal to the sum of the elastic force specified above and
the following damping force:
Fdamping = STEP MAX(0, impact_length - DM(i,j)), 0, 0, 0.1, -
dampingRate * VR ( marker i, marker j ))
• nonlinear (spline based) - If you include in the property file a nonlinear damping value, then the
total force exerted between the I and J parts is equal to the sum of the elastic force specified
above and the following damping force:
F damping = STEP MAX(0, impact_length - DM(i,j)), 0, 0, 0.1, -
120 Adams/Car
Forces

AKISPL ( VR ( marker i, marker j ), 0, dampingSpline ))

About Bumpstop Property Files


The bumpstop component supports the following types of property files:
• TeimOrbit (TeimOrbit File Format) bumpstop property files (extension .bum). Standard
TeimOrbit bumpstop property files correspond to nonlinear elastic forces with linear damping
equal to 0 formulation. Learn more with Bumpstop dialog box help.
• XML (XML File Format) bumpstop property file. The XML bumpstop property file enables data
sharing with other MSC.Software applications, such as Adams/Chassis, and allows greater
flexibility and a wider range of bumpstop formulation choices. In particular, the new XML
bumpstop property file supports various methods and options for the calculation of force
characteristics, as explained in Calculation of Force Characteristics. You work with XML files in
the Property File Editor.

Working with Reboundstops


A reboundstop defines a force-displacement relationship between two parts. The reboundstop acts
between user-specified coordinate reference points on each part, and conforms to the force-displacement
curve described in a designated property file. The reboundstop force is activated when the displacement
between the two coordinate references exceeds the defined clearance.
The force-displacement formula is based on:
• Instantaneous distance between the user-specified coordinates defined on each part
• Impact length or clearance
• Reboundstop property file (polynomial or nonlinear stiffness with or without linear or nonlinear
damping.)
Learn about reboundstops:
• Creating and Modifying Reboundstops
• Calculation of Force Characteristics
• About Rebounstop Property Files

Creating and Modifying Reboundstops


When working in Template Builder, you can create reboundstops and then modify them. When working
in Standard Interface, you can only modify reboundstops. Learn about the interface modes.

To create a reboundstop:
• From the Build menu, point to Forces, point to Reboundstop, and then select New.
• Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Reboundstop
• Select OK.
Working with Components 121
Forces

To modify a reboundstop in the Template Builder:


• To display the modify dialog box, do one of the following:
• From the Build menu, point to Forces, point to Reboundstop, and then select Modify. To
load the parameters for a specific reboundstop, you must specify the reboundstop you want to
modify.
• Right-click a reboundstop, point to its name, and then select Modify. The dialog box has the
reboundstop parameters already loaded.
• Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Reboundstop.
• Select OK.

To modify a reboundstop in the Standard Interface:


• In Standard Interface, right-click a reboundstop, point to its name, and then select Modify. The
dialog box has the reboundstop parameters already loaded.
• Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Reboundstop.
• Select OK.

Force Calculation
The force in a rebound stop always acts to keep two parts from moving farther apart. The force is active
only when the distance between the parts as computed by dm(i,j) exceeds the impact length. You specify
the impact length directly or indirectly as the initial clearance in the rebound stop. When you specify a
clearance, the impact length is calculated from the clearance as follows:
dmCalc + Clearance
where:

• Clearance is the value you specify


• dmCalc is the initial displacement computed between the i and j markers

Further, the force in a rebound stop is the sum of an elastic force and a damping force. The XML property
file supports various options for calculating either force. The options available for calculating elastic
force (F elastic) are:
• polynomial - The for calculated using a third-order polynomial. The Adams/Solver function
expression is:
F elastic = POLY(MAX(0,DM(i, j) - impact_length),0,0,- linearRate,-
quadraticRate,-cubicRate)
• nonlinear (spline based) - The force is interpolated using Akima's method based on force vs.
deflection data.
F elastic = -1.0*(AKISPL(MAX(0,DM( i , j ) - impact_length),0,Spline))
122 Adams/Car
Forces

The following figure shows the clearance and impact length.

The damping force always acts in opposition to the velocity. In an XML (XML File Format) reboundstop
property file, the options for calculating damping force are:
• linear - You specify the dampingRate, and the damping force is the product of dampingRate,
velocity, and a STEP function. The STEP function depends on the displacement in the rebound
stop and ensures the damping force is continous with displacement.
Fdamping = STEP (MAX(0, DM(I,J) - impact_length), 0, 0, 0.1, -dampingRate
* VR ( marker i, marker j ))
• nonlinear (spline based) - The damping force is interpolated using Akima’s method from a
table of force vs. velocity. Again, a STEP function dependent on the displacement in the rebound
stop ensure that the damping force is continous with displacement.
F damping = STEP (MAX(0, DM(I,J) - impact_length), 0, 0, 0.1, -AKISPL
VR ( marker i, marker j ), 0, dampingSpline ))

About Reboundstop Property Files


The reboundstop component supports the following types of property files:
Working with Components 123
Forces

• TeimOrbit (TeimOrbit File Format) reboundstop property files (extension .reb) - Standard
TeimOrbit reboundstop property files correspond to nonlinear elastic forces with linear damping
equal to 0 formulation. Learn more with Reboundstop dialog box help.
• XML (XML File Format) reboundstop property file - The XML reboundstop property file enables
data sharing with other MSC.Software applications, such as Adams/Chassis, and allows greater
flexibility and a wider range of reboundstop formulation choices. In particular, the new XML
reboundstop property file supports various methods and options for the calculation of force
characteristics, as explained in Calculation of Force Characteristics. You work with XML files in
the Property File Editor.
124 Adams/Car
Wheels, Adjustable forces and Gears

Wheels, Adjustable forces and Gears

Wheels
A wheel is a specialized part you can use when creating tire models. In Adams/Car, creating a wheel
corresponds to creating the metal rigid body part (the rim) and the rubber (tire) around it. You model the
rim with a general rigid part and the tire with a general force (GFORCE). For information on GFORCE,
see the Adams/Solver online help.

In Standard Interface, to modify a wheel:


1. Right-click a wheel, and then select Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Wheel.
3. Select OK.

In Template Builder, to create or modify a wheel:


1. From the Build menu, point to Wheel, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Wheel.
3. Select OK.

Adjustable Forces
An adjustable force is a special Template Builder user-defined element (UDE). You can use adjustable
forces for a variety of conditions, to satisfy static parameters in your model. For example, if you want to
set the length of a rod to be a specific length during static analysis, the adjustable force will vary until the
desired end condition is satisfied.
In Adams/Car for example, a typical application is to use an adjustable force to set toe and camber values
during a static suspension analysis. You might use two parts to define the tie rod and attach them by a
translational joint. You would then apply an adjustable force between the two parts to set toe and camber
values.
When the vehicle reaches static equilibrium without the use of adjustable forces, the toe and camber
alignments might not be the ones that you want. You use adjustable forces to define toe and camber
angles at static equilibrium position.
Adjustable forces act between two appropriate parts and perform a series of adjustments during static
equilibrium to minimize the error between the current computed toe/camber angle and the desired
toe/camber.
You might, for example, use two parts for the tie rod, constrain them using a translational joint, and then
apply an adjustable force between the two parts to set static toe angle. The current formulation creates a
single-component force that acts between the two parts. The force function uses stiffness and damping
values that you can set. The user-defined force uses a differential equation to minimize the error between
desired and computed angles.
Working with Components 125
Wheels, Adjustable forces and Gears

The _double_wishbone_torsion template distributed in the shared car database contains an example of
an adjustable force.
If more than one adjustable force is defined in a model, you must use the pattern statement within the
adjustable force definition. The pattern statement defines the order in which adjustable forces are active.
The following table defines four adjustable forces.

Adjustable force: Pattern 1: Pattern 2: Pattern 3:


Front left toe 10 1010 10101010
Front right toe 10 1010 10101010
Front left camber 01 0101 01010101
Front right camber 01 0101 01010101
Rear left toe 10 1010 10101010
Rear right toe 10 1010 10101010
Rear left camber 01 0101 01010101
Rear right camber 01 0101 01010101

In Pattern 1, two separate static analyses would be run. In the first analysis, the toe adjustable forces
would be active. During the second analysis, the camber adjustable forces would be active. In Pattern 2,
four separate static analyses would be run and the same order as in Pattern 1 would be repeated. Because
the camber is directly affected by the toe change and the toe change is affected by the camber, it is often
desirable to build up patterns such that you can find a static solution by running a number of separate
static analysis. Pattern 3 is an example of eight separate static analyses.
Once the static analysis has been run, one of two things will happen depending on whether the lock with
motion was set for the adjustable force. For example, in Adams/Car an adjustable force might be created
between the tie rod inner and tie rod outer parts. If the adjustable force is locked with motion, then after
the statics is complete, Adams/Car will create a fixed joint between the two tie rod parts, fixing the
displacement between these parts for subsequent dynamic analyses. But if the adjustable force is not
locked, then the same force between the tie rod parts at the end of the static analysis will be maintained
during subsequent dynamic analyses.

In Standard Interface, to modify an adjustable force:


1. From the Adjust menu, select Adjustable Force.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Modify Adjustable Force.
3. Select OK.

In Template Builder, to create or modify an adjustable force:


1. From the Build menu, point to Adjustable Force, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Adjustable
Force.
126 Adams/Car
Wheels, Adjustable forces and Gears

3. Select OK.

Gears
We provide two constraint-based gear options within the Template Builder:
• Differential gear - The differential gear applies a reduction ratio between an input joint and the
symmetric output joint pair. The joint can be either revolute or cylindrical. The motion direction
can be inverted between the input and output joints and a toggle exists to switch between the two
different modes, allowing the reduction ratio to always be positive.
The reduction ratio is based on the following equation:
input motion = reduction ratio * (input shaft - output shaft)/2
You can define the differential gear to be kinematically active, allowing the element to be turned
on or off depending on the type of analysis you are running: compliant or kinematic.
• Reduction gear - The reduction gear applies a reduction ratio between the input and output
joint. Either joint type can be translational, revolute, or cylindrical. Additionally, the motion
direction can be inverted between the input and output joints and a toggle exists to switch
between the two different modes, allowing the reduction ratio to always be positive.
When you enter a cylindrical joint in the input or output Joint text box, an additional text box
becomes active. Because either the rotational or translational degree of freedom of the cylindrical
joint can be used, you must specify if the rotational or translational motion will be the output for
the gear.
The reduction ratio is based on the following equation:
input motion = reduction_ratio * output motion
You can define the differential gear as being kinematically active, allowing the element to be turned on
or off depending on the type of analysis you are running: compliant or kinematic.

Note: A gear in Adams/Car is a coupler in Adams/View.


Working with Components 127
Actuators

Actuators
We provide several actuator options with the Template Builder. An actuator lets you define an element
that can apply a force or motion function to a collection of modeling components. For example, you
might want to create a motion on a valvetrain system, or steer a vehicle around a corner. These
components include joints and parts but are not limited only to these.
Learn more about actuators:
• About Actuators
• Joint-Force Actuators
• Joint-Motion Actuators
• Point-Point Actuators
• Point-Torque Actuators
• Variable Actuators
• Set Function
• Set Activity

About Actuators
When used with appropriate feedback channels, actuators provide a very powerful method to control
your system.
Actuators differ from adjustable forces due to their behavior during dynamic analyses, with actuators
remaining active, whereas adjustable forces are either locked in place or replaced by a fixed joint.
If you create actuators as a symmetrical pair, then you can define separate left and right functions. You
can use the Function Builder to define functions.
Each actuator can have an application area and an identifier. The application area provides information
about the intended purpose of the actuator. The identifier should be used to describe the actuator instance
for this application area. A typical example would be:
Application area = steering
Identifier = steering_wheel_angle (e.g. for a motion type
actuator)
These two additional parameters support a more dynamic use of actuators. For example, to allow de-
/activation and function assignment on the assembly level by adding additional means for browsing and
filtering. Note that they are currently not required by your template-based product.
You can define limits for each actuator in the same way that you would define limits in a test laboratory
to prevent damage caused by excessive actuator force or travel. Although you can define limits for force,
displacement, velocity, and acceleration, it is not required that you do so.
128 Adams/Car
Actuators

You can define the activity of the actuator as either active or not active. You can define the activity either
from the dialog box or from the menu option Set Activity located under the Actuators menu. Learn about
defining the activity.

Joint-Force Actuators
A joint-force actuator defines either a translational or rotational Single-Component Force acting between
two parts that a user-defined joint connects. You can select three types of joints:
• Revolute joint - Selecting a revolute joint causes the Template Builder to automatically switch
to rotational and disable the Type of Freedom option. The single-component force will be a
rotational force acting between the two bodies that the revolute joint connects.
• Translational joint - Selecting a translational joint causes the Template Builder to automatically
switch to translational and disable the Type of Freedom option. The single-component force will
be a translational force acting between the two bodies that the translation joint connects.
• Cylindrical joint - Selecting a cylindrical joint makes an additional text box active. Because
either the rotational or translational degree of freedom of the cylindrical joint can be used, you
must specify if the rotational or translational force will be used. This allows you to decide
between the creation of a torque or a force, based on the selection of either the rotational or
translational type of freedom.
Learn more about actuators, such as creating symmetrical pairs, using application area and identifier
attributes, and defining limits.

To create/modify a joint-force actuator:


1. From the Build menu, point to Actuators, point to Joint Force, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Joint Force
Actuator.
3. Select OK.

Point-Point Actuators
A point-point actuator defines an action-reaction translational single-component force acting between the
two parts that I Part and J Part parameters specify. You define the direction of the resulting force by
selecting the two points of force application, which can be either hardpoint or construction frame
locations.
Learn more about actuators, such as creating symmetrical pairs, using application area and identifier
attributes, and defining limits.

To create/modify a point-point actuator:


1. From the Build menu, point to Actuators, point to Point Torque, and then select New/Modify.
Working with Components 129
Actuators

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Point Point
Actuator.
3. Select OK.

Joint-Motion Actuators
A joint-motion actuator defines either a translational or rotational motion acting between two parts that
a user-defined joint connects. You can select three types of joints:
• Revolute joint - Selecting a revolute joint causes the Template Builder to automatically switch
to rotational and disable the Type of Freedom option. The motion will be a rotational motion
acting between the two bodies that the revolute joint connects.
• Translational joint - Selecting a translational joint causes the Template Builder to automatically
switch to translational and disable the Type of Freedom option. The motion will be a
translational motion acting between the two bodies that the translational joint connects.
• Cylindrical joint - Selecting a cylindrical joint makes an additional text box active. Because
either the rotational or translational degree of freedom of the cylindrical joint can be used, you
must specify if the rotational or translational motion will be used. This allows you to decide
between the creation of a rotational or a translational motion based on selection of either the
rotational or translational type of freedom.
Learn more about actuators, such as creating symmetrical pairs, using application area and identifier
attributes, and defining limits.

To create/modify a joint-motion actuator:


1. From the Build menu, point to Actuators, point to Joint Motion, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Joint Motion
Actuator.
3. Select OK.

Point-Torque Actuators
A point-torque actuator defines an action-reaction or action-only rotational single-component torque
acting between the two parts that the I Part and J Part parameters specify. You define the direction of the
resulting torque within the dialog box. Many of the parametric functions discussed in Construction
Frames are available to define the position and orientation of the resulting actuator.

If you define the actuator as action only, then the J Part text box is disabled and no reaction is exerted.
Learn more about actuators, such as creating symmetrical pairs, using application area and identifier
attributes, and defining limits.

To create/modify a point-torque actuator:


1. From the Build menu, point to Actuators, point to Point Torque, and then select New/Modify.
130 Adams/Car
Actuators

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Point Torque
Actuator.
3. Select OK.

Variable Actuators
A variable actuator is a user-defined element consisting of a data element variable and a series of
additional elements, such as strings and arrays. A variable actuator can be particularly useful where either
parts or joints cannot be referenced. An example of a variable actuator is the velocity of a vehicle: the
function could define a changing velocity which is then referenced by several other modeling
components.
Learn more about actuators, such as creating symmetrical pairs, using application area and identifier
attributes, and defining limits.

To create/modify a variable actuator:


1. From the Build menu, point to Actuators, point to Variable, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Variable
Actuator.
3. Select OK.

Set Function
You can use the set function menu item to modify or replace the function that you defined.
You can use the Function Builder to define functions.

To set actuator function:


1. From the Build menu, point to Actuators, and then select Set Function.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Actuator Set Function.
3. Select OK.

Set Activity
You can use the set activity menu option to set the actuator to be either active or not active. The not active
option is particularly useful when actuator elements are not required.

To set actuator activity:


1. From the Build menu, point to Actuators, and then select Set Activity.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Actuator Set Activity.
3. Select OK.
Working with Components 131
Condition Sensors

Condition Sensors
A condition sensor is a user-defined element that consists of a data element array and strings. It references
an existing variable class element (data element variable or measure solver computed), which is then tied
to the label and unit strings by the array. The array also encapsulates a request (for plotting convenience)
and a units conversion factor.
In essence, a condition sensor represents a relationship between a measurable solver quantity (the
variable class object) and a string label identifier that can be used in an event file (.xml) to define a
condition for Adams/Car full-vehicle analyses.

Use of Condition Sensors in Adams/Car


Adams/Car browses the assembly for condition sensor elements prior to each vehicle analysis and
updates the data element end_conditions_array with the derived list. At the beginning of the simulation,
the Standard Driver Interface (SDI) then uses the specified end condition measure string in the driver
control file to identify the associated variable class object in the dataset, that calculates the quantity the
end condition sensor should compare to the target value.
This architecture allows you to extend the provided set of standard end conditions. If, for example, a
ramp-steer like custom vehicle event should be ended when the turn radius falls short of a certain
threshold, you could:
• add a variable class element to calculate the desired turn radius
• variable name = .__MDI_SDI_TESTRIG.body_turn_radius
• function = (vx2 + vy2)1.5 / (vx*ay - vy*ax)
• add a condition sensor referencing the variable above
• label = "radius"
• variable = .__MDI_SDI_TESTRIG.body_turn_radius
• units = length

Then, you could use this new condition sensor with the following line in your driver control file:
(END_CONDITIONS)
{measure test value allowed_error filter_time delay_time group}
'RADIUS' '|<' 20000.0 500.0 0.0 0.0

Creating or Modifying Condition Sensors

To create/modify condition sensors:


1. From the Build menu, point to Condition Sensors, and then select New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify Condition
Sensor.
3. Select OK.
132 Adams/Car
Feedback Channels

Feedback Channels
A feedback channel is a special user-defined element that contains a series of entities such as
Adams/Solver measures and Adams/View variables. Creating a feedback channel effectively
corresponds to creating a measure (Adams/Solver variable). It is then possible to display the measure.
For information on creating, displaying, and managing strip charts based on measures, see the
Adams/View online help.

Feedback channels are used in the __MDI_SUSPENSION_TESTRIG for the controller. Your template-
based product creates two channels:
• Raw_channel - Controls an absolute value.
• Offset_channel - Controls desired inputs for a deviation.

You can create feedback channels either as a symmetrical pair or individually.


Each feedback channel has an application area and a unique identifier. The application area provides
information about the intended purpose of the feedback channel. For example, you may want to specify
an application area for engine velocity with the identifier specifying that the velocity will be at the crank.
The following are possible naming schemes:
Application area = engine_velocity
Identifier = engine_velocity_crank
If you create feedback channels as a symmetrical pair, then you can define separate left and right
functions. You can use the Function Builder to define functions.
You can offset the raw signal of the feedback channel by a desired real value. Entering a real number in
this text box causes the Template Builder to create an additional measure whose function is the same as
the raw channel, but it is offset by the specified value.

Creating or Modifying User-Function Feedback Channel

To create or modify a user-function feedback channel:


1. From the Build menu, point to Feedback Channels, point to User Function, and then select
New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify User-Function
Feedback Channel.

Setting Function
You can use the set function menu to modify or replace the function that you defined. Note that you have
the option to specify a routine instead of a function.

To set feedback channel function:


1. From the Build menu, point to Feedback Channels, and then select Set Function.
Working with Components 133
Feedback Channels

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Set Feedback Channel
Function.

Setting Offset
You can use the set offset menu to modify the offset applied to the raw measured channel. You can toggle
the activity of the offset on or off.

To set feedback channel offset:


1. From the Build menu, point to Feedback Channels, and then select Set Offset.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Set Feedback Channel Offset.
134 Adams/Car
Data Elements, Requests and Variables

Data Elements, Requests and Variables

General Data Elements


General data elements are elements whose values are stored in property files.
The general data elements group includes:
• General Parameter
• General Spline
• General Variable

General Parameters
The general parameter is an Adams/View variable whose real value is based on a value stored in a
property file data block. The property file must be in the neutral file format of your template-based
product. When your template-based product reads the property files, it updates the general parameter
variable entity with the appropriate real value stored in the property file. The data block and attribute
names in the Create General Parameter dialog box identify the data that is being accessed from the
property file.
Adams/Car uses a general parameter to model the piston area within a steering system. The steering
system includes a data block as follows:
$------------------------------------------------GENERAL_PARAMETER
[GENERAL_PARAMETER]
USAGE = 'rack_piston_area'
SYMMETRY = 'single'
PROPERTY_FILE =
'mdids://acar_shared/steering_assists.tbl/mdi_steer_assist.ste'
DATA_BLOCK = 'STEERING_ASSIST'
ATTRIBUTE_NAME = 'piston_area'
The parameter DATA_BLOCK refers to the sub-block (steering_assist) in which the parameter can be
found. The USAGE keyword describes the name of the attribute whose value must be located. The
example below shows the data for the piston_area referenced above:
$----------------------------------------------------STEERING_ASSIST
[STEERING_ASSIST]
piston_area <area> = 490.87
In this case, the general parameter variable (rack_piston_area) is set to 490.87.
If your template-based product does not find the specified data blocks in the selected property file, then
it issues a warning and the general parameter retains its default value (0.0).
Working with Components 135
Data Elements, Requests and Variables

To create or modify a general parameter:


1. From the Build menu, point to General Data Elements, point to Parameter, and then select
New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify General
Parameter.
3. Select OK.

General Splines
The general spline is a spline whose values are stored in a property file. The property file must be in the
neutral file format of your template-based product. This method of creating splines allows great
flexibility: you can define the splines in your model depending on the numerical content of the selected
property files. When your template-based product reads the property files, it updates the spline entities
with the appropriate referenced values stored in the property files. The data that is being accessed from
the property file is identified by the data block and data sub-block names in the Create General Spline
dialog box. This allows for a very quick and efficient way to modify your data, without manually
modifying the data within an Adams spline.
For example, you could store the boost curve characteristics of many different steering systems in
separate property files and then test different steering systems by referencing those property files. If your
template-based product does not find the specified data blocks in the selected property file, then it issues
a warning and the spline retains its default values.
You can also create a spline using the Build -> Data Element -> Spline menus.This spline differs from
the general spline in a couple of subtle different ways:
• A data element spline stores its data within the template and does not reference an external data
file defined by the neutral file format (TeimOrbit). Therefore, simple changes in data require that
you manually manipulate this spline in the Template Builder.
• Because you cannot make variations to the spline data within the standard user environment, you
cannot carry out what-if scenarios, which you can easily do with the general spline.
Adams/Car uses a general spline to model steering characteristics. The steering subsystem includes a data
block as follows:
$----------------------------------------------------GENERAL_SPLINE
[GENERAL_SPLINE]
USAGE = 'steering_assist'
SYMMETRY = 'single'
TYPE = 'two_dimensional'
PROPERTY_FILE =
'mdids://acar_shared/steering_assists.tbl/mdi_steer_assist.ste'
CURVE_NAME = 'steering_assist'
(COMMENTS)
{comment_line}
'Example of a steering assist spline'
136 Adams/Car
Data Elements, Requests and Variables

The parameter steering_assist then refers to a sub-block of information within your property file. When
your product reads the property file, it populates the general spline with the data. The following shows
the data block for the steering_assist spline:
$----------------------------------------------------STEERING_ASSIST
[STEERING_ASSIST]
piston_area <area> = 490.87
(XY_DATA)
{tbar_deflection <angle> delta_pressure <MPa>}
-3.00 -4.00
-2.20 -4.00
-1.80 -3.60
-1.50 -3.00
-1.00 -2.00
-0.50 -1.00
0.00 0.00
0.50 1.00
1.00 2.00
1.50 3.00
1.80 3.60
2.20 4.00
3.00 4.00
This mechanism lets you generate and use both 2D and 3D splines with data stored within your database
structure by simply selecting the property file that stores the data and defining the data block.

To create or modify a general spline:


1. From the Build menu, point to General Data Elements, point to Spline, and then select
New/Modify.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify General Spline.
3. Select OK.

General Variables
The general variable is an Adams/Solver (data element) variable whose real value is stored in a property
file data block. The property file must be in the neutral file format of your template-based product. When
your template-based product reads the property files, it updates the general variable entity with the
appropriate real value stored in the property file. The data block and attribute names in the Create General
Variable dialog box identify the data that is being accessed from the property file.
The mechanism described for the general parameter is equally applicable to the general variable.
If your template-based product does not find the specified data blocks in the selected property file, then
it issues a warning and the general variable function retains its default value (0.0).

To create or modify a general variable:


1. From the Build menu, point to General Data Elements, point to Variable, and then select
New/Modify.
Working with Components 137
Data Elements, Requests and Variables

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create/Modify General
Variable.
3. Select OK.

Parameter Variables
You can use parameter variables to parameterize various elements and entities in your template-based
product. There are three types of parameter variables:
• String - Does not contain units information, only a string value.
• Integer - Does not contain units information, only an integer value.
• Real - Can contain both a real value and a units specification.

Regardless of the parameter variable type, you can choose to hide the parameter variable from the
standard user. When you designate a parameter variable as hidden, the standard user will not be able to
access it using the Modify Parameter Variable dialog box in the Standard Interface.

Requests
You can use the Create Request dialog box to create a request statement and auxiliary variables used by
your template-based product. A request statement indicates a set of data you want Adams/Solver to
output in the request file (.req). You can explicitly do the following:
• Output a set of displacements, velocities, accelerations, or forces with respect to existing
markers in your template. Learn about markers.
• Define the generic request function
• Use the user-written subroutine REQSUB to define nonstandard output. For information on user-
written subroutines, see Adams/Solver Subroutines.
For information on creating requests, see the Adams/View online help.

Data Elements
Data elements include arrays, curves, splines, matrices, and strings.
For information on data elements, see the Adams/View online help

System Elements
System elements let you create general differential and/or algebraic equations.
For information on system elements, see the Adams/View online help
138 Adams/Car
Data Elements, Requests and Variables
Working with Templates
140 Adams/Car
Template Basics

Template Basics
Your template-based product's library includes a variety of templates. Templates define the topology,
major role, and default parameters for subsystems. This tab includes template information that is specific
to your product.
For general template information, as well as information about the other files that make up model
architecture, see Building Models.

Conventions in Template Descriptions


For each template description, we provide the following:
• Overview - A brief description of the template.
• Template Name - The file name containing the template.
• Major Role - The major role of the template.
• Application - The types of analyses in which you can use the template.
• Description - A complete description of the template and its use.
• Limitations - Limitations of the template design that you should be aware of.
• Files Referenced - The property or MNF files that the template uses to define such entities as
bushings, springs, and flexible bodies.
• Topology - How the different entities of the template connect and how forces or torques are
transferred from one entity to another.
• Parameter Variables - The parameter variables that store key information in the template. For
example, in templates, parameter variables often store angles for a suspension or the orientation
of axes.
• Communicators - Communicators used in the template.
• Notes - Miscellaneous information about the template.

When we refer to communicator and parameter names, we often use the notation [lr] to indicate that there
is both a left and right communicator or parameter of the specified name.

About Designing Templates


Adams/Car templates are parameterized models in which you define the topology of vehicle
components. Building a template means defining parts, how they connect to each other, and how the
template communicates information to other templates and the test rig.
At the template level, it is not crucial that you correctly define the parts, assign force characteristics, and
assign mass properties, because you can modify these values at the subsystem level. It is very important,
however, to correctly define part connectivity and exchange of information, because you cannot modify
them at the subsystem level.
Working with Templates 141
Template Basics

When building templates, keep in mind the assembly process. That is, make sure that your templates can
communicate to each other and can communicate to the test rigs you specify. In Adams/Car,
communicators define how models communicate.

Template Updates
The 2005 Driving Machine employs vehicle controllers developed by MSC.Software, commonly known
as Machine Control, which replaces DriverLite functionality, and Adams/SmartDriver. You must update
Adams/Car 2003 powertrain and body templates to make the compatible with the enhanced Driving
Machine in Adams/Car.
To better control speed and path, the 2005 Driving Machine needs additional information about the
vehicle. In particular, the speed controller uses a feed-forward function to ensure quick and accurate
response. However, this requires information about the available engine brake torque, engine drive
torque, brake torque, and aerodynamic drag. You supply this information by creating new output
communicators in your templates powertrain and body/aerodynamic templates. In addition, you must
also enter vehicle parameter data, such as overall steering ratio that is stored in the assembly file.

Powertrain Template Update


You should update powertrain templates by creating new output communicators to match the following
input communicators in the testrig used by the Driving Machine:
• testrig.cis_max_engine_driving_torque
• testrig.cis_max_engine_braking_torque
• testrig.cis_engine_speed
• testrig.cis_engine_map

Maximum engine driving and braking torques


For closed-loop machine control, the maximum engine driving and braking torques must be
communicated to the Driving Machine. The machine control uses these values in its feed forward
computations when determining the needed throttle and brake inputs to achieve a target longitudinal
acceleration. The Driving Machine expects powertrain templates to provide these torques as Solver
Variables. The torques should depend on the engine speed. You must add two output communicators to
your powertrain template and the corresponding entities that are output. The entities are data element
solver variables that compute the maximum driving and maximum braking torques the powertrain
subsystem produces at the current engine speed. Note that without this information machine control of
the vehicle speed and/or longitudinal acceleration will be unreliable.
In the powertrain.tpl and .powertrain_lt.tpl template files distributed in the shared car database, there are
Adams/Solver VARIABLEs with functions computing the maximum powertrain torque (fully open
throttle) and maximum powertrain brake torque (closed throttle):
AKISPL(MAX(0,VARVAL(engine_speed)/ucf_angle_to_radians),1,gss_en
gine_torque)
142 Adams/Car
Template Basics

AKISPL(MAX(0,VARVAL(engine_speed)/ucf_angle_to_radians),0,gss_en
gine_torque)
These functions interpolate the 3D engine map spline at the current engine speed for at full throttle (max
engine driving torque) and closed (0) throttle position (max engine braking torque).
The output communicators you create to output these Adams/Solver VARIABLE are:
Name: engine_driving_torque
Matching Name: engine_maximum_driving_torque
Entity Type: solver_variable
Minor Role: inherit
Entity: engine_driving_torque
Name: engine_braking_torque
Matching Name: engine_maximum_braking_torque
Entity Type: solver_variable
Minor Role: inherit
Entity: engine_braking_torque

Engine Map
If your powertrain contains an engine map spline (torque vs. engine speed and throttle position), you can
output the spline to the Driving Machine via an output communicator to achieve better control of speed
and longitudinal acceleration. However, the engine map is optional. Define the engine_map output
communicator as:
Name: engine_map
Matching Name: engine_map
Entity Type: spline
Minor Role: inherit
Entity: gss_engine_torque
In the templates powertrain.tpl and powertrain_lt.tpl distributed in the shared car database, the
engine_map output communicators reference the gss_engine_torque spline entity. In your own templates,
choose the appropriate spline.
The engine speed is a solver variable outputting the engine speed in radians/s.

Engine speed
In the case of a closed-loop controller on the vehicle forward velocity, you must define an output
communicator in your powertrain template, as follows:
Name: engine_speed
Matching Name: engine_speed
Working with Templates 143
Template Basics

Entity Type: solver_variable


Minor Role: inherit
Entity: engine_speed
The solver variable, engine_speed, represents the engine rotational velocity expressed in angular/time
units [rad/second]. In the powertrain template distributed in the shared car database , engine_speed is
defined as MAX(0,DIF(._powertrain.engine_omega)).
The __mdi_sdi_testrig references the output communicator you define and SmartDriver uses that
communicator in the smart_driver_controller_inputs_array. The SmartDriver controller input array
references various entities used to sense certain vehicle states. Adding the engine_speed communicator
enables the longitudinal controller so you can perform a constant-speed maneuver or any other type of
closed-loop machine control.

Aero Drag Force


If your vehicle model includes aerodynamic forces, then the drag force affects the longitudinal dynamics
of the vehicle. The feed-forward speed controller can account for the drag force when predicting the
throttle position needed to follow velocity or acceleration profile, if you create an output communicator
that passes the aerodynamic drag force to the __mdi_sdi_testrig. If your vehicle model does not include
aerodynamic forces, then you do not need to create an output communicator for the drag force.
The chassis template delivered in the shared car database, for example, has an aerodynamic force
modeled using a GFORCE. The GFORCE’s drag (longitudinal) force component is measured in a solver
VARIABLE named aero_drag_force with this function expression:
GFORCE(aero_forces,0,4,aero_drag_reference_marker)
Then, the aerodynamic drag is output to the __mdi_sdi_testrig using output communicator of type solver
variable:
Name: aero_drag_force
Matching Name: aero_drag_force
Entity Type: solver_variable
Minor Role: inherit
Entity: aero_drag_force

Other Vehicle Parameters


Some sets of quantities that are used by the Adams/SmartDriver lateral and longitudinal controllers
cannot be easily inferred from the vehicle model. These quantities are defined in the test rig as parameter
variables and are easily accessible. To modify vehicle parameters, display the Set Full-Vehicle
Parameters dialog. From the Simulate menu, point to Full Vehicle Analysis, and then select Set Full-
Vehicle Parameters.
In the resulting dialog box, you can set the following ratios that affect the lateral dynamics of the vehicle,
providing Adams/SmartDriver information about the characteristics of the steering system. Bad values
144 Adams/Car
Template Basics

almost certainly guarantee solver failure in closed-loop events or, if successful, the vehicle will most
certainly be off course.
• Steering Ratio - Dimensionless ratio between the steering wheel angle and the road wheel
angle. You can obtain this value by running a steering analysis on the front suspension and
steering assembly.
• Steering Rack Ratio - Ratio (angle/length) between the steering hand wheel and the rack
displacement expressed in S.I. units. This parameter influences the response of the controller
only when driving by force/displacement.
The following parameters help Adams/SmartDriver in predicting and calculating the brake signal:
• Max. Front/Rear Brake Torque - Maximum torque, expressed in model units, representing the
torque generated for each front/rear brake in condition of maximum brake demand, also
expressed in model units.
• Brake Bias - Front to rear dimensionless ratio. It can be computed as max_front_brake_torque /
(max_front_brake_torque + max_rear_brake_torque).
These parameters are saved to the assembly file, as well as to the test rig in session.

Creating Topology for Your Templates


Topology in Adams/Car consists of creating elements, such as hardpoints, parts, attachments, and
parameters that define subsystems, as explained next:
• Creating hardpoints - You first create hardpoints. Hardpoints are the Adams/Car elements that
define all key locations in your model. They are the most elementary building blocks that you
can use to parameterize locations and orientations for higher-level entities. Hardpoint locations
define most parts and attachments. Hardpoints are only defined by their coordinate locations.
• Creating parts - Once you’ve defined hardpoints, you create parts and define them using the
hardpoints that you created. In this tutorial, you create two types of parts: General Parts, such as
control arm and wheel carrier, and Mount Parts.
• Creating attachments - Finally, you create the attachments, such as joints and bushings, and
parameters which tell Adams/Car how the parts react in relation to one another. You can define
attachments for the compliant and kinematic analysis modes. The compliant mode uses
bushings, while the kinematic mode uses joints.
Before you begin to build a template, you must decide what elements are most appropriate for your
model. You must also decide which geometries seem most applicable to each part or whether you want
any geometry at all. Once you’ve decided, you create a template and create the basic topology for it.
Working with Templates 145
Working with Communicators

Working with Communicators


You use communicators to exchange of information between subsystems, templates, and the test rig in
your assembly.
This topic includes information for Adams/Car communicators. For general information on
communicators, see Building Models.
Learn more about working with communicators in Adams/Car:
• Communicators in the Suspension Test Rig
• Communicators in the SDI Test Rig
• Matching Communicators with Test Rigs

Communicators in the Suspension Test Rig


The following tables describe the input and output communicators in the suspension test rig
(.__MDI_SUSPENSION_TESTRIG). In the tables, the notation:
• [lr] indicates that there is both a left and right communicator of the specified name, as in
ci[lr]_camber_angle.
• s indicates a single communicator, as in cis_steering_rack_joint.

Communicators in the Suspension Test Rig

From
Belongs to the minor
The communicator: class: role: Receives:
ci[lr]_camber_angle parameter_real any Camber angle value from the suspension
subsystem. Sets the correct orientation of
the test rig wheels.
ci[lr]_diff_tripot location any Location of the differential.
ci[lr]_toe_angle parameter_real any Toe angle value from the suspension
subsystem. Sets the correct orientation of
the test rig wheels.
ci[lr]_suspension_mount mount any Part to which the test rig wheels can attach.
ci[lr]_suspension_upright mount any Upright part from suspension subsystem.
ci[lr]_jack_frame mount any Not matched (fixed to ground).
ci[lr]_wheel_center location any Location of the wheel center from the
suspension subsystem. Test rig wheels
attach to the suspension at that location.
146 Adams/Car
Working with Communicators

From
Belongs to the minor
The communicator: class: role: Receives:
cis_driveline_active parameter_integer any Integer value stored in the suspension
template/subsystem that indicates the
activity of the drivetrain.
cis_powertrain_to_body mount any Part to which differential outputs are
constrained.
cis_leaf_adjustment_steps parameter_integer any Integer value stored in the leaf spring
template (currently not available).
cis_steering_rack_joint joint_for_motion any Steering-rack translational joint from the
steering subsystem.
cis_steering_wheel_joint joint_for_motion any Steering-wheel revolute joint from the
steering subsystem.
cis_suspension_parameters_ARRAY array any Array used in the suspension characteristic
calculations; comes from the suspension
subsystems.

Output Communicators in Suspension Test Rig

From
Belongs to minor
The communicator: the class: role: Outputs:
cos_leaf_adjustment_multiplier array any Leaf Spring toolkit. It is currently not supported in
the standard product.
cos_characteristics_input_ARRAY array any Suspension, vehicle, and test-rig parameters array
IDs used by suspension characteristics
calculations routines.
co[l,r]_tripot_to_differential mount any Outputs the ge[lr]_diff_output parts.
cos_tire_forces_array_left array any Outputs array of Adams IDs used by the
conceptual suspension module.
cos_tire_forces_array_right array any Outputs array of Adams IDs used by the
conceptual suspension module.

Communicators in the SDI Test Rig


The following tables describe the input and output communicators in the SDI test rig
(.__MDI_SDI_TESTRIG). In the tables, the notation [lr] indicates that there is both a left and right
communicator of the specified name.
Working with Templates 147
Working with Communicators

Input Communicators in SDI Test Rig

From
Belongs to the minor
The communicator: class: role: Receives:
cis_body_subsystem mount inherit Output from the body subsystem. It indicates
the part that represents the body.
cis_chassis_path_reference marker any Marker from the body subsystem. It is used to
measure path, roll, and sideslip error in a
constant radius cornering maneuver.
cis_driver_reference marker any Marker from the body subsystem. It is used in
Adams/SmartDriver simulations.
cis_engine_rpm solver_variable any Adams/Solver variable for engine revolute
speed, in rotations per minute, from the
powertrain subsystem.
cis_engine_speed solver_variable any Adams/Solver variable for engine revolute
speed, in radians per second, from the
powertrain subsystem.
cis_measure_for_distance marker any Marker used to measure the distance traveled
in the forward direction of the vehicle, from
the body subsystem.
cis_diff_ratio parameter_real any Real parameter variable for final drive ratio,
from the powertrain subsystem.
cis_steering_rack_joint joint_for_motion front Steering-rack translational joint from the
steering subsystem.
cis_steering_wheel_joint joint_for_motion front Steering-wheel revolute joint from the
steering subsystem.
cis_max_brake_value parameter_real any Output from brake subsystem (maximum
brake signal value).
cis_max_engine_speed parameter_real any Output from powertrain subsystem (maximum
engine rpm value).
cis_max_gears parameter_intege any Output from powertrain (maximum number of
r allowed gears).
cis_max_rack_displacement parameter_real any Output displacement limits from steering
subsystem. Used by the Standard Driver
Interface.
cis_max_rack_force parameter_real any Output force limits from steering subsystem.
Used by the Standard Driver Interface.
cis_max_steering_angle parameter_real any Output angle limits from steering subsystem.
Used by the Standard Driver Interface.
148 Adams/Car
Working with Communicators

From
Belongs to the minor
The communicator: class: role: Receives:
cis_max_steering_torque parameter_real any Output from steering subsystem.
cis_max_throttle parameter_real any Output from powertrain (maximum value of
throttle signal).
cis_min_engine_speed parameter_real any Output from powertrain subsystem (minimum
engine rpm value, used for shifting strategy).
cis_rotation_diff diff any Output from powertrain (it is a differential
equation used to measure crankshaft
acceleration; its integral is used for engine
rpm).
cis_transmission_spline spline any Spline for transmission gears (output from
powertrain: reduction ratios for every gear).
cis_transmission_input_omega solver_variable any The transmission input engine variable from
the powertrain template.
cis_clutch_diff diff any Clutch slip differential equation from the
powertrain template.
cis_clutch_displacement_ic solver_variable any The clutch initial displacement (engine
crankshaft torque at static equilibrium) from
the powertrain template.
ci[lr]_front_suspension_mount mount front The hub parts (wheel carriers) from
suspension templates (front and rear)
ci[lr]_rear_suspension_mount mount rear The hub parts (wheel carriers) from
suspension templates (front and rear)

Output Communicators in SDI Test Rig

From
Belongs to the minor
The communicator: class: role: Outputs:
cos_brake_demand solver_variable any Brake demand to the brake subsystem.
cos_clutch_demand solver_variable any Clutch demand to the powertrain subsystem.
cos_desired_velocity solver_variable any Desired velocity Adams/Solver variable. Other
subsystems can reference it.
cos_initial_engine_rpm parameter_real any Initial engine RPM real variable to the powertrain
subsystem.
cos_throttle_demand solver_variable any Throttle demand to the powertrain subsystem.
Working with Templates 149
Working with Communicators

From
Belongs to the minor
The communicator: class: role: Outputs:
cos_transmission_demand solver_variable any Transmission (gear) demand to the powertrain
subsystem.
cos_sse_diff1 diff any Differential equation computed during quasi-
static prephase, used to control the vehicle
longitudinal dynamics.
cos_std_tire_ref location any X,Y,Z location of standard tire reference marker
(positioned appropriately at the correct height,
including 2% of road penetration).

