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J1.

TRUNCHIUL DE PIRAMID~ PATRULATERA REGULATA PROBLEME REZOLVATE


1. Un trunchi de piramida patrulatera regulata are fata laterala un trapez isoscel
ortodiagonal.Diagonalele bazelor au 82 respectiv 42cm Se cere: a) Al , At , V ; b) aria laterala
si volumul piramidei din care provine trunchiul ; c) distanta de la centrul bazei mici la o fata
laterala si distanta la o muchie laterala; d) Fie un punct P situat pe inaltimea trunchiului la
egala distanta de planul bazei mari si planul unei fete laterale. Determinati pozitia punctului P
fata de baza mare.
V
V
V
D'
O'
A'

C'
B'

M'

O'

C
O

(PB + Pb)atr

M'

42

O'
6

B'

22

210

42

M
2

O
A

N
4

22

N'
42

22

a) Al = ; At=Al+AB+Ab ; V= (AB+Ab+ABAb )
2
3
AC = 82 , dar AC = AB2 AB2 = 82 AB=8cm ; A'C'=42 A'B'2 = 42 A'B'=4cm
BC + B'C'
8+4
12
Daca trapezul isoscel BCC'B' este ortodiagonal MM' = = = MM'=6cm
2
2
2
Daca AB = 8 cm OM = 4 cm ; A'B' = 4 cm O'M' = 2 cm ; AC = BD = 82 OB = 42 cm
Analog O'B' = 22 cm
In trapezul O'M'MO NM = OM O'M' = 4 2 = 2 cm.
In M'NM,mN=90 M'N2=M'M2NM2=364=32 M'N=32 M'N=42cm O'O=42cm
InB'N'B, N'=90 B'B2 = B'N'2 + N'B2 = 32 + 8 = 40 B'B = 40 B'B = 210cm
(32+16)6
42
4482
2
2
Al= = 144cm ; At=144 + 64 + 16 = 224cm ; V=(64 +16 + 84)= cm3 .
2
3
3
VO' O'M'
VM'
VO 42
2
VM 6
b) O'M'OM VO'M'~VOM == ==
VO OM
VM
VO
4
VM
4(VO 42) = 2VO 4VO 2VO = 162 2VO = 162 VO = 82 cm
4(VM 6) = 2VM 4VM 2VM = 24 2VM = 24 VM=12cm

PBVM

AB VO

3212

6482

AlPIRAMIDA = = = 192cm ; VPIRAMIDA= = = 2562 cm3 .


2
2
2
2
c) d(O'; (BCC'B')) = d(O'; (VBC)) = d(O'; VM) = O'E (O'E ^ VM);
VEO'~VOM(E= O=90Vcomun)
O'EVO'O'E42
442
42
= = O'E= O'E=cm.
OMVM412
12
3
InVOB,O=90 VB2=VO2+OB2=128+32=160 VB= 160 VB=410cm.
d(O';(BCC'B')) = d(O'; VB) = O'F (O'F^VB)
VFO'~VOB(F= O=90 Vcomun)
O'FVO'O'F42
4242
410
= = O'F= O'F=cm
OB

VB

d)

42

410

410

Notez PO = PR = x
12

82

R
P
O

x
x
4

VRP~VOM(drept.cuVunghicomun)

PR
VP
x
82 x
= =
OM VM
4
12

12x=4(82x) 12x=3224x 12x+4x=322 16x=322 x=22cm


PO=22cm

2.UntrunchidepiramidapatrulateraregulataABCDA'B'C'D'areunghiuldintreofaalaterala
siplanulbazeimaride60,perimetrulbazeimici32cmsiarialaterala160cm2.Secere:
a)Ariatotalasivolumultrunchiuluidepiramida.
b)Arialateralasivolumulpiramideiincareprovinetrunchiul.
c)Distantele delacentrulbazeimarilaofaalateralasilaomuchielateralaatrunchiului.
d) La ce distanta fata de baza micatrebuie facuta o sectiuneparalela cubazele,astfel incat
ariasectiuniiobtinutesafieegalacu100cm2.
e)DistanteledelapunctulB'respectivdelapunctulBlaplanul(ADD')
REZOLVARE
V

VV

D'C'
O'M'O'
A'B'
S

23

M'

O'

42

B'
F

42

R 22

23

DC
OMO

60
4 P 2 M

a)Perimetrulbazeimici=4l 4l=32 l=8 A'B'=8cm


l A'B' 8
l2AB282
O'M'====4 O'M'=4cm O'B'====42 O'B'=42cm
222222
((BCC'B')(ABCD))= (MM'OM)= (M'MO)=60
MM'
In DM'PMdr.inP,dacam(M'MP)=60 m(MM'P)=30 PM= MM'=2PM
2
NotezPM=x MM'=2x.Perimetrulbazeimari=PB =4AB,darAB=