Matching Communicators with Test Rigs


When you create a template, you must meet the following conditions to ensure that an analysis will work
with your new template:
• The template must be compatible with other templates and with the test rigs, for example, the
.__MDI_SUSPENSION_TESTRIG. The template must also contain the proper output
communicators.
• If the template is a suspension template (for example, its major role is suspension), the template
must contain a suspension parameters array. The suspension parameters array identifies to the
suspension analysis how the steer axis should be calculated and whether the suspension is
independent or dependent.
For example, for a suspension template to be compatible with the suspension test rig, the suspension
template must contain either the mount or the upright output communicators. In the following table, the
notation [lr] indicates that there is both a left and right communicator of the specified name.
Output Communicators in Suspension Templates

The communicator: Belongs to the class: From minor role: Receives:


co[lr]_suspension_mount mount inherit suspension_mount
co[lr]_suspension_upright mount inherit suspension_upright
co[lr]_wheel_center location inherit wheel_center
co[lr]_toe_angle parameter_real inherit toe_angle
co[lr]_camber_angle parameter_real inherit camber_angle

The co[lr]_suspension_mount output communicators publish the parts to which the test rig wheels should
mount. As you create these communicators, ensure that you set their minor role to inherit. By setting the
minor role to inherit, the communicator takes its minor role from the minor role of the subsystems that
use your suspension template.
150 Adams/Car
Working with Communicators

The co[lr]_wheel_center output communicators publish the location of the wheel centers to the test rig
so the test rig can locate itself relative to the suspension. As you create these types of communicators,
make sure that you also leave their minor role set to inherit.
The toe and camber communicators (co[lr]_toe_angle and co[lr]_camber_angle) publish, to the test rig,
the toe and camber angles set in the suspension so the test rig can orient the wheels correctly.
Working with Templates 151
Templates

Templates

Disc-Brake System
Overview
The disc-brake system template represents a device that applies resistance to the motion of a vehicle.

Figure 1 Disc-Brake System

Template name
_brake_system_4Wdisk

Major role
Brake.

Application
Full-vehicle Analysis to simulate the effect of braking on the dynamics of the vehicle.

Description
The disc-brake system template represents a simple model of a brake system. It applies a rotational torque
between the caliper and the rotor.
152 Adams/Car
Templates

Files referenced
None.

Topology
The caliper part is mounted to the suspension upright, while the rotor is mounted to the wheel. A
rotational SFORCE is applied between the two parts.

Parameters
The toe and camber values that the suspension subsystem publishes define the spin axis orientation. In
addition, the braking torque is expressed as a function of a number of parameters.
The following table lists the parameters in the template.

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are:


front_brake_bias Real No units
front_brake_mu Real No units
front_effective_piston_radius Real mm
front_piston_area Real mm2
front_rotor_hub_wheel_offset Real mm
front_rotor_hub_width Real mm
front_rotor_width Real mm
max_brake_value Real No units
rear_brake_mu Real No units
rear_effective_piston_radius Real mm
rear_piston_area Real mm2
rear_rotor_hub_wheel_offset Real mm
rear_rotor_hub_width Real mm
rear_rotor_width Real mm

Limitations
The disc-brake template is a simple model of a brake system. It does not model the complex interaction
between the rotor and caliper.

Communicators
Mount parts provide the connectivity between the template and suspension subsystems. Input
Communicators receive information about the toe and camber suspension orientation and the wheel-
center location. Input to the brake system is brake demand.
Working with Templates 153
Templates

The following table lists the communicators in the template.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


ci[lr]_front_camber_angle parameter_real front
ci[lr]_front_rotor_to_wheel mount front
ci[lr]_front_toe_angle parameter_real front
ci[lr]_front_wheel_center location front
ci[lr]_front_suspension_ upright mount front
ci[lr]_rear_rotor_ro_wheel mount rear
ci[lr]_rear_suspension_ upright mount rear
ci[lr]_rear_toe_angle parameter_real rear
ci[lr]_rear_camber_angle parameter_real rear
ci[lr]_rear_wheel_center location rear
cis_brake_demand solver_variable any
cos_max_brake_value parameter_real inherit
154 Adams/Car
Templates

Notes: The torque on the rotor depends on a number of parameters. The front right torque function
is:
T = 2 x PistonArea x BrakeLinePressure x µ x
EffectivePistonRadius x STEP
where:

• BrakeLinePressure is calculated as follows:


BrakeLinePressure = BrakeBias * BrakeDemand * 0.1
where:

• BrakeBias defines the front and rear proportioning of the brake line pressure.
Note that although the term is constant, in reality, simple hydraulic systems
allow dynamic front and rear proportioning of the brake pressure depending on
a number of factors, including longitudinal slip angle of the tires and dynamic
load transfer.
• BrakeDemand is the force on the pedal (N) as it is output from the analysis.
• 0.1 is a conversion factor that converts into pressure the force applied on the
pedal.
• STEP is the function of the rotation of the rotor to wheel and suspension upright
markers. The function prevents backward spinning of the wheels. STEP is a simple
function that measures the WZ rotation of the marker on the rotor with respect to
the marker on the upright and reverses the sign of the applied torque if the wheel is
spinning backward.
Working with Templates 155
Templates

Double-Wishbone Suspension
Overview
A double-wishbone suspension is one of the most common suspension designs. It uses two lateral control
arms to hold the wheel carrier and control its movements.

Figure 2 Double-Wishbone Suspension

Template name
_double_wishbone

Major role
Suspension

Application
Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies
156 Adams/Car
Templates

Description
The double-wishbone template represents the most common design for doublewishbone suspensions.
You can use the template as a front steerable suspension or as a rear non-steerable suspension.
You can set subsystems based on this template to kinematic or compliant mode. In kinematic mode,
Adams/Car replaces the bushings that connect the control arms to the body mount part with a
corresponding purely kinematic constraint. Adams/Car also does this for the top mount and lower strut
mount.
You can deactivate the subframe part, as well as the halfshafts. A spring acts between the upper mount
part and the lower strut. A bumpstop acts between the upper and lower strut parts.

Files referenced
Bushings, springs, dampers, and bumpstops property files

Topology
The lower wishbone connects to a subframe or to the mount if you've deactivated the subframe. The
upper wishbone connects to the body mount part. A spherical joint constrains the upright part to the upper
and lower arms.
A spherical joint also connects the tie rods to the uprights. Tie rods attach to mount parts through convel
joints. Convel joints also connect the tripots to the drive shafts. A static rotation control actuator locks
the rotational degree of freedom of the hub during quasi-static analyses.

The joint: Connects the part: To the part:


jklrev_lca gel_lower_control_arm ges_subframe
jolsph_lca_balljoint gel_upright gel_lower_control_arm
jolsph_tierod_outer gel_tierod gel_upright
jolcon_tierod_inner gel_tierod mtl_tierod_to_steering
josfix_subframe_rigid ges_subframe mts_subframe_to_body
jklhoo_top_mount_kinematic gel_upper_strut mtl_strut_to_body
jolsph_uca_balljoint gel_upper_control_arm gel_upright
jolcyl_lwr_upr_strut gel_lower_strut gel_upper_strut
jklrev_uca gel_upper_control_arm mtl_uca_to_body
jklhoo_lwr_strut_kinematic gel_lower_strut gel_lower_control_arm
joltra_tripot_to_differential gel_tripot mtl_tripot_to_differential
jolcon_drive_sft_int_jt gel_tripot gel_drive_shaft
jolcon_drive_sft_otr gel_drive_shaft gel_spindle
Working with Templates 157
Templates

Parameters
Toe and camber variables define wheel spin axis, spindle part, and spindle geometry. The following table
lists the parameters in the template.

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are:


phs_driveline_active Integer No units
phs_kinematic_flag Integer No units
pvs_subframe_active Integer No units
pv[lr]_toe_angle Real Degrees
pv[lr]_camber_angle Real Degrees
pv[lr]_drive_shaft_offset Real mm
158 Adams/Car
Templates

Communicators
Mount parts provide connectivity from the template to body subsystems and the differential. Output
Communicators publish toe, camber, steer axis, and wheel-center location information to the appropriate
subsystems and the test rig. The following table lists the input and output communicators.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


ci[lr]_ARB_pickup location inherit
ci[lr]_strut_to_body mount inherit
ci[lr]_tierod_to_steering mount inherit
ci[lr]_tripot_to_differential mount inherit
ci[lr]_uca_to_body mount inherit
cis_subframe_to_body mount inherit
co[lr]_arb_bushing_mount mount inherit
co[lr]_camber_angle parameter_real inherit
co[lr]_droplink_to_ suspension mount inherit
co[lr]_suspension_mount mount inherit
co[lr]_suspension_upright mount inherit
co[lr]_toe_angle parameter_real inherit
co[lr]_tripot_to_differential location inherit
co[lr]_wheel_center location inherit
cos_driveline_active parameter_integer inherit
cos_engine_to_subframe mount inherit
cos_rack_housing_to_suspension_subframe mount inherit
cos_suspension_parameters_ARRAY array inherit

Note: The integer parameter variables allow you to activate and deactivate the subframe part and
the driveshafts. The kinematic flag variable toggles between kinematic and compliant
mode.
Working with Templates 159
Templates

Flexible LCA Double-Wishbone Suspension


Overview
The flexible LCA double-wishbone suspension template is similar to the standard Double-Wishbone
Suspension. In the flexible template, however, a flexible representation replaces the rigid body lower
control arms.

Figure 3 Flexible LCA Double-Wishbone Suspension

Template name
_double_wishbone_flex

Major role
Suspension

Application
Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies

Description
Flexible bodies replace the left and right rigid lower control arms.
160 Adams/Car
Templates

MNF files referenced


LCA_left_shl.mnf and LCA_right_shl.mnf. In addition, because of the way the node IDs are numbered,
you can swap the default modal neutral files with LCA_left_tra.mnf and LCA_right_tra.mnf.

Topology
In addition to the general topology described for the Double-Wishbone Suspension, this template uses
interface parts to connect the flexible bodies to the rest of the suspension. Node IDs define the location
of interface parts.

Parameters, Communicators & Notes


Refer to the Double-Wishbone Suspension.

ISO Road Course


Overview
The ISO road course template represents a closed circuit with an ISO lane-change section.

Figure 4 ISO Road Course

Template name
_ISO_road_course
Working with Templates 161
Templates

Major role
Environment

Application
With the optional Adams/Driver module

Description
The ISO road course template consists of shell elements and frustums, and represents a closed circuit
with an ISO lane-change section.

Files referenced
Geometry elements (shells) reference shell files stored in the Adams/Car shared database in the
shell_graphics.tbl directory. The shell files are Iso_road_inr.shl, Iso_road_otr.shl, and Iso_road_c.shl.

Topology
All the graphic elements are created on the ground part.

Parameters
Contains no parametric information.

Communicators
Contains no communicators.

Note: The corresponding Adams/Driver representation of this course is available as a trace on the
x-y plane and lane width in the driver_roads.tbl directory. The file is called
ISO_road_course.drd. You can use the file to run full-vehicle analyses with Adams/Driver.
Including the ISO road course template in your full-vehicle assembly adds a graphical
representation of the circuit.

MacPherson Suspension
Overview
The MacPherson suspension design in this template is similar to the SLA geometry, and is probably the
most often used suspension for passenger cars in the world. It uses a telescopic strut incorporating a
162 Adams/Car
Templates

damper element. The upper end is fixed to the body and the lower end is located by linkages. The
MacPherson design provides advantages in packaging, and it is generally used for front-wheel-drive cars.

Figure 5 MacPherson Suspension

Template name
_macpherson

Major role
Suspension

Application
Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies

Description
The MacPherson suspension template represents the most common design for MacPherson suspensions.
You can use the template as a front steerable suspension or as a rear non-steerable suspension.
You can set the subsystems based on this template to kinematic or compliant mode. In kinematic mode,
Adams/Car replaces the bushings with the corresponding kinematic constraints. The bushings connect
Working with Templates 163
Templates

the control arm and the damper strut to the body mount parts. You can also activate or deactivate
driveshafts.
A spring acts between the upper strut part and the lower strut. Bumpstops and reboundstops are also
present.

Files referenced
Bushings, springs, dampers, bumpstops, and reboundstops property files

Topology
The MacPherson suspension template represents a standard design employing a one-piece lower control
arm (also known as A-arm) and a subframe. The upright to which the wheel mounts is located by the
lower control arm, the tie rod, and the strut. The lower control arm regulates the fore-aft and lateral
motions of the upright. The tie rod controls steering rotation of the upright, and the strut controls the
vertical motion of the upright and the side and front view rotations, as well. A static rotation control
actuator locks the rotational degree of freedom of the hub during quasi-static analyses.
The following table lists the topological information of the left side of the MacPherson suspension.

The joint: Connects the part: To the part:


jklrev_lca gel_lower_control_arm ges_subframe
jolsph_lca_balljoint gel_upright gel_lower_control_arm
jolcyl_strut gel_upright gel_upper_strut
jolsph_tierod_outer gel_tierod gel_upright
jolcon_tierod_inner gel_tierod mtl_tierod_to_steering
jksfix_subframe_rigid ges_subframe mts_subframe_to_body
jklhoo_top_mount_kinematic gel_upper_strut mtl_strut_to_body
joltra_tripot_to_differential gel_tripot mtl_tripot_to_differential
jolcon_drive_sft_int_jt gel_tripot gel_drive_shaft
jolcon_drive_sft_otr gel_drive_shaft gel_spindle
jolrev_spindle_upright gel_spindle gel_upright
164 Adams/Car
Templates

Parameters
Toe and camber variables in the template define the wheel spin axis, spindle part, and spindle geometry.
The following table lists the parameters in the templates.

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are:


phs_driveline_active Integer No units
phs_kinematic_flag Integer No units
pv[lr]_toe_angle Real Degrees
pv[lr]_camber_angle Real Degrees
pv[lr]_drive_shaft_offset Real mm
Working with Templates 165
Templates

Communicators
Mount parts provide the connectivity from the template to the body subsystems and differential. Output
communicators publish toe, camber, steer axis, and wheel-center location information to the appropriate
subsystems and test rig. The following table lists the input and output communicators in the template.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


ci[lr]_ARB_pickup location inherit
ci[lr]_strut_to_body mount inherit
ci[lr]_tierod_to_steering mount inherit
ci[lr]_tripot_to_differential mount inherit
cis_subframe_to_body mount inherit
co[lr]_arb_bushing_mount mount inherit
co[lr]_camber_angle parameter_real inherit
co[lr]_droplink_to_ suspension mount inherit
co[lr]_suspension_mount mount inherit
co[lr]_suspension_upright mount inherit
co[lr]_toe_angle parameter_real inherit
co[lr]_tripot_to_differential location inherit
co[lr]_wheel_center location inherit
cos_driveline_active parameter_integer inherit
cos_rack_housing_to_ suspension_subframe mount inherit
cos_suspension_parameters_ARRAY array inherit

Note: The integer parameter variables let you activate and deactivate the driveshafts. The
kinematic flag variable toggles between kinematic and compliant mode replacing the joints
with the corresponding elastic elements. For example, Adams/Car replaces the revolute
joints that connect the lower control arms to the subframe with bushings
166 Adams/Car
Templates

Multi-Link Suspension
Overview
The multi-link suspension represents an independent suspension model for use as a rear suspension.

Figure 6 Multi-Link Suspension

Template name
_multi_link

Major role
Suspension

Application
Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies

Description
The multi-link suspension template represents a common rear independent suspension design. It includes
a subframe (represented by the outline graphics) that is connected to the upper arm, to the lateral links,
and to the track rod. The suspension is nonsteerable and intended to be used as a rear suspension only.
Working with Templates 167
Templates

Files referenced
Springs, dampers, and bushings property files

Topology
Spherical joints, which are active in kinematic mode, connect the uprights to links. Bushings connect the
trailing links to the mount parts. Springs and dampers act between the trailing links and the body. A static
rotation control actuator locks the rotational degree of freedom of the hub during quasi-static analyses.
The following table provides a topological map of the template.

The joint: Connects the part: To the part:


jklsph_hub_tl gel_Upright gel_Trailing_Link
jklhoo_trailing_link_body gel_Trailing_Link mtl_trailing_link_body
jklrev_ula_sbf gel_upper ges_Subframe
joltra_dpr_upr_dpr_lwr gel_Damper_Upper gel_Damper_Lower
jklsph_dpr_lwr_tl gel_Damper_Lower gel_Trailing_Link
jklhoo_dpr_spring_seat_upper gel_Damper_Upper mtl_Spring_Seat_Upper
jksfix_sbf_body ges_Subframe mtl_body_sbf_front
jklsph_hub_ll gel_Upright gel_lateral
jklsph_hub_tr gel_Upright gel_Track_Rod
jklhoo_sbf_ll ges_Subframe gel_lateral
jklhoo_sbf_tr ges_Subframe gel_Track_Rod
jklsph_hub_ula gel_Upright gel_upper
joltra_tripot_to_differential gel_tripot mtl_tripot_to_differential
jolcon_drive_sft_int_jt gel_tripot gel_drive_shaft
jolcon_drive_sft_otr gel_drive_shaft gel_spindle
jolrev_spindle_upright gel_spindle gel_Upright

Parameters
Toe and camber variables in the template define the wheel spin axis, spindle part, and spindle geometry.
The following table lists the parameters in the templates.

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are:


phs_driveline_active Integer No units
phs_kinematic_flag Integer No units
pvs_subframe_active Integer No units
168 Adams/Car
Templates

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are:


pv[lr]_toe_angle Real Degrees
pv[lr]_camber_angle Real mm
pv[lr]_drive_shaft_offset Real mm

Communicators
The following table lists the communicators in the template.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


ci[lr]_body_sbf_front mount inherit
ci[lr]_body_sbf_rear mount inherit
ci[lr]_Spring_Seat_Upper mount inherit
ci[lr]_trailing_link_body mount inherit
ci[lr]_tripot_to_differential mount inherit
co[lr]_camber_angle parameter_real inherit
co[lr]_suspension_mount mount inherit
co[lr]_suspension_upright mount inherit
co[lr]_tripot_to_differential location inherit
co[lr]_wheel_center location inherit
cos_driveline_active parameter_integer inherit
cos_suspension_ parameters_ARRAY array inherit

Note: The integer parameter variables let you activate and deactivate the subframe part and the
driveshafts. The kinematic flag variable toggles between kinematic and compliant mode.
Working with Templates 169
Templates

Parallel-Link Steering System


Overview
The parallel-link steering system template is essentially a four-bar mechanism consisting of a pitman
arm, center link, and idler arm.

Figure 7 Parallel-Link Steering

Template name
_parallel_link_steering

Major role
Steering

Application
Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies

Description
A recirculating ball steering gear transmits motion from the steering wheel to the pitman arm. The pitman
arm rotates to impart motion to the center link and idler arm. The translation of the center link pulls and
pushes the tie rods to steer the wheels.
170 Adams/Car
Templates

Files referenced
Steering assist and torsion bar deflection property file. The default property file is mdi_steer_assis.ste,
stored in the steer_assist.tbl directory of the shared Adams/Car database.

Topology
The recirculating ball steering gear consists of three major parts:
• Ball screw
• Rack
• Sector

The steering wheel rotates the steering input shaft. A torsion bar attaches the steering input shaft to a ball
screw. The ball screw imparts translational motion to the steering gear through a coupler. The steering
gear, in turns, rotates the sector through a coupler, which is connected directly to the pitman arm shaft.
The following table maps the topology of the template.

The joint: Connects the part: To the part:


joshoo_column_intermediate ges_steering_column ges_intermediate_shaft
joshoo_intermediate_shaftinput ges_intermediate_shaft ges_input_shaft
josrev_steering_wheel ges_steering_wheel ges_column_housing
joscyl_steering_column ges_steering_column ges_column_housing
josfix_column_housing_to_housing_ ges_column_housing mts_steering_column_to_body
mount
jolsph_centerlink_arm ges_center_link gel_arm
jolrev_pitman_arm_steering_gear gel_arm swl_steering_gear_mount
josrev_ball_screw_steering_gear ges_ball_screw swl_steering_gear_mount
josrev_input_shaft_steering_gear ges_input_shaft swl_steering_gear_mount
jostra_rack_steering_gear ges_rack swl_steering_gear_mount
josfix_steering_gear_housing ges_steering_gear_housing swl_steering_gear_mount
josper_centerlink_pitman_arm ges_center_link gel_arm
vfo_steering_assist ges_rack swl_steering_gear_mount
gksred_ball_screw_input_shaft_lock josrev_ball_screw_steering josrev_input_shaft_steering_
_gear gear
grsred_steering_wheel_column_lock josrev_steering_wheel joscyl_steering_column
Working with Templates 171
Templates

The joint: Connects the part: To the part:


grsred_ball_screw_rack josrev_ball_screw_steering jostra_rack_steering_gear
_gear
grsred_pitman_arm_rack jolrev_pitman_arm_steerin jostra_rack_steering_gear
g_gear

Parameters
A parameter variable switches between kinematic and compliant mode, effectively defining the status of
the ball screw input shaft lock reduction gear.

Communicators
The following table lists the communicators in the template.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


ci[lr]_steering_gear_to_body mount inherit
ci[lr]_steering_gear_to_suspension_subframe mount inherit
cis_steering_column_to_ body mount inherit
co[lr]_tierod_to_steering mount front
cos_max_rack_ displacement parameter_real inherit
cos_max_rack_force parameter_real inherit
cos_max_steering_angle parameter_real inherit
cos_max_steering_torque parameter_real inherit
cos_steering_rack_joint joint_for_motion inherit
cos_steering_wheel_joint joint_for_motion inherit

Note: The parallel-link steering template contains general spline elements. The general spline
element gss_torsion_bar spline provides torque as a function of the angular deflection of
the input shaft relative to the ball screw. A switch part is also present. It allows you to
explore two different topological solutions. You can rigidly connect the steering gear to the
body or to the suspension_subframe part.
172 Adams/Car
Templates

Pitman Arm Steering System


Overview
The pitman arm steering system template is a simple steering system derived from a parallel-link design.
It is commonly used in trucks. It consists of a three-bar mechanism: pitman arm, draglink, and tie rod.

Figure 8 Pitman Arm Steering System

Template name
_pitman_arm

Major role
Steering

Application
Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies

Description
A recirculating ball steering gear transmits motion from the steering wheel to the pitman arm. The pitman
arm rotates to impart motion to the draglink. The draglink pulls and pushes the tie rod and steers the
wheels.
Working with Templates 173
Templates

Files referenced
The point torque actuator references the torsion_bar datablock in the mdi_steering.ste property file,
stored in the Adams/Car shared database, under the steer_assists.tbl table or directory.

Topology
The recirculating ball steering gear consists of three major parts:
• Ball screw
• Rack
• Sector

The steering wheel rotates the steering input shaft. The steering input shaft attaches to the ball screw
through a torsion bar, currently locked by a coupler. The ball screw imparts translational motion to the
rack, through a coupler. The rack, in turns, rotates the sector through a coupler.
The sector is connected directly to the pitman arm shaft. The pitman arm drags the draglink, which is
directly connected to the right wheel, and pulls the tie rod, connected to the left wheel. Spherical joints
connect the draglink and tie rod.
The following table maps the topology of the template.

The joint: Connects the part: To the part:


joshoo_column_intermediate ges_steering_column ges_intermediate_shaft
joshoo_intermediate_shaft_i ges_intermediate_shaft ges_input_shaft
nput
josrev_steering_wheel ges_steering_wheel ges_column_housing
joscyl_steering_column ges_steering_column ges_column_housing
josfix_column_housing_to_h ges_column_housing mts_steering_column_to_body
ousing_mount
josrev_pitman_arm_steering mts_steering_gear_to_suspension ges_idle_arm
_gear _subframe
jossph_centerlink_arm ges_idle_arm ges_draglink
josrev_input_shaft_steering_ ges_input_shaft mts_steering_gear_to_suspension
gear _subframe
josrev_ball_screw_steering_ ges_ball_screw mts_steering_gear_to_suspension
gear _subframe
jostra_rack_steering_gear ges_rack mts_steering_gear_to_suspension
_subframe
jossph_draglink_to_tierod ges_draglink ges_tierod
174 Adams/Car
Templates

The joint: Connects the part: To the part:


grsred_steering_wheel_colu josrev_steering_wheel joscyl_steering_column
mn_lock
gksred_ball_screw_input_sh josrev_ball_screw_steering_gear josrev_input_shaft_steering_gear
aft_lock
grsred_pitman_arm_rack josrev_pitman_arm_steering_gea jostra_rack_steering_gear
r
grsred_ball_screw_rack josrev_ball_screw_steering_gear jostra_rack_steering_gear

Parameters
A parameter variable switches between kinematic and compliant mode, effectively defining the status of
the ball screw input shaft lock reduction gear.

Communicators
The following table lists the Communicators in the template.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


ci[lr]_steering_gear_to_suspension_subframe mount inherit
cis_steering_column_to_ body mount inherit
cos_tierod_to_steering mount front
cos_draglink_to_steering joint_for_motion inherit
cos_steering_wheel_joint joint_for_motion inherit

Note: The pitman arm steering system template does not interface with any of the Adams/Car
shared database suspension templates because those suspension templates have tie rods. To
correctly assemble the pitman arm steering to a suspension subsystem, you must remove
the tie rods from the suspension. The draglink and the tie rod have to be mounted to the left
and right upright parts.
Working with Templates 175
Templates

Powertrain System
Overview
The Adams/Car shared database includes a powertrain template, powertrain.tpl. The template models an
engine, manual transmission, and a limited-slip differential that may be used for a front engine, front-
wheel-drive vehicle, or a rear engine, rear-wheel-drive vehicle.

Figure 9 Powertrain

Template name
_powertrain

Major role
Powertrain

Application
Full-vehicle assemblies

Description
The powertrain system template represents an engine, clutch, transmission, and differential:
176 Adams/Car
Templates

• Engine model - Consists of a single part (ges_engine) representing the total mass and inertia of
the engine block, clutch housing, and transmission. A general spline element
(gss_engine_torque) represents the engine's steady-state torque versus engine speed and throttle
position. Before any analysis, gss_engine_torque is updated by reading the engine torque versus
engine speed and throttle from a powertrain property file. For example,
mdids://acar_shared/powertrains.tbl/V8_240HP_400Nm.pwr. See Torque versus Engine Speed
and Throttle Position for this property file.
To allow for larger integration time steps during simulation, the engine crankshaft is not included
as a part in the templates. Instead of a rotating crankshaft part, a differential equation
(engine_omega) integrates the engine crankshaft's rotational acceleration (Adams/Solver
requires one integration time step for each 60 degrees of part rotation). The engine crankshaft's
rotational acceleration is the difference between the engine torque and the clutch torque divided
by the engine rotational inertia.
• Clutch model - The clutch torque is modulated by the clutch demand, which ranges in value
from zero (0) to one (1):
• A clutch demand of zero means that the driver's foot is off the clutch pedal and the clutch is
closed.
• A clutch demand of one means that the driver has pushed the clutch pedal completely to the
floor and the clutch is open.
You can set the values of clutch demand, for which the clutch is completely closed or open, using
the parameter variables pvs_clutch_closed and pvs_clutch_open.
The clutch develops torque only when it is at least partially closed and there is some slip
displacement or slip speed between the engine crankshaft and the transmission input shaft. When
the clutch is closed, it acts like a torsional spring-damper, except that the maximum clutch torque
developed is limited by the clutch capacity, which you can modify (pvs_clutch_capacity).
You also set the clutch's torsional stiffness and damping. When the clutch is partially closed, the
clutch stiffness and damping, as well as the clutch capacity (torque), are scaled by the clutch
demand.
The clutch slip speed is the difference between the engine crankshaft and the transmission input
shaft rotational speeds. When the clutch is closed, the clutch slip displacement is the integral of
the clutch slip speed. When the clutch is open, the clutch slip displacement decays to zero with a
time constant given by pvs_clutch_tau.
• Transmission model - The transmission model is simple: it applies the gear ratio selected by the
gear demand, and has no rotating inertia. The clutch torque is multiplied by the selected gear
ratio and applied to the differential input shaft. The differential input shaft speed is likewise
multiplied by the same ratio to determine the transmission input shaft speed. You can set the
number of gears and the ratio for each gear:
• A gear number of zero (0) represents neutral.
• A gear number of minus one (-1) represents reverse.
Working with Templates 177
Templates

• Differential model - The differential model has rotating left and right output shaft parts that
connect to half-shafts in suspension subsystems. The differential input shaft speed is the average
of the left and right output shaft speeds multiplied by the final drive ratio you enter. Likewise,
the transmission output torque is multiplied by the final drive ratio and then split equally
between the two output shafts. A reaction torque is applied about the longitudinal axis to the
ges_engine part.
The differential model includes a limited slip torque that acts between the left and right
differential output shafts. The torque depends on the difference between the output shaft speeds.
The limited slip torque-speed characteristic is read from a property file in the differentials.tbl.

Files referenced
The file, V12_engine_map.pwr, stored in the powertrains.tbl directory, defines the engine map. The
differential references the MDI_viscous.dif property file, stored in the differentials.tbl directory. The
MDI_viscous.dif property file defines the slip torque-speed relationship as a two-dimensional spline.

Topology
The powertrain template contains very simple topological information because it is a functional
representation of the powertrain. The only general rigid parts, besides the engine body, are the diff
outputs and the revolute joints that connect the rigid bodies to the engine body.

Parameters
The following table lists the powertrain system template parameters.

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are: Description:


phs_kinematic_flag Integer No units When flag = 1, engine is rigidly
mounted to chassis; when flag =
0, engine is mounted on bushings.
Set from the Adjust menu.
pvs_clutch_capacity Real Torque Maximum torque clutch can
sustain with zero slip speed.
pvs_clutch_close Real No units Value of clutch demand at which
clutch is fully closed. Value
should be less than
pvs_clutch_open and in the range
of 0 and 1.
pvs_clutch_damping Real Torsional_damping Clutch damping torque per unit of
clutch slip speed.
pvs_clutch_open Real No units Value of clutch demand at which
clutch is open.
178 Adams/Car
Templates

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are: Description:


pvs_clutch_stiffness Real Torsional_stiffness Clutch torque developed per unit
of clutch slip.
pvs_clutch_tau Real Time Time constant for clutch slip
decay when clutch is open.
pvs_ems_gain Real No units Proportional gain used in EMS
idle speed control
pvs_ems_max_throttle Real No units Value of throttle demand that
corresponds to the maximum
capability of the EMS system
pvs_ems_trottle_off Real No units Value of throttle demand at which
EMS system engages idle speed
control
pvs_engine_idle_speed Real RPM Engine idle speed in RPM.
pvs_engine_inertia Real Inertia Engine rotational inertia. Must be
greater than zero.
pvs_engine_rev_limit Real RPM Maximum engine speed in RPM.
pvs_final_drive Real No units Differential input shaft (pinion) to
ring gear ratio.
pvs_gear_[1-6] Real No units Transmission input shaft to output
shaft ratio for gears 1 through 6.
pvs_graphics_flag Integer No units 1 = include powertrain graphics; 0
= do not include powertrain
graphics
pvs_max_gears Integer No units Number of gear ratios in the
transmission.
pvs_max_throttle Real No units Value of throttle demand for
which throttle is fully open
(throttle demand = 0 is throttle
closed).

Communicators
Mount parts provide the connectivity from the template to the body subsystems. Output communicators
publish information, such as engine RPM and transmission spline. The following tables list the input and
output communicators in the powertrain system template.
Working with Templates 179
Templates

Input Communicators

The communicator: Entity class: From minor role: Matching name:


ci[lr]_diff_tripot location inherit tripot_to_differential
ci[lr]_tire_force force inherit tire_force
cis_clutch_demand solver_variable inherit clutch_demand
cis_engine_to_subframe mount inherit engine_to_subframe
cis_initial_engine_rpm parameter_real any initial_engine_rpm
cis_powertrain_to_body mount inherit powertrain_to_body
cis_sse_diff1 diff inherit sse_diff1
cis_throttle_demand solver_variable inherit throttle_demand
cis_transmission_demand solver_variable inherit transmission_demand
180 Adams/Car
Templates

Output Communicators

The communicator: Entity class: To minor role: Matching name:


co[lr]_output_torque force inherit output_torque
co[lr]_tripot_to_differential mount inherit tripot_to_differential
cos_clutch_displacement_ic solver_variable inherit clutch_displacement_ic
cos_default_downshift_rpm parameter_real inherit min_engine_speed
cos_default_upshift_rpm parameter_real inherit max_engine_speed
cos_diff_ratio parameter_real inherit diff_ratio
cos_engine_idle_rpm parameter_real inherit engine_idle_rpm
cos_engine_map spline inherit engine_map
cos_engine_max_rpm parameter_real inherit engine_revlimit_rpm
cos_engine_rpm solver_variable inherit engine_rpm
cos_engine_speed parameter_real inherit engine_speed
cos_max_engine_driving_torque solver_variable inherit engine_maximum_driving
_torque
cos_max_engine_braking_torqu solver_variable inherit engine_maximum_brakin
e g_torque
cos_max_gears parameter_integer inherit max_gears
cos_max_throttle parameter_real inherit max_throttle
cos_powertrain_gse gse inherit powertrain_gse
cos_transmission_input_omega solver_variable inherit transmission_input_omeg
a
cos_transmission_spline spline inherit transmission_spline

Note: The engine and clutch portion of the powertrain is implemented as a GSE (general state
equation) element in solver. The gsesub associated with this element is available here.
The solver_variable "analysis_type" indicates whether the analysis is steady-state or
dynamic. When the analysis_type is steady-state the engine torque map and transmission
gear ratios are ignored.
Working with Templates 181
Templates

Quad-Link Axle Suspension


Overview
The quad-link axle suspension template is an example of a dependent suspension model. The wheels are
mounted at either end of a rigid beam so the movement of one wheel is transmitted to the opposite wheel
causing them to steer and camber together. Solid beam axle suspensions are commonly used on the front
of heavy trucks, where high-load carrying capacity is required.

Figure 10 Quad-Link Axle Suspension

Template name
_quad_link_axle

Major role
Suspension

Application
Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies
182 Adams/Car
Templates

Description
The quad-link axle suspension template represents a common design for solid axles suspensions. You can
use the template as a front steerable suspension or as rear nonsteerable suspension.
You can set subsystems based on this template to kinematic or compliant mode. In kinematic mode,
Adams/Car replaces the bushings that connect the lower and upper links to the body mount part with the
corresponding purely kinematic constraints.

Files referenced
Bushing, spring, and damper property files

Topology
Spherical joints connect the upper and lower links to the solid axle. The draglink is attached to the bell
crank. The bell crank moves the tie rod, which steers the wheels. Revolute joints connect the uprights to
the solid axle. A joint force actuator locks the hub to the wheel carrier. The following table maps the
topology of the template.

The joint: Connects the part: To the part:


jklhoo_lower_link_frame gel_lower_link mtl_lower_link_frame
jklhoo_upper_link_frame gel_upper_link mtl_lower_link_frame
jklsph_upper_link_axle gel_upper_link ges_axle
jklsph_lower_link_axle gel_lower_link ges_axle
jolrev_knuckle_axle gel_knuckle ges_axle
josrev_bell_crank_axle ges_bell_crank ges_axle
jossph_draglink_pitman_arm ges_draglink mts_draglink_steering
joshoo_draglink_bell_crank ges_draglink ges_bell_crank
jossph_tierod_knuckle ges_tierod gel_knuckle
jolrev_bearing gel_hub gel_knuckle
josinp_tie_rod_bell_crank ges_tierod ges_bell_crank

Parameters
Toe and camber variables define wheel spin axis, spindle part, and spindle geometry. The following table
lists the parameters in the template.

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are:


phs_kinematic_flag Integer No units
Working with Templates 183
Templates

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are:


pv[lr]_toe_angle Real Degrees
pv[lr]_camber_angle Real Degrees

Communicators
Mount parts provide the connectivity from the template to body subsystems and steering. Output
communicators publish toe, camber, steer axis, and wheel center location information to the appropriate
subsystems and the test rig. The following table lists the input and output communicators.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


ci[lr]_lower_link_frame mount inherit
ci[lr]_spring_upper_to_body mount inherit
ci[lr]_upper_link_frame mount inherit
cis_draglink_steering mount inherit
co[lr]_camber_angle parameter_real inherit
co[lr]_suspension_mount mount inherit
co[lr]_suspension_upright mount inherit
co[lr]_toe_angle parameter_real inherit
co[lr]_wheel_center location inherit
cos_suspension_ parameters_ARRAY any inherit

Note: The kinematic flag variable toggles between kinematic and compliant mode.

Rack and Pinion Steering System


Overview
The rack and pinion steering system is usually found in passenger cars. The pinion gear translates the
rotary motion of the steering wheel into the linear motion of the rack. The rack moves the tie rods back
and forth to steer the vehicle.
184 Adams/Car
Templates

Figure 11 Rack and Pinion Steering System

Template name
_rack_pinion_steering

Major role
Steering

Application
Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies

Description
A series of hooke joints, which connect the three steering column shafts, transmit motion from the
steering wheel to the pinion. A revolute joint connects the lower column shaft to the rack housing. A
bushing (torsion bar) connects the shaft to the pinion. A revolute joint connects the pinion to the rack
housing.
In kinematic mode, a reduction gear is active and connects the steering input shaft revolute joint to the
pinion revolute joint. The underlying Adams/View entity (a coupler) is active only in kinematic mode.
The reduction gear (pinion to rack) converts pinion rotational motion to the rack translational motion. A
Working with Templates 185
Templates

translational joint constrains the rack to the rack housing. An additional VFORCE provides the steering
assist force.

Files referenced
Property file, mdi_steer_assis.ste, stored in the steer_assist.tbl of the shared Adams/Car database. It
defines the steering assist vector force.

Topology
The following table maps the topology of the template.

The joint: Connects the part: To the part:


joshoo_column_intermediate ges_steering_column ges_intermediate_shaft
joshoo_intermediate_shaftinput ges_intermediate_shaft ges_steering_shaft
jostra_rack_to_rackhousing ges_rack ges_rack_housing
josrev_steering_wheel ges_steering_wheel mts_steering_column_to_body
josrev_pinion ges_pinion ges_rack_housing
joscyl_steering_column_to_body ges_steering_column mts_steering_column_to_body
josrev_steering_input_shaft ges_steering_shaft ges_rack_housing
jksfix_rigid_rack_housing_mount ges_rack_housing sws_rack_house_mount
steering_assist_vforce ges_rack ges_rack_housing
gksred_input_shaft_pinion_lock josrev_steering_input_shaft josrev_pinion
grsred_steering_wheel_column_lock josrev_steering_wheel joscyl_steering_column_to_bo
dy
grsred_pinion_to_rack josrev_pinion jostra_rack_to_rackhousing

Parameters
A parameter variable switches between kinematic and compliant mode. You can set the activity of the
steering assist vector force through the hidden parameter variable, steering_assist_active. A series of
parameters define the maximum values of angle, rack displacement, rack force, and steering-wheel
torque.
186 Adams/Car
Templates

Communicators
The following table lists the input and output communicators.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


cis_rack_housing_to_ mount inherit
suspension_subframe
cis_rack_to_body mount inherit
cis_steering_column_to_ body mount inherit
co[lr]_tierod_to_steering mount front
cos_max_rack_ displacement parameter_real inherit
cos_max_rack_force parameter_real inherit
cos_max_steering_angle parameter_real inherit
cos_max_steering_torque parameter_real inherit
cos_steering_rack_joint joint_for_motion inherit
cos_steering_wheel_joint joint_for_motion inherit

Note: The rack and pinion steering system template contains general spline elements. The
gss_torsion_bar spline gives the torque as a function of the angular deflection of the input
shaft relative to the pinion.
The template also contains a switch part, which lets you explore two different topological
solutions. You can connect the steering rack housing to the body or to the
suspension_subframe.

Rear Driveline System


Overview
The rear driveline system template provides an example model of a driveline for rear-wheel drive (RWD)
vehicles.
Working with Templates 187
Templates

Figure 12 Rear Driveline System

Template name
_driveline_rwd

Major role
Driveline

Application
Full-vehicle assemblies

Description
The rotational motion of the front propshaft is transmitted to the rear shaft and from there to the diff
outputs. Diff outputs should be connected to the driving wheels.

Files referenced
Bushing property files

Topology
The rear driveline template consists of a two-piece propshaft, a slip yoke, and a differential. For
convenience, the template includes the propshaft input part for applying motion or torque. The propshaft
input part attaches to the powertrain through a revolute joint. A bearing supports it at its aft.
188 Adams/Car
Templates

The front propshaft attaches to the support bearing through an inline joint primitive that prevents
translation of the front propshaft perpendicular to the propshaft's spin axis.
Hooke joints transmit the motion to the slip yoke part. The slip yoke supports and transmits torque to the
rear propshaft through a translational joint. The differential input shaft receives torque from the rear
propshaft through a hooke joint.
The differential is an open design rather than a limited slip. Four bushings mount it to the body. Setting
kinematic mode fixes the differential housing to the body and deactivates the bushings. The following
table maps the topology of the template.

The joint: Connects the part: To the part:


josrev_diff_input ges_diff_input ges_diff_housing
jolrev_diff_output gel_diff_output ges_diff_housing
jorrev_diff_output ger_diff_output ges_diff_housing
joshoo_propshaft_at_diff ges_propshaft_rear ges_diff_input
joshoo_propshaft_input_to_ front ges_propshaft_input ges_propshaft_front
joscon_propshaft_front_to_ yoke ges_propshaft_front ges_slip_yoke
jostra_propshaft_rear_to_yoke ges_propshaft_rear ges_slip_yoke
josrev_propshaft_input_to_ trans ges_propshaft_input mts_propshaft_input_to_powertrai
n
jksfix_diff_housing_to_body ges_diff_housing mts_diff_housing_to_body
josinl_support_bearing_to_propshaft_f ges_support_bearing ges_propshaft_front
ront
josori_support_bearing_orientation ges_support_bearing mts_propshaft_support_to_body
josinp_support_bearing_ location ges_support_bearing mts_propshaft_support_to_body
jksinl_support_bearing_to_ body ges_support_bearing mts_propshaft_support_to_body
grsdif_differential josrev_diff_input jolrev_diff_output
grsdif_differential josrev_diff_input jorrev_diff_output
grsdif_differential jolrev_diff_output jorrev_diff_output

Parameters
The parameter variable final_drive_ratio defines the pinion to ring ratio.

Limitations
The rear driveline template uses a number of rotating parts. If the driveline dynamics are not of interest
to you, then it is more efficient to apply direct drive torque to the wheels, because the rotating parts in
the template might slow the numerical integration during the Analysis.
Working with Templates 189
Templates

Communicators
Output communicators of the type mount publish the left and right differential output shafts to the
suspension templates and subsystems. The following table lists the input and output communicators.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


ci[lr]_tripot_to_differential location rear
cis_diff_housing_to_body mount inherit
cis_driveline_torque solver_variable inherit
cis_propshaft_input_to_ powertrain mount inherit
cis_propshaft_support_to_ body mount inherit
co[lr]_tripot_to_differential mount rear

Rigid Chassis
Overview
The rigid chassis template represents the base frame of a vehicle.

Figure 13 Rigid Chassis

Template name
_rigid_chassis
190 Adams/Car
Templates

Major role
body

Application
Suspensions, tires, and steering systems in full-vehicle assemblies

Description
A single rigid body part models the chassis.

Files referenced
Shell elements create the chassis graphic. All the shell files are stored in the Adams/Car shared database,
in the shell_graphics.tbl directory.

Topology
The ges_chassis part is unconstrained.

Parameters
The rigid chassis template defines a series of parameter variables, most of which are used to compute the
aerodynamic forces acting on the body. The following table lists the parameters in the template. For a
detailed description of the force function, see Force Function Description.

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are:


pvs_aero_drag_active Integer No units
pvs_aero_frontal_area Real Area
pvs_air_density Real Density
pvs_drag_coefficient Real No units

Force function description


Adams/Car expects air density and area parameter variables to be in model units.
As a result of an air stream interacting with the vehicle, forces and moments are imposed on the vehicle.
Out of the three forces and three moments, only the most relevant ones are modeled in the template. The
aerodynamic general force takes into consideration the drag force (longitudinal force) and torque
(pitching moment and torque along the y-axis of the vehicle, in the SAE coordinate system). In detail:
F = 0.5 x AirDensity x DragCoeff x Area x VX(chassis)2
T = F x DZ (RideHeight)
The pitching moment acts to transfer weight between the front and rear axles. It arises because the drag
does not act at the ground plane. Therefore, it accounts for the elevation of the drag force.
Working with Templates 191
Templates

Limitations
The rigid body modeling of the chassis does not account for torsional stiffnesses and other effects. You
could create a more accurate representation of a chassis frame by connecting the multiple rigid bodies
though spring dampers to take into account torsional stiffnesses and using modal flexibility.

Communicators
The rigid chassis template defines a series of mount part communicators. The assembly process matches
them with the corresponding output communicators created in suspensions, steering, and other
subsystems. The following table lists the communicators. Note that the output communicator
192 Adams/Car
Templates

tierod_to_steering (rear) allows the tierod_to_steering mount parts in the rear suspension to connect to
the chassis body.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


co[lr]_spring_to_body mount inherit
co[lr]_strut_to_body mount inherit
co[lr]_tierod_to_steering mount rear
co[lr]_tv_link mount inherit
co[lr]_uca_to_body mount any
co[lr]_upr_link_fr mount inherit
co[lr]_upr_link_rr mount inherit
cos_aero_drag_force force inherit
cos_body mount inherit
cos_body_subsystem mount inherit
cos_chassis_path_ reference mount inherit
cos_concept_to_body mount inherit
cos_diff_housing_to_body mount rear
cos_driver_reference mount inherit
cos_measure_for_distance mount inherit
cos_powertrain_to_body mount inherit
cos_propshaft_support_to_body mount rear
cos_rack_to_body mount inherit
cos_steering_column_to_ body mount inherit
cos_subframe_to_body mount inherit
cos_aero_force force inherit

Note: The rigid chassis light template (_rigid_chassis_lt) is exactly the same as the rigid chassis
template (_rigid_chassis), but without the shell graphic geometry.
Working with Templates 193
Templates

Simple Anti-Roll Bar System


Overview
The simple anti-roll bar system template represents a bar fitted transversely to the suspension. The bar is
made out of steel or a user-defined material. The bar is installed in a vehicle to reduce the roll of the
vehicle body as the vehicle takes a corner. It increases suspension roll rate.

Figure 14 Simple Anti-Roll Bar System

Template name
_antiroll_simple

Major role
Antiroll

Application
Suspension and full-vehicle analyses

Description
The anti-roll bar system template provides a simple model of anti-roll bar (also known as stabilizer bar).
It consists of two bar halves connected by a torsional spring-damper component.
194 Adams/Car
Templates

Files referenced
Bushing property files

Topology
A revolute joint connects the two bar halves of the anti-roll bar system. Bushings then attach the bar
halves to the body or to the suspension subframe. Drop links transmit the suspension motion to the bar
ends. The drop links attach to the suspension with spherical joints and to the bar ends with convel joints.
The following table maps the topology of the anti-roll bar system template.

The joint: Connects part: To part:


jo[lr]sph_droplink_ upper_bal ge[lr]_droplink mt[lr]_droplink_to_suspension
jo[lr]con_droplink_to_arb ge[lr]_droplink ge[lr]_arb
josrev_arb_rev_joint ger_arb gel_arb
arb_torsion_spring (rotational ger_arb gel_arb
spring)

Parameters
A parameter variable (pvs_torsional_stiffness) defines the torsional stiffness of the spring-damper
component. The following table lists the parameter, its value, and units.

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are:


pvs_torsional_stiffness Real variable Nmm/Degrees

Limitations
The anti-roll bar system template represents a simple approximation of a stabilizer bar. For more complex
solutions, you would need to create a more accurate representation of the bar through the discretization
of rigid bodies, nonlinear rods, or flexible bodies.

Communicators
Mount parts provide the connectivity to the suspension subsystems. An output communicator exports
information about the location of the ARB pick-up point.
Working with Templates 195
Templates

The following table lists the communicators that the template uses.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


ci[lr]_arb_bushing_mount mount inherit
ci[lr]_droplink_to_suspension mount inherit
co[lr]_ARB_pickup location inherit

Notes: The spring-damper component applies a rotational action-reaction force between the two
bar halves. The following linear equation describes the torque applied at the i marker:
Ta = -C(da/dt) - Kt (a - ANGLE) + TORQUE
where:

• C is the damping term (defaults to 0 in the template).


• Kt is the torsional stiffness.
• a is the angle between the bar halves.
• ANGLE is the initial angular displacement.
• TORQUE is the torsional preload. Torque applied on the j marker is equal and
opposite to the torque on the i marker.

Tire System
Overview
The tire system template provides three basic functions:
• Supports vertical load.
• Develops longitudinal forces for acceleration and braking.
196 Adams/Car
Templates

• Develops lateral forces for cornering.

Figure 15 Tire System

Template name
_handling_tire

Major role
Wheel

Application
Full-vehicle analyses

Description
The tire system template consists of wheel parts rigidly connected to mount parts. The tire contact patch
forces are transformed in forces and torques applied at the hub. A series of user-written subroutines
perform the force calculation depending on the tire property file that you selected. The contact type
(string element) and the road property file determine the road model. For additional information about
using Adams/Tire in Adams/Car, see the Adams/Tire online help.

Files referenced
The tire system template references a tire property file for each wheel part. The default tire property file
is mdi_tire01.tir, stored the tires.tbl directory of the Adams/Car shared database.
Working with Templates 197
Templates

Topology
A fixed joint connects the wheel part to the spindle mount part.

Communicators
Mount parts provide connectivity to the suspension subsystems, and output communicators publish
information about tire forces and wheel orientation.
The following table lists the communicators in the tire system template.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


ci[lr]_camber_angle parameter_real inherit
ci[lr]_suspension_mount mount inherit
ci[lr]_toe_angle parameter_real inherit
ci[lr]_wheel_center location inherit
cis_driveline_active parameter_integer inherit
co[lr]_rotor_to_wheel mount inherit
co[lr]_wheel_orientation orientation rear
cos_tire_forces_array_left array inherit
cos_tire_forces_array_right array inherit
198 Adams/Car
Templates

Torsion Bar Double-Wishbone Suspension


Overview
The torsion bar double-wishbone suspension template is a modified version of the standard Double-
Wishbone Suspension. In this template, however, a torsion bar spring replaces the coil spring.

Figure 16 Torsion Bar Double-Wishbone Suspension

Template name
_double_wishbone_torsion

Major role
Suspension

Application
Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies

Description
In the torsion bar double-wishbone suspension template, a torsion bar spring replaces the coil spring used
in the standard Double-Wishbone Suspension. The torsion bar consists of two bar halves connected by a
Working with Templates 199
Templates

rotational SFORCE (joint torque actuator). The rotational SFORCE exerted between the two bar halves
is a function of a torsional stiffness and of the relative rotation along the torsion bar longitudinal axis.

Files referenced
Refer to the Double-Wishbone Suspension.

Topology
The torsion bar consists of two bar halves connected by a cylindrical joint and a joint torque actuator. The
first half is rigidly connected to the lower control arm, and the second half is fixed to the mount part and
gets rigidly connected to the chassis if you use the suspension in full-vehicle assemblies.

Parameters
The torsion bar double-wishbone suspension template includes additional parameter variables besides
those described in the Double-Wishbone Suspension. The variable defining the torsional stiffness defines
the torsion bar stiffness. Also, another parameter variable defines the torsional preload applied between
the lower control arm and the torsion bar.
The following table lists the additional parameters.

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are:


pv[lr]_tbar_stiffness Real Nmm/Degrees
pvs_tbar_preload Real Nmm

Communicators
Refer to the Double-Wishbone Suspension.

Note: The torsion bar double-wishbone suspension template includes a toe adjustment. It uses an
adjustable force Adams/Car element to reach a desired toe angle at static equilibrium.

Trailing Arm Suspension


Overview
The trailing arm suspension template is one of the most simple and economical designs for independent
suspensions.
200 Adams/Car
Templates

Figure 17 Trailing Arm Suspension

Template name
_trailing_arm

Major role
Suspension

Application
Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies

Description
The trailing arm suspension template is a simple non-steerable suspension design. You can deactivate the
driveline simply by selecting inactive in the Toggle Driveline Activity dialog box. Note that it is possible
to define the spring concentric to the damper just by moving the spring upper- and lower-seat hardpoints.

Files referenced
Bushing, spring, damper, bumpstop, and reboundstop property files
Working with Templates 201
Templates

Topology
Trailing arms to the left and right sides mount to a rigid subframe that in turns connects to the body mount
part through bushings. The arms alone locate the wheel centers. Springs and dampers act between the
arms and the body mount parts. A static rotation control actuator locks the rotational degree of freedom
of the hub during quasi-static analyses.
You can set the suspension to kinematic or compliant mode. Kinematic mode allows purely kinematic
connections between the upper strut parts, arms, subframe, and mount parts, while compliant mode
replaces the kinematic joints with their corresponding elastic elements.
The following table maps the topology of the template.

The joint: Connects the part: To the part:


jklhoo_upr_strut_to_body mtl_strut_to_body gel_upper_strut
jklrev_arm_inner_ pivot gel_arm ges_subframe
jksfix_subframe_to_body_fixed ges_subframe mts_subframe_to_body
jklhoo_lwr_strut_to_arm gel_lower_strut gel_arm
jolcyl_lwr_upr_ strut gel_upper_strut gel_lower_strut
joltra_tripot_to_ differential gel_tripot mtl_tripot_to_differential
jolcon_drive_sft_ int_jt gel_tripot gel_drive_shaft
jolrev_spindle_ upright gel_spindle gel_arm

Parameters
The driveline offset variable defines the driveline geometry. Toe and camber variables define wheel spin
axis, spindle part, and spindle geometry.

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are:


phs_kinematic_flag Integer No units
pv[lr]_toe_angle Real Degrees
pv[lr]_drive_shaft_offset Real mm
phs_driveline_active Integer No units
pv[lr]_camber_angle Real Degrees
202 Adams/Car
Templates

Communicators
Mount parts provide the connectivity from the template to the body subsystems. Output communicators
publish toe, camber, steer axis, and wheel-center location information to the appropriate subsystems and
the test rig. The following table lists the input and output communicators.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


ci[lr]_spring_to_body mount inherit
ci[lr]_strut_to_body mount inherit
ci[lr]_tripot_to_differential mount inherit
cis_subframe_to_body mount inherit
co[lr]_camber_angle parameter_real inherit
co[lr]_suspension_mount mount inherit
co[lr]_suspension_upright mount inherit
co[lr]_toe_angle parameter_real inherit
co[lr]_tripot_to_differential location inherit
co[lr]_wheel_center location inherit
cos_driveline_active parameter_integer inherit
cos_suspension_ array inherit
parameters_ARRAY

Note: The kinematic flag variable toggles between kinematic and compliant mode.

Twist Beam Suspension


Overview
The twist beam suspension is a dependent suspension model intended for use only as a rear suspension.
It does not include a panhard rod.
Working with Templates 203
Templates

Figure 18 Twist Beam Suspension

Template name
_twist_beam

Major role
Suspension

Application
Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies

Description
The twist beam suspension template represents a common rear dependent suspension design. It does not
include a subframe. The suspension is non-steerable and intended to be used as a rear suspension only.
The twist beam is a flexible body generated using shell elements. Interface parts connect the flexible
body to the rest of the suspension.
204 Adams/Car
Templates

You can toggle the suspension between kinematic and compliant modes. In addition, you can deactivate
driveshafts.

Files referenced
Springs, dampers, and bushings property files. Also, the flexible body references the file PonteV.mnf,
stored in the flex_bodies.tbl directory of the Adams/Car shared database.

Topology
A static rotation control actuator locks the rotational degree of freedom of the hub during quasi-static
analyses.
The following table maps the topology of the twist beam suspension.

The joint: Connects the part: To the part:


jklhoo_upr_strut_to_body mtl_strut_to_body gel_upper_strut
jolcyl_lwr_upr_strut gel_upper_strut gel_lower_strut
joltra_tripot_to_differential gel_tripot mtl_tripot_to_differential
jolcon_drive_sft_int_jt gel_tripot gel_drive_shaft
jolcon_drive_sft_otr gel_drive_shaft gel_spindle
jolhoo_strut_to_beam gel_lower_strut ipl_damper_lwr
jklrev_beam_to_body ipl_beam_to_subframe mts_body
jolrev_spindle_to_beam gel_spindle ipl_spindle_to_beam

Parameters
In the twist beam suspension, toe and camber variables parameterize wheel spin axis, spindle part, and
spindle geometry. The following table lists the parameters in the template.

The parameter: Takes the value: Its units are:


phs_driveline_active Integer No units
phs_kinematic_flag Integer No units
pv[lr]_toe_angle Real Degrees
pv[lr]_camber_angle Real Degrees
pv[lr]_drive_shaft_offset Real mm
Working with Templates 205
Templates

Communicators
The following table lists the communicators in the template.

The communicator: Belongs to the class: Has the role:


ci[lr]_spring_to_body mount inherit
ci[lr]_strut_to_body mount inherit
ci[lr]_tripot_to_differential mount inherit
cis_body mount inherit
co[lr]_camber_angle parameter_real inherit
co[lr]_suspension_mount mount inherit
co[lr]_toe_angle parameter_real inherit
co[lr]_tripot_to_differential location inherit
co[lr]_wheel_center location inherit
cos_driveline_active parameter_integer inherit
cos_suspension_parameters_ARRAY array inherit

Note: The integer parameter variables let you activate and deactivate the driveshafts. The
kinematic flag variable toggles between kinematic and compliant mode.
206 Adams/Car
Templates
Reviewing Results
204 Adams/Car
Requests

Requests
Requests contain standard displacement, velocity, acceleration, or force information that can help you
investigate the results of simulations. You can also define other quantities (such as pressure, work,
energy, momentum, and more) that you want output during a simulation.
Adams stores the requests in request files (.req).

Setting Request Activity


By default, requests for each element type are active. You can, however, deactivate requests for a certain
element type. Any activity changes will only be retained during the current session.
Note that for the bushing element, the activity switch is saved in the subsystem/assembly file.

To set request activity:


1. From the Standard Interface's Tools menu, select Request Activity.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Toggle Request Activity.
3. Select OK.

Storing Request Activity


To store the Requests activity, you should group activity using parameter variables, which are stored in
subsystem files.

To store request activity in Template Builder:


1. Create a parameter variable to store the activity of the request as a 1 for active, 0 for inactive.
For example, pvs_request_activity.
2. Create a group with command language:
Tools -> Command Navigator, group -> create . See Group Create.
3. Add your requests to the group.
4. For the expr_active parameter of the group (1 = active, 0 = inactive), create a function that uses
the parameter variable in step 1.
The commands might look as follows:
group create &
group_name = ._my_template.my_request_activity
objects_in_group = ._my_template.request0, &
._my_template.request1, &
._my_template.request2, &
._my_template.request3, &
expr_active = (pvs_request_activity)
Reviewing Results 205
Requests

For more examples, investigate templates in the shared database that have the group
kinematic_mode_active, which is used for the Kinematic Mode option.

Request 907
Request 907 (req907) outputs displacement, velocity, accelerations, and body side-slip angle depending
on the value of par(2) in the parameter list. Req907 is compatible with both dynamic and steady-state
type analyses.
The definition of the parameters array and the resulting output is:
par(1) = Branch Flag 907
par(2) = Request Type:
0 = Displacement(Angles in radians)
1 = Velocities
(Translational vel. in KPH)
(Angular velocity in radians/s)
2 = Accelerations
(Translational acc. G's)
(Rotational acc. in radians/s/2)
3 = Body Side Slip Angle in Radians
par(3) = id I marker
par(4) = id J marker
par(5) = id RM marker
Any results with a magnitude less than 1e-7 are set to zero.
206 Adams/Car
Plot Configuration Files

Plot Configuration Files


You can plot the results of an analysis using the standard functionality in Adams/PostProcessor. To help
you manage your plots, however, your template-based product provides plot configuration files that
define a series of plots.
For information on Adams/PostProcessor, see the Adams/PostProcessor online help.
Learn more about plot configuration files:
• About Plot Configuration Files
• Creating Plots Using a Plot Configuration File
• Creating Plot Configuration Files
• Format of Plot Configuration Files
• Example Plot Configuration File

About Plot Configuration Files


Plot configuration files tell your template-based product:
• Which plots to create
• The layout of each page and the plots to be displayed on that page
• General settings and preferences, such as titles, labels, horizontal and vertical spacings, scaling,
legend text and its attributes, axes positions and their attributes
• The mathematical expressions to be displayed for the plot axes
• The primary and secondary grid attributes for each plot
• The presentation of the plot i.e. whether it should show actual curves or the curve data in tabular
format
• The text/images to be displayed for the header/footer of each page
• The date and analysis stamp related details
• The Note and Spec Line related details

The files now support multiple plots per page, and each plot can contain multiple axes. You can cross-
plot multiple analyses of the same type using one plot configuration file.
Plot configuration files are TeimOrbit files and are stored in your database in the plot_configs.tbl
directory. See TeimOrbit File Format.
Reviewing Results 207
Plot Configuration Files

You can access the plot configuration file functionality in Adams/PostProcessor. Learn about creating a
plot configuration file through the interface. Learn about using plot configuration files.

Note: To modify plots and curves, you can use the command statement in each block to invoke
macros, which must contain the modification commands. The macros must be contained in
your current binary file, which can be either private or site.

Creating Plots Using a Plot Configuration File


After you've run an analysis, you can view the series of plots defined in a plot configuration file. If your
plot configuration file contains customization command keywords and it has created the plots and curves,
you can have your template-based product invoke the macro that contains a command keyword in its
user-entered command.
The plot configuration file specifies a subtitle for your plots. In addition, in the File Import dialog box
you can:
• Add a title to all the plots.
• Plot results of multiple analyses on one plot using the Cross Plotting option.
• Change the look of your plot, such as fonts and size, using the Execute Custom Macros option.
To use this option, you must have a macro that defines the commands to be executed.

To view the plots defined in a plot configuration file:


1. From the Review menu, select Postprocessing Window or press F8.
2. From the File menu, point to Import, and then select Plot Config File.
The File Import dialog box appears.
3. In the Analyses text box, enter the analysis or analyses from which you want to view results.
4. In the Plot Configuration File text box, enter the name of the plot configuration file defining the
plots that you want to view.
5. In the Plot Title text box, enter the title to appear at the top of the plots.
6. Select Cross Plotting to plot analysis data on existing plots containing data from other analyses.
If you selected multiple analyses in the Analyses text box, your template-based product
automatically plots the data from the different analyses on the same plots.
7. If you have customization command keywords in the plot configuration file you selected in Step
4, then select Execute Custom Macro.
Your template-based product invokes the macro which executes any commands that customize
the plots.
8. Select OK.
208 Adams/Car
Plot Configuration Files

Creating Plot Configuration Files


You can create a plot configuration file containing all of the plots currently in Adams/PostProcessor or
only a selected set of plots. Your template-based product stores the configuration files in the plot_config
table of your default writable database. Learn about Setting the Writable Database.

To create a plot configuration file:


1. From the Review menu, select Postprocessing Window or press F8.
2. Create and configure plots as desired, including specifying labels and spacing. For example, you
can create a set of plots and add subtitles to all of them that describe the type of analysis with
which the plots are associated.
3. Customize plots to suit your requirements. e.g. you can assemble multiple plots on the same page
by changing the page layout. To change the page layout, from the View menu, point to Page and
then select Page Layouts. This will display the Page Layouts dialog box. Select the desired
layout.
4. Change the appearance of the plot if you would like to see the curve data in tabular format. To
change the plot to tabular format, click on the associated plot and check the checkbox for Table
shown at the bottom left. This setting is saved in the plot configuration file and the plot will be
seen in the tabular format when this file is imported in future.
5. Add Notes or Spec Lines to the plot. To do this, from the Plot menu, select Create Note or Create
Spec Line. On the respective dialog box, specify the data for the Note or Spec Line.
6. Specify the text or images for the header/footer of the pages. To do this, select the required page
and point to Header or Footer tabs shown at the bottom left area. Each of these tabs have subtabs
like Left, Center and Right. You can specify the text/image for them. To specify image for the
header/footer. Select any of these subtabs and set the Source to Image. This displays the Image
field below the Source field. You can double-click in this field and browse to the required image
for the header/footer in any location - Left, Center or Right.
7. Customize the appearance of legend, axes, curve, date and analysis stamp as per your
requirement. To do this, you can select these entities from the plot or select their entries from the
tree view. Depending on the type of entity, various options/tabs are available in the lower left
corner to modify associated properties.
8. From the File menu, point to Export, and then select Plot Configuration File.
The Save Plot Configuration File dialog box appears.
9. In the Configuration File Name text box, enter the name for the plot configuration.
10. If you want to include all plots currently in the Plotting window, including every page, select
All Plots.
11. If you did not select All Plots, in the Plot Name(s) text box, enter the names of the plots that you
want to include in the plot configuration file.
12. In the Plots and Curves text boxes, enter command keyword to invoke the macro that customizes
the plots and curves.
Reviewing Results 209
Plot Configuration Files

Your template-based product saves the command keyword with your plotting configuration file.
After it creates the plots and curves, your plotting configuration file invokes the macro which
contains the commands.
13. Select OK.
Your template-based product saves the command keyword with your plotting configuration file.
After it creates the plots and curves, your plotting configuration file invokes the macro which
contains the commands.
14. This exports the plot configuration file with the specified name. If you specify images for the
header/footer of any page, these image files are copied to the location where the plot configuration
file is saved.

Format of Plot Configuration Files


Plot configuration files consist of three data blocks:
• Page Data Block
• Plot Data Block
• Plot-Curve Data Block

Page Data Block


The Page data block has the following structure:
PAGE_LAYOUT
NUMBER_OF_PLOTS
PAGE_NAME
HEADER/FOOTER
Header/Footer data: This section will be present only if you have specified text/image for any
section (Left, Center or Right) of Header or Footer. The entries are present only for those sections for
which the text/image is specified.

Plot Data Block


The plot data block has the following structure:
INDEX
NAME
TIME_LOWER_LIMIT
TIME_UPPER_LIMIT
LEGEND (subblock)
PLOT_BORDER (subblock)
PRIMARY_GRID (subblock)
SECONDARY_GRID (subblock)
LEGEND_BORDER (subblock)
GRAPH_AREA (subblock)
SPEC_LINE (subblock)
NOTES (subblock)
210 Adams/Car
Plot Configuration Files

PLOT_AXES_FORMAT (subblock)
PLOT_AXES_LABELS (subblock)
PLOT_AXES_TICS (subblock)
PLOT_AXES_NUMBERS (subblock)
COMMAND

command_keyword
After your template-based product creates each plot, it executes the following commands if you defined
a command keyword:
acar custom_plots <command_keyword> & plot_name=<plot_name>
The command acar custom_plots <command_keyword> must already be created in the current
session, either interactively or already present in the acar.bin, file.

Plot-Curve Data Block


The plot-curve data block has the following structure:
NAME
PLOT
VERTICAL_AXIS
HORIZONTAL_AXIS
HORIZONTAL_EXPRESSION
HORIZONTAL_COMPONENT
VERTICAL_EXPRESSION
VERTICAL_COMPONENT
Y_UNITS
X_UNITS
LEGEND_TEXT
COLOR
red, blue, yellow, magenta, cyan, black, white, skyblue,
midnight_blue, blue_gray,dark_gray, silver, peach, maize
STYLE
solid, dash, dotdash, dot
SYMBOL
none, x, o, plus, star, at
LINE_WEIGHT
Real value from 1-4
COMMAND
command_keyword
HOTPOINT
INCREMENT_SYMBOL
After your template-based product creates each curve, it executes the following commands if you defined
a command keyword:
acar custom_plots <command_keyword> &
analysis=<analysis> &
plot_name=<plot_name> &
vertical_data=<y> &
horizontal_data=<x> &
curve_name=<curve_name>
Reviewing Results 211
Plot Configuration Files

The command acar custom_plots <command_keyword> must already be created in the current
session, either interactively or already present in the acar.bin, file.

Example Plot Configuration File


The following is an example of an Adams/Car plot configuration file:
$--------------------------------------------------------------MDI_HEADER
[MDI_HEADER]
FILE_TYPE = 'plt'
FILE_VERSION = 2.0
FILE_FORMAT = 'ASCII'
$-----------------------------------------------------------------------PAGE
[PAGE]
PAGE_LAYOUT = 11.0
NUMBER_OF_PLOTS = 1.0
PAGE_NAME = 'my_page'
HEADER_LEFT_LINES = 1.0
HEADER_LEFT_LINE_0_TEXT = 'Header Left'
HEADER_LEFT_TEXT_FONT_SIZE = 7.0
HEADER_LEFT_COLOR = 788529153.0
FOOTER_RIGHT_LINES = 1.0
FOOTER_RIGHT_LINE_0_TEXT = 'Footer Right'
FOOTER_RIGHT_TEXT_FONT_SIZE = 15.0
FOOTER_RIGHT_COLOR = 788529232.0
$-----------------------------------------------------------------------PLOT
[PLOT]
INDEX = 0.0
NAME = 'my_plot'
TIME_LOWER_LIMIT = 0.0
TIME_UPPER_LIMIT = 0.0
(LEGEND)
{placement location fill grow_left grow_down font}
'bottom right' 156.8,10.6 1 TRUE FALSE 7
(PLOT_BORDER)
{color line_style line_weight}
'BLACK' 'solid' 1.0
(PRIMARY_GRID)
{color line_style line_weight}
'SILVER' 'solid' 0.5
(SECONDARY_GRID)
{color line_style line_weight}
'SILVER' 'solid' 0.5
(LEGEND_BORDER)
{color line_style line_weight} '
BLACK' 'solid' 1.0
(GRAPH_AREA)
{minX minY maxX maxY auto_graph_area}
8.5989 8.1158 159.3194 88.3882 yes
(SPEC_LINE)
{name color style location thickness}
'new_spec_line' 'Coral' 'dotdash' 10.0,10.0 1.0
(NOTES)
{name type color placement alignment location font autopos autogenerate
numStrings}
'my_analysis' 'analysis' 'BLACK' 'horizontal' 'center_top' 8.6,3.2 7 no yes 1
STRING_1_TEXT = 'Analysis: test1_parallel_travel'
212 Adams/Car
Plot Configuration Files

{name type color placement alignment location font autopos autogenerate


numStrings}
'my_date' 'date' 'BLACK' 'horizontal' 'center_top' 159.3,3.2 7 no yes 1
STRING_1_TEXT = '15:52:54 11-MAY-98'
{name type color placement alignment location font autopos autogenerate
numStrings}
'subtitle' 'subtitle' 'BLACK' 'horizontal' 'center_bottom' 84.0,89.5 7 no no
1
STRING_1_TEXT = 'Subtitle Strimg'
{name type color placement alignment location font autopos autogenerate
numStrings}
'header' 'table header' 'BLACK' 'horizontal' 'center_bottom' 0.0,0.1 1 no yes
1
STRING_1_TEXT = 'Subtitle Strimg'
{name type color placement alignment location font autopos autogenerate
numStrings}
'my_NOTE' 'note' 'BLACK' 'vertical' 'left_top' 95.4,58.7 10 yes no 1
STRING_1_TEXT = 'Note String'
(PLOT_AXES_FORMAT)
{axis_name type color placement scaling offset primary limits}
'vaxis' 'vertical' 'BLACK' 'left' 'linear' 0.0 yes 0.000000,0.000000
'haxis' 'horizontal' 'BLACK' 'bottom' 'linear' 0.0 yes 0.000000,0.000000
(PLOT_AXES_LABELS)
{axis_name label color placement alignment font autopos offset location}
'vaxis' 'No Units' 'BLACK' 'vertical' 'center_bottom' 7 0 9.4 -0.8,48.3
'haxis' 'Time (sec)' 'BLACK' 'horizontal' 'center_top' 7 0 5.0 84.0,3.2
(PLOT_AXES_TICS)
{axis_name auto_divisions use_divisions divisions increments minor_divisions
color}
'vaxis' 'yes' 'yes' 4 5.000 2 'BLACK'
'haxis' 'yes' 'yes' 3 5.000 2 'BLACK'
(PLOT_AXES_NUMBERS)
{axis_name trailing_zeros decimal_places scientific_range font color}
'vaxis' 0 4 -4,5 7.0 'BLACK'
'haxis' 0 4 -4,5 7.0 'BLACK'
$---------------------------------------------------------------PLOT_CURVE
[PLOT_CURVE]
NAME = 'new_curve_1'
PLOT = 'my_plot'
VERTICAL_AXIS = 'vaxis'
HORIZONTAL_AXIS = 'haxis'
HORIZONTAL_EXPRESSION = 'toe_angle.TIME'
HORIZONTAL_COMPONENT = 'toe_angle.TIME'
VERTICAL_EXPRESSION = 'toe_angle.left'
VERTICAL_COMPONENT = 'toe_angle.left'
Y_UNITS = 'no_units'
X_UNITS = 'time'
LEGEND_TEXT = '1029:Toe angle.left'
COLOR = 'red'
STYLE = 'solid'
SYMBOL = 'NONE'
LINE_WEIGHT = 2.0
HOTPOINT = 0.0
INCREMENT_SYMBOL = 1.0
$----------------------------------------------------------------PLOT_CURVE
[PLOT_CURVE]
NAME = 'new_curve_2'
PLOT = 'my_plot'
VERTICAL_AXIS = 'vaxis'
HORIZONTAL_AXIS = 'haxis'
Reviewing Results 213
Plot Configuration Files

HORIZONTAL_EXPRESSION = 'steer_angle.TIME'
HORIZONTAL_COMPONENT = 'steer_angle.TIME'
VERTICAL_EXPRESSION = 'steer_angle.right'
VERTICAL_COMPONENT = 'steer_angle.right'
Y_UNITS = 'no_units'
X_UNITS = 'time'
LEGEND_TEXT = '1031:Steer Angle.right'
COLOR = 'blue'
STYLE = 'dash'
SYMBOL = 'NONE'
LINE_WEIGHT = 2.0
HOTPOINT = 0.0
INCREMENT_SYMBOL = 1.0
214 Adams/Car
Plot Configuration Files
Running Analyses
Using Adams/Car to analyze a virtual prototype is much like ordering a test of a physical prototype. You
specify the virtual prototype by opening or creating an assembly that contains the appropriate
components, or subsystems, that make up the prototype. For example, you create suspension assembly
containing suspension and steering subsystems and the suspension test rig.
In Adams/Car, you can run suspension and full-vehicle analyses.
214 Adams/Car
Running Suspension Analyses

Running Suspension Analyses


You perform suspension analyses, which in Adams/Car are quasi-static equilibrium analyses, to learn
how a suspension controls the wheel motions and transmits load from the wheels to the chassis. To
perform a suspension analysis, you first create or open a suspension assembly that contains the selected
subsystems and the test rig. To create a suspension assembly, you can select any subsystem that has either
a suspension or a steering major role.
Using Adams/Car, you can:
• Easily modify the topology and the properties of the components of your suspension.
• Run a standard set of suspension and steering maneuvers.
• View suspension characteristics through plots. Learn about suspension characteristics.

For a suspension analysis, you can specify inputs to:


• Move the wheels through bump-rebound travel and measure the toe, camber, wheel rate, roll
rate, side-view swing-arm length, and other characteristics.
• Apply lateral load and aligning torque at the tire contact path and measure the toe change and
lateral deflection of the wheel.
• Rotate the steering wheel from lock to lock and measure the steer angles of the wheels and the
amount of Ackerman, which is the difference between the left and right wheel steer angles.
You specify the inputs to the analysis by typing them directly into an analysis dialog box or by selecting
a loadcase file that contains the desired inputs.
During the analysis, the test rig articulates the suspension assembly in the specified number of steps and
applies the inputs you specified. At each step, Adams/Car calculates over 38 suspension characteristics,
such as toe and camber angle, track change, wheel-base change, wheel rate (vertical stiffness), and fore-
aft wheel center stiffness. You can plot these characteristics and use them to determine how well the
suspension controls the motions of the wheels. Based on the results, you can alter the suspension
geometry or spring rates and analyze the suspension again to evaluate the effects of the alterations.
The following figure shows an overview of the suspension analysis process.
Running Analyses 215
Running Suspension Analyses

Setting up Suspension Analyses


Before you submit a suspension analysis, you must set the Suspension Parameters that Adams/Car uses
when calculating suspension characteristics.

To set parameters:
1. From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select Set Suspension
Parameters.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Suspension Analysis: Setup
Parameters.
3. Select OK.

To set up suspension analyses:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select the analysis you want to
set up.
2. Enter the vertical wheel travel and the other parameters needed to control the analysis.
3. Optionally, select one or more loadcase files (.lcf) from an Adams/Car database. Loadcase files
are text files that contain the vertical wheel travel and other parameters needed to control a
suspension analysis. If you regularly perform several kinds of suspension analyses using the same
ranges of travel, you should consider creating loadcase files for these. You can then submit all the
analyses without having to reenter travel parameters each time.
As you perform an analysis for which you did not create a loadcase file, Adams/Car temporarily
creates one for you and deletes it after the analysis.
4. Specify the number of Solution Steps in the analysis.
5. Select OK.

External-File Analyses
You can perform two types of external-file analyses:
• Loadcase Analysis
• Wheel-Envelope Analysis

Loadcase Analysis
A loadcase analysis reads the analysis inputs (for example, vertical wheel travel, steering travel, and
static loads) from one or more existing loadcase files. When you supply more than one loadcase file,
Adams/Car performs one analysis for each loadcase file. See an Example Suspension Loadcase File.
A loadcase analysis requires a suspension subsystem.
Each loadcase analysis produces a separate set of output files, such as .gra, .req, and .out.
216 Adams/Car
Running Suspension Analyses

To set up a loadcase analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select External Files.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for External Files.
3. Select OK.

Wheel-Envelope Analysis
A wheel-envelope analysis generates wheel-center positions and orientations for use in packaging the
wheel/tire within the wheel well (fender). The analysis sweeps the wheels through their vertical and
steering travel in fixed increments based on information stored in a wheel-envelope input file (.wen). The
positions and orientations for the left and right wheel centers are output to a wheel-envelope output file
(.wev) for import into computer-aided design (CAD) packages. See an Example Wheel-Envelope Input
File and Example Wheel-Envelope Output File.

A wheel-envelope analysis requires suspension and steering subsystems.


A wheel-envelope input file has the same format as a static loadcase file, however, Adams/Car ignores
columns three through ten: left and right lateral force, aligning torque, brake force, and driving force.
You can create or modify wheel-envelope input files using the Curve Manager.

To set up a wheel-envelope analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select External Files.
2. Specify one or more wheel-envelope input files that define the vertical wheel and steering inputs.
3. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for External Files.
4. Select OK.

Roll & Vertical Force Analysis


A roll and vertical force analysis sweeps the roll angle while holding the total vertical force constant. The
total vertical force is the sum of the vertical forces on the left and right wheels. You can specify the total
vertical force used by the left and right actuators to move the wheels.
In contrast to the opposite wheel-travel analysis, the roll and vertical force analysis allows the wheels to
seek their own vertical position.

To set up a roll & vertical force analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select Roll & Vertical Force.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Suspension Analysis: Roll
& Vertical Force.
3. Select OK.
Running Analyses 217
Running Suspension Analyses

Static Load Analysis


Depending on the type of load you input, the static load analysis applies static loads to the spindle and
the tire contact patches between the specified upper and lower load limits. A static load analysis requires
a suspension subsystem.

To set up a static load analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select Static Load.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Suspension Analysis: Static
Loads.
3. Select OK.

Steering Analysis
A steering analysis steers the wheels over the specified steering-wheel angle or rack travel displacement
from the upper to the lower bound. The application of steering motion results in a wheel displacement at
the specified wheel height.
A steering analysis requires a suspension and a steering subsystem.

To set up a steering analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select Steering.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Suspension Analysis:
Steering.
3. Select OK.

Wheel-Travel Analyses
A wheel-travel analysis allows you to look at how the characteristics of a suspension change throughout
the vertical range of motion of the suspension.
You can perform three types of wheel-travel analyses. As a minimum, all wheel-travel analyses require
a suspension subsystem. These analyses can also include a steering subsystem.
• Opposite Wheel-Travel Analysis
• Parallel Wheel-Travel Analysis
• Single Wheel-Travel Analysis

The force limits for the left/right_vertical jack force are implemented as real numbers and are defaulted
to -2.0E+04 and 4.0E+04 Newton.
You can modify the force limits in the Template Builder using the actuator modify dialog box (because
actuators in Adams/Car are a topological element) or using the Command Navigator and modifying the
corresponding variables.
218 Adams/Car
Running Suspension Analyses

For example, to modify the left-side actuator force limits from the default values in the Standard Interface
after having an assembly already opened, you go to: Tools -> Command Navigator -> Variable -> Modify.
In the Variable Modify dialog box, select the desired limit variable
(.assembly.testrig.jfl_jack_force.force_limits, in this case) and modify the values to the new force limits.

Opposite Wheel-Travel Analysis


An opposite wheel-travel analysis moves the left and right wheel through equal, but opposite, vertical
amounts of travel to simulate body roll. The left and right wheels move over the specified jounce and
rebound travel, 180o out of phase with each other. You specify the parameters to define the vertical wheel
travel and the fixed steer value when you submit the analysis.

To set up an opposite wheel-travel analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select Opposite Wheel
Travel.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Opposite Wheel Travel
Analysis.
3. Select OK.

Parallel Wheel-Travel Analysis


A parallel wheel-travel analysis keeps the left wheel and right wheel heights equal, while moving the
wheels through the specified bump and rebound travel.

To set up a parallel wheel-travel analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select Parallel Wheel Travel.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Suspension Analysis:
Parallel Travel.
3. Select OK.

Single Wheel-Travel Analysis


A single wheel-travel analysis moves one wheel, either the right or left, through the specified jounce and
rebound travel while holding the opposite wheel fixed in a specified position.

To set up a single wheel-travel analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select Single Wheel Travel.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Single Wheel-Travel
Analysis.
3. Select OK.
Running Analyses 219
Running Suspension Analyses

Computation of Suspension and Steering Characteristics


During suspension analyses, Adams/Car computes 38 different characteristics. The suspension and
steering characteristics that Adams/Car computes are based on the suspension geometry, the suspension
compliance matrix, or both. Suspension geometry refers to the position and orientation of suspension
parts relative to ground as the suspension is articulated through its ride, roll, and steer motions. For
example, the orientation of the spindle axes is used to compute the toe and camber angles.
The suspension compliance matrix refers to incremental movements of the suspension due to the
application of incremental forces at the wheel centers. Adams/Car computes the suspension compliance
matrix at each solution position as the suspension is articulated through its motion. Characteristics such
as suspension ride rate and aligning torque camber compliance are computed based on the compliance
matrix.
The suspension and steering characteristics are based on:
• Steer Axis Computation
• Definition of Compliance Matrix

Definition of Compliance Matrix


The compliance matrix for a system, [C], is defined as the partial derivatives of displacements with
respect to applied forces:
[C] = [&part;X/&part;F]
If a system is assumed to be linear, the compliance matrix can be used to predict the system movement
due to force inputs:

 X  =  C   F 

From this perspective, matrix element cij is the displacement of system degree of freedom i due to a unit
force at degree of freedom j.
Adams/Car uses a 12 x 12 matrix relating the motion of the left and right wheel centers to units forces
and torques applied to the wheel centers. This matrix has the form shown next:
220 Adams/Car
Running Suspension Analyses

For example, element C(3,3) is the vertical motion of the left wheel center due to a unit vertical force
applied at the left wheel center. Element C(3,9) is the vertical motion of the left wheel center due to a unit
vertical force applied at the right wheel center. For an independent suspension without a stabilizer bar,
C(3,9) is zero since a vertical force on the right wheel will not cause motion of the left wheel. The other
elements of the compliance matrix are defined similarly.

Steer Axis Computation


Adams/Car needs the steer axis of a suspension to compute suspension characteristics, such as caster
angle, kingpin inclination, scrub radius, and caster moment arm or caster trail. When you create a
suspension template in Adams/Car, you must select the method Adams/Car will use to compute the steer
axis and provide the necessary input information.
Adams/Car offers two methods for calculating suspension steer axes:
• Geometric Method
• Instant Axes Method

Both methods give accurate results, but the instant axis method is more general, because it can be used
when the steer axis cannot be determined geometrically, such as in a five-link suspension. Currently, for
a new suspension template the default is the geometric method.
Running Analyses 221
Running Suspension Analyses

Geometric Method
Using the geometric method, Adams/Car calculates the steer axis by passing a line through two non-
coincident points located on the steer axis. To use the geometric method, you must identify a part or parts
and two hardpoints that fix the steer axis.
For example, in a double wishbone suspension you might identify the wheel carrier part and Hardpoints
located at the upper and lower ball joints. For a MacPherson strut suspension, you might identify the
wheel carrier part and a hardpoint located at the lower ball joint for one point, and the strut rod and a
hardpoint located where the strut attaches to the body for the second point.

Instant Axes Method


Using the instant axes method, Adams/Car calculates the left and right steer axes from the suspension's
compliance matrix. While the calculation is performed numerically, it is best described in physical terms.
To calculate the steer axis at a given suspension position, Adams/Car first locks the spring travel and
applies an incremental steering torque or force in all directions (3 forces and 3 torques). Then, from the
resulting translation and rotation of the wheel carrier parts, Adams/Car calculates the instant axis of
rotation for each wheel carrier. The instant axes of rotation are the steer axes.
To use the instant axes method, you must identify a part and a hardpoint where Adams/Car should lock
the spring travel. Adams/Car locks the spring travel by locking the vertical motion of the part you identify
at the chosen hardpoint location. You can use any part and hardpoint, provided that locking the vertical
motion of that part at that location locks the spring travel. For example, in suspensions using coil or leaf
springs, a good choice is the lower spring seat (such as, the part and hardpoint where the spring acts on
the suspension). For a double wishbone suspension sprung by a torsion bar on the lower control arm,
choose the lower control arm at its connection to the wheel carrier. Locking the vertical motion of the
lower control arm at this location eliminates rotation in the torsion bar. Do not choose the wheel center
location and wheel carrier. If you do, Adams/Car calculates inaccurate steer axes.
In almost all suspensions, the wheel center lies outboard of the steer axis and the steer axis is angled
rearward (caster angle > 0) and inward (kingpin inclination > 0) relative to vertical. When the wheels are
steered (for example, rotated about the steer axis), the motion of the wheel centers has a vertical
component. Locking the vertical motion of the wheel carrier at the wheel center eliminates this vertical
component and gives an inaccurate steer axis.
When no steering subsystem is present, the steer axis that the instant axis method calculates is typically
inaccurate for a steerable suspension because the inner tie rods attach to ground and are not free to move
laterally. Therefore, when a steering subsystem is present, the motion Adams/Car excites by applying an
aligning torque to the wheel carrier is not comparable to the steering motion.

Dynamic Analysis
A dynamic analysis actuates the suspension at the contact patch via user defined runtime function
expressions or by referencing existing RPC3 files.
It is also possible to define a runtime function expression for the steering motion, therefore combining
vertical excitation with steering sweeps.
222 Adams/Car
Running Suspension Analyses

Note that the Computation of Suspension and Steering Characteristics is currently not available for
dynamic suspension analyses.

To set up a dynamic analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis, and then select Dynamic.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Suspension Analysis:
Dynamic.
3. Select OK.

Example Suspension Loadcase File


In Adams/Car, you can use loadcase files to specify different types of suspension analyses. The following
is an example loadcase file.
$-----------------------------------------------MDI_HEADER
[MDI_HEADER]
FILE_TYPE = 'lcf'
FILE_VERSION = 4.0
FILE_FORMAT = 'ASCII'
$-----------------------------------------------UNITS
[UNITS]
LENGTH = 'mm'
ANGLE = 'degrees'
FORCE = 'newton'
MASS = 'kg'
TIME = 'second'
$
$Generation Parameters: (Do Not Modify!)
$ loadcase = 1
$ nsteps = 10
$ bump_disp = 100.00 rebound_disp = -100.00
$ steering_input = angle
$ stat_steer_pos = 0.00
$
$-----------------------------------------------mode
[MODE]
STEERING_MODE = 'angle'
VERTICAL_MODE = 'length'
$-----------------------------------------------data
[DATA]
$COLUMN: input type: type of input data: side:
$ (c1) wheel z disp / force left
$ (c2) wheel z disp / force right
$ (c3) lateral force (y) left
$ (c4) lateral force (y) right
$ (c5 aligning torque (z-axis) left
$ (c6) aligning torque (z-axis) right
$ (c7) brake force (y) left
$ (c8) brake force (y) right
$ (c9) driving force (y) left
$ (c10) driving force (y) right
$ (c11) steering force / steer angle / rack travel
{ whl_z_l whl_z_r lat_l lat_r align_l align_r brake_l brake_r drive_l drive_r steer}
-100.0000 -100.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
-80.0000 -80.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Running Analyses 223
Running Suspension Analyses

-60.0000 -60.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
-40.0000 -40.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
-20.0000 -20.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.000
20.0000 20.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
40.0000 40.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
60.0000 60.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
80.0000 80.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
100.0000 100.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

Example Wheel-Envelope Input File


The following is an example of a wheel-envelope input file (.wen) that you can use to control a wheel-
envelope analysis.

Note: For wheel-envelope input files, Adams/Car ignores columns three through ten: (left and
right) lateral force, aligining torque, brake force, and driving force.

$--------------------------------------------MDI_HEADER
[MDI_HEADER]
FILE_TYPE = 'wen'
FILE_VERSION = 5.0
FILE_FORMAT = 'ascii'
$--------------------------------------------UNITS
[UNITS]
LENGTH = 'mm'
FORCE = 'newton'
ANGLE = 'deg'
MASS = 'kg'
TIME = 'sec'
$--------------------------------------------MODE
[MODE]
STEERING_MODE = 'angle'
VERTICAL_MODE = 'length'
$--------------------------------------------GRID
[GRID]
BOUNDARY_STEERING_GRID = 100.0
BOUNDARY_WHEEL_GRID = 20.0
INTERIOR_STEERING_GRID = 100.0
INTERIOR_WHEEL_GRID = 20.0
$--------------------------------------------DATA
[DATA]
$COLUMN: input type: type of input data: side:
$ (c1) wheel z disp / force left
$ (c2) wheel z disp / force right
$ (c3) lateral force (y) left
$ (c4 lateral force (y) right
$ (c5) aligning torque (z-axis) left
$ (c6) aligning torque (z-axis) right
$ (c7) brake force (y) left
$ (c8 brake force (y) right
$ (c9) driving force (y) left
224 Adams/Car
Running Suspension Analyses

$ (c10) driving force (y) right


$ (c11) steering steer angle / rack travel
$ {whl_z_l whl_z_r lat_l lat_r align_l align_r brake_l brake_r
drive_l drive_r steer}
-120.0 -120.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -500.0
80.0 80.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -500.0
90.0 90.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -300.0
120.0 120.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -200.0
120.0 120.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 200.0
85.0 85.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 350.0
80.0 80.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 500.0
60.0 60.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 500.0
30.0 30.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 450.0
-30.0 -30.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 450.0
-75.0 -75.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 500.0
-120.0 -120.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 500.0

Example Wheel-Envelope Output File


A wheel-envelope output file (.wev) contains a header and a data table, as explained next.
The first three lines comprise the header and contain the following information, in this order:
• Type of file
• Adams dataset title
• Date and time of file creation

The table that follows the header contains the following information:
• The first column shows the solution step number
• Columns 2-4 show the data for the left wheel center x, y, z
• Columns 5-7 show the data for the left wheel axis point x, y, z
• Columns 8-10 show the data for the right wheel center x, y, z
• Columns 11-13 show the data for the right wheel axis point x, y, z

The following is an example of a wheel-envelope output file:


Adams/Car Wheel Envelope Analysis Output File - acar_v10.0
Adams/Car Assembly
2000-01-19 16:41:21

1 -4.2702 -673.57 205.00 -348.83 -1611.7 170.29 7.0293 670.69 205.00 303.63 1620.7 107.88
2 -4.6463 -681.45 225.00 -344.63 -1621.7 206.15 6.7629 678.55 225.00 307.97 1628.3 139.91
3 -4.9532 -687.82 245.00 -340.16 -1630.0 239.60 6.5706 684.92 245.00 311.28 1634.4 170.26
4 -5.2433 -692.82 265.00 -334.67 -1637.0 271.40 6.3755 689.93 265.00 314.35 1639.0 198.89
Running Analyses 225
Running Suspension Analyses

5 -5.5240 -696.55 285.00 -328.07 -1643.0 301.70 6.1779 693.66 285.00 317.43 1642.1 225.76
6 -5.7905 -699.08 305.00 -320.38 -1648.0 330.44 5.9864 696.18 305.00 320.67 1643.8 250.76
7 -6.0372 -700.45 325.00 -311.59 -1652.1 357.51 5.8099 697.55 325.00 324.25 1644.1 273.76
8 -6.2583 -700.71 345.00 -301.72 -1655.3 382.78 5.6583 697.79 345.00 328.31 1643.0 294.55
9 -6.4469 -699.89 365.00 -290.74 -1657.8 406.03 5.5424 696.93 365.00 333.04 1640.3 312.88
10 -6.5953 -698.01 385.00 -278.64 -1659.4 426.98 5.4752 695.00 385.00 338.63 1636.2 328.39
... .......
226 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Output of Suspension Analyses


Adams/Car analyses output the following general suspension characteristics for all suspensions:
• Aligning Torque - Steer and Camber Compliance
• Camber Angle
• Caster Angle
• Dive Braking/Lift Braking
• Fore-Aft Wheel Center Stiffness
• Front-View Swing Arm Length and Angle
• Kingpin Inclination Angle
• Lateral Force - Deflection, Steer, and Camber Compliance
• Lift/Squat Acceleration
• Percent Anti-Dive Braking/Percent Anti-Lift Braking
• Percent Anti-Lift Acceleration/Percent Anti-Squat Acceleration
• Ride Rate
• Ride Steer
• Roll Camber Coefficient
• Roll Caster Coefficient
• Roll Center Location
• Roll Steer
• Side-View Angle
• Side-View Swing Arm Length and Angle
• Suspension Roll Rate
• Toe Angle
• Total Roll Rate
• Wheel Rate

For steered suspensions, Adams/Car analyses also output the following steering characteriscs:
• Ackerman
• Ackerman Angle
• Ackerman Error
• Caster Moment Arm (Mechanical Trail)
• Ideal Steer Angle
• Outside Turn Diameter
• Percent Ackerman
• Scrub Radius
• Steer Angle
Running Analyses 227
Output of Suspension Analyses

• Steer Axis Offset


• Turn Radius

Aligning Torque - Steer and Camber Compliance

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description The aligning torque steer compliance is the change in steer angle due to unit
aligning torque on the wheel. The aligning torque camber compliance is the
change in camber angle due to a unit aligning torque on the wheel.

A positive aligning torque acts to steer the wheel to the left. For a positive
steer angle, the wheel turns to the left. For a positive camber angle, the top
of the wheel tilts away from the body.
Units degrees/(force*length)
Request Names • alt_steer_compliance.left
• alt_steer_compliance.right
• alt_camber_compliance.left
• alt_camber_compliance.right
Method alt_steer_compliance.left = C(6,6) + C(6,12)
alt_steer_compliance.right = C(12,6) + C(12,12)
alt_camber_compliance.left = C(4,6) + C(4,12)
alt_camber_compliance.right= -C(10,6) + C(10,12)

Figure 1 Aligning Torque Loading for Steer and Camber


Compliances
228 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Camber Angle

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Camber angle is the angle the wheel plane makes with respect to the vehicle's
vertical axis. It is positive when the top of the wheel leans outward from the
vehicle body.

Note that the inclination angle, a measurement available in full-vehicle analyses,


is the angle the wheel plane makes with respect to the road surface. The inclination
angle is used for tire calculations.
Units Degrees or angle
Request Names • camber_angle.left
• camber_angle.right
Inputs Wheel-center axis (spin axis) unit vectors, left and right
Method camber_angle = -arcsin  ŜẐ 

Figure 2 Camber Angle

Caster Angle

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.


Running Analyses 229
Output of Suspension Analyses

Description Caster angle is the angle in the side elevation (vehicle XZ plane) between the
steering (kingpin) axis and the vehicle's vertical axis. It is positive when the
steer axis is inclined upward and rearward.

Adams computes the steer axis using the geometric or instant axis method.
Units Degrees
Request Names • caster_angle.left
• caster_angle.right
Inputs • Steer (kingpin) axis unit vectors - left and right
• Road vertical unit vector (z)
• Road longitudinal unit vector (x)
Method Adams uses the direction cosines in the x- and the z-directions of the kingpin
axis to calculate caster angle, such that:

sx = steer_axis road_x_axis
sz = steer_axis road_z_axis
caster_angle = rtod * arctan(sx/sz)

Figure 3 Caster Angle

Dive Braking/Lift Braking

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.


230 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Description Dive braking is the amount of front suspension compression per G of vehicle
braking. Included in dive is suspension compression due to weight transfer plus
suspension extension due to brake forces. Positive dive indicates that the front
suspension compresses in braking.

Lift braking is the amount of rear suspension extension per G of vehicle braking.
Included in lift is suspension extension due to weight transfer plus compression
due to brake forces. Positive lift indicates that the rear suspension extends in
braking.
Units mm
Request Names • dive.left
• dive.right
Running Analyses 231
Output of Suspension Analyses

Inputs • Compliance matrix


• Fraction of braking applied at this axle
• Loaded tire radius
• Tire stiffness
• Whole vehicle CG height
• Total vehicle weight
• Wheelbase
Method Adams first computes the longitudinal force percentage due to braking:

Fleft = Fright = Brake Ratio / 2.0


and then the vertical force percentange due to weight transfer:

Wleft = Wright = Whole vehicle CG height/ (2 x


Wheelbase)
For rear anti-lift, the weight transfer is a negative value.

These are forces at each wheel per unit total braking force.

Vertical deflections due to the vertical force are:

Zwleft = Wleft x C(3,3) + Wright x C(3,9)


Zwright = Wleft x C(9,3) + Wright x C(9,9)
Vertical deflections due to tractive forces are as follows, where Rl is the loaded
radius of the tire:

ZFleft = Fleft [C(3,1) - Rl x C(3,5)] +


Fright[C(3,7) - Rl x C(3,11)]
ZFright = Fleft [C(9,1) - Rl x C(9,5)] +
Fright[C(9,7) - Rl x C(9,11)]
The dive is:

dive.left = (ZFleft + ZWleft + Wleft / Kt) Vehicle


Weight
dive.right = (ZFright + ZWright + Wright / Kt)
Vehicle Weight

Fore-Aft Wheel Center Stiffness

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.


232 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Description The stiffness of the suspension in the fore-aft direction is relative to the body,
measured at the wheel center.
Units Newtons/mm
Request Names • fore_aft_wheel_center_stiffness.left
• fore_aft_wheel_center_stiffness.right
Inputs Compliance matrix
Method Adams applies equal unit forces acting longitudinally at the wheel centers. It
calculates the fore-aft wheel center stiffness as follows:

fore_aft_wheel_center_stiffness.left = 1 /
C(1,1)
fore_aft_wheel_center_stiffness.right = 1 /
C(7,7)

Front-View Swing Arm Length and Angle

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description The swing arm is the imaginary arm extending from the wheel's front elevation
instant center of rotation to the wheel center. The swing arm has a positive
length when the instant center is inward of the wheel center. The angle of the
swing arm is the angle it makes to the horizontal. A positive angle is when the
arm slopes outward and upward from the center of rotation to the wheel center.

The magnitude of the swing-arm length is limited to a maximum of 1000 meters.


Units Length - mm; angle - degrees
Request Names • fr_view_swing_arm_angle.left
• fr_view_swing_arm_angle.right
• fr_view_swing_arm_length.left
• fr_view_swing_arm_length.right
Inputs Compliance matrix
Running Analyses 233
Output of Suspension Analyses

Method The change in vertical and lateral position and the front view rotation of the left
wheel center due to a unit vertical force at the left wheel center is:

Y left = C  2, 3 

Z left = C  3, 3 

 left = C  4, 3 

The left front view swing arm length and angle are:
2 2 12
fr_view_swing_arm_length.left = –  Y left + Z left    left
–1
fr_view_swing_arm_angle.left = – tan  Y  Z left 
left
The change in vertical and lateral position and the front view rotation of the right
wheel center due to a unit vertical force at the right wheel center is:

Y right = C  8, 9 

Z right = C  9, 9 

 right = C  10, 9 
234 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

The right front view swing arm length and angle are:
2 2 12
fr_view_swing_arm_length.right =  Y right + Z right    right
–1
fr_view_swing_arm_angle.right = tan   Y right    Z right  

Figure 4 Instant Center Front View (Lateral, Vertical)

Kingpin Inclination Angle

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description The kingpin inclination angle is the angle in the front elevation between the steer
axis (the kingpin axis) and the vehicle's vertical axis. It is positive when the steer
axis is inclined upward and inward.
Units Degrees
Request Names • kingpin_incl_angle.left
• kingpin_incl_angle.right
Running Analyses 235
Output of Suspension Analyses

Inputs Kingpin axis unit vectors - left and right


Method Adams uses the direction cosines in the y-direction and the z-direction of the kingpin
axis to calculate the kingpin inclination angle:
–1
kingpin_incl_angle.left = tan  DCOSY  DCOSZ 
–1
kingpin_incl_angle.right = tan  – DCOSY  DCOSZ 

Figure 5 Kingpin Angle (Ø is the Kingpin Angle)

Lateral Force - Deflection, Steer, and Camber Compliance

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description The deflections at the wheel center due to unit lateral forces applied simultaneously at
the tire contact patches. The forces are oriented as if in a right turn. Adams reports the
lateral translational deflection, steer deflection (rotational deflection about the vertical
axis), and the camber deflection (rotational deflection about the longitudinal axis).
Positive deflection indicates a deflection to the right. Positive steer is a steer to the left.
Positive camber compliance is when the wheels lean outward at the top.
Units Deflection - mm; Camber and steer - degrees
236 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Request • lat_force_defl_compliance.left
Names • lat_force_defl_compliance.right
• lat_force_steer_compliance.left
• lat_force_steer_compliance.right
• lat_force_camber_compliance.left
• lat_force_camber_compliance.right
Inputs • Compliance matrix
• Tire radius - loaded
Method When the force is applied at the tire contact patch, Adams computes the deflection due
to both the lateral force at the wheel center and the moment created around the wheel
center. The total compliances are:

lat_force_defl_compliance.left = +[C(2,2) + Rl x C(2,4) + C(2,8) + Rl x C(2,10)]

lat_force_defl_compliance.right = +[C(8,2) + Rl x C(8,4) + C(8,8) + Rl x C(8,10)]

lat_force_steer_compliance.left = +[C(6,2) + Rl x C(6,4) + C(6,8) + Rl x C(6,10)]

lat_force_steer_compliance.right = +[C(12,2) + Rl x C(12,4) + C(12,8) + Rl x C(12,10)]

lat_force_camber_compliance.left = +[C(4,2) + Rl x C(4,4) + C(4,8) + Rl x C(4,10)]

lat_force_camber_compliance.right = -[C(10,2) + Rl x C(10,4) + C(10,8) + Rl x C(10,10)]

Figure 6 Lateral Force Loading for Deflection, Steer, and Camber


Compliances
Running Analyses 237
Output of Suspension Analyses

Lift/Squat Acceleration

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Lift is the amount of front suspension extension (rebound) per G of vehicle
acceleration. Squat is the amount of rear suspension compression (jounce) per
G of vehicle acceleration. Lift and squat arise when the suspension reacts to
longitudinal tractive forces, weight transfer forces, and, in dependent
suspensions, to the differential input and output torques.
Units mm
Request Names Front suspensions:

• lift.left
• lift.right
Rear suspensions:

• squat_acceleration.left
• squat_acceleration.right
Inputs Compliance matrix

Suspension parameters array:

• suspension_type (independent/dependent)
Vehicle parameters array:

• sprung_mass
• cg_height
• wheelbase
• loaded_tire_radius
• tire_stiffness
• axle_ratio (final drive ratio, pinion ring gear ratio)
• drive_ratio (fraction of total drive torque directed to the suspension)
Suspension geometry:

• Track
Acceleration due to gravity (Ag)
238 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Method The suspension lift or squat during acceleration arises due to the tractive forces,
weight transfer, and, in live axles, due to the differential input and output
torques, as well. The longitudinal tractive forces at the tire contact patches are:

Fleft = Fright = -drive_ratio / 2.0


The vertical forces at the tire contact patch due to weight transfer are:

VWleft = VWright = - cg_height / (2 * Wheelbase)


Live axles also react to the drive torques (input torque to the differential pinion
and the left and right output torque from the differential). Given the longitudinal
tractive forces, the input torque (TI) to the differential is:

TI = tire_loaded_radius * abs(Fleft + Fright) / axle_ratio


And the vertical force at the tire contact patches due to the drive torque is:

VTleft = -VTright = TI / Track


The left and right output torque from the differential is:

TOleft = - tire_loaded_radius * Fleft


TOright = - tire_loaded_radius * Fright
The vertical deflections of the suspension due to drive torque are:

ZDleft = VTleft * C(3,1) + TOleft * C(3,5) + VTright


* C(3,7) + TOright * C(3,11) + VTleft /
tire_stiffness
ZDright = VTleft * C(9,1) + TOleft * C(9,5) +
VTright * C(9,7) + TOright * C(9,11) + VTright /
tire_stiffness
Independent suspensions do not react to the drive torques. Therefore,

ZDleft = ZDright = 0.0


The vertical deflections of the suspension due to tractive forces are:

ZFleft = Fleft * C(3,1) + Fright * C(3,7)


ZFright = Fright * C(9,7) + Fleft * C(9,1)
The vertical deflections of the suspension due to weight transfer forces are:

ZWleft = VWleft C(3,3) + VWright C(3,9) + VWleft /


tire_stiffness
ZWright = VWleft C(9,3) + VWright C(9,9) + VWright /
tire_stiffness
Finally, the lift/squat per G of acceleration is:

lift.left / squat_acceleration.left = (ZDleft + ZFleft + ZWleft) * sprung_mass * Ag

lift.right / squat_acceleration.right = (ZDright


+ ZFright + ZWright) * sprung_mass * Ag
Running Analyses 239
Output of Suspension Analyses

Percent Anti-Dive Braking/Percent Anti-Lift Braking

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Percent anti-dive braking for a front suspension and percent anti-lift braking for a
rear suspension are the ratio of vertical suspension deflections caused by braking
forces and torques to the deflections caused by weight transfer. During braking,
the vertical deflections in a suspension from weight transfer can, in part, be
cancelled by the vertical deflections caused by braking forces and torques in the
suspension. Suspensions that exhibit this characteristic are said to have anti-dive
or anti-lift geometry.

For front suspensions, percent anti-dive braking is positive when deflections


caused by braking forces and torques act to extend or rebound the suspension. For
rear suspensions, percent anti-lift braking is positive when the deflections caused
by the braking forces and torques act to compress or jounce the suspension.
Units %
Request Names Front suspensions:

• anti_dive_braking.left
• anti_dive_braking.right
Rear suspensions:

• anti_lift.left
• anti_lift.right
240 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Inputs Compliance matrix

Vehicle parameters array:

• sprung_mass
• cg_height
• wheelbase
• loaded_tire_radius
• tire_stiffness
• brake_ratio (fraction of braking done by the suspension)
• acceleration due to gravity (Ag)
Method The brake forces at the tire contact patch per G of longitudinal deceleration are:

Fleft = Fright = sprung_mass * Ag * brake_ratio / 2


The brake torques reacted that the suspension reacts to are:

BTleft = loaded_tire_radius * Fleft


BTright = loaded_tire_radius * Fright
The weight transfer forces that the suspension reacts to are:

WTleft = sprung_mass * Ag * cg_height / wheelbase /


2
WTright = sprung_mass * Ag * cg_height / wheelbase
/ 2
The brake forces and torques that cause the suspension deflections are:

ZBleft = Fleft * C(3,1) + Fright * C(3,7) + BTleft *


C(3,5) + BTright * C(3,11) + Fleft / tire_stiffness
ZBright = Fleft * C(9,1) + Fright * C(9,7) + BTleft *
C(9,5) + BTright * C(9,11) + Fright / tire_stifness
The weight transfer forces that cause the suspension deflections are:

ZWleft = WTleft * C(3,3) + WTright * C(3,9) + WTleft


/ tire_stiffness
ZWright = WTleft * C(9,3) + WTright * C(9,9) +
WTright / tire_stiffness
Finally, the percent anti-dive and percent anti-lift are:

anti_dive_braking.left = anti_lift.left = 100 *


ZBleft / ZWleft
anti_dive_braking.right = anti_lift.right = 100 *
ZBright / ZWright
Running Analyses 241
Output of Suspension Analyses

Percent Anti-Lift Acceleration/Percent Anti-Squat Acceleration

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Percent anti-lift for a front suspension and percent anti-squat for a rear
suspension are the ratio of vertical suspension deflections caused by tractive
forces and drive torques to the deflections caused by weight transfer. During
acceleration, the vertical deflections in a suspension from weight transfer can,
in part, be cancelled by the vertical deflections caused by tractive forces and
drive torques in the suspension. Suspensions that exhibit this characteristic
are said to have anti-lift or anti-dive geometry. Note that a suspension that
does not transmit tractive forces and drive torques (drive_ratio = 0.0) has zero
anti-lift or anti-squat.

For front suspensions, percent anti-lift is positive when deflections caused by


tractive forces and drive torques act to compress or jounce the suspension. For
rear suspensions, percent anti-squat is positive when the deflections caused by
the tractive forces and drive torques act to extend or rebound the suspension.
Units %
Request Names Front suspensions:

• anti_lift.left
• anti_lift.right
Rear suspensions:

• anti_squat.left
• anti_squat.right
242 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Inputs Compliance matrix

Suspension parameters array:

• suspension_type (independent/dependent)
Vehicle parameters array:

• sprung_mass
• cg_height
• wheelbase
• loaded_tire_radius
• tire_stiffness
• axle_ratio (final drive ratio, pinion ring gear ratio)
• drive_ratio (fraction of total drive torque directed to the suspension)
Suspension geometry:

• Track
Acceleration due to gravity (Ag)
Running Analyses 243
Output of Suspension Analyses

Method The longitudinal tractive forces at the tire contact patches are:

Fleft = Fright = -drive_ratio / 2.0


The vertical forces at the tire contact patch due to weight transfer are:

VWleft = VWright = - cg_height / (2 * Wheelbase)


Live axles also react with the drive torques (input torque to the differential
pinion and output torque from the differential). Given the longitudinal tractive
forces, the input torque (TI) to the differential is:

TI = tire_loaded_radius * abs(Fleft + Fright) /


axle_ratio
And the vertical force at the tire contact patches due to the drive torque is:

VTleft = -VTright = TI / Track


The left and right output torque from the differential is:

TOleft = - tire_loaded_radias * Fleft


TOright = - tire_loaded_radias * Fright
The vertical deflections of the suspension due to drive torque are:

ZDleft = VTleft * C(3,1) + TOleft * C(3,5) +


VTright * C(3,7) + TOright * C(3,11) + VTleft /
tire_stiffness
ZDright = VTleft * C(9,1) + TOleft * C(9,5) +
VTright * C(9,7) + TOright * C(9,11) + VTright /
tire_stiffness
Independent suspensions do not react to the drive torque. Therefore,

ZDleft = ZDright = 0.0


The vertical deflections of the suspension due to tractive forces are:

ZFleft = Fleft * C(3,1) + Fright * C(3,7)


ZFright = Fright * C(9,7) + Fleft * C(9,1)
The vertical deflections of the suspension due to weight transfer forces are:

ZWleft = VWleft C(3,3) + VWright C(3,9) + VWleft /


tire_stiffness
ZWright = VWleft C(9,3) + VWright C(9,9) + VWright
/ tire_stiffness
The left and right percent anti-lift for front suspensions and percent anti-squat for rear
suspensions are:

anti_lift.left / anti_squat.left = 100 *


(ZFleft + ZDleft) / ZWleft
anti_lift.right / anti_squat.right =100 *
(ZFright + ZDright) / ZWright
244 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Ride Rate

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Ride rate is the spring rate of the suspension relative to the body, measured at the
tire contact patch.
Units Newtons/mm
Request Names • ride_rate.left
• ride_rate.right
Inputs • Compliance matrix
• Tire stiffness
Method Adams computes ride rate as the equivalent rate of the wheel rate and tire rate in
series.

Ks = Wheel rate (see Wheel Rate)


Kt = Vertical tire rate
Ktotal = Ks x Kt / (Ks + Kt)

Ride Steer

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Ride steer is the slope of the steer angle versus the vertical wheel travel curve. Ride
steer is the change in steer angle per unit of wheel center vertical deflection due to
equal vertical forces at the wheel centers. Positive ride steer implies that the
wheels steer to the right, as the wheel centers move upward.
Units Degrees/mm
Request Names • ride_steer.left
• ride_steer.right
Running Analyses 245
Output of Suspension Analyses

Inputs Compliance matrix


Method Change in Wheel Orientation
Using the compliance matrix, Adams first calculates the change in wheel
orientation (W) due to unit forces applied at both wheel centers:

Wl/dF = C(4, 3) - C(4, 9) , C(5, 3) - C(5, 9) , C(6, 3)


- C(6, 9)
Wr/dF = C(10, 3) - C(10,9) , C(11, 3) - C(11, 9) ,
C(12, 3) - C(12,9)

Change in Wheel-Center (Spin) Vector Orientation


The change in the left wheel-center (spin) vector (d(wcvl)) and the right wheel
(spin) vector (d(wcvr) are vectors of partial derivatives given by the cross product
of the change in wheel orientation with the wheel-center vector:

d(wcvl)/dF = Wl x wcvl
d(wcvr)/dF = Wr x wcvr
Change in Steer Angle
The change in steer angle due to a change in wheel-center vector orientation is also
a vector of partial derivatives given by:

d(steer_anglel)/d(wcvl) = (-1.0 / ( syl**2 +


sxl**2 ) ) { syl, -sxl, 0 }
d(steer_angler)/d(wcvr) = (-1.0 / ( syr**2 +
sxr**2 ) ) { syr, -sxr, 0 }
where:

sxl = wcvl o x; The x component of the left wheel-


center (spin) vector
syl = wcvl o y; The y component of the left wheel-
center (spin)
vector\sxr = wcvr o x; The x component of the
right wheel-center (spin) vector
syr = wcvr o y; The y component of the right
wheel-center (spin) vector
The change in steer angle due to unit vertical forces at both wheel centers is
computed by the chain rule:

d(steer_anglel) /dF = ( -d(steer_anglel)/d(wcvl)


) o ( d(wcvl) / dF )
d(steer_angler)/dF = ( -d(steer_angler)/d(wcvr) )
o ( d(wcvr) / dF )
246 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Change in Wheel-Center Vertical Travel


The change in wheel-center vertical travel (dz) due to unit vertical forces applied
at both wheel centers is:

dzl /dF = { C(3,3) + C(3,9) }


dzr /dF = { C(9,3) + C(9,9) }
Using the chain rule one final time, the ride steer is:

ride_steer.left = d(steer_anglel)/dzl =
d(steer_anglel)/dF/(dF/dzl)
ride_steer.right = d(steer_angler)/dzr =
d(steer_angler)/dF/(dF/dzr)
Nomenclature • Bold, uppercase text, such as Wl, are vectors.
• Bold, lowercase text, such as wcvl, are unit vectors.
• X is the vector cross product operator.
• o is the vector dot product operator.
• * is the scalar multiplication operator.

Roll Camber Coefficient

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Roll camber coefficient is the rate of change of wheel inclination angle with
respect to vehicle roll angle. Positive roll camber coefficient indicates an increase
in camber angle per degree of vehicle roll.
Units Unitless
Request Names • roll_camber_coefficient.left
• roll_camber_coefficient.right
Running Analyses 247
Output of Suspension Analyses

Inputs • Compliance matrix


• Tire stiffness
• Track width
Method Adams applies opposing unit forces acting vertically at the tire contact patches.
The height difference between the tire contact patches is the following, where Kt
is the vertical tire rate:

DZ = C(3,3) - C(3,9) - C(9,3) + C(9,9) + 2/Kt


The vehicle roll angle is the rotation of the line through the tire contact patches:

Av = DZ / track
Adams measures the wheel inclination with respect to the line through the tire
contact patches, which has two components. The first is from the vertical
movement of the tire contact patch and is the same as the vehicle roll angle. The
second is from the rotational compliance at the wheel center due to the vertical
force:

Ac = - C(4,3) + C(4,9) (left side)


= - C(10,3) + C(10,9) (right side)
The total wheel inclination is then:

Ai = Av - Ac
The roll camber is then:

roll_camber_coefficient = (Av - Ac) / Av = 1 - Ac / Av

Figure 7 Roll Camber


248 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Roll Caster Coefficient

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Roll caster coefficient is the rate of change in side view steer axis angle
with respect to vehicle roll angle. A positive roll caster coefficient indicates
an increase in caster angle per degree of vehicle roll.

This calculation assumes that the steer axis (kingpin) is fixed in the
suspension upright as in a double-wishbone or MacPherson strut
suspension. The calculation, however, is not valid for suspensions where
the steer axis is not fixed in the suspension upright, for example, a five-link
front suspension used in Audi A4.
Units Unitless
Request Names • roll_caster_coefficient.left
• roll_caster_coefficient.right
Inputs • Compliance matrix
• Tire stiffness
• Track width
Method Adams applies opposing unit forces acting vertically at the tire contact
patches. The height difference between the tire contact patches is the
following, where Kt is the vertical tire rate:

DZ = C(3,3) - C(3,9) - C(9,3) + C(9,9) + 2/Kt


The vehicle roll angle is the rotation of the line through the tire contact
patches:

Av = DZ / track
The rotational compliance at the wheel center due to the vertical force is:

Ac = C(5,3) - C(5,9) (left side)


= C(11,3) - C(11,9) (right side)
The roll caster is then:

roll_caster_coefficient = Ac / Av

Roll Center Location

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.


Running Analyses 249
Output of Suspension Analyses

Description Roll center location is the point on the body where the moment of the
lateral and vertical forces exerted by the suspension links on the body
vanishes.
Units
Request Names • roll_center_location.lateral_from_half_track
• roll_center_location.vertical
• roll_center_location.lateral_to_left_patch
• roll_center_location.lateral_to_right_patch
250 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Inputs • Compliance matrix at contact patches


• Contact patch location
Method Adams applies unit vertical forces (perpendicular to the road) at the tire
contact and measures the resulting contact patch displacements in the
vertical and lateral direction (front view). Adams projects lines
perpendicular to the contact patch displacements for both the left and right
patches. The roll center lies at the intersection of these lines.

Adams reports errors when the motions of the left and right patches are
parallel (just as it occurs with a fully trailing arm suspension). Therefore,
the projected lines have no intersection. Adams also reports an error when
the motion of the left and/or right patches is very small for a unit vertical
force (for example, the suspension is very stiff).

Finally, Adams limits the distance from the roll center to the left and right
patches to +/- 1000 meters.

Figure 8 Roll Center Location (Front View)

Roll Steer

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.


Running Analyses 251
Output of Suspension Analyses

Description Roll steer is the change in steer angle per unit change in roll angle, or the slope of
the steer-angle-verses-roll-angle curve. Roll steer is positive when for increasing
roll angle (left wheel moving up, right wheel moving down) the steer angle increases
(wheels steer toward the left).
Units Unitless
Request Names • roll_steer.left
• roll_steer.right
Inputs • Wheel center spin axis unit vector (wcv) left and right
• Track
• Tire stiffness (Kt)
• Compliance matrix
252 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Method Using the compliance matrix, Adams first calculates the change in roll angle and the
change in the wheel-center vector orientation due to a roll moment (the roll moment
is a unit vertical force upward at the left contact patch and a unit force downward at
the right contact patch). Then, Adams calculates the change in steer angle due to the
change in wheel-center vector orientation. Finally, Adams applies the chain rule to
calculate the roll steer.

Change in Roll Angle


The change in roll angle is:

d(roll_angle)/d(roll_moment) = ( C(3,3) - C(3,9) -


C(9,3) + C(9,9) + 2.0/Kt ) / Track
Change in Wheel-Center Spin Vector Orientation
The changes in orientation of the left wheel (Wl) and of the right wheel (Wr) due to
a unit upward force at the left contact patch and a unit downward force at the right
contact patch are:

Wl = { C(4, 3) - C(4, 9) , C(5, 3) - C(5, 9) , C(6,


3) - C(6, 9) }
Wr = { C(10, 3) - C(10,9) , C(11, 3) - C(11, 9) ,
C(12, 3) - C(12, 9) }
The change in the left wheel-center (spin) vector (d(wcvl)) and the right wheel (spin)
vector (d(wcvr) are vectors of partial derivatives:

d(wcvl)/d(roll_moment) = Wl x wcvl
d(wcvr)/d(roll_moment) = Wr x wcvr

Change in Steer Angle


The change in steer angle due to a change in wheel-center vector orientation is also
a vector of partial derivatives given by:

d(steer_anglel)/d(wcvl) = (-1.0 / ( syl**2 + sxl**2


) ) { syl, -sxl, 0 }
d(steer_angler)/d(wcvr) = (-1.0 / ( syr**2 + sxr**2
) ) { syr, -sxr, 0 }
where:

sxl = wcvl o x; The x component of the left wheel-


center (spin) vector
syl = wcvl o y; The y component of the left wheel-
center (spin) vector
sxr = wcvr o x; The x component of the right wheel-
center (spin) vector
syr = wcvr o y; The y component of the right wheel-
center (spin) vector
Running Analyses 253
Output of Suspension Analyses

The change in steer angle for a change in roll moment is computed using the chain
rule:

d(steer_anglel)/d(roll_moment) = (
d(steer_anglel)/d(wcvl) ) o (
d(wcvl)/d(roll_moment) )
d(steer_angler)/d(roll_moment) = (
d(steer_angler)/d(wcvr) ) o (
d(wcvr)/d(roll_moment) )

Roll Steer
And applying the chain rule one last time, the roll steer is

roll_steer.left = ( d(steer_anglel)/d(roll_moment)
) / ( d(roll_angle)/d(roll_moment) )
roll_steer.right = ( d(steer_angler)/d(roll_moment)
) / ( d(roll_angle)/d(roll_moment) )
Request REQUST/id, FUNCTION=USER(900,17,characteristics_input_array_id)
Statements
Nomenclature • Bold, uppercase text, such as Wl, are vectors.
• Bold, lowercase text, such as wcvl, are unit vectors.
• X is the vector cross product operator.
• o is the vector dot product operator.
• * is the scalar multiplication operator.

Side-View Angle

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description The side-view angle is the wheel carrier side-view rotation angle. It is
positive for a clockwise rotation, as seen from the left side of the vehicle.
Units Angle
Request Names • side_view_angle.left
• side_view_angle.right
Inputs Wheel bearing I marker and origo_y
Method side_view_angle = az, marker I, marker J
254 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Side-View Swing Arm Length and Angle

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description The swing arm is an imaginary arm extending from the wheel's side elevation
instant center of rotation to the wheel center. For front suspensions, the sign
convention is that when the instant center is behind the wheel center, the swing
arm has a positive length. For rear suspensions, the sign convention is the
opposite: when the instant center is ahead of the wheel center, the swing arm
has a positive length.

The angle of the swing arm is the angle it makes to the horizontal. A positive
angle for a positive length is when the arm slopes downward from the wheel
center. A positive angle for a negative length arm is when the arm slopes
upward from the wheel center.

The magnitude of the swing-arm length is limited to a maximum of 1000


meters.
Units Length - mm; angle - degrees
Request Names • side_view_swing_arm_angle.left
• side_view_swing_arm_angle.right
• side_view_swing_arm_length.left
• side_view_swing_arm_length.right
Running Analyses 255
Output of Suspension Analyses

Inputs Compliance matrix


Method The change in vertical and longitudinal position and the side view rotation of
the left wheel center due to a unit vertical force at the left wheel center is:

DX left = C(1,3)
DZ left = C(3,3)
DØ left = C(5,3)
The left side view swing arm length and angle are:

side_view_swing_arm_length.left = (DX left 2 + DZ left 2)1/2 / DØ left

side_view_swing_arm_angle.left = tan-1 (DX left / DZ left)

The change in vertical and longitudinal position and the change in side view
rotation of the right wheel center due to a unit vertical force at the right wheel
center is:

DX right = C(7,9)
DZ right = C(9,9)
DØ right = C(11,9)
The right side view swing arm length and angle are:

side_view_swing_arm_length.right = (DXright 2 + DZright 2) 1/2 / DØ right

side_view_swing_arm_angle.right = tan-1 (DXright / DZ right)

Figure 9 Instant Center Side View (Fore and Aft, Vertical)

Suspension Roll Rate

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.


256 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Description Suspension roll rate is the torque, applied as vertical forces at the tire contact
patches, per degree of roll, measured through the wheel centers.
Units Newton-mm/degree
Request Names • susp_roll_rate.left
• susp_roll_rate.right
Inputs • Compliance matrix
• Track width
Method Adams uses opposing unit forces as the applied torque:

T = F x track = track
The resulting vertical distance between wheel centers is:

 Z = X  3, 3  – X  3 , 9  – X  9 , 3  + X  9 , 9 
The rotation of the line through the wheel centers is:

 = Z  track
The roll rate is:
2
susp_roll_rate = T / Ø = track  Z

Figure 10 Roll Rate - Suspension

Toe Angle

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.


Running Analyses 257
Output of Suspension Analyses

Description Toe angle is the angle between the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and the line
of intersection of the wheel plane and the vehicle's XY plane.

Adams reports toe angle in radians. It is positive if the wheel front is rotated
in towards the vehicle body.
Units Degrees
RequestNames • toe_angle.left
• toe_angle.right
Inputs Wheel center axis unit vectors - left and right
Method Adams uses the direction cosines in the x- and y-directions of the wheel
center axis relative to the road to calculate toe angle, such that:

toe_angle.left = tan-1 (DCOSX/DCOSY)


toe_angle.right = tan-1 (-DCOSX/DCOSY)

Figure 11 Toe Angle


258 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Total Roll Rate

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Total roll rate is the torque, applied as vertical forces at the tire contact patches,
per degree of roll, measured at the tire contact patches.
Units Newton-mm/degreee
Request Names • total_roll_rate.left
• total_roll_rate.right
Inputs • Compliance matrix
• Tire stiffness
• Track width
Method Adams uses opposing unit forces as the applied torque:

T = F x track = track
The resulting vertical distance between wheel centers is the following, where Kt
is the tire stiffnesses:

Z = C  3, 3  – C  3 , 9  – C  9 , 3  + C  9, 9  + 2  K t
The rotation of the line through the tire contact patches is:

 = Z  track

The roll rate is:


2
total_roll_rate = T/Ø = track  Z

Total Track

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.


Running Analyses 259
Output of Suspension Analyses

Description Total track is the distance measured along the line passing through the left and
right tire contact points with the left and right road parts (pads) and then
projected onto the right road plane.

The tire contact point lies at the intersection of two lines:

• The first line is formed by the intersection of the wheel plane with the
road plane.
• The second line is perpendicular to the first and passes through the
wheel center.
The wheel plane is perpendicular to the wheel spin axis and passes through
the wheel center.

The left and right road planes behave differently, depending on your
coordinates:

• In vehicle coordinates, the left and right road planes remain


perpendicular to the vehicle's vertical axis, but lie at different heights.
If you run an opposite wheel-travel using vehicle coordinates, the left
and right road planes remain un-rolled (flat) relative to the vehicle
body (ground in a suspension analysis).
• In ISO coordinates, the left and right road planes form one plane that
rotates about the vehicle's longitudinal axis to simulate rolling of the
suspension relative to the road. If you run an opposite wheel-travel
analysis using ISO coordinates, the right road plane and left road
plane are identical, as if the suspension was rolled relative to a flat
road. The total_track (distance between tire contact points) projected
onto the right road plane is foreshortened, and therefore, is less than
the total track output.
Also, the distance from the road plane to the wheel center depends on the tire
deflection, which depends on the tire stiffness and the force required to deflect
the suspension to a given position.
Units Length
Request Names • total_track
260 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Inputs • Contact patch positions


Method The following is the equation used to compute total track:

T = ABS (ROAD (COMP, CPPLEFT) - ROAD (COMP, CPPRIGHT))


where:

• ROAD is a data structure filled with a series of kinematic


characteristics of the suspension. ROAD (Y,CPPLEFT) returns, for
example, the Y component of the left contact patch position.
• CPP represents the instantaneous coodinates of contact points
obtained as described above.

Wheel Rate

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Wheel rate is the vertical stiffness of the suspension relative to the body, measured
at the wheel center.
Units Newtons/mm
Request Names • wheel_rate.left
• wheel_rate.right
Inputs Compliance matrix
Method Adams computes suspension wheel rate as the inverse of the z-axis displacement
at the wheel center due to the vertical forces applied at both wheel centers
simultaneously.

wheel_rate.left = 1 / (C(3,3) + C(3,9))


wheel_rate.right = 1 / (C(9,3) + C(9,9))

Ackerman

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.


Running Analyses 261
Output of Suspension Analyses

Description Ackerman is the difference between the left and right wheel steer angles. A
positive Ackerman indicates that the right wheel is being steered more to the
right than to the left.
Units Degrees
Request Names • ackerman.left
• ackerman.right
Inputs Steer angle (see Steer Angle)
Method Adams/Car computes Ackerman by subtracting the right steer angle from the
left steer angle:

ackerman = Right steer angle – Left steer angle

Ackerman Angle

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Ackerman angle is the angle whose tangent is the wheel base divided by the turn
radius. Ackerman angle is positive for right turns.
Units Degrees
Request Names • ackerman_angle.left
• ackerman_angle.right
262 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Inputs • Turn radius (see Turn Radius)


• Wheelbase
Method ackerman_angle = tan-1(Wheel Base/Turn Radius)

Figure 12 Ackerman Angle

Ackerman Error

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Ackerman error is the difference between the steer angle and the ideal steer angle
for Ackerman geometry. Because Adams/Car uses the inside wheel to compute
the turn center, the Ackerman error for the inside wheel is zero.

For a left turn, the left wheel is the inside wheel and the right wheel is the outside
wheel. Conversely, for a right turn, the right wheel is the inside wheel and the left
wheel is the outside wheel. Positive Ackerman error indicates the actual steer
angle is greater than the ideal steer angle or the actual is steered more to the right.
Units Degrees
Running Analyses 263
Output of Suspension Analyses

Request Names • ackerman_error.left


• ackerman_error.right
Inputs • Steer angle (see Steer Angle)
• Ideal steer angle (see Ideal Steer Angle)
Method ackerman_error.left = (left steer angle - left ideal steer angle)

ackerman_error.right = (right steer angle - right ideal steer angle)

Caster Moment Arm (Mechanical Trail)

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Caster moment arm is the distance from the intersection of the kingpin (steer)
axis and the road plane to the tire contact patch measured along the intersection
of the wheel plane and road plane. Caster moment arm is positive when the
intersection of the kingpin axis and road plane is forward of the tire contact
patch.
Units mm
Request Names • caster_moment_arm.left
• caster_moment_arm.right
264 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Inputs • Kingpin axis position, a point on the kingpin axis (Rs) - left and right
• Kingpin (steer) axis unit vector (s) - left and right
• Tire contact patch position (Rp) - left and right
• Wheel center axis unit vector (w) - left and right
• The road normal unit vector (k)
Methods Adams/Car first finds the intersection of the kingpin axis and the road plane.
Note that by convention, the kingpin axis unit vector is directed upward, away
from the road, and the road plane has zero height. The intersection of the
kingpin axis and the road plane (Rkr) is:

Rsr = Rs - (Rs o k)/(s o k) s


Next, Adams/Car finds a unit vector (l) directed rearward along the line of
intersection between the wheel plane and the road plane:

l = k x w / | k x w | (left side)
l = k x -w / | k x -w | (right side)
The distance along l from the contact patch to the intersection of the kingpin
axis and the road plane is:

caster_moment_arm = (Rp - Rkr) o l

Figure 13 Caster Moment Arm and Scrub Radius


Running Analyses 265
Output of Suspension Analyses

Ideal Steer Angle

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Ideal steer angle is the steer angle in radians that gives Ackerman steer geometry
or 100% Ackerman. For Ackerman steer geometry, the wheel-center axes for all
four wheels pass through the turn center. Note that Adams/Car uses the steer
angle of the inside wheel to determine the turn center for Ackerman geometry.
Therefore, the ideal steer angle and the steer angle are equal for the inside wheel.
When making a left turn, the left wheel is the inside wheel. Conversely, when
making a right turn, the right wheel is the inside wheel. A positive steer angle
indicates a steer to the right.
Units Degrees
Request Names • ideal_steer_angle.left
• ideal_steer_angle.right
Inputs • Turn radius (see Steer Angle)
• Tire contact patch position (Rp) - left and right
• Wheelbase
Method ideal_steer_angle.left = tan-1 [Wheel Base/Turn Radius - Rp(left) o y )]
ideal_steer_angle.right = tan-1 [Wheel Base/Turn Radius -Rp(right) o ŷ )]
Note • Right turns give positive angles and turn radii

• Rp(left) o ŷ < 0
• Rp(right) o ŷ > 0
• |Inside wheel's ideal steer angle| > |outside wheel's ideal steer angle|

Outside Turn Diameter

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.


266 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Description Outside turn diameter is the diameter of the circle defined by a vehicle's outside
front tire when the vehicle turns at low speeds. Adams/Car determines the circle
by the tire's contact patch for a given steer angle. For a left turn, the right front
wheel is the outside wheel. For a right turn, the left front wheel is the outside
wheel.
Units mm
Request Names • outside_turn_diameter.left
• outside_turn_diameter.right
Inputs • Turn radius (see Turn Radius)
• Track width
• Wheelbase
Method outside_turn_radius = 2.0 [(| Turn Radius | +Track/2)2 + (Wheel Base) 2]1/2

Percent Ackerman

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Percent Ackerman is the ratio of actual Ackerman to ideal Ackerman expressed
as a percentage. Percent Ackerman is limited to the range from -999% to 999%.
Percent Ackerman is positive when the inside wheel's steer angle is larger than the
outside wheel's steer angle.
Units %
Request Names • percent_ackerman.left
• percent_ackerman.right
Inputs • Steer angle (see Steer Angle)
• Ideal steer angle (see Ideal Steer Angle)
• Ackerman (see Ackerman)
Method ackerman = Right steer angle - Left steer angle

ideal_ackerman = Right ideal steer angle - Left ideal steer angle

percent_ackerman = 100 x Ackerman/Ideal Ackerman


Running Analyses 267
Output of Suspension Analyses

Scrub Radius

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Scrub radius is the distance from the intersection of the kingpin (steer) axis and
the road plane to the tire contact patch measured along the projection of the
wheel-center axis into the road plane. Scrub radius is positive when the
intersection of the kingpin axis and the road plane is inboard of the tire contact
patch.
Units mm
268 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Request Names • scrub_radius.left


• scrub_radius.right
Running Analyses 269
Output of Suspension Analyses

Inputs • Kingpin axis position (Rs) - left and right


• Kingpin (steer) axis unit vector (s) - left and right
• Tire contact patch position (Rp) - left and right
• Wheel-center axis unit vector (w) - left and right
• The road normal unit vector (k)
Method Adams/Car first finds the intersection of the kingpin axis and the road plane.
Note that by convention the kingpin axis unit vector is directed upward, away
from the road, and the road plane has zero height. The intersection of the kingpin
axis and the road plane (Rkr) is:

Rsr = Rs - (Rs o k)/(s o k) s


Next Adams/Car finds the projection (m) of the wheel-center axis (w) onto the
road plane

M = (k x w) x k
m = M / | M |
The distance from the contact patch to the intersection of the kingpin axis and
the road plane along m is:

scrub_radius = (Rp - Rkr) o m

Figure 14 Caster Moment Arm and Scrub Radius


270 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Steer Angle

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description Steer angle is the angle measured from the vehicle heading to the line formed
by the intersection of the wheel plane with the ground plane. Steer angle is
positive when a wheel is rotated to the right as if the vehicle were making a right
turn.
Units Degrees
Request Names • steer_angle.left
• steer_angle.right
Inputs Wheel-center axis unit vectors - left and right
Method Adams/Car uses the direction cosines of the x-direction and the y-direction of
the wheel-center axis constructed from the wheel-center orientation to calculate
steer angle:

steer_angle.left = tan-1 (-DCOSX/|DCOSY|)


steer_angle.right = tan-1 (DCOSX/|DCOSY|)

Steer Axis Offset

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.


Running Analyses 271
Output of Suspension Analyses

Description The steer axis offset is the shortest distance from the steer (kingpin) axis to
the wheel center. The steer axis offset is measured in the plane perpendicular
to the steer axis and passing through the wheel center. The steer axis offset is
always positive.

The steer axis offset-longitudinal is the component of the steer axis offset
along the intersection of the wheel plane with the plane perpendicular to the
steer axis and passing through the wheel center. The steer axis offset-
longitudinal is positive when the wheel center is forward of the steer axis.

The steer axis offset-lateral is the component of the steer axis offset along the
projection of the wheel-center axis into the plane perpendicular to the steer
axis and passing through the wheel center. The steer axis offset - lateral is
positive when the wheel center lies outboard of the steer axis.
Units mm
Request Names • steer_axis_offset.off_left
• steer_axis_offset.off_right
• steer_axis_offset.lon_left
• steer_axis_offset.lon_right
• steer_axis_offset.lat_left
• steer_axis_offset.lat_right
Inputs • Wheel-center position (WCP) left and right
• Wheel-center (spin) axis unit vector (wcv) left and right
• Kingpin (steer) axis position (KPP) left and right
• Kingpin (steer) axis unit vector (kpv) left and right
272 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Method First, define longitudinal and lateral directions in a plane perpendicular to the steer
(kingpin) axis using the kingpin axis vector and the wheel-center (spin) vector.

u_lon = ( wcv x kpv ) / | wcv x kpv |


and:

u_lat = ( kpv x u_lon ) / | kpv x u_lon |


Note that u_lat is the projection of the wheel-center vector (wcv) onto the plane
perpendicular to the kingpin axis.

The displacement vector (R) from a point on the kingpin (steer) axis to the wheel
center is:

R = WCP - KPP
The steer axis offset-longitudinal is:

steer_axis_offset.lon_left = -R o u_lon
steer_axis_offset.lon_right = R o u_lon
The steer axis offset-lateral is:

steer_axis_offset.lat_left = R o u_lat
steer_axis_offset.lat_right = R o u_lat
Finally, the steer axis offset is:

steer_axis_offset.off_left = sqrt( lon_left2 +


lat_left2 )
steer_axis_offset.off_right = sqrt( lon_right2 +
lat_right2 )

Figure 15 Steer Axis Offset (Top View)


Running Analyses 273
Output of Suspension Analyses

Request Statements Offset:


REQUST/id, FUNCTION=USER(900,44,characteristics_input_array_id)\

Longitudinal offset:
REQUST/id, FUNCTION=USER(900,45,characteristics_input_array_id)\

Lateral offset:
REQUST/id, FUNCTION=USER(900,46,characteristics_input_array_id)\
Nomenclature • Bold text in uppercase letters, such as R, shows vectors.
• Bold text in lowercase letters, such as u_lon, shows unit vectors.
• X is the vector cross product operator.
• o is the vector dot product operator.
• * is the scalar multiplication operator.

Turn Radius

Note: This help file is shared by several Adams products.

Description The turn radius is the distance measured in the ground plane from the
vehicle center line to the turn center along the y-axis (see the figure for
Ackerman Angle). Turn radius is positive for right turns and negative for left
turns.
Units mm
Request Names • turn_radius.left
• turn_radius.right
274 Adams/Car
Output of Suspension Analyses

Inputs • Steer angle (see Steer Angle)


• Track width
• Wheelbase
• Wheel-center orientations - left and right
Method Adams/Car determines the inside wheel by checking the sign of the steer
angles. It computes turn radius using the inside tire orientation.

Left turn:

turn_radius.left = - [Wheel Base (DCOSY/DCOSX) +


Track/2]
Right turn:

turn_radius.right = [Wheel Base x (DCOSY/DCOSX) +


Track/2]
Running Analyses 275
Working with the Suspension Test Rig

Working with the Suspension Test Rig


Adams/Car uses the suspension test rig, named .__MDI_SUSPENSION_TESTRIG, in all its suspension
analyses. When you create a suspension assembly, Adams/Car assembles the suspension test rig with the
selected suspension and steering subsystems.
The suspension test rig inputs excitation as motions and forces to the suspension and steering subsystems.
The excitations are made up of one or more of the following:
• Displacement for wheel bump and rebound vertical travel
• Roll and vertical force
• Steering travel at the steering wheel or rack
• Forces or torques at the steering wheel or rack
• Forces and torques at the contact patch and the hub

Learn about the suspension test rig:


• Benefits of Using the Suspension Test Rig
• Structure of Suspension Test Rig

Benefits of Using the Suspension Test Rig


You can use the suspension test rig to:
• Include a deflecting tire in your suspension simulations so that suspension characteristics output
by Adams/Car are more accurate.
• Swap a deflecting tire with a semi-rigid tire.
• Specify additional loads acting through the tire on the suspension, in particular:
• Lateral cornering force at the contact patch
• Lateral damage force and damage radius (point of application of force)
• Traction force acting at the wheel center (note that the traction torque is not reacted by the
suspension)
• Braking force at the contact patch (creates a brake torque on the suspension)
• Overturning moment at the contact patch
• Aligning torque at the contact patch
• Drive your suspension with a set of closed-loop controllers to vary:
• Wheel-center displacements
• Contact patch displacements
• Wheel vertical forces
• Perform roll angle sweeps at constant total vertical force (sum of vertical force on the left and
right wheels)
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Structure of Suspension Test Rig


You assemble your suspension and steering subsystems with the suspension test rig. Then, using the
resulting assembly, you simulate different suspension motions and loadcases to determine how your
suspension performs. To help you to assess the performance of your suspension, Adams/Car calculates
about forty characteristics, such as toe angle, camber angle, caster trail, roll center height, and aligning
torque camber compliance.
When you assemble your suspension subsystem to the suspension test rig, the suspension arms, struts,
links, and subframe that normally mount to the body, mount to ground. The test rig includes wheels and
tires that mount to the suspension hubs. The test rig drives the suspension motion by tables that contact
the tires, pushing the suspension up through the tires. Finally, if you include a steering subsystem, the test
rig couples to the rack and the steering wheel to drive steering motion.
When you submit a suspension analysis you can request the test rig to control the wheel center or the tire
contact patch positions. In some cases the test rig may not be able to achieve a desired position because
the suspension travel is limited, for example, by a bumper. In such a case, the vertical actuators saturate,
meaning they reach the maximum force they can apply. The forces and displacements the test rig can
apply to the suspension through the vertical actuators are limited to reasonable values for passenger cars.
For other vehicles, you may need to update the limits. To learn how to update the limits, see Vertical
Actuators.

To properly assemble with the test rig, your suspension template must include the following output
communicators (see Communicator Entity Class):
• suspension_mount (communicator entity class: mount) - Points to the parts (typically the hub,
also known as the spindle) in your suspension template to which the test rig wheel tires mount.
• wheel_center_location (communicator entity class: location) - Contains the wheel-center
location that Adams/Car uses to locate the test rig relative to the suspension.
• toe_angle and camber_angle (communicator entity class: parameter real) - Contain the static toe
and camber angles that Adams/Car uses to orient the test-rig wheels.
• suspension_upright (communicator entity class: mount) - Points to the suspension upright in
your suspension template. The suspension test rig creates a perpendicular joint primitive
between the suspension mount (that is, the hub) and the suspension upright to lock wheel
rotation during suspension analyses.
The following make up the suspension test rig:
• Vertical Actuators
• Suspension Test Rig Tire
• Static Loads
• Loadcase Files

Vertical Actuators
The left and right vertical actuators apply forces to drive the test-rig tables, and in turn, the suspension,
up and down. An integral controller computes the actuator force necessary to achieve the desired wheel
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Working with the Suspension Test Rig

center or contact patch positions. However, the forces in the actuators are limited by default to -22,000
N in rebound and 40,000 N in jounce.
The vertical actuators are standard joint force actuators (pairs of action-only translational forces). You
can modify the force limits using the Adams/Car Template Builder through the menus Build -> Actuator
-> Joint Force -> Modify.

Suspension Test Rig Tire


The suspension test rig includes left and right wheel and tire UDE instances that are compatible with
Adams/Tire. The test rig tables contact these tires to drive the suspension's vertical travel. These tires also
apply the contact patch loads (read from the loadcase spline) to the suspension. The suspension test rig
sets the simulation type string to ”SUSPENSION” to inform Adams/Tire you are performing a
suspension analysis.

About RIGID_WHEEL and LIVE_TIRE


When working with these tires you can modify them to select either of the following:
• RIGID_WHEEL - The tire transmits both compression and tension force allowing the test rig to
pull the suspension into rebound.
• LIVE_TIRE - The tire only transmits compression force. Thus when the vertical force between
the tire and table goes to zero, the tire separates from the table. Therefore, when using a
LIVE_TIRE, the test rig cannot pull the suspension into rebound. However, the force of gravity
and the suspension spring will typically drive the suspension into rebound until the suspension
hits the rebound bumper.
For the equations for RIGID_WHEEL and LIVE_TIRE,
• radius is the distance, measured in the plane of the wheel, from the wheel center to the contact
patch
• r is the unit vector directed from the contact patch to the wheel center
• n is the unit vector normal to the table

RIGID_WHEEL
When you select RIGID_WHEEL, you enter the tire stiffness and unloaded radius. Adams/Car sets the
tire property file string to ”RIGID_WHEEL” and passes the stiffness and radius you entered to
Adams/Tire through an ARRAY statement. Adams/Tire calculates the tire vertical force using the
following equation:
force = tire_stiffness*(unloaded_radius - radius) (r o n)

LIVE_TIRE
When you select LIVE_TIRE, you must enter a tire property file. Adams/Tire opens the property file and
reads the unloaded radius and vertical stiffness. These values are automatically converted to the proper
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units for your suspension assembly. Other parameters in the tire property file are ignored. Adams/Tire
calculates the tire vertical force using the following equation:
force = max(0.0, tire_stiffness*(unloaded_radius - radius) (r o n))

Static Loads
You can specify forces, torques, and displacements as inputs to your suspension analyses. These inputs
are stored in the loadcase spline. The loadcase spline contains a linear interpolation at discrete time
intervals, between the upper and lower values.
The following table shows how forces and torques are expressed in the reference frames :
Forces/Torques in Reference Frames

Reference frame:
TYDEX H ISO-W contact TYDEX-C axis system wheel
Force/torque: patch center
Lateral force (cornering) x
Longitudinal force (braking) x
Longitudinal force (traction) x
Overturning moment x
Rolling resistance torque x
Aligning torque x

Loadcase Files
Adams/Car supports old suspension loadcase files (version 5) as follows:
• Vertical Mode = Length - Corresponds to wheel_center_height
• Vertical Mode = Force - Corresponds to an open-loop vertical force
Running Analyses 279
Tire Test Rig

Tire Test Rig


In Adams/Car the response of a single tire under various conditions and excitations can be evaluated in
the so-called Tire Testrig. The test rig can be activated by, after building an assembly, clicking on
Simulate - Full-Vehicle Analysis - Tire Testrig.
The tire testrig model exists of one tire (wheel) mounted on a spindle that can be suspended to ground by
a spring, or preloaded by an SFORCE, or fixed at a certain axle height.
The road can be fixed or moving (moving in x, y, z-direction, or rolling around x-axis), while the road it-
self can be flat with or without a cleat (pothole), or user-defined (road property file).
The wheel movements can enhance steering (slip angle variations), wheel rotations (longitudinal slip
variations), inclination with the road (camber), vertical and longitudinal wheel (center) displacements.
The initial wheel rotational speed can be calculated using the free tire radius in the tire property file and
the initial wheel longitudinal velocity
280 Adams/Car
Tire Test Rig

Example testrig files, defining the testrig simulations, can be found in the loadcases folder of the
Adams/Car database. The user may define own testrig simulations or modify one of these examples.
Running Analyses 281
Tire Test Rig

Each analysis represents one simulation. By clicking on the analysis name, the simulation details can be
defined:

Once all analysis details have been defined, clicking on 'Run It' starts the process of generating the model
files, run these with the solver and plotting a number of default characteristics in the postprocessor view.

Note: There are three points of attention when evaluating tire characteristics:

• For analyzing steady state tire characteristics, please remember that the usemode
in the tire property file should be set to steady state (not transient)
• Some tire models have a 'start-up' smoothing option. This causes the tire response
to start from zero up to the full tire force response during the first 0.1 seconds. For
analyzing tire characteristics it is often useful to disable this option.
• The plots created for the Adams Postprocessor will be in MMKS units (mm,
Newton, seconds, Kilogram).
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Running Full-Vehicle Analyses


You can take previously created suspension subsystems and integrate them with other subsystems to
create a full-vehicle assembly. You can then perform various analyses on the vehicle to test the design of
the different subsystems and see how they influence the total vehicle dynamics. All of the analyses,
except for the data-driven analyses, use the .__MDI_SDI_TESTRIG, and are therefore based on the
Driving Machine. You can also examine the influence of component modifications, including changes in
spring rates, damper rates, bushing rates, and anti-rollbar rates, on the total vehicle dynamics.
Each type of analysis you perform requires a minimum set of subsystems: front and rear suspension
subsystems, front and rear wheel subsystems, one steering subsystem, and one body subsystem. Before
you can create an assembly and perform an analysis in Adams/Car, you must open or create the minimum
set of subsystems required.
Using Adams/Car, you can:
• Easily modify the geometry and the properties of the components of your subsystems.
• Select from a standard set of vehicle maneuvers to evaluate handling characteristics of your
virtual prototype.
• View the vehicle states and other characteristics through plots.

You can specify inputs to the analysis by typing them into an analysis dialog box or by selecting a driver
control file that contains the desired inputs.
After specifying the prototype assembly and its analysis, Adams/Car, like your company's testing
department, applies the inputs that you specified and records the results. To understand how your
prototype behaved during the analysis, you can plot the results. After viewing the results, you might
modify the prototype and analyze it again to see if your modifications improve its behavior.
The following figure shows an overview of the full-vehicle analysis process.

Setting up Full-Vehicle Analyses


Before you set up a full-vehicle analysis, you must assemble and check the vehicle, as explained next:
• Assembling a Vehicle
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• Checking a Vehicle
• Setting up the Analysis

Assembling a Vehicle
Adams/Car creates a full-vehicle assembly from a set of subsystems that you select. An assembly lets
you quickly put together full vehicles from previously tested and verified subsystems and switch between
subsystems depending on the analysis that you want to perform.
The associated component property files, such as springs and bushings, must also exist in your database.
If a suspension subsystem uses mount parts, such as the spring top mounting to a subframe, you must
read the subframe subsystem into the assembly. If you do not read in the required mount subsystems,
Adams/Car connects any mount parts to the global ground part instead of the absent mount subsystem.
Therefore, the mount point cannot move with the full vehicle, which causes the Adams/Car analysis to
fail.

Checking a Vehicle
Before submitting your model for analysis, visually check its assembly. The Adams/Car default view is
front isometric view. From the front view, you should be able to see obvious assembly problems. You
should also check your vehicle from the side because it provides a more useful view for positioning the
subsystems.
As you view your assembly from different angles, check for obvious problems, such as:
• Is the front suspension in the correct place?
• Is the body graphic positioned correctly?
• Are the wheels somewhere near the same height?

All the analyses currently available are based on the Driving Machine. Therefore, to perform open-loop,
closed-loop, and quasi-static analyses, you must select the .__MDI_SDI_TESTRIG in your assemblies.
Always check whether you selected the correct test rig for the analysis you want to perform. If you
selected an incorrect test rig, create another assembly using the correct test rig.

To check the test rig:


1. From the File menu, point to Info, and then select Assembly.
2. In the Assembly Name text box, enter the name of your assembly.
3. Select OK.
Adams/Car displays the Information window, with the test rig name listed at the top of the
window.
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Setting up the Analysis

To set up full-vehicle analyses:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, and then select the analysis you want
to set up.
2. Enter the parameters needed to control the analysis.
3. Typically, each transient analysis can be preceded by a quasi-static prephase analysis before
running the transient analysis on your full-vehicle assemblies. A quasi-static prephase analysis
consists of a straight analysis or a skidpad analysis, depending on the type of analysis you
selected. If you do not select the quasi-static option, Adams/Car performs a SETTLE analysis.
For more information about the different quasi-static setup method keywords (such as SETTLE
and STRAIGHT), see Structure of Event Files.
4. For dialog box help, select F1.
5. Select OK.

Controlling Full-Vehicle Analyses


If you are an experienced Adams/Car user and you want to perform some non-standard full-vehicle
analyses, such as studying the linear behavior of your vehicle between two mini-maneuvers, you can use
an Adams/Solver control subroutine (Eventxxx) to do so.
When you run a full-vehicle analysis, Adams/Car writes a number of files to the current working
directory (as defined by File -> Select Directory). These files contain important information about the
details of the maneuver. In particular, two files are important in defining the scope of the maneuver. These
are the Adams/Solver control file (.acf) and the event file (.xml). See Working with Event Files (.xml).
The following shows the typical contents of an .acf:
file/model=test_step
preferences/solver=F77
output/nosep
control/ routine=abgVDM::EventInit,
function=user(3,1,10,0,2,5,7,17)
control/ routine=abgVDM::EventRunAll, function=user(0)
!
stop
In the .acf, note the following line:
control/ routine=abgVDM::EventInit,
function=user(3,1,10,0,2,5,7,17)
This line calls an Adams/Car-specific control subroutine (a consub). The consub sets up and initializes
the full-vehicle analysis. It does the following:
• Reads the event file (or converts the TeimOrbit .dcf file into XML)
• Performs a number of static analyses based on the content of the DcfStatic class in the event file
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• Performs a dynamic analysis by running each of the mini-maneuvers listed in the DcfMini
classes in the event file
You can view and modify the event file (.xml) using the Event Builder. The Event Builder allows you to
modify existing parameters for the entire maneuver, such as step size and hmax, to modify specific mini-
maneuver information, and add mini-maneuvers.
The following line calls the control subroutine EventInit:
control/ routine=abgVDM::EventInit, function=user(3,1,10,0,2,5,7,17)
The call to this subroutine passes 8 parameters, as described next. Note that each number in the array
(3,1,10,0,2,5,5,17) is listed after the description of that parameter.
par(1) 3: ID of STRING statement containing .XML event filename = 3
par(2) ID of ORIGO marker = 1
par(3) ID of ARRAY statement containing initial condition SDI parameters = 10
par(4) ID of ARRAY statement containing ids of parts for which initial
velocity are not set = 0
par(5) ID of ARRAY holding Vehicle Parameters. = 2
par(6) ID of main Driving Machine ARRAY. = 5
par(7) ID ISO EAS Marker = 7
par(8) ID of ARRAY containing the ids of extensible end condition sensor
elements = 17
If you look at the corresponding Adams/Solver dataset (.adm), you will see that STRING/3 contains the
name of the event file:
! adams_view_name='testrig_dcf_filename'
STRING/3
, STRING =example_crc.xml
All standard Adams/Car events generate an event file in XML format, similar to the one referenced in
the example above, but .dcf files in TeimOrbit format are still supported, both in the Event Builder and
at the solver level. This means that you can replace the above string and reference a .dcf file in TeimOrbit
format. The file will be automatically converted to XML format.
By modifying the .acf file, you can now execute all mini-maneuvers defined in the event file, or just run
the initialization and then execute one mini-maneuver at a time. Full-vehicle analysis .acf files by default
call the Driving Machine initialization routine, then call the RunAll method. You can, however, modify
the .acf file and use the following commands for more control over your analysis:
• control/ routine=abgVDM::EventRunAll, function=user(0) - Runs all the active mini-maneuvers
in the list of events
• control/ routine=abgVDM::EventRunNext, function=user(0) - Runs the following mini-
maneuver in the list of the events
• control/ routine=abgVDM::EventRunFor, function=user(double time) - Runs the current mini-
maneuver for duration of time [s]
• control/ routine=abgVDM::EventRunUntil, function=user(double time) - Runs the current mini-
maneuver until the desired absolute time [s]
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Using this flexibility within the event control subroutine enables you to use the power of the acf language
to make changes and re-submit your solution to Adams/Solver. The language parameters for the .acf file
are documented in the Adams/Solver online help.

Running with External Adams/Solver


How you run Adams/Solver depends on the platform you are on:
• On Windows - The location of your .acf, .adm, and event files is important. Open a DOS shell
(from the Start menu, point to Programs, point to Accessories, and then select Command
Prompt) and change directory to the location where your files are stored (cd temp\run).
• On UNIX - Open a shell and change directory to the location of your files (cd
/usr/home/user/temp/run).

To run external Adams/Solver:


• Issue the command:
adamsxx acar ru-solver filename.acf
where:

• xx corresponds to the version of Adams that you are using


• filename.acf is the name of your acf file

Reading Results
After you run the analysis, you can use Adams/PostProcessor to animate and view the results.

Note: • To control the execution of the various mini-maneuvers defined in the XML event
file you need to issue the EventInit control subroutine command first. This
instructs Adams/Car to build a list of quasi-static and transient events as they are
defined in the event file.
• To execute each mini-maneuver in the event file, you should issue a control/
routine=abgVDM::EventRunNext as described above.

3D Road Analysis
A 3D road analysis simulates your vehicle assembly traversing a three-dimensional road representation
and the obstacles or characteristics contained in that 3D road. The road file (.rdf/.xml) is used by both the
tire subsystems to compute contact patch forces/moments, and by the lateral controller. The Driving
Machine uses path information contained in the 3D road file to drive the vehicle along the specified
course centerline. Example 3D road files are distributed in the shared Adams/Car database (3d_road_*).
For more information about the 3D road, see Using the Road Builder.
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To set up a 3D road analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Course Events, and then select
3D Road.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis: 3D
Road.
3. Select OK.

Cornering Analyses
You use cornering analyses to evaluate your vehicle's handling and dynamic responses during various
cornering-type maneuvers. Cornering analyses use both open- and closed-loop controllers of the steering,
throttle, brake, gear, and clutch signals to investigate various vehicle behaviors. You can investigate both
steady-state and limit cornering to characterize responses such as understeer/oversteer gradients, weight
transfer, and so on.

Note: Adams/Car creates an event file (.xml) that defines the analysis. The Driving Machine uses
the event file to control the vehicle. Adams/Car stores the event file in the working
directory so you can refer to it as needed and examine it using the Event Builder.

The cornering analyses include:


• Braking-In-Turn
• Constant-Radius Cornering
• Cornering with Steer Release
• Lift-off Turn-in
• Power-off Cornering

Braking-In-Turn Analysis
The braking-in-turn analysis is one of the most critical analyses encountered in everyday driving. This
analysis examines path and directional deviations caused by sudden braking during cornering. Typical
results collected from the braking-in-turn analysis include lateral acceleration, variations in turn radius,
and yaw angle as a function of longitudinal deceleration.
In a braking-in-turn analysis, you can set the Driving Machine to drive your full vehicle, as follows:
• Drive down a straight road, turn onto a skidpad, and then accelerate to achieve a desired lateral
acceleration
• Run a quasi-static skidpad setup, which places the vehicle on a skidpad with predefined lateral
acceleration
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Running Full-Vehicle Analyses

The Driving Machine holds the longitudinal speed and radius constant for a time to let any transients
settle. It then applies a brake signal to the vehicle to control the vehicle deceleration at a constant rate
(units in g).
Depending on the controller type, the Driving Machine does either of the following:
• Open-loop - Locks the steering wheel
• Closed-loop - Maintains the skidpad radius

The Driving Machine maintains the braking for the given duration of the maneuver or until the vehicle
speed drops below 2.5 meters/second.
You can use the plot configuration file, mdi_fva_bit.plt, in the shared Adams/Car database to generate
the plots that are typically of interest for this type of analysis.

To set up a braking-in-turn analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Cornering Events, and then
select Braking-In-Turn.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis:
Braking-In-Turn.
3. Select OK.

Constant-Radius Cornering Analysis


For constant-radius cornering analysis, the Driving Machine drives your full vehicle down a straight
road, turns onto a skidpad, and then gradually increases velocity to build up lateral acceleration. One
common use for a constant radius cornering analysis is to determine the understeer characteristics of the
full vehicle.

To set up a constant-radius cornering analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Cornering Events, and then
select Constant Radius Cornering.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis:
Constant-Radius Cornering.
3. Select OK.

Cornering with Steer Release Analysis


The vehicle performs a dynamic constant-radius cornering to achieve the prescribed conditions (radius
and longitudinal velocity or longitudinal velocity and lateral acceleration). After the steady state
prephase, the steering wheel closed-loop signal is released, simulating a release of the steering wheel.
The analysis focuses primary on the path deviation, yaw characteristics, steering-wheel measurements,
roll angle, roll rate, and side-slip angle.
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To set up an analysis of cornering with steer release:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Cornering Events, and then
select Cornering w/Steer Release.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis:
Cornering Steer Release.
3. Select OK.

Lift-off Turn-in Analysis


This analysis examines path and directional deviations caused by suddenly lifting the throttle pedal
during cornering and applying an additional ramp steering input. Typical results collected from the lift-
off turn-in analyses include lateral acceleration, variations in turn radius, and yaw angle as a function of
longitudinal deceleration. Adams/Car drives the vehicle through two distinct phases:
• Cornering pre-phase: Adams/Car uses quasi-static calculations to set the vehicle at the correct
initial conditions for the desired lateral acceleration at the given radius.
• Lift-off turn-in: The steer is ramped from the last value of the previous mini-maneuver at the
desired rate. The throttle signal is set to zero; the clutch can be engaged or disengaged.

To set up a lift-off turn-in analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Cornering Events, and then
select Lift-Off Turn-In.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis: Lift-
Off Turn-In.
3. Select OK.

Power-off Cornering Analysis


The purpose of this maneuver is to determine the power-off effect on course holding and directional
behavior of a vehicle, whose steady-state circular path is disturbed only by power-off. The Driving
Machine drives the vehicle through two distinct phases:

• An initial quasi-static setup that achieves the initial conditions.


• A power-off event where the throttle signal is stepped down from the value of the previous mini-
maneuver to zero.
The lateral acceleration and skidpad radius define the initial conditions. Note that the significance of the
results decreases with the skidpad radius. After reaching the initial steady-state driving conditions, the
steering signal is kept constant and the accelerator pedal is released with a step signal profile. The release
of the accelerator pedal is considered as the moment of power-off initiation, which you can define.
Typical results collected from power-off cornering analyses include variations in the heading direction
and longitudinal deceleration, as well as side-slip angle, yaw angle, and gradient.
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To set up a power-off cornering analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Cornering Events, and then
select Power-off Cornering.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis:
Power-Off Cornering.
3. Select OK.

Course Analyses
Course analyses are based on the Driving Machine and are of a course-following type, such as ISO lane
change.
In an ISO lane change analysis, the Driving Machine drives your full vehicle through a lane change
course as specified in ISO-3888: Double Lane Change. You specify the gear position and speed at which
to perform the lane change. The analysis stops after the vehicle travels 250 meters; therefore, the time to
complete the lane change depends on the speed you specify.
The course analyses include:
• ISO Lane Change
• 3D Road

ISO Lane Change


During an ISO lane change analysis, a longitudinal controller maintains the chassis velocity to the desired
value, and a lateral controller module acts on the steering system to maintain the vehicle on the desired
ISO lane-change path.
Adams/Car uses an external file to define the path for the maneuver: iso_lane_change.dcd defines the
trace of the desired path on the x-y plane.

Note: Adams/Car creates an event file (.xml) that defines the analysis and the different
parameters. It uses the .xml file for the analysis and then leaves it in the working directory
so you can refer to it as needed. The file that defines the path is stored in the
shared_car_database, in the driver_data table, and is called iso_lane_change.dcd.

To set up an ISO lane change analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Course Events, and then
select ISO Lane Change.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis: ISO
Lane Change.
3. Select OK.
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3D Road
A 3D road analysis simulates your vehicle assembly using a three-dimensional road representation. The
road file (.rdf) is used by both the tire subsystems to compute contact patch forces/moments, and by the
lateral controller. The standard driver interface (SDI) uses path information contained in the 3D road file
to drive the vehicle along the specified course. The shared car database includes several example 3D road
files.

To set up a 3D road analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Course Events, and then
select 3D Road.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis: 3D
Road.
3. Select OK.

Open-Loop Steering Analyses


Adams/Car provides a wide range of open-loop steering analyses. In open-loop steering analyses, the
steering input to your full vehicle is a function of time.
The open-loop steering analyses include:
• Drift
• Fish-Hook
• Impulse Steer
• Ramp Steer
• Single Lane-Change
• Step Steer
• Swept-Sine Steer

Drift Analysis
In a drift analysis, the vehicle reaches a steady-state condition in the first ten seconds. A steady-state
condition is one in which the vehicle has the desired steer angle and initial velocity values. In seconds 1
through 5 of the analysis, Adams/Car ramps the steering angle/length from the initial value to the desired
value using a STEP function. In seconds 5 through the desired end time, it linearly ramps the throttle at
the desired ramp rate.

Note: Adams/Car creates an event file (.xml) that defines the analysis and the different parameters.
It uses the .xml file for the analysis and then leaves it in the working directory so you can
refer to it as needed.
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To set up a drift analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Open-Loop Steering Events,
and then select Drift.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis: Drift.
3. Select OK.

Fish-Hook Analysis
You use a fish-hook analysis is to evaluate dynamic roll-over vehicle stability.
A fish-hook analysis consists of two mini-maneuvers (see Creating Mini-Maneuvers):
• A quasi-static phase sets up the vehicle at the desired initial conditions.
• The second mini-maneuver runs the actual fish-hook analysis in which Adams/Car computes the
steering signal as a combination of step functions, and disengages the clutch. The maneuver
provides a basis for evaluating a vehicle's transitional response and dynamic roll-over stability.
The most important factors for this evaluation are: steering-wheel angle, lateral acceleration,
yaw rate, and roll angle.
Adams/Car conducts the analysis by driving at a constant speed, putting the vehicle in neutral,
and turning one direction in a preselected steering-wheel angle and then turning the opposite
direction in another preselected steering-wheel angle.

To set up a fish-hook analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Open-Loop Steering Events,
and then select Fish Hook.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis: Fish
Hook.
3. Select OK.

Impulse-Steer Analysis
In an impulse-steer analysis, the steering demand is a force/torque, single-cycle, sine input. The steering
input ramps up from an initial steer value to the maximum steer value. You can run with or without cruise
control. The purpose of the test is to characterize the transient response behavior in the frequency domain.
Typical metrics are: lateral acceleration, and vehicle roll and yaw rate, both in time and frequency
domain.

To set up a impulse-steer analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Open-Loop Steering Events,
and then select Impulse Steer.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis:
Impulse Steer.
3. Select OK.
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Ramp-Steer Analysis
In a ramp-steer analysis, you obtain time-domain transient response metrics. The most important
quantities to be measured are: steering-wheel angle, yaw angle speed, vehicle speed and lateral
acceleration. During a ramp-steer analysis, Adams/Car ramps up the steering input from an initial value
at a specified rate.

To set up a ramp-steer analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Open-Loop Steering Events,
and then select Ramp Steer.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis:
Ramp Steer.
3. Select OK.

Single Lane-Change Analysis


During a single lane-change analysis, the steering input goes through a complete sinusoidal cycle over
the specified length of time. The steering input can be:
• Length, which is a motion applied to the rack of the steering subsystem.
• Angle, which is angular displacements applied to the steering wheel.
• Force applied to the rack.
• Torque applied to the steering wheel.

To set up a single lane-change analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Open-Loop Steering Events,
and then select Single Lane Change.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis:
Single Lane Change.
3. Select OK.

Step Steer Analysis


A step steer analysis yields time-domain transient-response metrics. The most important quantities to be
measured are:
• Steering-wheel angle
• Yaw rate
• Vehicle speed
• Lateral acceleration

During a step steer analysis, Adams/Car increases the steering input from an initial value to a final value
over a specified time.
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To set up a step steer analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Open-Loop Steering Events,
and then select Step Steer.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis: Step
Steer.
3. Select OK.

Swept-Sine Steer Analysis


Sinusoidal steering inputs at the steering wheel let you measure frequency-response vehicle
characteristics. This provides a basis for evaluating a vehicle transitional response, the intensity and
phase of which varies according to the steering frequency. The most important factors for this evaluation
are:
• Steering-wheel angle
• Lateral acceleration
• Yaw rate
• Roll angle

During a swept-sine steer analysis, Adams/Car steers the vehicle from an initial value to the specified
maximum steer value, with a given frequency. It ramps up the frequency of the steering input from the
initial value to the specified maximum frequency with the given frequency rate.

To set up a swept-sine steer analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Open-Loop Steering Events,
and then select Swept-Sine Steer.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis:
Swept-Sine Steer.
3. Select OK.

Quasi-Static Analyses
Quasi-static analyses find dynamic equilibrium solutions for your full vehicle at increasing, successive
values of lateral acceleration. Quasi-static analyses, in contrast to open-loop and closed-loop analyses,
do not include transient effects and solve very quickly. For example, in a quasi-static analysis, a change
in lateral acceleration from 0.1g to 0.5g does not show the lateral acceleration or yaw rate overshoot that
a similar open-loop and closed-loop analysis might show.
The following topics contain information on setting up quasi-static analyses, as well as a description of
the types of quasi-static analyses:
• Quasi-Static Constant-Radius Cornering
• Quasi-Static Constant-Velocity Cornering
• Quasi-Static Force Moment Method
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• Quasi-Static Straight-Line Acceleration

Quasi-Static Constant-Radius Cornering Analysis


You perform a constant radius cornering analysis to evaluate your full vehicle's understeer and oversteer
characteristics. The constant radius cornering analysis holds the turn radius constant and varies the
vehicle velocity to produce increasing amounts of lateral acceleration.
This analysis:
• Uses a force-moment method to balance the static forces to 0 at each time step.
• Provides a faster solution than the corresponding dynamic analysis, but doesn't account for
transient effects, such as gear shifting.
• Can be useful when exploring the limit handling characteristics of the vehicle due to a
combination of both the longitudinal and lateral acceleration.
• Differs from the constant-velocity cornering analysis in that the turn radius is fixed and the
longitudinal velocity varies.
A CONSUB controls this analysis. For more information on CONSUB, see Welcome to Adams/Solver
Subroutines.

You can, for example, use the plot configuration file, mdi_fva_ssc.plt, in the shared Adams/Car database
to generate the plots that are typically of interest for this analysis. Otherwise, in Adams/PostProcessor,
you can create your own plots by selecting the desired requests and components.

To set up a constant-radius cornering analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Quasi-Static Maneuvers, and
then select Constant-Radius Cornering.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Quasi-Static Constant
Radius Cornering.
3. Select OK.

Quasi-Static Constant-Velocity Cornering Analysis


You perform a constant velocity cornering analysis to evaluate your full vehicle's understeer and
oversteer characteristics. The constant velocity cornering analysis holds the vehicle velocity constant and
varies the turn radius to produce increasing amounts of lateral acceleration. The input parameters for this
analysis are the same as the steady-state cornering analysis except that you specify the vehicle
longitudinal velocity instead of the turn radius.
This analysis:
• Uses a force-moment method to balance the static forces to 0 at each time step.
• Provides a faster solution than the corresponding dynamic analysis, but doesn't account for
transient effects, such as gear shifting.
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• Can be useful when exploring the limit handling characteristics of the vehicle due to a
combination of decreasing turn radius and longitudinal acceleration.
• Differs from the constant-radius cornering analysis in that the turn radius is not fixed.

A CONSUB controls this analysis. For more information on CONSUB, see Welcome to Adams/Solver
Subroutines.

You can use the plot configuration file, mdi_fva_ssc.plt, in the shared car database to generate the plots
that are typically of interest for this analysis.

To set up a constant-velocity cornering analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Quasi-Static Maneuvers, and
then select Constant-Velocity Cornering.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Quasi-Static Constant
Velocity Cornering.
3. Select OK.

Quasi-Static Force-Moment Analysis


You perform a force-moment analysis to evaluate the stability and handling characteristics of your
vehicle model. During the analysis, Adams/Car drives the vehicle at constant longitudinal speed and
performs a series of analyses at different side-slip angles and steer angles. The analysis:
• Represents a typical test in which the vehicle is constrained on a model flat-belt tire tester.
• Is based on the assumption that most of the stability and control characteristics can be obtained
from a study of the steady-state force and moments acting on the vehicle.
You can present the results of a quasi-static force-moment analysis in tabular form or as diagrams and
plots representing the computed forces and moments from the simulated test. The diagram created from
the forces and moments acting on the vehicle is a portrait of the vehicle-maneuvering potential for
specific operating conditions.
A CONSUB controls this analysis. For more information on CONSUB, see Adams/Solver Subroutines.

To set up a force-moment analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Quasi-Static Maneuvers, and
then select Force-Moment Method.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Quasi-Static Force-Moment
Method.
3. Select OK.

Quasi-Static Straight-Line Acceleration Analysis


A quasi-static straight-line acceleration analysis uses the static solver to perform multiple static analyses
with each increasing time step representing an increase in straight line acceleration/deceleration. This
technique uses a force-moment method to balance the static forces to 0 at each time step. This method
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provides a quicker solution than the dynamic analysis but doesn't have transient effects, because of such
events as gear shifting.

To set up a straight-line acceleration analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Quasi-Static Maneuvers, and
then select Straight-Line Acceleration.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Quasi-Static Straight-Line
Acceleration.
3. Select OK.

Straight-Line Behavior Analyses


The analyses based on the Driving Machine focus on the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle.
Adams/Car uses open- and closed-loop longitudinal controllers to drive your vehicle model.

Note: Adams/Car creates an event file (.xml) that defines the analysis and the different parameters.
It uses the .xml file for the analysis and then leaves it in the working directory so you can
refer to it as needed.

The straight-line-behavior analyses include:


• Acceleration
• Braking
• Power-off Straight Line

Acceleration Analysis
During an acceleration analysis, the Driving Machine ramps the throttle demand from zero at your input
rate (open loop) or you can specify a desired longitudinal acceleration (closed loop). You can specify
either free, locked, or straight-line steering. An acceleration analysis helps you study the anti-lift and anti-
squat properties of a vehicle.

To set up an acceleration analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Straight-Line Behavior, and
then select Acceleration.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis:
Acceleration.
3. Select OK.
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Braking Analysis
During a braking analysis, the Driving Machine ramps the brake input from zero at your input rate or lets
you specify a longitudinal deceleration (closed loop). You can also specify either free or locked steering.
The braking test analysis helps you study the brake-pull anti-lift and anti-dive properties of a vehicle.

To set up a braking analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Straight-Line Behavior, and
then select Braking.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis:
Braking.
3. Select OK.

Power-off Straight Line Analysis


This analysis allows you to examine operating behavior and directional deviations caused by suddenly
lifting off the throttle pedal during a straight-line analysis. Typical results collected from the power-off
straight-line analysis include variations in heading direction and longitudinal deceleration. Optionally,
you can depress the clutch during the throttle lift-off. In this case, you specify the duration that it takes
to depress the clutch.
The Driving Machine drives the vehicle through two distinct phases:
• Quasi-static setup - The vehicle is set up in a straight line, to reflect the initial longitudinal
velocity condition.
• Power-off event - The throttle signal is stepped down, from the value of the initial set mini-
maneuver, to zero.

To set up a power-off straight line analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Straight-Line Behavior, and
then select Power-off Straight Line.
2. Enter the necessary parameters as explained in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis:
Power-Off Straight Line.
3. Select OK.

File-Driven Analysis
The file-driven analysis lets you run an analysis described in an existing event file (.xml).
Having direct access to event files lets you perform non-standard analyses on your full-vehicle assembly
because all you have to do is generate a new event file describing the analysis.
Learn about the Driving Machine.

Learn about Event Files.


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To set up a file-driven analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, and then select File Driven Events.
2. Enter an Output Prefix.
3. If necessary, select a new Road Data File.
Press F1 for more detailed information on any of the selections in this dialog box.
4. Right-click in the Driver Control Files text box and select an XML Event file from the file
selection dialog box.
5. Select OK.

Working with Event Files (.xml)


You use event files (.xml) to describe the maneuvers you want the Driving Machine to perform.
Event files (.xml) describe how you want the Driving Machine to drive your vehicle during a maneuver.
The event file instructs the Driving Machine how fast to drive the vehicle, where to drive the vehicle (for
example, on a 80 m radius skidpad), and when to stop the maneuver (for example, when lateral
acceleration = 8 m/s2). Event files specify the kinds of controllers the Driving Machine should use for
each of the available control signals (steering, throttle, brake, gear, and clutch). An event file can
reference other files, primarily driver control data files (.dcd), to obtain necessary input data, such as
speed versus time. Learn about referencing .dcd files.
Event files organize complex maneuvers into a set of smaller, simpler steps called mini-maneuvers. An
event file defines the static-setup and a list of mini-maneuvers. For each mini-maneuver, the event file
specifies how the Driving Machine is to control the steering, throttle, brake, gear, and clutch.
Learn about event files:
• Creating Event Files
• Structure of Event Files
• Creating Mini-Maneuvers
• Referencing .dcd Files
• Example Event Files

Creating Event Files


Before you can run a Driving Machine full-vehicle analysis, you must create (or use) an event file that
contains one or more mini-maneuvers.

To set up Driving Machine mini-maneuvers:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, and then select Event Builder.
The Event Builder dialog box has four major sections.
• File name, initial speed and gear, and units used in a selected field (shown at the bottom of the
dialog box).
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• Static Set-up and Gear Shifting Parameters.


• Mini-maneuver parameters on tabs for each of the five control signals with open-loop Control
Value, plus an additional tab for Conditions to end a mini-maneuver.
• Closed-loop parameters (used when a control signal has its Control Method set to machine.
2. From the File menu, select New.
3. Enter the file name in the text box and click OK. The name appears in the Event File text box
with a .xml extension. Initial default values appear in other text boxes.
4. If required, you can modify the initial Speed and Gear.
5. If required, you can modify values specified in the Static Set-up tab (for more information, see
dialog box help for Event Builder).
6. Select the Gear Shifting Parameters tab. If required, you can modify values specified on this tab
(for more information, see dialog box help for Event Builder).
7. If required, you can modify Machine Control control actions in the Trajectory Planning
Parameter tab and Machine Control longitudinal and lateral PID Controller gains in the PID's
Speed & Path and PID's Steering Output Parameters tabs (for more information, see dialog
box help for Event Builder).
8. For MINI_1 (the default initial mini-maneuver), make selections for each of the control signal
tabs (Steering, Throttle, Braking, Gear, and Clutch). Enter the necessary parameters as explained
in the dialog box help for Event Builder to create the mini-maneuver.
9. Click the Conditions tab and enter the parameters required to end the mini-maneuver (for more
information, see Specifying Conditions).
10. To create additional mini-maneuvers, click the button to the left of the mini-maneuver
Name. This displays the Table Editor for mini-maneuvers.
11. In Table Editor mode, enter the name of your new mini-maneuver in the Name text box at the
bottom of Event Builder.
12. Click Add. This adds a row to the Table Editor. You can edit any of the values in the row by
clicking in the appropriate cell (for more information, see dialog box help for Event Builder).
13. Continue adding mini-maneuvers as necessary.
14. To return to Property Editor mode, either double-click a name (in the Name column), or select
the name, right-click, and then select Modify with Property Editor.
15. When you've finished creating your event file, select Save.
After you create the file, you use it to run a file-driven analysis.
Learn about Structure of Event Files.

Using Event Files


After you use the Event Builder to create or modify an event file, you use that event file to run a file-driven
analysis.
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Creating Mini-Maneuvers
A mini-maneuver is a set of smaller, simpler analysis steps, such as a straight-line mini-maneuver. Mini-
maneuvers are contained in event files (.xml).
To create a mini-maneuver, you must specify controls signals (steering, throttle, braking, gear, and
clutch) and its conditions. For each control signal, you specify the following:
• Actuator type (steering only)
• Control method
• Control type
• Control mode

Learn more:
• Specifying an Actuator Type
• Specifying a Control Method
• Specifying a Control Type
• Specifying a Control Mode
• Specifying Conditions

Specifying an Actuator Type


When defining the steering control for a mini-maneuver, you must specify an actuator type. You use the
actuator type to specify whether the Driving Machine steers the vehicle at the steering wheel or steering
rack and whether the Driving Machine uses a force or motion. For example, when you set Actuator Type
to rotation, the Driving Machine steers using a motion on the steering wheel.
The actuator type you select for steering determines how the Driving Machine interprets the units of other
parameters associated with the steering signal. For example, if you set Actuator Type to torque, the
Driving Machine interprets the amplitude argument for an open-loop sinusoidal input as torque (with
units of length*force). If you set Actuator Type to rotation, however, the Driving Machine interprets the
amplitude as an angle.
Arguments

force Driving Machine steers the vehicle by applying a force to the steering rack.
rotation Driving Machine steers the vehicle using a MOTION statement on the steering-wheel
revolute joint.
torque Driving Machine steers the vehicle by applying torque to the steering wheel.
trans Driving Machine steers the vehicle using a motion on the steering rack translational
joint.
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Specifying a Control Method


When defining any mini-maneuver, you must specify a control method for each control signal.
Arguments
• Open
• Machine
• SmartDriver

Open Control Method


The Driving Machine output for the control signal is a function of time, and you must specify the function
using the Control Type argument.
You cannot switch from an open-loop control mini maneuver to a human control mini maneuver. You
can, however, switch from human control in a preceding mini maneuver to open-loop control in a
subsequent mini maneuver.
Machine Control Method
Setting Control Method to machine specifies the vehicle path, speed profile, and other parameters used
by machine control.
If you set machine control for gear and clutch, you must also supply the maximum and minimum engine
speed. Machine control up-shifts to keep engine speed less than maximum and down-shifts to keep
engine speed greater than minimum.
If you set Control Method to machine for steering, then you should specify the target path, using the Steer
Control argument.
If you set Control Method to machine for throttle or brake, then you should specify the target speed
profile, using the Speed Control argument.

Note: • If you set Speed Control to lat_accel, then you must set Steer Control to skidpad.
• Machine control for throttle requires the use of machine control for braking.
Likewise, machine control for clutch requires machine control for gear.
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Arguments
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Steer Control You can select one of the following:

• ay_s_map/ay_t_map - To define these closed-loop steering conditions, you can use a


Table/Plot editor that you access by selecting the Table Editor button.
• file -
• File Name - Enter the name of a file that contains the path data.
• path_map - To define this closed-loop steering condition, you can use a Table/Plot editor
that you access by selecting the Table Editor button. To define this closed-loop steering
condition, you can use a Table/Plot editor that you access by selecting the Table Editor
button.
• skidpad -
• Entry Distance - Specifies the length of the straight path preceding the turn. Note that
all paths are relative to the position of the vehicle at the end of the preceding mini-
maneuver. If the preceding mini-maneuver was a skidpad and you want the vehicle to
continue on the same circle in the current mini-maneuver, then specify zero (0) for Entry
Distance.
• Radius - Specifies the radius of the skidpad.
• Turn Direction - Specifies which way the vehicle turns when traveling forward.
• straight - The vehicle travels forward from its current position along the tangent of the path
from the preceding mini-maneuver. If the vehicle was under open-loop steering control in
the preceding mini-maneuver, then the vehicle travels forward in the direction of its current
velocity. You don't need to specify additional arguments.
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Speed Contro You can select one of the following:

• ax_s_map
• ax_t_map
• file
• File Name - Enter the name of a file that contains the closed-loop data.
• lat_accel - Be sure to set Steer Control to skidpad.
• Lat. Acc. - Enter a value for the lateral acceleration.
• lon_accel
• Start Time
• Long. Acc - Enter a value for the longitudinal acceleration.
• maintain - The Driving Machine maintains the ending speed of the vehicle from the
previous mini-maneuver. If this mini-maneuver is the first in the experiment, then the
Driving Machine maintains the initial speed set in the EXPERIMENT block.
• Velocity
• speed_s_map
• speed_t_map
• vel_polynomial
• Velocity - Specifies the vehicle speed as polynomial of time. The Driving Machine
computes the speed using the following relation:
IF (Time < START_TIME):
SPEED = VELOCITY
IF ( TIME START_TIME ):
SPEED = VELOCITY +
ACCELERATION*(TIME - START_TIME)+
1/2*JERK*(TIME-START_TIME)**2
where START_TIME is the starting time relative to the beginning of the mini-maneuver.
Specify the following arguments:
VELOCITY = value <length/time>
ACCELERATION = value <length/time2>
JERK = value <length/time3>
START_TIME = value <time>
Note that JERK is the time rate of change of acceleration. JERK = d(acceleration)/dt.
• Acceleration
• Jerk
• Start Time
You can use a Table/Plot editor to define the various maps of speed and acceleration expressed as a
function of time or distance traveled.
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SmartDriver Control Method


When you set Control Method to SmartDriver, you must also specify the Control Mode, the task, course
file, as well as the maximum driving, braking, and turning accelerations.
Arguments

Task Select one of the following:

• user_defined - Set your own vehicle limits.


• vehicle_limits - Use the maximum vehicle limits.
Course File Displays the name of a .xml or .drd file that describes the path over which the
Driving Machine or Adams/SmartDriver drive the vehicle.
Select to choose a course file.
Max Driving Acc Enter the maximum driving acceleration index. Valid values are 0 to 100.
Max LH Turn Acc Enter the maximum left turn acceleration index. Valid values are 0 to 100.
Max Braking Acc Enter the maximum braking acceleration index. Valid values are 0 to 100.
Max Braking Acc Enter the maximum braking acceleration index. Valid values are 0 to 100.
Max RH Turn Acc Enter the maximum right turn acceleration index. Valid values are 0 to 100.

Specifying a Control Type


For any of the control signals (steering, throttle, braking, and so on), when you set Control Method to
open, Adams/Car enables the Control Type option.
Arguments

constant The Driving Machine inputs a constant signal to your vehicle model.

• Control Value - Enter a real number.


data_drive Specifies that the control signal comes from a driver control data file (.dcd), which you
n specify. The Driving Machine opens the .dcd file and reads the appropriate data.

• Dcd Filename - Enter the name of a .dcd file.


data_map Lets you specifies a series of discrete values as a function of time. Click the Open Loop
Demand Map button that appears to enter values and view a plot of the values you enter.
function Specifies that you should use any valid Adams/Solver function expression based on time.

• Function - Enter a time-based function. For example:


C20.0*SIN(2*PI*TIME)
where TIME is the simulation time.
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impulse The Driving Machine outputs an impulse to your vehicle constructed from a pair of cubic
step functions. To define the impulse, you must specify the following arguments:

• Start Time - The starting time of the impulse relative to the beginning of the
mini-maneuver. For example, if the mini maneuver starts at 1.2 seconds
simulation time and Start Time = 0.3 seconds, then the impulse begins at 1.5
seconds simulation time.
• Duration - The length in time of the impulse.
• Maximum Value - The height of the impulse. The impulse reaches its
maximum value relative to the start time at half the duration.
Adams/Car computes the IMPULSE function as follows:

Let T1 = ( TIME - START_TIME ) / DURATION/2.0


Let T2 = ( TIME - (START_TIME + DURATION/2.0) ) /
DURATION/2.0
IF ( T1 < 0.0 ):
OUTPUT = 0.0
IF ( 0 < T1 < 1.0 ):
OUTPUT = MAXIMUM_VALUE * ( 3.0 - 2.0*T1)*T1*T1
IF ( T1 > 1.0 and T2 < 1.0 )
OUTPUT = MAXIMUM_VALUE( 1.0 - (3.0 -2.0*T2)*T2*T2 )
IF ( T2 > 1.0 );
OUTPUT = 0.0

The following plot illustrates the IMPULSE function:


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ramp The Driving Machine supplies a ramp input. To define the ramp, you must supply the
following arguments:

• Start Time
• Ramp Value
Adams/Car computes the RAMP function as follows:

If ( time < START_TIME ) input = INITIAL_VALUE


if ( time > START_TIME ) then
input = INITIAL_VALUE + ( time - START_VALUE) * RAMP_VALUE

Note: When using the RAMP function, the output value grows for the duration of the
mini-maneuver.
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sine The Driving Machine outputs a single-cycle sinusoid to your vehicle smoothed at the
beginning and end by cubic-step functions. The duration of each cubic-step function is
1/100*CYCLE_LENGTH.

• Start Time - The starting time of the sinusoid relative to the beginning of the
mini-maneuver. For example, if the mini-maneuver starts at 2.1 seconds
simulation time and Start Time = 0.3 seconds, then the sinusoid begins at 2.4
seconds simulation time.
• Amplitude - The amplitude of the sinusoid.
• Cycle Length - The length of time to complete one cycle of the sinusoid.
Adams/Car computes the SINE function as follows:

Let T1 = (TIME - START_TIME) / CYCLE_LENGTH / 100.0


Let T2 = (TIME - (START_TIME + 0.99*CYCLE_LENGTH)) /
CYCLE_LENGTH / 100.0
IF ( T1 < 0.0 ):
OUTPUT = INITIAL_VALUE
IF ( 0 < T1 < 1.0 ):
OUTPUT = INITIAL_VALUE + AMPLITUDE *
SIN( 2.0*PI*(TIME - START_TIME)/ CYCLE_LENGTH) * (3.0 -
2.0*T1)*T1*T1
IF ( T1 > 1.0 and T2 < 0.0 )
OUTPUT = INITIAL_VALUE + AMPLITUDE *
SIN( 2.0*PI*(TIME - START_TIME)/ CYCLE_LENGTH)
IF ( T1 > 1.0 and 0.0 < T2 < 1.0 )
OUTPUT = INITIAL_VALUE + AMPLITUDE *
SIN( 2.0*PI*(TIME - START_TIME)/ CYCLE_LENGTH) (1.0 - (3.0
-2.0*T2)*T2*T2)
IF ( T2 > 1.0:
OUTPUT = INITIAL_VALUE

The following plot illustrates the SINE function:


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step The Driving Machine inputs a STEP5 function to your vehicle model based on the
following input parameters, which you must supply:

• Start Time
• Duration
• Final Value
Adams/Car computes the STEP function as follows:

If ( time < START_TIME ) then input = INITIAL_VALUE


if ( START_TIME < time < START_TIME + DURATION ) then
Let T = (TIME - START_TIME)/DURATION
input = INITIAL_VALUE + ( FINAL_VALUE - INITIAL_VALUE)*( 3 - 2*T)*T**2
if ( time > START_TIME + DURATION ) then input = FINAL_VALUE

Note that START_TIME is relative to the beginning of the mini-maneuver.


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swept_sine Sweeps the frequency of the output from the initial frequency to a maximum frequency
at a given rate. Once the maximum frequency is achieved, the frequency remains
constant. The amplitude of the swept sine function is fixed. To define swept sine, you
must supply the following parameters:

• Start Time - The starting time of the function, measured from the beginning of
the mini-maneuver.
• Amplitude - The amplitude of the swept-sine function.
• Initial Frequency - The starting frequency of the swept-sine function in
<cycles/time>.
• Frequency Rate - The rate the frequency is swept from the initial frequency to
the maximum frequency <cycles/time/time>.
• Max Frequency - The maximum frequency of the swept sine function in
<cycles/time>.
The following plot illustrates the SWEPT_SINE open-loop function:

Specifying a Control Mode


If you set Control Method to open, you must also define the Control Mode as either absolute or relative.
If Control Method is not open, Control Mode is always absolute. With all open-loop maneuvers, the value
of the preceding mini maneuver is used as the starting point for the next mini-maneuver. This is
irrespective of whether you set Control Mode to relative or absolute. For example, your vehicle is driving
on a skid pad at 30 mph, with 20o of steering wheel, when the first mini-maneuver is finished. The
steering-wheel angle for the next mini maneuver will be 20o.
You can set Control Mode for the following open-loop control types:
• constant
• data_driven
• data_map
• step
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For these control types, Control Mode changes the meaning of the FINAL_VALUE input in the .xml.
Control Mode has no effect on the rest of the Control Types, nor on machine, human, and SmartDriver
control methods.
The relative and absolute methods allow you to define the steering-wheel angle for the end of the next
mini maneuver.
Arguments

Absolute Indicates that the final value is absolute. For example, for a step input to the steering
where the initial steering is 10 degrees and the final value is 50 degrees, the steer at the
end of the step equals 50 degrees.
Relative Indicates that the final value is relative to the initial value. For example, for a step input
to the steering where the initial steering is 10 degrees and the final value is 50 degrees,
the steer at the end of the step equals 60 degrees.

Here is another example. If at the beginning of the mini-maneuver the steering is 20o, the steering Control
Method is set to open, the Control Type is set to step, and the FINAL_VALUE = 90.0, then
FINAL_VALUE is relative to INITIAL_VALUE, and the steering angle at the end of the step input is
110o. If, however, Control Mode is set to Absolute, then the steering angle at the end of the step input
equals the FINAL_VALUE of 90o

Specifying Conditions
Conditions specify when one mini-maneuver ends so the next one can begin. For example, you might end
a mini-maneuver when the vehicle speed reaches 100 kph. You can also group end conditions together.
For example, you might end a mini-maneuver when the vehicle speed reaches 100 kph and the lateral
acceleration exceeds 5 m/s2.
The event file supports conditions based on time, distance, velocity, acceleration, and many other vehicle
control variables. Conditions reference a measure or solver variable by name to measure a given quantity
in the model.
The Conditions tab of the Event Builder shows one possible condition at a time in Property Editor mode.
To add conditions or view other defined conditions, click the button to the left of the condition name to
enter Table Editor mode. In Table Editor mode, you can see all defined conditions, add new conditions,
modify conditions, or delete conditions. The Table Editor mode also lets you see the full set of arguments
available for each condition.
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Arguments

Then, the end condition is satisfied if:


5 - 0.1 < Lateral acceleration < 5 + 0.1

Name Filter Filters the listed conditions based on the substring you specify.
Name Shows the condition name (not editable).
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Type Quantity that is measured. Can be:

• curvature - Curvature of the vehicle trajectory


• distance - Total distance traveled by the vehicle during a mini-maneuver
• engine_speed - Angular velocity of the engine crankshaft in number of
revolutions per minute (rpm)
• lat_accel - Vehicle lateral acceleration
• lat_dis - Vehicle lateral displacement with respect to the global reference
system
• lat_velocity - Vehicle lateral velocity
• loc_accel - Vehicle longitudinal acceleration
• lon_dis- Vehicle longitudinal displacement with respect to the global
reference system.
• pitch_angle - Angular displacement about the vehicle's lateral axis
• pitch_rate - Time derivative of pitch angle
• rack_tra_vel - Time derivative of rack displacement
• rack_travel - Displacement in the steering rack joint
• radius - Radius of vehicle trajectory
• roll_angle - Angular displacement about the vehicle's longitudinal axis
• roll_rate - Time derivative of vehicle roll angle
• side_slip_ang - Angle between the ground-plane projections of the vehicle's
longitudinal axis and its velocity vector
• stee_ang_vel - Time derivative of steering angle
• steering ang - Angular displacement in the steering-wheel joint
• time - Simulation time
• user_defined - Not implemented
• velocity - Vehicle longitudinal velocity
• vert_accel - Vertical acceleration of driver reference frame with respect to
origo marker
• vert_dis - Vehicle vertical displacement with respect to the global reference
system
• vert_velocity - Vehicle vertical velocity with respect to the global reference
system
• yaw_accel - Angular acceleration about the vehicle's vertical axis
• yaw_angle - Angular displacement about the vehicle's vertical axis
• yaw_rate - Angular velocity about the vehicle's vertical axis
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Test • == - Equal to trigger value


• >> - Greater than the trigger value
• << - Less than the trigger value
• |==| - Absolute type value is equal to the trigger value
• |<<| - Absolute type value is less than the trigger value
• |>>| - Absolute type value is greater than the trigger value
Trigger Value The value against which the measure is tested to determine if the end condition is
satisfied. Except for ENGINE_SPEED, which uses RPMs, you must specify the
value in modeling units as defined in the event file.
Error The allowed difference between measure and value that still satisfies the test. Error
must be positive and be specified in modeling units as defined in the event file
(except engine_speed, which is in RPMs). For example, if the cells of the table are:
Filter Time The test must be satisfied continuously over the filter time to satisfy the end
condition. filter time must be positive.
Delay Time Once the end condition is satisfied, delay the end of the mini-maneuver by delay
time.
Group Name You specify a name to group conditions together. All conditions having the same
group name must be satisfied simultaneously to end a mini-maneuver. For example,
you might specify two end conditions:

• Longitudinal velocity equal to 20 m/s


• Lateral acceleration greater than 5 m/s/s Then you place the specified end
conditions in the group mygroup. To end the mini-maneuver, the
longitudinal velocity must be 20 m/s and the lateral acceleration must be
greater than 5 m/s/s.
Condition Type Select a condition type:

• abort - When met, it causes the simulation to stop.


• end - When met, it causes the simulation to proceed to the next mini-
maneuver, if one is defined.
• info - Not yet implemented
• warning - Not yet implemented

Referencing .dcd Files


You can reference driver control data (.dcd) files through XML event files to specify data for the method
of control of the vehicle. When referencing .dcd files, event files can obtain two types of data:
• Open-loop data - Includes steering-wheel angle, throttle position, brake pressure, gear, and
clutch position tabulated against time or distance traveled.
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• Closed-loop data - Uses data from the dcd file to fix the vehicle path and speed for a mini-
maneuver. Examples of closed-loop data are the vehicle position {x, y} versus time (t) or path
{x, y} versus distance traveled (s). Closed-loop data can also include vehicle speed and lateral
acceleration which the Machine Control integrates to determine the desired vehicle path and
speed.
You reference .dcd files in your event files by selecting Machine for Steering/Throttle and Braking and
browsing your databases for dcd files in the File Name text box. That is, using the file option for Machine
Control means that you want to obtain control data from a .dcd file.

Example Event Files


In Adams/Car, XML became the default file format for Driving Machine analyses. Although Adams/Car
still supports driver control files (.dcf), it now automatically converts them to .xml. The .xml files are
referred to as event files. Although the contents of the two files types look different, they contain the same
event information. You work with .xml files through the Event Builder.
In the shared Adams/Car database, we provide files in both .dcf and .xml format. These files are stored
in the driver_controls.tbl directory/table.

Adams/SmartDriver Analysis
The Adams/SmartDriver analysis lets you run an analysis described in an existing event file (.xml). You
can drive the vehicle at the acceleration limits or some percentage of those limits.

To set up an Adams/SmartDriver analysis:


1. From the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, and then select Adams/SmartDriver.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Full-Vehicle Analysis:
SmartDriver.
3. Select OK.
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Using the Driving Machine


You use the Driving Machine to perform full-vehicle analyses. The Driving Machine drives your virtual
vehicle according to your instructions much like a test driver would drive an actual vehicle. The Driving
Machine steers the vehicle, applies the throttle and brake, and shifts gears (using the clutch). You can
instruct the Driving Machine to switch between open- and closed-loop (Machine Control and
SmartDriver) control during a simulation.
Using open-loop control, the Driving Machine can, for example, input a swept-sinusoid to the steering
or play back recorded steering, throttle, brake, gear, and clutch signals as input to your virtual vehicle.
This lets you use data acquired in real tests as input to your virtual vehicle.
Using Machine Control, which replaced DriverLite, the Driving Machine can, for example, steer a vehicle
around a skid-pad, while gradually increasing speed. You use Machine Control to have the vehicle follow
a path and maintain a specified longitudinal speed or acceleration. Inputs to Machine Control are the
target path the vehicle should follow and/or a target speed or longitudinal acceleration vs time or distance.
Using Adams/SmartDriver, you can determine the maximum performance of a vehicle as it follows a
specified path. Adams/SmartDriver is an extra-cost, add-on product that lets you specify a desired
performance criterion (for example, 100%, 80%, 50% of vehicle limits) for the vehicle as it follows the
defined path. Adams/SmartDriver then creates a target longitudinal speed along the path that meets the
desired performance criterion.
Adams/Car stores your instructions to the Driving Machine in an XML event file. You can use the Event
Builder (or any text editor) to create or modify an event file.

Note: We changed the Driving Machine architecture to support XML files as the default, while
maintaining support for legacy dcf files. If you specify a dcf file, Driving Machine
automatically converts it to an XML file in the working directory so you can use the Event
Builder to review and modify the event.

Driving Machine reads recorded open-loop signals and vehicle path and velocity data from text files
named driver control data files (.dcd).
To help you calculate the control signals, Adams/Solver passes vehicle information such as position,
velocity, and acceleration, to the Driving Machine. The Driving Machine provides a means for defining
and passing sets of command signals, feedback signals, and parameters for each of the five control signals
(steering, throttle, brake, gear, and clutch).
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The following figure shows how the Driving Machine works in a virtual prototyping model.

Learn more about the Driving Machine:


• What You Can Do with the Driving Machine
• How You Benefit from Using the Driving Machine
• Steps in Using the Driving Machine
• Creating Paths for Driving Machine
• Data Flow in Driving Machine
• Template Updates
• Limitations to the Driving Machine
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What You Can Do with the Driving Machine


Using the Driving Machine, you can:
• Input the vehicle path {x, y} and speed, and use closed-loop, Machine Control, to steer a vehicle
along a path or follow a desired velocity or both (the table, Closed-Loop Data in .dcd Files, lists
all potential inputs).
• Input a variety of open-loop functions, such as swept-sine and impulse, to the steering, throttle,
or brake.
• Input recorded steering, throttle, brake, gear, and clutch signal to your model.
• Stop a simulation, switch controllers, and change output-step size based on reaching a target
lateral acceleration, longitudinal velocity, or distance traveled.
• With the optional Adams/SmartDriver closed-loop control, you can specify a desired vehicle
performance level, such as 100% or 50%, and input a path and speed as you would for Machine
Control.

How You Benefit from Using the Driving Machine


When working with the Driving Machine, you have the following benefits:
• You save the time you previously needed to set proper gains for closed-loop controllers. The
Driving Machine incorporates proprietary control algorithms from MSC.Software.
• You shorten simulation times by ending simulations based on targets for lateral acceleration,
longitudinal velocity, and distance traveled.
• You gain flexibility in how you input vehicle paths and desired velocity profiles, choosing from
recorded data stored in external files or parametrically generated paths and profiles based on a
few simple inputs.

Steps in Using the Driving Machine


Follow these steps to use the Driving Machine:
1. Assemble a full-vehicle model with the .__MDI_SDI_TESTRIG test rig or open an existing full-
vehicle assembly.
2. Do either of the following:
• Use a predefined analysis (from the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, and then
point and select the predefined analysis you want).
• Create your own event file to perform your specific set of simulations (from the Simulate
menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, and then select Event Builder).
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Tips on Creating Paths for Driving Machine


Applies to Machine Control and SmartDriver
The following are tips for creating paths for the Driving Machine.

Remove Excess Noise


The path referenced in the event file is the TARGET path used by the steering controller with no
smoothing or other manipulation to alter the path shape. Therefore, any irregularities included in the path
description, such as the noise coming from telemetry data, are seen by the steering controller and can
produce a quickly changing steering input. Further, because the Driving Machine computes the steering
input at discrete time steps (equal to the selected output step), and the steering input is typically applied
through a MOTION on the steering wheel, a quickly changing steering input will produce a noisy
steering torque signal. Therefore, to minimize noise in the steering torque you may want to preprocess
the path data to remove noise and/or add corner cutting, and then store the resulting path in a .dcd file.

Path Point Spacing Important


In addition, path points spaced too far apart can also produce a noisy steering torque. To obtain the best
results from the controller with the lowest level of noise, we recommend that the largest distance between
points in the path be less than the minimum distance traveled by the vehicle in one output step. That is,
the distance travelled between two consecutive output steps should be greater than the distance between
any two path points. For example, if the maneuver minimum velocity is 10 m/s and the recommended
time step size is used (0.01 seconds), the suggested path point spacing is 0.1 meter. We recommend that
you create your paths for the lowest speed you expect to run, because small path point spacing is suitable
for both low- and high-speed events.
Also, note that if the distance between path points is greater than 0.5 meters, the controller re-samples
the path to a path point spacing of 0.5 meters. (This is the current default. You can use an API to modify
this setting.)
The following plots show the effect on steering input and steering torque using path point spacings of 0.5
m and 0.05 m at low and high speed:
• Figure 1 - Path following at low speed (around 5 m/s, output step size 0.01 seconds)
• Figure 2 - Path following at standard speed (from 20 to 40 m/s, output step size 0.01 seconds)
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Low Speed Test

Standard-speed Test

When speed increases, the difference in path point spacing has no effect.
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Data Flow in Driving Machine


When you submit a simulation using the Driving Machine, Adams/Car generates an Adams/Solver
command file (.acf), an Adams/Solver dataset file (.adm), and an XML event file. The .acf file instructs
Adams/Car Solver to read the dataset file and event file (using abgVDM::EventInit CONSUB). It also
instructs Adams/Car Solver to perform maneuvers described in the event file (using
abgVDM::EventRunAll CONSUB). Adams/Car Solver then provides the standard output files: .msg,
.res, .gra, and .out.
The event file (.xml) describes the maneuver you want to perform as a list of mini-maneuvers. The event
file can reference one or more driver control data (.dcd) files. Driver control data files contain either
closed-loop or open-loop data. An example of closed-loop data is vehicle path and speed (the table,
Closed-Loop Data in .dcd Files, lists all potential inputs). Open-loop data are steering, throttle, brake,
gear, and/or clutch signals versus time.
The following figure summarizes the data flow specific to the Driving Machine.

Template Updates
The 2005 Driving Machine employs vehicle controllers developed by MSC.Software, commonly known
as Machine Control, which replaces DriverLite functionality, and Adams/SmartDriver. To better control
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speed and path, the 2005 Driving Machine needs additional information about the vehicle. In particular,
the speed controller uses a feed-forward function to ensure quick and accurate response. However, this
requires information about the available engine brake torque, engine drive torque, brake torque, and
aerodynamic drag. You supply this information by creating new output communicators in your templates.
In addition, you must also enter vehicle parameter data, such as overall steering ratio that is stored in the
assembly file.
For more information, see Working with Templates->Template Updates.

Limitations of the Driving Machine


The Driving Machine has the following limitations:
• It can only accurately steer a vehicle when positive steer inputs steer the vehicle to the left.
• It can only drive the vehicle within the vehicle's limits of lateral and longitudinal acceleration,
and longitudinal velocity.

Working with Driver Control Data Files (.dcd)


You use driver control data (.dcd) files to specify:
• The closed-loop data, such as path and speed you want a vehicle to follow.
• The open-loop data, which is the steering, throttle, brake, gear, and clutch signals versus time
you want to input to a vehicle.
To use a .dcd file, you must reference it from an event file (.xml).
Driver control data files contain data for use by the Driving Machine. To instruct the Driving Machine to
use the data from a .dcd file, you must reference the file in an event file (.xml). An excerpt from a .xml
showing a reference to a .dcd file looks like the following:
(STEERING)
METHOD = 'OPEN'
CONTROL_TYPE = 'DATA_DRIVEN'
FILE_NAME = 'my_data.dcd'
Driver control data files hold two types of data:
• Open-loop data - Data that is played back as input to the vehicle without concern for how fast or
where the vehicle goes. Such data includes: steering-wheel angle, throttle, brake, gear, and clutch
signals. Examples of open-loop data include steering-wheel angle versus time, and throttle
position versus time.
• Closed-loop data - Data that specifies exactly where and how fast the vehicle should go. An
example of closed-loop data is vehicle x and y position versus time. You can specify closed-loop
data in several forms. For example, curvature and velocity versus distance traveled, or lateral
acceleration and longitudinal acceleration versus time. You specify the type of data using the
SPEED_CONTROL and STEERING_CONTROL arguments in the .dcd file.
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Learn about .dcd files:


• Structure of .dcd Files
• Specifying Closed-Loop Data
• Creating .dcd Files
• Example .dcd File

Structure of Event Files


Event files contain the following type of information:
• Name of Event File
• Speed
• Gear Number
• Static Setup
• Gear Shifting Parameters
• Mini-Maneuvers for the Experiment

Name of Event File


When you assign a name to the event file, Adams/Car automatically generates a file with extension .xml
in the working directory and updates the Event File text box with the file name you entered.

Speed
Represents the initial vehicle speed for the maneuver.

Gear Number
Represents the initial gear position for the maneuver.

Static Setup
You can specify static-setup analyses that remove start-up transients that can eliminate mini-maneuvers
that you might normally use to set up a vehicle for cornering maneuvers. For example, in the past, to
perform a brake-in-turn analysis you might have run a transient mini-maneuver to have the vehicle turn-
in and reach static-setup on given turn, at a given speed/lateral acceleration, before starting to brake the
vehicle. This approach is equivalent to a test driver on a proving ground, driving at a steady speed and in
a steady-state condition (vehicle has no transients) before starting a dynamic maneuver (braking,
acceleration, steering, and so on). Now you can perform a much faster (less CPU time) static-setup
analysis.
You can set static setup to any of the arguments described next.
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Arguments

none Adams/Car does not perform a static equilibrium analysis. Rather, it locks the wheel
rotations and then performs an acceleration initial-conditions analysis, which
initializes Adams/Tire. Adams/Car then deactivates the wheel lock joint primitives
before executing the first mini-maneuver.
normal Locks the wheel rotations using joint primitives, but leaves the body free to move in
the fore-aft, lateral, and yaw directions. Soft springs (1 N/m and 10 N m/radian),
introduced by Adams/Tire just for static equilibrium, acting in all directions
between each wheel center and ground limit, but do not prevent, body yaw, fore-aft,
and lateral displacements. Then, before executing the first mini-maneuver,
Adams/Car deactivates the joint primitives to unlock the wheel rotations, and
Adams/Tire removes the soft springs.

The transitional and torsional stiffnesses supplied by the tire act in all directions
(x,y,z). Without these stiffnesses, the vehicle would have a neutral equilibrium
position in the x-y plane of the road.

Note that Adams/Chassis does not support normal.


settle Locks the body's fore-aft, lateral, and yaw displacement using joint primitives and
performs a static equilibrium to settle the vehicle on the road. Then, before
executing the first mini-maneuver, Adams/Car deactivates the joint primitives.

For example selecting settle and specifying an initial velocity of 27777.78 mm/s is
equivalent to driving a stake vertically through the vehicle body and constraining the
body to move vertically about the stake. It allows the vehicle to roll (cornering) and
pitch (braking), but does not allow rotation about the axis of the stake (Yaw). When
the vehicle is released from this condition, it should be relatively well balanced to
remove initial transient effects. An imbalance in the tire forces could, however,
cause a slight steering effect. If you want to remove this effect, we recommend that
you use straight.
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skidpad Locks the body's fore-aft and lateral position using a joint primitive. Adams/Car
adjusts the steering and throttle so the vehicle's yaw rate, lateral acceleration, and
speed match those prescribed by the initial radius, initial turn direction, and the
initial lateral acceleration or initial speed. You must specify the initial radius and
turn direction. Also, you must supply either the initial lateral acceleration or the
initial speed.

For example, selecting skidpad and specifying an initial radius, turn direction, and
initial speed effectively performs a settle static setup followed by a straight static
setup. Then, Adams/Car adjusts the steering and throttle so that the vehicle's yaw
rate, lateral acceleration, and speed match those prescribed in the event file. By
carefully observing the .msg file Adams/Solver produces, you can see the model
manipulation occur.
straight Locks the body's fore-aft and lateral position using a joint primitive. Adams/Car
adjusts the steering (so that the vehicle's yaw rate and lateral acceleration are zero)
and the throttle and/or brake (to balance any aerodynamic drag and scrub that the
tires produce and to match the specified initial longitudinal acceleration). Then,
before executing the first mini-maneuver, Adams/Car deactivates the joint
primitives.

The maneuver has two separate static analyses: the first uses the settle method, the
second uses a force balance on the vehicle body to ensure that the net lateral force
is negative (the vehicle is traveling in a straight line) and that longitudinal forces are
zero. The values for steering-wheel angle, throttle position, and so on, are used as
initial conditions for the subsequent dynamic analysis.

Gear-Shifting Parameters
Define the gear-shifting properties and the shape of the upshift and downshift curves for throttle and
clutch signals.

Arguments

Throttle Fall Time Delta time of the step function for the descending curve of the throttle
signal (> 0.0)
Clutch Fall Time Delta time of the step function for the descending curve of the clutch signal
(> 0.0)
Throttle Raise Time Delta time of the step function for the ascending curve of the throttle signal
(> 0.0)
Clutch Raise Time Delta time of the step function for the ascending curve of the clutch signal
(> 0.0)
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Shift Time Duration of the gear shifting event (> 0.0)


RPM Control Enables an algorithm for RPM limiting during gear shifting

Mini-Maneuvers
The Driving Machine runs each mini-maneuver in the order listed, until the list is ended or a mini-
maneuver is terminated.
For each mini maneuver, you must specify a name for the mini-maneuver, the control signals (steering,
throttle, braking, gear, and clutch), as well as the condition for ending the mini maneuver. Learn more
about Creating Mini-Maneuvers.

Structure of .dcd Files


Driver control data (.dcd) files use a TeimOrbit File Format similar to other Adams/Car property files.
Driver control data files must contain these data blocks:
• MDI_HEADER block - Identifies the file as a .dcd file and provides version information.
• UNITS block - Identifies the units of the data contained in the .dcd file.

The driver control data file must also contain at least one of two data blocks:
• OPEN_LOOP block - Specifies the steering, throttle, brake, gear, and clutch inputs to the
vehicle.
• CLOSED_LOOP block - Specifies the path or the speed of the vehicle, or both.

Note: Driver control data files can contain both open-loop and closed-loop blocks.

The following is an example .dcd file:


[MDI_HEADER]
FILE_NAME = iso_lane_change.dcd
FILE_TYPE = 'dcd'
FILE_VERSION = 1.0
FILE_FORMAT = 'ASCII'

(COMMENTS)
{comment_string}
'Example .dcd file containing steering path for iso lane change'

[UNITS]
LENGTH = 'meters'
FORCE = 'newton'
MASS = 'kg'
TIME = 'sec'
ANGLE = 'radians'[CLOSED_LOOP]
STEERING_CONTROL = 'path'
SPEED_CONTROL = 'none'
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(DATA)
{ X Y }
0.0 0.000
-45.0 0.000
-52.5 0.000
60.0 0.000
90.0 3.586
-102.0 3.586
-115.0 3.586
-140.0 0.172
-147.0 0.172
-155.0 0.172
-162.0 0.172
-170.0 0.172
-200.0 0.172
-300.0 0.172

[OPEN_LOOP]
ORDINAL = 'time'

(DATA)
{ time steering throttle brake gear clutch }
0.0000E-01 0.1465E-02 0.3016E-02 0.0000E+00 0.3000E+01 0.0000E+00
0.1000E-01 0.1465E-02 0.3016E-02 0.0000E+00 0.3000E+01 0.0000E+00
0.2000E-01 0.1541E-02 0.3193E-02 0.0000E+00 0.3000E+01 0.0000E+00
0.3000E-01 0.1633E-02 0.3748E-02 0.0000E+00 0.3000E+01 0.0000E+00
0.4000E-01 0.1730E-02 0.5697E-02 0.0000E+00 0.3000E+01 0.0000E+00
0.5000E-01 0.1865E-02 0.1197E-01 0.0000E+00 0.3000E+01 0.0000E+00
0.6000E-01 0.1959E-02 0.2062E-01 0.0000E+00 0.3000E+01 0.0000E+00
0.7000E-01 0.2108E-02 0.4782E-01 0.0000E+00 0.3000E+01 0.0000E+00
0.8000E-01 0.2190E-02 0.8150E-01 0.0000E+00 0.3000E+01 0.0000E+00
0.9000E-01 0.2180E-02 0.1329E+00 0.0000E+00 0.3000E+01 0.0000E+00
0.1000E+00 0.2011E-02 0.2006E+00 0.0000E+00 0.3000E+01 0.0000E+00

Specifying Closed-Loop Data


When reading the following specification you should observe the following rules:
• [ ] = Data block
• ( ) = Sub-block
• { } = Data header
• || = Options, and means OR
• && = And

The nomenclature is:


• lon_vel = Vehicle longitudinal velocity
• lon_acc = Vehicle longitudinal acceleration
• lat_acc = Vehicle lateral acceleration
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• distance = Arc-length or distance traveled along the path


• curvature, k=1/radius
• x = X position of vehicle relative to ISO-Earth Axis System
• y = Y position of vehicle relative to ISO-Earth Axis System
• { } = Set of inputs

The following table summarizes the closed-loop data that a .dcd file can contain:
• The columns represent speed-control options from the driver parameters array.
• The rows represent the steering control options from the driver parameters array.
• The intersections give the data contained in the .dcd file and, therefore, the data input to the
funnel to produce {x, y, lon_vel} as needed by Driving Machine.
• p1 refers to the first parameter in the steering and throttle (speed) driver parameters arrays
(initial conditions arrays) in the dataset Adams/Car outputs.

Closed-Loop Data in .dcd Files

SPEED_CONTROL path
STEERING_CONTROL none lon_vel (p1=0) lon_acc (p1=1) lat_acc (p1=2) (p1=3)
none NOT {(distance or time), {(distance or time), NOT VALID NOT
VALID lon_vel} lon_acc} VALID
curvature (p1 = 0) {distance, {(distance or time), {(distance or time), {(distance or time), NOT
curvature} curvature, lon_vel} curvature, lon_acc} curvature, lat_acc} VALID
path (p1 = 1) {x, y} {x, y, lon_vel} {x, y, lon_acc} {x, y, lat_acc} {x, y,
time}
lat_acc (p1 = 2) NOT {distance or time, {distance or time, NOT VALID NOT
VALID lat_acc, lon_vel} lat_acc, lon_acc} VALID

Creating .dcd Files


You can use the sample .dcd files that we provide or you can create your own .dcd files.

To create .dcd files:


1. You can use one of three methods to create .dcd files:
• Run a physical or virtual test and record the data that you obtain from the five actuator
application areas.
• In a text editor, modify the sample .dcd files that we provide for you.
• Create a .dcd file using a text editor and following the specifications and format shown in
Specifying Closed-Loop Data and Example .dcd File Architecture.
2. Save the file and reference it when running File-Driven Analyses.
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Example .dcd File


The following shows the architecture of a .dcd file and all the options you can set for a .dcd file. It
contains options, logic, and general rules that you must follow when creating a .dcd file.
[MDI_HEADER]
FILE_NAME = filename.dcd
FILE_TYPE = 'dcd'
FILE_VERSION = 1.0 FILE_FORMAT = 'ASCII'
(COMMENTS)
{comment_string}
'Any comment'
[UNITS]
LENGTH = 'meter' || 'millimeter' || 'centimeter' || 'kilometer' || etc.
FORCE = 'newton' || 'kilogram_force' || etc.
ANGLE = 'deg' MASS = 'kg'
TIME = 'sec'
[CLOSED_LOOP]
comment = string
steering_control = 'none' || 'curvature' || 'path' || 'lat_acc'
speed_control = 'none' || 'lon_vel' || 'lon_acc' || 'lat_acc' || 'path'
ordinal = 'distance' || 'time'
lon_vel_max = float
lon_vel_min = float
lon_acc_max = float
lon_acc_min = float
lat_acc_max = float
lat_acc_min = float
(DATA)
$ steering, speed
$ 1 Case{none, none} -- null case, no data required!!
$ 2 Case{none, lon_vel}
$ 3 Case{none, lon_acc}
$ 4 Case{none, lat_acc} -- NOT VALID
$ 5 Case{none, path} -- NOT VALID
{ ( distance || time ) && ( lon_vel || lon_acc ) }
$ 6 Case{curvature, none} -- Must have distance with curvature
{ distance && curvature }
$ 7 Case{curvature, lon_vel}
$ 8 Case{curvature, lon_acc}
$ 9 Case{curvature, lat_acc}
$10 Case{curvature, path} -- NOT VALID
{ ( distance || time ) && curvature && ( lon_vel || lon_acc || lat_acc )}
$11 Case{path, none}
$12 Case{path, lon_vel}
$13 Case{path, lon_acc}
$14 Case{path, lat_acc}
{ x && y && ( lon_vel || lon_acc || lat_acc ) }
$15 Case{path, path}
{ x && y && time }
$16 Case{lat_acc, none} -- NOT VALID
$17 Case{lat_acc, lon_vel}
$18 Case{lat_acc, lon_acc}
$19 Case{lat_acc, lat_acc} -- NOT VALID
$20 Case{lat_acc, path} -- NOT VALID
{ ( distance || time ) && lat_acc && ( lon_vel || lat_acc ) }
[OPEN_LOOP]
ordinal = 'time' || 'distance'
{distance || time steering throttle brake gear clutch}*
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2 0.0
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0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 2 0.0


*You can select distance or time and any combination of steering, throttle, brake, gear, and clutch.

Example corresponding to $ 2 Case{none,lon_vel}:


.....
[CLOSED_LOOP]
STEERING_CONTROL = 'NONE'
SPEED_CONTROL = 'LON_VEL'
ORDINAL = 'TIME'
(DATA)
{ TIME, LON_VEL }
0.0 27.777
0.1 27.777
0.2 27.776
0.3 27.775
0.4 27.774
0.5 27.773
.....

Example corresponding to $ 7 Case{curvature,lon_vel}:


.....
[CLOSED_LOOP]
STEERING_CONTROL = 'CURVATURE'
SPEED_CONTROL = 'LON_VEL'
ORDINAL = 'DISTANCE'
(DATA)
{ DISTANCE, CURVATURE, LON_VEL }
0.0 0.000 27.777
1.0 0.002 27.777
2.0 0.004 27.777
3.0 0.006 27.776
4.0 0.008 27.775
5.0 0.010 27.774
6.0 0.010 27.773
7.0 0.010 27.774
8.0 0.010 27.774
9.0 0.010 27.774
10.0 0.010 27.774
11.0 0.010 27.774
12.0 0.010 27.774
13.0 0.010 27.774

Machine Control Basics


Machine Control is a vehicle controller that you can use to simulate the control actions of a driver. You
simulate the actions of a driver by operating the steering, pedals, and gears of a simulated vehicle.
Machine Control determines control actions such that a simulated vehicle can follow a specified path
along a 2D or 3D road, while simultaneously following a specified longitudinal velocity or acceleration.
Machine Control's control action combines a reference trajectory planner and a model-predictive
controller (MPC), sometimes known as a feed-forward plus feedback controller.
332 Adams/Car
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At the trajectory planning stage, your targets for the vehicle and driver behavior and some basic
parameters describing the characteristics of the simulated vehicle are taken into account, and a realistic
trajectory that most closely satisfies your targets is identified (for example, path, speed, and acceleration).
Machine Control uses simple mathematical models of vehicle dynamics, such as a bicycle model, a
particle model, and a kinematic drivetrain model, to estimate the necessary control actions, such as the
steering angle and throttle position. Machine Control applies these estimated controls as inputs to the
simulated vehicle in a feed-forward manner, such that approximately correct control actions are applied
without delay.
Differences between the behavior of the simulated vehicle and the expected behavior (that is, the
behavior of the idealized models employed by the controller) are corrected continuously using feedback
controllers, which adjust the control actions to minimize the error between the reference trajectory and
the actual vehicle behavior.
Learn more about Machine Control:
• Feed-Forward Control
• Trajectory Planning
• Feedback Control
• Computation of Controls

Feed-Forward Control

Feed-Forward Lateral Control


Global axes, x-y, local axes, X-Y,
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vehicle path and global yaw angle, 

The projection of the vehicle path onto the ground plane is related to the velocities and global heading
as:

x· = V X cos  – V Y sin 

y· = V X sin  – V Y cos 
where:

( ) Global position of the vehicle


(VX, VY) Velocities of the vehicle relative to vehicle-fixed axes
 Global heading of the vehicle

The feed-forward component of the lateral control action is computed by assuming that your simulated
vehicle responds as a bicycle model. The simplicity of the bicycle model allows the analytical
identification of the relationship between the geometry of the path and the necessary control action
(steering angle), and vice-versa.
In a bicycle model, the lateral forces from both tires on an axle are assumed to act in the same direction,
and the left and right steer angles are assumed to be the same. In other words, Ackerman steering
geometry is not considered. With these assumptions, the tires may be lumped together into a single tire
representation, and the model is guided by a single steer angle.
334 Adams/Car
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This simplified model is used to identify the necessary steer angle required for the vehicle to follow the
connecting contour.

Simplification of a vehicle to the bicycle model

The form of the bicycle model employed by Machine Control assumes pure rolling of the front and rear
tires with no kinematic or compliance-steer effects, and therefore, no lateral velocity at the rear axle. Note
that this does not imply zero sideslip at the center of mass.
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If the origin of the vehicle-fixed local axis system shown above is selected to be the center of the rear
axle (not the center of mass), then the lateral velocity VY is now always assumed to be zero, and the
assumed path of the vehicle simplifies to:

where:

Rate of change of the direction of the path at the rear axle (note that this is
not equal to the yaw rate of the vehicle).

In this case, the center of the turn always lies on a line through the rear axle. The steer angle required to
yield a certain path curvature is then always equal to the Ackerman angle, and is independent of the
vehicle speed VX:

where:

E Wheelbase of the vehicle


R Radius of the turn at the rear axle
 Curvature of the path of the rear axle

and, therefore, this single steer angle input to the bicycle model controls the radius of turn and the
curvature of the path. A simple inversion of this equation enables an estimate of the necessary steer angle
to be calculated and applied to the simulated vehicle in a feed-forward sense.

Feed-Forward Longitudinal Control


To control either the velocity or acceleration of the simulated vehicle such that they match the reference,
a particle model, a simple aerodynamic drag model, and a kinematic drivetrain model are used to predict
the relationship between the wheel torque and the acceleration response of the vehicle.
The force or torque required to accelerate or decelerate the vehicle is expressed as a wheel torque, that
the engine and brakes must apply to one or more wheels. The magnitude of the required torque is
computed from the vehicle drag, inertia and tire rolling resistance:
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Using the Driving Machine

Tw = Tinertial + Taero-drag+ Trolling-resistance


where:

V ref
T inertial = m e  -------------  R eq = m e  a ref  R eq
t

1 2
T aero – drag = ---  A C D AVref R eq
2

where:

Tw Total net wheel torque required to follow the reference


Tinertial Component that is required to accelerate the vehicle inertia
Taero-drag Required to overcome aerodynamic resistance
me Mass of the vehicle
aref Target (reference) vehicle acceleration
Vref Target (reference) vehicle speed
Req Average rolling radius of the wheels
A Density of air
CD Nominal drag coefficient of the vehicle
A Frontal area of the vehicle

Gear Shifting
Gear shifts are triggered on the basis of engine speed thresholds, and the gear is incremented according
to the following strategy:
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where:

g Current gear selection


g' Revised gear selection
w min Minimum engine speed allowed before a downshift is triggered
w max Maximum engine speed allowed before an up-shift is triggered
g min Highest available gear, or the number of available gears

Note: Driving Machine will not shift into neutral.

Trajectory Planning

Connecting Contour
For the lateral control of the vehicle, a simple model of the vehicle (a bicycle model) is used to compute
the control action that should cause the vehicle to follow the intended path. The simulated vehicle,
however, may not exactly follow the target path because of differences between the simplified model and
the simulated vehicle, or external factors (road roughness and aerodynamic disturbances).
Therefore, the potential for offset between the instantaneous vehicle location and heading, and the
location and heading of the path must be considered. In considering the location and heading of the path,
Machine Control builds a connecting contour between the current vehicle position (wherever it may be)
and some point on the target path, along which the vehicle will be steered to later bring it back to the
target path:

Figure 16 Connecting contour


338 Adams/Car
Using the Driving Machine

The function that describes the connecting contour is parameterized such that one end of the connecting
contour matches the position and direction of the vehicle (at the vehicle rear axle) and the other end of
the connecting contour matches the path (at the preview distance, where the contour connects with the
target path), as shown in the above figure.
The connecting contour then becomes the reference trajectory (path) for the lateral control of the vehicle,
and the vehicle is steered by both feed-forward and feedback controllers, such that it should follow this
connecting contour. The connecting contour is updated each time the Machine Control controller is
called.

Longitudinal Trajectory Planning


The longitudinal trajectory planning essentially consists of constructing either a target velocity against
distance traveled along the track centerline, or a target acceleration against distance traveled, according
to your description of the target (for example, acceleration against distance traveled, velocity against
time).

Feedback Control

Yaw Rate Feedback


The yaw rate feedback component of the controller corrects for the difference between the yaw rate
response of the simulated vehicle and that of the bicycle model. Errors between the yaw rate reference
and the yaw rate of the simulated vehicle are quickly corrected, such that the simulated vehicle follows
the intended trajectory as closely as possible, even if the feed-forward control identified from the bicycle
model is significantly in error.
The yaw rate error is determined by considering the curvature that would result if the current yaw rate
were a steady-state value, and is corrected using a feedback controller, whose output is also fed into the
steering angle.

Lateral Displacement Feedback


The connecting contour approach does not include any term to correct for steady-state lateral
displacement error. This is preferred in most situations, because the resulting control actions tend to be
more realistic and robustly stable. Once the vehicle is close to the target path, an additional controller
acting on the distance Lo (the offset of the projected vehicle centerline from the path) adjusts the lateral
displacement of the vehicle:

where is a flag indicating whether the lateral displacement controller is activated, that is whether
the lateral displacement error Lo is small:
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Note that in the above, positive Lo indicates a vehicle to the left of the target path, requiring a positive
steering correction.

Longitudinal Velocity Feedback


Errors in longitudinal velocity are compensated using a PID controller:

where the velocity error is:


Ve = Vref(s) - Vactual

where:

s Distance along the reference path


Vref(s) Reference velocity
Vactual = Vx Longitudinal component of the vehicle velocity

Anti-windup
To improve the stability of the control in conditions of actuator (usually engine torque) saturation, the
input to the integral term of the controller is set to zero. This prevents wind-up of the integral term when
the vehicle is unable to provide any more torque, such that the feedback component of the torque demand
becomes:

where aw = 0 when saturation of the available torque is detected, aw = 1 otherwise.


340 Adams/Car
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Computation of Controls

Summation of Feed-Forward and Feedback Terms


Simple summation of the feed-forward and feedback terms gives the total demand from the lateral and
longitudinal controllers (steer angle and net wheel torque):

Mapping Net Wheel Torque Demand to Control Actions


Once the required total net wheel torque, Tw has been estimated, basic knowledge of the brake system
and driveline are used to identify the necessary control actions (throttle and brake) that must be applied,
such that the vehicle delivers the required net wheel torque.
The range of available net wheel torque is related to the available engine torque and the gearing of the
vehicle. Neglecting driveline inertia, the ratio of the gearbox and the differential defines the relationship
between the net wheel torque (Tw), and the engine torque (Te), at any instant:

such that the upper and lower limits Tm and TM on the net wheel torque, Tw (we) can be identified from
the upper and lower limits on Te (we):

where:

we Current engine speed (supplied as an input to Machine Control)


Minimum engine output torque (from the user engine map)
Maximum engine output torque (from the user engine map)
Rd Mean differential (final drive) ratio (from the basic vehicle knowledge)
Rg Gearbox ratio (from the basic vehicle knowledge)

The maximum brake torque, TB, is assumed to be constant.


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Net wheel torque limits as a function of engine speed, and maximum brake torque

The above figure shows the user-supplied engine model, scaled according to the gearing of the vehicle,
to yield:
• The maximum available net wheel torque, TM (normally positive for all we)
• The minimum available net wheel torque Tm (usually negative, especially at high engine speed
we, since it includes frictional and pumping losses due to throttling).

To define these limits, you can do either of the following:


• Supply a detailed nonlinear engine map, relating throttle to engine torque,

(therefore, adding a third dimension to the figure above)


• Supply only the maximum and minimum engine torques,

and choose Machine Control to employ a linear model of throttle response:


342 Adams/Car
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or

If a throttle map is provided, then this is mathematically inverted, so that the necessary throttle position
can be identified from the required net wheel torque Tw, provided it is feasible for the engine to deliver
this torque at the current engine speed :
Running Analyses 343
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If the linear model is selected, then the feed-forward throttle and brake signals can be determined directly
from the required torque:

Control Modulation During Gearshift and Wheel-lift Events

Throttle and clutch modulation during gear-shifting


During a gear-change, the control actuation is open-loop, except for the optional closed-loop rpm control
as the clutch is re-engaged. In the following plots, which show the form of the control actions, the origin
of the time base is set to be the instant of triggering the gearshift event (see Gear Shifting).
The action of the clutch is determined, and the throttle signal, computed by the feedback and feed-
forward controllers, is modulated according to the following parameters:
344 Adams/Car
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• Gear change time (not the time of the whole event, but the time for which the clutch is not fully
engaged)
• Clutch raise and fall time
• Throttle raise and fall time
• DT1 (the delay between clutch disengagement and throttle release)
• DT2 (the delay between that start of clutch re-engagement and start of throttle reapplication)

The following plot shows the influence of the parameters DT1 and DT2:
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The following plot shows the influence of the throttle raise and fall time parameters:
346 Adams/Car
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The following plots show the effect of changing a single parameter from this baseline:
Running Analyses 347
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• Changing clutch raise time:


348 Adams/Car
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• Changing clutch fall time:


Running Analyses 349
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• Changing throttle raise time:


350 Adams/Car
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• Changing throttle fall time:


Running Analyses 351
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• Changing DT1:
352 Adams/Car
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• Changing DT2:

RPM control during clutch re-engagement


During a gear change, between the time when the new gear is selected and the clutch is fully engaged,
the engine RPM we can optionally be controlled in a feedback sense, by another classical PID controller
with anti-windup. The error on which this controller acts is:
werror = we - wt
where wt is the transmission RPM with which the engine must be synchronized to avoid jerk when the
clutch is re-engaged.
This controller acts on the throttle input only.

Wheel-lift compensation
Controller-induced wheel-spin-up or wheel-lock is prevented by detecting when the loads on the driven
wheels go to zero (that is, the driven wheels are not in contact with the road). In this case, the throttle and
Running Analyses 353
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brake are released (set to zero) and the clutch is depressed. The clutch action ensures that when the
vehicle lands, the wheels spin up to the correct velocity as quickly as possible.
354 Adams/Car
Controlling Analysis Output Files

Controlling Analysis Output Files


Your template-based product lets you control the type and content of files an analysis outputs. You can
specify whether an analysis outputs a graphics file or results file. Graphics files contain time-dependent
data describing the position and orientation of each part in the model. Results files contain a basic set of
state variable information that Adams/Solver calculates during a simulation.
Your template-based product automatically reads the files that an analysis outputs.
If any subsystems within the assembly being analyzed contain flexible bodies, your template-based
product automatically outputs a results file, regardless of the specifications you made.

To specify analysis output files:


1. From the Settings menu, point to Solver, and then select Output Files.
The Output Files dialog box appears.
2. Select the types of files you want to output.
3. Select OK.
Running Analyses 355
Controlling Analyses Using CONSUBs

Controlling Analyses Using CONSUBs


Adams/Car makes extensive use of the CONTROL command and associated CONSUB user subroutines
to perform specific analysis tasks in Adams/Solver. These include moving suspension models from the
design position to full jounce while suppressing output and running quasi-static steady-state analyses like
constant radius cornering. If you customize Adams/Car or if you want to better understand the contents
of the Adams Command Files (.acf) that Adams/Car writes, then the table below describing the purpose
of these CONSUBS along with the links to further documentation of the input parameters, will be of use
to you.

ID Description
900 Runs one or more static solutions to, for example, to adjust tie rod length to set desired
toe angle. Adams/Car adds a call to this consub when the assembly contains adjustable
forces. See Align or Adjust Suspension.
910 Set part velocity and wheel rotational velocity. See Part Velocity Setting.
917 Set part velocity and wheel rotational velocity. See Set Part Velocity.
950 For a suspension assembly, run a quasi-static simulation from time zero (0) to time one
(1) to position the suspension at the first point in the loadcase file. Output from
Adams/Solver to the request, graphics, and results files is suppressed so that plots
generated for suspension characteristics verses wheel travel do not have duplicate points

See Move Suspension to Initial Position.


1010 Fixed Body Equilibrium. This is also know as a "settle" analysis.
1020 Static Steady-State Straight Line Equilibrium and Static Steady State
Acceleration/Braking. Note in Adams/Car the auxiliary column joint is not used.
1021 Quasi-Static Steady-State Straight Line Acceleration/Braking Equilibrium. This sweeps the
longitudinal acceleration between 0 and an ending value.
1030 Static Steady-State Cornering Equilibrium
1031 Quasi-Static Steady-State Cornering Equilibrium
1032 Quasi-Static Steady-State Swept Steer Equilibrium
1060 Quasi-Static Milliken Moment Method Analysis

Controlling Full-Vehicle Analyses


If you are an experienced Adams/Car user and you want to perform some non-standard full-vehicle
analyses, such as studying the linear behavior of your vehicle between two mini-maneuvers, you can use
an Adams/Solver control subroutine (Eventxxx) to do so.
When you run a full-vehicle analysis, Adams/Car writes a number of files to the current working
directory (as defined by File -> Select Directory). These files contain important information about the
356 Adams/Car
Controlling Analyses Using CONSUBs

details of the maneuver. In particular, two files are important in defining the scope of the maneuver. These
are the Adams/Solver control file (.acf) and the event file (.xml).
The following shows the typical contents of an .acf:
file/model=test_step
preferences/solver=F77
output/nosep
control/ routine=abgVDM::EventInit,
function=user(3,1,10,0,2,5,7,9,4,8, 17)
control/ routine=abgVDM::EventRunAll, function=user(0)
!
stop
In the .acf, note the following line:
control/ routine=abgVDM::EventInit,
function=user(3,1,10,0,2,5,7,9,4,8, 17)
This line calls an Adams/Car-specific control subroutine (a consub). The consub sets up and initializes
the full-vehicle analysis. It does the following:
• Reads the event file (or converts the TeimOrbit .dcf file into XML)
• Performs a number of static analyses based on the content of the DcfStatic class in the event file
• Performs a dynamic analysis by running each of the mini-maneuvers listed in the DcfMini
classes in the event file
You can view and modify the event file (.xml) using the Event Builder. The Event Builder allows you to
modify existing parameters for the entire maneuver, such as step size and hmax, to modify specific mini-
maneuver information, and add mini-maneuvers.
The following line calls the control subroutine EventInit:
control/ routine=abgVDM::EventInit,
function=user(3,1,10,0,2,5,7,9,4,8, 17)
The call to this subroutine passes 11 parameters, as described next. Note that each number in the array
(3,1,10,0,2,5,5,9,4,8, 17) is listed after the description of that parameter.
par(1) 3: ID of STRING statement containing .XML event filename = 3
par(2) ID of ORIGO marker = 1
par(3) ID of ARRAY statement containing initial condition SDI
parameters = 10
par(4) ID of ARRAY statement containing ids of parts for which initial
velocity are not set = 0
par(5) ID of ARRAY holding Vehicle Parameters. = 2
par(6) ID of main Driving Machine ARRAY. = 5
par(7) ID ISO EAS Marker = 7
par(8) ID of Driver_Parameters_ARRAY_Steering_Human = 9
par(9) ID of STRING statement containing Driver Road Filename = 4
par(10) ID of ARRAY containing Human Driver Parameters = 8
par(11) ID of ARRAY containing the ids of extensible end condition
sensor elements = 17
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Controlling Analyses Using CONSUBs

If you look at the corresponding Adams/Solver dataset (.adm), you will see that STRING/3 contains the
name of the event file:
! adams_view_name='testrig_dcf_filename'
STRING/3
, STRING =example_crc.xml
All standard Adams/Car events generate an event file in XML format, similar to the one referenced in
the example above, but .dcf files in TeimOrbit format are still supported, both in the Event Builder and
at the solver level. This means that you can replace the above string and reference a .dcf file in TeimOrbit
format. The file will be automatically converted to XML format.
By modifying the .acf file, you can now execute all mini-maneuvers defined in the event file, or just run
the initialization and then execute one mini-maneuver at a time. Full-vehicle analysis .acf files by default
call the Driving Machine initialization routine, then call the RunAll method. You can, however, modify
the .acf file and use the following commands for more control over your analysis:
• control/ routine=abgVDM::EventRunAll, function=user(0) - Runs all the active mini-maneuvers
in the list of events
• control/ routine=abgVDM::EventRunNext, function=user(0) - Runs the following mini-
maneuver in the list of the events
• control/ routine=abgVDM::EventRunFor, function=user(time) - Runs the current mini-maneuver
for duration of time [s]
• control/ routine=abgVDM::EventRunUntil, function=user(time) - Runs the current mini-
maneuver until the desired absolute time [s]
Using this flexibility within the event control subroutine enables you to use the power of the acf language
to make changes and re-submit your solution to Adams/Solver. The language parameters for the .acf file
are documented in the Adams/Solver online help.
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Controlling Analyses Using CONSUBs
Configuring Your Product
366 Adams/Car
About the Management Tasks

About the Management Tasks


When you start your template-based product, it automatically creates the necessary files for you to begin
working immediately. As you become more familiar with your template-based product, you may find that
you want to set up custom private versions of it or change the way it is configured. In addition, you may
want to set up custom site versions that several users can share.
The template-based products let you do these different management tasks depending on the type of user
access you have been assigned. You should give one user, who has expert-user access, the responsibility
of managing the site version, if you have one, of your template-based product so only one user, the site
manager, makes changes.
The following table lists the different management tasks that you can perform depending on your user
access. You can perform many of these tasks using the menus in your template-based product. Other tasks
require you to set variables in different configuration files.

Management Tasks by User Type

This type of user: Can:


Standard user • Create and set up private databases in which to store files, such as
subsystems and property files, with which you are working.
• Make copies of files in your private database or copy the entire
database to share with other users.
• Configure the operation of your template-based product for your
private use.
Expert user • Perform the same tasks as a standard user.
• Publish a template so all users can use it.
Site manager • Set up site databases in which general project information is stored.
• Define the access that users can have to functionality.
• Set up a custom version of your template-based product and configure
its operation.
• Assigns access to common databases to allow read and write
permissions for standard and expert users.

To access management tools:


Your access to management tools depends on your user access:
• Standard users - You can access your template-based product's tools that let you manage your
private database. The tools are under the Tools menu.
• Expert user - You can access the management tools from the Tools menu.

To get expert-user access, modify your private .acar.cfg configuration file and change your user mode to
EXPERT. Learn about setting your product's environment.
Configuring Your Product 367
About Database Management

About Database Management


The template-based products define assemblies using several different files. The files define the topology,
dynamic element characteristics, analysis information, and more. Your template-based product stores
these files in hierarchical databases.
The template-based products provide two types of default databases:
• Private database for each user - A private database is for your personal use. You can store and
retrieve data from your private database. In addition, you can share your private database with
others. If a private database does not exist, your template-based product creates the private
database at the beginning of a session.
• Shared database for all users - A shared database provides all users with access to standard,
accurate data. To prevent loss of data or the storing of inaccurate data in a shared database,
standard users can only retrieve data from a shared database. Typically, only the site manager has
the permissions necessary to create files in a shared database. An example of a shared database is
distributed with your template-based product, and it is usually placed in the installation
directory.
Learn more about databases:
• Database Structure
• About the Database Search List

Database Structure
Each database consists of one directory (*.cdb) and several subdirectories (*.tbl), called tables. Each
subdirectory contains files for specific types of components, such as springs and dampers, or files for
performing tests, such as loadcases and wheel envelopes. The number of tables varies, but you can define
the number in the shared and private configuration files.
By default, your template-based product divides a database into the following table elements:
• Models and topological information (templates, assemblies, subsystems, and flexible bodies)
• Analysis information (such as analysis scripts, loadcases, driver loadcases, and suspension
curves)
• Postprocessing (plot configuration files)
• In Adams/Car, driver files (such as driver inputs and roads)
• In Adams/Car, tires and roads
• Property files (such as springs, dampers, and remaining tables)

Each type of file that a table stores has a unique three-letter extension that identifies its contents. For
example, all files stored in the assembly table contain a .asy extension.
368 Adams/Car
About Database Management

An example of the default structure of a database for Adams/Car is shown in the Information window. The
information window shows all the tables in the database, their names, the type of files they store, and the
file extension of the files that they store.
You can also add your own tables since the database is an open-architecture file repository. For example,
you might want to create a table that stores data files for an analysis that is specific to your company.
Learn about managing tables.

About the Database Search List


During startup, your template-based product stores any databases that are defined in your private, site,
and shared configuration files in its search list. The databases in the search list are the only databases that
appear in dialog boxes when you select to display databases and files, such as subsystem or property. For
example, when you want to change the database to which you can write files, your template-based
product only displays those databases in its search list in the dialog box.
Your template-based product searches the databases in its search list using a search order that you can
modify.
You can change the databases in the search list and their search order either by using the menus or by
editing the configuration files directly. All configuration files can define the databases, including the
private, site, and shared configuration files.
Configuring Your Product 369
About Database Management

For your template-based product to be able to store a database in its search list, the file system to which
the database points must be accessible on the current file system of the computer.
Learn about setting up the search list and the order in which databases are searched.
370 Adams/Car
Managing Databases

Managing Databases
Select a topic to learn about the operations you can perform on databases:
• Creating Databases During a Session
• Setting the Writable Database
• Managing Tables in a Database
• Creating Tar Files of Databases

Creating Databases During a Session


You can create a new database anytime during a session. When you create a database, your template-
based product adds it to its search list and places the database at the lowest level in its database search
order. Your template-based product also creates database tables within the new database according to the
table information stored in your private, site, and shared configuration files. Learn about search order.

Note: Unless you save database changes to your private configuration file, Adams/Solver will
not be able to access the databases you added or created in a session

You should create a database for every project on which you are working. By creating separate databases
for each project, you can ensure that the property files belonging to different subsystems are kept
separate.
When you create a database, you define two elements for it:
• Name - You use the name, or database alias, to select the database from the search list in dialog
boxes.
• Path - The location of the database in the file system.

Note: You can also create databases directly using the configuration files. Learn about managing
databases through configuration files.

To create a database:
1. From the Tools menu, point to Database Management, and then select Create Database.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Create New Database.
3. Select OK.

Setting the Writable Database


You can set up one of your active databases as the repository for templates, subsystems, and property
files. This database is called your default writable database. The default writable database is defined in
Configuring Your Product 371
Managing Databases

your private configuration file, but you can change it at anytime during a session. You can select any
database in the search list as your default writable database, as long as you have permission to write to
the file system to which the database points.

To create a database:
1. From the Tools menu, point to Database Management, and then select Set Default Writable.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Set Default Writable Database.
3. Select OK.

Managing Tables in a Database


You can add your own tables to a database. You use the configuration files to define the tables that you
want to include in a database. Learn more about configuration files and table definitions in them.

Creating Tar Files of Databases


On UNIX, you can create a tar file of any database that is listed in the search list. When you create a tar
file of a database, your template-based product groups together all of the database's subdirectories and
files into one tar file. It then writes the tar file to the default writable database using the name
database_name.tar, where database_name is the name of the database you saved.
Saving a database as a tar file is an efficient way to save a snapshot of the current state of a database or
to transfer the database to an external file system. You can easily transfer the databases through e-mail
or through a file transfer protocol (ftp) process.
As you create a tar file, you can select to encode and compress the database using standard UNIX
compression and encoding techniques.

To create a tar file of a database in UNIX:


1. From the Tools menu, point to Database Management, and then select Bundle Database.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Bundle Database.
3. Select OK.
372 Adams/Car
Setting Up the Search List and Order

Setting Up the Search List and Order


As explained in About the Database Search List, your template-based product stores in its search list, all
the databases currently defined in your configuration files. When you request a file from the databases,
your template-based product uses a defined search order to search the databases for the requested file.

Note: By default, your template-based product doesn't search all defined databases when it
cannot locate a file. You can, however, re-enable the searching by setting the
MDI_CDB_SEARCH environment variable to yes. In the Command Navigator, you can
issue the following command:

variable set variable_name=do_search &


integer_value=(putenv("MDI_CDB_SEARCH","yes"))
For more information, see the Adams/Car release notes.

See the following topics to learn more about the search order, how it impacts you, and how you set it up:
• About Search Order
• Adding Databases to the Search List
• Removing Databases from the Search List
• Changing the Search Order

About Search Order


During a session, you can have many databases listed in the search list. Your template-based product
assigns to each database in the search list a numerical value representing its place in the search order. For
example, if there are three databases in your search list, your template-based product numbers them 1, 2,
and 3, with 1 representing the first database it searches.
When you request a file, such as a property file, your template-based product searches the databases in
the specified search order. It first tries to open the file as specified. If the filename has a database alias,
your template-based product expands it to a full file system path.
If your template-based product cannot find the file in the specified database, it begins searching the other
databases in its search list in the search order. Your template-based product begins with the first database
in the search order. It continues through all the databases in the search order until it finds a matching
filename.
Your private configuration file sets the search order of these databases, but you can change it at anytime
during a session.
Note that in many cases changing the database search order can cause your template-based product to
find a different file. For example, if two databases contain a file with the same name but with different
data, changing the search order may change which file your template-based product uses. You may find
this helpful in many cases, but it can produce unintended results when you change the search order
Configuring Your Product 373
Setting Up the Search List and Order

without realizing that you can access different files. The database search order is also important if you
specify the database path incorrectly.
To avoid using the search order to find a file, which can result in longer searches and unintended results,
you can specify the database name (its alias) directly in the associated property file to ensure that your
template-based product searches the correct database.
You can look at the search order of the databases in the search list using the Database Info command, as
shown in Viewing Database and Table Information. Your template-based product displays the current list
of databases, showing the search order level of each database in the first column. Learn about displaying
database information.

Adding Databases to the Search List


As you are working with your template-based product, you can add databases to the current search list.
Your template-based product adds the databases to the end of the search order. Learn about changing the
search order.

To add a database to the search list:


1. From the Tools menu, point to Database Management, and then select Add to Search.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Add Database to Search.
3. Select OK.

Removing Databases from the Search List


You can remove a database from the search list so that your template-based product does not search for
files in it. Removing a database from the search list does not remove the database from the file system.
If you want to remove the current default writable database from the search list, you must first specify
another database as the default writable database.

To remove a database from the search list:


1. From the Tools menu, point to Database Management, and then select Remove from Search.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Remove Database From
Search.
3. Select OK.

Changing the Search Order


You can change the order in which your template-based product searches databases for files. Learn about
search order.
374 Adams/Car
Setting Up the Search List and Order

To change the search order:


1. From the Tools menu, point to Database Management, and then select Change Search Order.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Change Database Search
Order.
3. Select OK.
Configuring Your Product 375
Saving and Publishing Database Information

Saving and Publishing Database Information

Viewing Database and Table Information


You can view the current set of databases in the search list. The information includes the database names,
file system paths, and levels in the current search order. You can also view the table structure of the
current writable database.

To view database information:


1. From the Tools menu, point to Database Management, and then select Database Info.
2. View the database information, and then select Close.

To view the tables in the writable database:


• From the Tools menu, point to Database Management, and then select Table Info.
• View the table information, and then select Close.

Saving Database Management Changes


At any point during a session, you can save the list of databases that is currently available during the
session and the search order to your private configuration file. Learn about private configuration files.
To save database management changes:
• From the Settings menu, select Save <product name> Configuration.

Publishing Subsystems
When you publish a subsystem, you copy the subsystem file and all its associated property files to the
target database, which is the database where your template-based product saves all files. You can also
select to publish the subsystem's template file. As you publish the subsystem, you can choose to write
over existing files or create backups of the files.
You can also select to update the in-session subsystem data to point to the target database or to have the
subsystem retain the existing references.
The subsystem you are publishing must be currently opened in the standard interface, and the target
database must be writable. Learn about setting the writable database.
You can also publish an entire assembly. Learn about publishing an assembly.

To publish a subsystem:
1. From the Tools menu, point to Database Management, and then select Publish Subsystem.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Publish an Open Subsystem.
3. Select OK.
376 Adams/Car
Saving and Publishing Database Information

Publishing Assemblies
When you publish an assembly, you copy each subsystem file included in the assembly definition,
including the associated property files for each subsystem, to the target database, which is the database
where your template-based product saves all files. You can also select to publish each subsystem's
template file. As you publish the assembly, you can select to write over existing files or create backups
of the files.
You can also select to update the in-session assembly data to point to the target database or to have the
assembly retain the existing references.
The assembly you are publishing must be currently opened in the standard interface, and the target
database must be writable. Learn about setting the writable database.
You can choose to publish only a subsystem, not an entire assembly. Learn about publishing a subsystem.

To publish an assembly:
1. From the Tools menu, point to Database Management, and then select Publish Assembly.
2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Publish an Open Assembly.
3. Select OK.
Configuring Your Product 377
About Configuration Files

About Configuration Files


Your template-based product's configuration file contains information that your template-based product
reads during startup to correctly initialize the session. Your template-based product looks for the
following configuration files when it starts up: shared, site (if it exists), and private configuration files,
in that order.
The private configuration file contains personal settings that are then merged with the general settings
defined in the shared or site configuration file. Together, the settings define your work environment. The
shared and private configuration files are required, while the site configuration file is optional. You use
the site configuration file only if you want to set up a custom version that all users can access.
To personalize the settings in the configuration files, you edit the configuration file using a text editor.
You can, however, use the menus to set up the databases without having to directly edit the configuration
files. Learn about managing databases.
Each of the configuration files is explained in the next topics:
• About Private Configuration Files
• About Site Configuration File
• About Shared Configuration File
• About Plugin Configuration Files

About Private Configuration Files


As an expert or standard user, you have your own private configuration file with a default name of
.acar.cfg. Your template-based product accesses this file at the beginning of every session. The private
configuration file is found at $HOME/.acar.cfg, where $HOME is the location of your home directory.

Note: The private configuration file is not located in the installation directory. Never change the
acar.cfg file located in the installation.

If you have more than one private configuration file, you can choose the file you want to use for a given
session. Depending on the platform you are using, you do the following:
• On UNIX - You use the Registry Editor on the Adams Toolbar to choose the file you want to
use. The registry setting name for your private configuration file is privateCfg. Learn about
Adams Registry Editor.
• On Windows - You can specify the private configuration file using an environment variable.
You can set this environment variable using the System option from the Control Panel, just as
you would for any other variable. Depending on your template-based product, you can specify
the following environment variables:
• For Adams/Car, enter MDI_ACAR_PRIVATE_CFG
• For Adams/Driveline, enter MDI_ADRV_PRIVATE_CFG
378 Adams/Car
About Configuration Files

You should set up your private configuration file so it contains information specific to the work you are
performing. For example, you can set up your own tables in databases in which to store project data. You
can also override many of the default settings provided in the shared and site configuration files.
When you set up your private configuration file using the Adams Registry editor, the location specified
for privateCfg is saved in a file $HOME/.msca/msca_MDx.reg. Where x represents version number and
$HOME is the home directory; for example, C:/.msca/msca_MD2010.reg for MD Adams 2010. This
enables you to specify a different location when you use a different version of Adams. For example; if a
new location is specified for the privateCfg when using Adams 2008 r1; this setting is stored in the file
$HOME/.msca/msca_2008r1.reg and each subsequent usage of Adams 2008r1 will use the privateCfg
file specified in this file.

About the Site Configuration File


If you create a site configuration file, you call it <your_product_name>.cfg, and place it in the template-
based product site repository. You can have only one site configuration file for a site installation of your
template-based product. The site configuration file provides settings common to users at a particular site.
See Organizing Custom Code to learn about the location of the site repository.
For example, your company may have engineers working across a network, each wanting to access some
common information, such as files and variables. You could set up the site configuration file so that when
they run the site version, each engineer's session is configured to access the common information.
We recommend that only the site manager changes the site configuration file. You should make any
personal modifications using private configuration files.

About the Shared Configuration File


The shared configuration file is called <your_product_name>.cfg, and is generally found in the
installation directory. See your system administrator for location details.
Only one shared configuration file exists for an installation of your template-based product. The shared
configuration file contains predefined information common to all users.
We recommend that no one changes the shared configuration file. You should make any personal
modifications using private configuration files, and any common changes for multiple users in site
configuration files.

About Plugin Configuration Files


Many plugins that work with the Template Builder have their own shared and site configuration files.
Your template-based product follows the same logic for processing the plugin configuration files as it
does for any other configuration file.
Configuring Your Product 379
About Configuration Files

Format of Configuration Files


A configuration file is divided into the blocks listed below. An example of the blocks in a configuration
file are shown in figure Configuration File Blocks. In the example, ! indicates comments.
• Environment Variables - The first block in a configuration file sets up the environment of your
template-based product. For example, it identifies the type of user associated with the
configuration file. It also sets the mode in which your template-based product starts, Standard
Interface or Template Builder, and any other environment settings.
• Databases - The second block defines the databases in which users store files, the order in which
your template-based product searches databases, and the database to which files are written by
default.
• Table Directories - The third block defines the list of personal table directories. For example,
you could create a table in which to store examples.
• Property Files - The fourth block contains a listing of default property files. When a dialog box
requires a property file, it automatically knows to load the desired files if you enter property files
in the property file block. You usually define property files in the shared configuration file. If
you enter values in your private configuration file, your template-based product overrides the
shared files with your personal property files.
• Test Rigs - The fifth block defines the default test rig for a given assembly class. When a dialog
box requires a test rig, it automatically knows to load the desired test rigs. You usually define test
rigs in the shared configuration file.

Configuration File Blocks


!-------------------------------------------------------------------!
!*************** Adams/X Configuration File *************** !
!-------------------------------------------------------------------!
!-------------------------------------------------------------------!
! - List of personal environment variables
!-------------------------------------------------------------------!
ENVIRONMENT MDI_ACAR_USERMODE expert
!-------------------------------------------------------------------!
! - List of personal database directories
! Database name Path of Database
!-------------------------------------------------------------------!
DATABASE private /usr/private.cdb
DATABASE staff /staff/private.cdb
DEFAULT_WRITE_DB private
!
!-------------------------------------------------------------------!
! - List of personal tables directories
! Type class Name of table Extension
!-------------------------------------------------------------------!
! Example table entry:
!TABLE list2+ example.tbl exa
!
!-------------------------------------------------------------------!
! - List of personal default property files
! Type class Default property file
!-------------------------------------------------------------------!
! Example property file entry:
380 Adams/Car
About Configuration Files

!PROPFILE assembly <private>/assembly.tbl/myfile.dpr


!
! Example test rig entry:
!TESTRIG four_post .__MY_FOURPOST
Configuring Your Product 381
Setting Up the Environment Through Configuration Files

Setting Up the Environment Through Configuration


Files
To work efficiently with your template-based product, you must set a standard set of environment
variables in a configuration file. The environment variable has the following format:
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE_NAME VARIABLE_VALUE
We've set up default environment variables in the shared configuration file, but we recommend that you
redefine them in the private or site configuration file to customize the work environment of your
template-based product. You can also define your own environment variables for use with user-written
subroutines or macros. See a list of Environment Variables.
Learn about the standard environment entries that you can set and how to create your own environment
variables:
• Setting User Access
• Accessing Adams/View
• Setting Defaults and Display of the Welcome Dialog Box
• Replacing the Image on the Welcome and Exit Dialog Boxes
• Setting Up Side Preferences
• Setting the Orientation of the Global Reference Frame
• Managing Result File Output
• Redefining Environment Variables
• Defining Your Own Environment Variables
• Editing Files Using a Text Editor

Setting User Access


You use the MDI_ACAR_USERMODE keyword in your private configuration file to set your user access,
which determine you access to the Template Builder and other development tools (learn About User
Access). Your private configuration file is found at $HOME/.acar.cfg, where $HOME is the location of
your home directory.

Note: The private configuration file is not located in the installation directory. Never change the
acar.cfg file located in the installation.

You can set USERMODE to:


• STANDARD - User can only access the Standard Interface.
382 Adams/Car
Setting Up the Environment Through Configuration Files

• EXPERT - User can access the Template Builder and create and modify templates. User can
access the Template Builder and other development tools that are located under the Tools menu.
Expert users can use the MDI_ACAR_PLUS_AVIEW keyword in the private configuration file
to access Adams/View. Learn about accessing Adams/View.
To change the value of this keyword, you must edit the private configuration file (.acar.cfg) using a text
editor and modify the corresponding string. The following gives you expert access:
! Desired user mode (standard/expert)
ENVIRONMENT MDI_ACAR_USERMODE EXPERT
When you start a new session, your template-based product reflects the changes to the private
configuration file.

Accessing Adams/View
If you are an expert user, you can use the MDI_ACAR_PLUS_AVIEW environment variable in the
private configuration file to obtain access to Adams/View.
MDI_ACAR_PLUS_AVIEW has the following format:
ENVIRONMENT
MDI_ACAR_PLUS_AVIEW (yes, no)

To access Adams/View:
1. Set MDI_ACAR_PLUS_AVIEW to yes.
2. From the Tools menu, select Adams/View Interface.

To return to your template-based product:


• From the Tools menu, point to Select Mode, and then select the interface mode to which you
want to return: Standard Interface or Template Builder.

Setting Full Vehicle Solver Preference/Solver Preference


You can set your solver preferences, either from the settings menu or in your private configuration file.
See Solver Selection dialog box help.

Setting HHT Integrator Preferences


If using Adams/Solver (C++), you can also set a preference for using the HHT integrator as the the
default integrator, as explained next.

To set HHT integrator preference:


1. In a text editor, such as Jot or Notepad, open .acar.cfg in your home directory.
2. Add the following line to set HHT as the default integrator:
Configuring Your Product 383
Setting Up the Environment Through Configuration Files

ENVIRONMENT
MDI_AENG_HHT_ERROR 1e-5
This sets the HHT integrator as the default integrator with a default error tolerance of 1e-5 when
using Adams/Solver (C++).
3. Start a new session.

Setting Defaults and Display of the Welcome Dialog Box


Setting Defaults
You can use the MDI_ACAR_INITMODE environment variable to set the default selection in the
Welcome dialog box when the user has expert-user access. MDI_ACAR_INITMODE has the following
format:
ENVIRONMENT
MDI_ACAR_INITMODE (template_builder, standard_interface)
In Adams/Driveline for example, if you set MDI_ACAR_INITMODE to standard_interface, the
Welcome dialog box sets the selection of Standard Interface as the default, as shown next.

Setting the Display


You can use the MDI_ACAR_MODEPROMPT environment variable to set your template-based product
so that it does not display the Welcome dialog box at start up. MDI_ACAR_MODEPROMPT has the
following format:
ENVIRONMENT
MDI_ACAR_MODEPROMPT (yes, no)
Setting it to yes displays the Welcome dialog box; setting it to no turns off the display of the Welcome
dialog box.
384 Adams/Car
Setting Up the Environment Through Configuration Files

Replacing the Image on the Welcome and Exit Dialog Boxes


You can replace the image on the Welcome and Exit dialog boxes with another image.

To replace the image:


1. Create a color X pixmap image (.xpm) with a size of approximately 197 x 192 pixels.
2. Copy the new pixmap file to a designated directory.
3. Add the following entry in your .acar configuration file:
ENVIRONMENT MDI_ACAR_LOGO_BMP <your_directory/filename>

Setting Up Side Preferences


You can use the MDI_ACAR_SIDE_PREF environment variable to define the preferred side for
creation. When you set the side preferences:
• The creation dialog box in the Template Builder sets the default type based on the side
preference you set.
• The guesses in the pop-up menus in dialog boxes only contain left and single or right and
single entities based on the side preference. Your template-based product does this to limit the
number of guesses.
The MDI_ACAR_SIDE_PREF environment variable has the following format:
ENVIRONMENT MDI_ACAR_SIDE_PREF (right, left)

Setting the Orientation of the Global Reference Frame


You can set the orientation of the global reference frame using direction cosines. You use either of the
following environment variables to define the orientation:
ENVIRONMENT MDI_ACAR_VEHICLE_REAR 1,0,0
ENVIRONMENT MDI_ACAR_VEHICLE_LEFT 0,-1,0

Managing Result File Output


Result files include all the simulation output from an analysis. The following environment variable sets
the default attribute of whether the result file is output during the analysis. If the assembled model
contains flexible bodies, your template-based product automatically outputs a result file regardless of the
environment variable setting.
If the assembled model does not contain flexible bodies, use the following command (example is for
Adams/Car) to indicate that you want your template-based product to output a result file:
ENVIRONMENT
MDI_ACAR_WRITE_RES (yes, no)
Configuring Your Product 385
Setting Up the Environment Through Configuration Files

If a result file exists, your template-based product will automatically read it in with the analysis, if you
run an interactive simulation.
If you run the simulation externally (background, files_only), you can read in the result file using either
of these two methods:
• Review -> Analysis Management -> Read
• File -> Import -> Adams Results File (*.res)

Redefining Environment Variables


We've set up default environment variables in the shared configuration file, but we recommend that you
redefine them in the private or site configuration file to customize the work environment of your
template-based product.
To redefine environment variables, use the format below. Your template-based product initializes the
variables at startup.ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE_NAME VARIABLE_VALUE
The following gives you expert access to your template-based product:
ENVIRONMENT MDI_ACAR_USERMODE expert
List of Environment Variables.

Defining Your Own Environment Variables


You can define your own environment variables in the private and site configuration files for use with
user-written subroutines or macros. For example, you can define a variable named debug_mode in your
private or site configuration file. Then, in your own macros, you can query for the value of debug_mode,
and execute some instructions depending on its value. The example below shows a portion of the macro
that would query for the value of debug_mode:
IF condition =(getenv("debug_mode")=="yes")
default command echo=on
END
.
.
.
To define your own environment variables, use the format below. Your template-based product initializes
the variables at startup
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE_NAME VARIABLE_VALUE
For the previous example, you would use the following:
ENVIRONMENT debug_mode yes
386 Adams/Car
Setting Up the Environment Through Configuration Files

Editing Files Using a Text Editor


You can use an environment variable, MDI_ACAR_USE_EDITOR, to edit files from within your
template-based product. Adding this environment setting to your .acar.cfg file causes the View Property

File tool to launch a text editor instead of the Information window.


If this environment variable is not set, external files will be shown in the info window. If it is set to any
value, the default browser is used to visualize .xml files and notepad.exe is used to open any other file.
The default editor for non-xml files can be changed by specifying the path via the Adams Settings utility
(Adams registry editor -> AView -> Preferences -> textEditor). In the variable, simply specify the
location of your preferred text editor executable.
For example, an Adams/Car user who wants to launch Wordpad would set up the environment variable
as follows:
ENVIRONMENT MDI_ACAR_USE_EDITOR yes

and specifies the following path for textEditor field using Adams Settings utility as described above.
C:\Program Files\WindowsNT\Accessories\wordpad.exe
Configuring Your Product 387
Managing Databases Through Configuration Files

Managing Databases Through Configuration Files


You can use two environment variables to manage your template-based product's databases in the
configuration file:
• DATABASE - Sets up databases.
• DEFAULT_WRITE_DB - Sets the default writable database.

You can place DATABASE entries in the private, site, or shared configuration files. The
DEFAULT_WRITE_DB, however, is reserved for the private and site configuration files.
Note that you can also set up databases through menus, as explained in Managing Databases. You may
find it more convenient to use the menus.
Learn more about managing databases through configuration files:
• Setting Up Databases
• Specifying Default Writable Database

Setting Up Databases
You can define databases in your template-based product using the keyword DATABASE. A
DATABASE keyword entry has the following format:
DATABASE DB_NAME DB_PATH
In the format, DB_NAME is the name assigned to the database and DB_PATH is the location of the
database in your file system. You can add any database to the DATABASE definition in any configuration
file. If the database does not exist, your template-based product creates it in the specified location and
adds it to the database list.

Specifying Default Writable Database


You can specify the database that you want to use as the database to which all files are written. You use
the environment variable DEFAULT_WRITE_DB to define the default writable database. The
DEFAULT_WRITE_DB environment variable has the following format:
DEFAULT_WRITE_DB DB_NAME
The environment variable defines the initial database that you want as the default location for writing
files. Usually, you define the default writable database in your private configuration file, although you
can set the writable database in any configuration file. You can change it during the session as explained
in Setting the Writable Database. Note that you will need permission to write to the file system location
to which the DEFAULT_WRITE_DB points.
388 Adams/Car
Managing Tables Through Configuration Files

Managing Tables Through Configuration Files


As explained in Database Structure, a template-based product's database is comprised of a number of
directories or tables in which you store files. In addition to the standard set of table directories, you can
create your own tables.
Generally, you only add table directories to the databases defined in your private configuration file. As
the site manager, you may decide to add tables for general use in the site configuration file.
Learn more about creating tables and the standard table entries:
• Creating Tables
• Standard TABLE Directory Entries

Creating Tables
At start up, your template-based product determines when to create new table directories as follows:
1. Your template-based product verifies that all database directories defined in the private
configuration file contain table directories for the corresponding table directories also defined in
the private configuration file.
2. If a table directory does not exist inside the database, your template-based product creates one.
3. If a site configuration file exists, your template-based product ensures that for any table directory
specified in the site configuration file, a corresponding table directory exists for all database
directories defined in both the site and private configuration files.
4. Your template-based product ensures that for all table directories specified in the shared
configuration file, a corresponding table directory exists for all database directories defined in the
private, site (if it exists), and shared configuration files.
The TABLE keyword entry for creating tables has the format:
TABLE TABLE_CLASS
TABLE_NAME
TABLE_EXTENSION
where:

• TABLE_CLASS - A string identifying the table.


• TABLE_NAME - The name that you want used to access the table.
• TABLE_EXTENSION - The three-character extension of files stored in the table. Your
template-based product only recognizes files in the table that have the extension that you specify.
For example, the following creates a table that stores aerodynamic forces:
TABLE aeroforces /staff/my_name/my_db.cdb/aeroforces.tbl aer
Adding the table definition shown above in the configuration file causes your template-based product to
recognize and correctly access files stored in that particular database table.
Configuring Your Product 389
Managing Tables Through Configuration Files

Standard TABLE Directory Entries


The TABLE directory entries in the shared configuration file are briefly explained in the following table:

The entry: Defines tables for:


TABLE assembly Assembly files that list the subsystems that make up
assemblies.tbl asy Adams/Car assemblies.
TABLE template templates.tbl tpl Template files that define the topology and major role (for
example, suspension or steering) of Adams/Car models.
TABLE subsystem subsystems.tbl sub Subsystem files that contain information unique to the
specific instance of the template the subsystem file
references.
TABLE aero_force aero_forces.tbl aer Aero_force files that contain wind-force mappings.
TABLE bushing bushings.tbl bus Bushing files that define a six degree-of-freedom force
relationships between user-specified locations on two
parts.
TABLE linear bushing bushings.tbl lbf Bushing files that define a six degree-of-freedom force
relationship between user-specified locations on two
parts, using constant coefficients for each of the six
degrees of freedom.
TABLE bumpstop bumpstop.tbl bum Bumpstop files that define a force-displacement
relationship between user-specified locations on two
parts.
TABLE damper dampers.tbl dam Damper files that define a force-velocity relationship
between user-specified locations on two parts.
TABLE linear damper dampers.tbl ldf Damper files that define the linear damping force
relationship between user-specified locations on two
parts, using a constant damping coefficient.
TABLE flex_body flexbodys.tbl mnf Files that define flexible body representations usually
through modal neutral files.
TABLE powertrain powertrains.tbl pwr Powertrain files that define the engine speed-torque
relationship at different throttle positions.
TABLE differential differentials.tbl dif Differential files that define the slip speed-torque
characteristics of a differential.
TABLE reboundstop reboundstops.tbl reb Rebound stop files that define a force-displacement
relationship between user-specified locations on two
parts.
TABLE shell_graphic shell_graphics.tbl Shell graphic files.
shl
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Managing Tables Through Configuration Files

The entry: Defines tables for:


TABLE spring Spring files that define a force-displacement relationship
springs.tbl spr between user-specified locations on two parts.
TABLE linear spring springs.tbl lsf Spring files that define the linear elastic force relationship
between user-specified locations on two parts, using a
constant stiffness coefficient.
TABLE steering_assist steering_assists.tbl Steering_assist files that contain torsion bar data relating
ste torsion bar deflection to both torque and pressure.
TABLE tire Tire files that define data needed to characterize tire
tires.tbl tir behavior (a tire model).
TABLE road Road files that define roads that the contact algorithms in
roads.tbl rdf the Adams/Tire module use.
TABLE driver_controls Driver control files that contain maneuver descriptions
driver_controls.tbl dcf for the Driving Machine. Also includes XML event files.
For additional information, see Note in Using the Driving
Machine.
TABLE driver_data Driver data files that contain data for the Driving
driver_data.tbl dcd Machine.
TABLE driver_loadcase Driver loadcase files that contain driving signals used in
driver_loadcases.tbl dri a data-driven, full-vehicle analysis. The driver loadcase
specifies inputs to the vehicle.
TABLE loadcase loadcases.tbl lcf Loadcase files that contain data used in suspension
analyses.
TABLE suspension_curve Suspension curves used in the Conceptual Suspension
suspension_curves.tbl scf Modeling module.
TABLE wheelenv wheel_envelopes.tbl Wheel-envelope files that contain location vector
wen information that represents the wheel-center location and
orientation in space. They are used for wheel-envelope
analyses.
TABLE plot_config plot_configs.tbl plt Plot configuration files that define a suite of plots to be
automatically generated after completion of an analysis.
TABLE driver_road driver_roads.tbl drd Adams/Driver road definitions.
TABLE driver_knowledge Adams/Driver knowledge file. (Obsolete).
driver_knowledge.tbl kno
TABLE driver_input driver_inputs.tbl din Adams/Driver input files used in an Adams/Driver full-
vehicle analysis. (Obsolete).

They are the standard set of tables that are distributed with your template-based product's database. You
cannot reconfigure TABLE entries. Changing these values disables your template-based product's ability
to assign properties to a class of entities.
Configuring Your Product 391
Managing Tables Through Configuration Files

Managing Property Files Through Configuration Files


A PROPFILE environment variable in the configuration file assigns a default property file used when
creating the following entity types: bumpstop, bushing, damper, reboundstop, spring, and tire.
A PROPFILE environment variable in a configuration file has the following format:
PROPFILE PROPFILE_CLASS PROPFILE_NAME
where:

• PROPFILE_CLASS is a string that identifies the property file.


• PROPFILE_NAME is the name of the property file.

For example:
PROPFILE bushing mdids://shared/bushings.tbl/mdi_0001.bus
You can define the property files in the private, site, or shared configuration files.

Managing Test Rigs Through Configuration Files


A TESTRIG environment variable in the configuration file assigns a default test rig to a particular class
of assemblies.
A TESTRIG environment variable in a configuration file has the following format:
TESTRIG TESTRIG_CLASS TESTRIG_NAME
where:

• ASSEMBLY_CLASS is a string that identifies the type of assemblies which correspond to the
test rig.
• TESTRIG_NAME is the name of the test rig model.

For example:
TESTRIG four_post .__MY_FOURPOST
You can define the default test rigs in the private, site, or shared configuration files.
392 Adams/Car
Managing Tables Through Configuration Files
Customizing Your Product
392 Adams/Car
Overview

Overview
If you are an expert user or site manager, you can customize your template-based product to your
company's needs and preferences. You can extend your template-based product by adding new
functionality, modifying standard functionality, or tailoring its appearance to fit the needs of your work
environment. Customizing your template-based product lets you create a familiar environment in which
users can work. Learn about Setting User Access.

Note: You cannot customize all dialog boxes and tools. For example, you cannot customize the
Plugin Manager or the Information window. The Dialog-Box Builder's Dialog Box ->
Open menu provides access to those dialog boxes, containers, and toolbars that you can
customize.

You can typically modify your template-based product in three main areas. These require different levels
of understanding, ranging from the Adams macro language, Standard Developer Kit (Adams/SDK),
through FORTRAN and C solver routines, as described next.
• Customizing the interface - Involves creating or modifying interface objects, such as macros,
dialog boxes, menus, and windows. This uses Adams command language to modify the look and
feel of the interface. It can be used to automate recurring tasks, using the scripting language, but
has limitations in terms of speed and would not be used to generate computationally complex
objects (1000 parts located and oriented to generate a chain). For these tasks, you would use an
Adams/View library written in C.

Note: You save interface objects and macros in custom binaries.

• Creating a custom Adams/View library - Takes advantage of user-written subroutines and


functions to automate highly repetitive and computationally complex tasks in an efficient
manner, using C. Using functions delivered in the SDK, you can quickly generate and
manipulate Adams elements.
• Creating a custom Adams/Solver library - Create user-written subroutines and functions to
extend the functionality of your template-based product in terms of the solver. You save them in
custom libraries for later use.

Note: For Adams/Driveline - Because of the plugin structure of Adams/Driveline, you cannot
create a custom version. You can, however, create a custom Adams/Car version, adding
your own custom elements, analyses, and so on, and then load in the standard
Adams/Driveline plugin.

Once you have finalized your customization of your template-based product, you can store your
customized dialog boxes, macros (binary files), Adams/View and Adams/Solver libraries in a site
Customizing Your Product 393
Overview

directory, for use by all users, or in a private directory for personal use. You can extend this hierarchy to
support multiple operating systems from one installation.
Select an entry on the left to learn how to efficiently customize the environment of your product.
394 Adams/Car
Customizing the Interface

Customizing the Interface


All of the menus, windows, and dialog boxes that you see in your template-based product are interface
objects that you can modify easily. Most of the interface customization that you'll do involves creating
new dialog boxes, modifying existing ones, or modifying menus and push buttons. Learn about saving
changes to interface objects.

A template-based product stores the interface objects in its modeling database along with all the other
modeling objects (such as parts, models, and markers). You access the interface objects through the
Database Navigator. The objects have a defined hierarchy, which you can also view through the Database
Navigator. You use the Adams/View Dialog-Box Builder to access and edit the interface objects that you
can include in a dialog box, such as labels, fields, and buttons.
For an overview of all aspects of customizing an Adams product interface, including menus, and using
the Dialog-Box Builder, see the Adams/View online help.
Learn more about customizing the interface:
• Naming Conventions
• Using Libraries
• Creating and Modifying Dialog Boxes
• Creating and Modifying Macros
• Creating Dialog Boxes for Templates
• Adding a Minor Role
• Adding a Major Role
• Creating Menus for Template Builder
• Automatically Loading Interface Changes
• Saving Interface Changes

Naming Conventions
We recommend that you use a naming convention when you create and modify interface objects or
macros. A naming convention reduces the chances of naming conflicts and provides a simple method for
organizing files, macros, and dialog boxes.
The naming convention that we recommend is the same one that template-based products currently use.
The naming convention uses the abbreviation of the object (for example, mac for macro) followed by a
set of characters that identify the commands or functionality that the object executes or performs. The
naming conventions for macros and dialog boxes are explained next.
• Macro naming convention - The macro naming convention uses the abbreviation mac for
macro followed by the first three characters of each command in the user-entered command that
executes the macro. For example, if the user-entered commands for a macro are as shown below
(the first three characters are highlighted in boldface type):
Customizing Your Product 395
Customizing the Interface

acar analysis suspension single_travel submit


Then, the name of the macro is:
mac_ana_sus_sin_sub
• Dialog box naming convention - The naming convention for dialog boxes uses the abbreviation
dbox for dialog box followed by the first three characters of the words that identify the
functionality of the dialog box. For example, if a dialog box is the interface through which a user
creates a hardpoint, then the words that define its functionality are:
template_builder hardpoint create
and, its name is:
dbox_tem_har_cre
If, however, the dialog box performs two or more functions, as many dialog boxes do, then the
dialog box name does not include the words for the function. For example, if a dialog box lets a
user both create and modify a spring damper, the words that define its functionality are:
template_builder damper create/modify
and, its name is:
dbox_tem_dam

Using Libraries
We recommend that you use libraries to store the interface objects and macros that you create. Libraries
are repositories for Adams/View objects such as variables, assembly instances, macros, and dialog boxes.
Using libraries allows you to easily find, retrieve, or remove specific custom objects. You can add to your
template-based product as many libraries as you need. You can also have libraries within libraries.
Your template-based product stores all its objects in libraries, named as follows:

Product name: Library name:


Adams/Car .ACAR

You can view the objects in the library using the Database Navigator. See About the Database Navigator.
To create libraries, execute the following command either in your .cmd file or during an interactive
session. In the following command, MY_LIBRARY is the name of the library that will be created:
library create library_name=.MY_LIBRARY
Alternatively, you can add the command in the file you use to generate the site or private custom binary.
The files are named as follows:

Product name: File name:


Adams/Car acar_build.cmd
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Customizing the Interface

Learn more about those files.

Libraries can also be nested. For example:


library create library_name=.MY_LIBRARY.variables
library create library_name=.MY_LIBRARY.variables.torques

Creating and Modifying Dialog Boxes


The template-based products use dialog boxes to provide you with an easy way to input data or perform
operations. A dialog box is usually an entry point to a custom or standard macro. The dialog box collects
data from you, manipulates it, and then communicates the data to a macro or to an Adams/View function,
which performs an operation using the data. Learn about macros.
Although you can set up a dialog box so that commands perform a particular task within the dialog box,
we recommend that you use the dialog box as an entry point to a macro or a set of macros. By making
the dialog box an entry point to a macro, you:
• Are consistent with the standard dialog boxes in template-based products.
• Take advantage of the Adams powerful macro language programming.

Note that we supply many examples of how to code dialog boxes. You can find those examples in their
respective libraries. For example, acar.dboxes.
The next topics explain more about creating dialog boxes. For a general overview of creating and editing
dialog boxes in Adams products, see the Adams/View online help, under the Customize tab.
• Dialog Box Objects
• Layout and Sizing of Dialog Boxes
• Commands in Dialog Boxes
• Dialog Box Error Handling
• Start, Execute, and Finish Commands
• OK, Apply, and Cancel Buttons

When you have finished modifying your dialog boxes, review the options for saving your changes and
having them automatically included in your own version of your template-based product. Learn about
saving dialog boxes.

Accessing Dialog Box Programming Tools


You use the Dialog Box command on the Tools menu to create and modify dialog boxes. Learn about the
Dialog-Box Builder.

To view, change, and create dialog boxes, you must have expert user access to your template-based
product. Learn about Setting User Access.
Customizing Your Product 397
Customizing the Interface

Dialog Box Objects


Dialog boxes are a combination of different interface objects that you can modify using the Dialog-Box
Builder. These include the following:
List of Common Dialog Box Objects

The objects: Are:


Containers Subregions in a dialog box that can hold objects.
Text boxes Boxes in which you can enter information.
Pull-down menus Menus that display a list of options from which you can select only
one option.
Radio boxes Toggles that set a state or mode. You can only select one state or
mode.
Toggle buttons (Check boxes) Toggles that indicate an active state. You can select more than one
state.
Push buttons Buttons that execute a command or set a state.
Sliders A continuous range of possible values from which you can select one
value.

The following figure shows some of the different objects. Learn more about Interface objects.

Layout and Sizing of Dialog Boxes


When you create dialog boxes, always try to minimize the amount of screen area that they take up. To be
consistent with the other dialog boxes in your template-based product, you should use the size
specifications listed in tables Standard Interface Dialog Box Specifications and Template Builder Dialog
398 Adams/Car
Customizing the Interface

Box Specifications. The specifications also include where on the screen dialog boxes should appear, so
they always appear in the same location on the screen.
We also recommend that you fix the height of dialog boxes. In most cases, only the ability to change the
width of a dialog box is useful to a user because he or she may want to stretch the dialog box to see the
full name of an object in a particular text box. This isn't really necessary for the height of a dialog box.
To fix the height of a dialog box, include the parameters height_minimum and height_maximum in the
interface command that creates the dialog box. You must do this directly in the command file that
contains the commands to create the dialog box. You cannot do this through the Dialog-Box Builder. For
example, for Adams/Car, you can enter:
interface dialog modify &
dialog=.ACAR.dboxes.dbox_tem_har_mod &
height=150.0 height_minumum=150.0 height_maximum=150.0
When building dialog boxes, always test to ensure that the resizing attributes of each object in the dialog
box are appropriate. Under Resizing in the Dialog-Box Builder, there are resizing attributes for interface
objects. These attributes describe how the size of the objects on a dialog box are affected if the width or
height of the dialog box changes. You should set the resizing attributes of the objects on a dialog box so
that if the size of the dialog box changes, the general look of the dialog box remains the same. For
example, if all the text boxes in a dialog box are right justified along the edge of the dialog box, the text
boxes should all remain right justified if you increase or decrease the width of the dialog box.

Standard Interface Dialog Box Specifications

For the dialog box attribute: Set its position or size to:
Location 33, 154
Width 370
Label width 150
Label height 25
Text box width 240

Template Builder Dialog Box Specifications

For the dialog box attribute: Set its position or size to:
Location 15, 150
Width 404
Label width 150
Label height 25
Text box width 244
Customizing Your Product 399
Customizing the Interface

Commands in Dialog Boxes


All of the objects in dialog boxes can execute commands when a user acts on the object. For example, a
button can execute a command when a user pushes on it, and an option choice can execute a command
when a user selects that option from a pull-down menu. Having an object execute a command gives you
great flexibility in how your dialog box works.
For example, you can set up your dialog box so that the commands assigned to a particular database
object field can:
• Check to determine whether the object that the user selects exists in the database
• Issue a warning message if it does not exist

You can also have commands operate on other objects in dialog boxes, which causes the dialog box to
change its appearance when a user makes a selection from an object. For example, when a user selects
400 Adams/Car
Customizing the Interface

an option from a pull-down menu, the dialog box changes to display objects for entering values for the
selected option as shown next.

Dialog Box Error Handling


Each dialog box that you create should have a variable, named errorFlag, that represents the error
condition of the dialog box. You should use the start commands of a dialog box to create the variable and
set its initial value to zero or no error condit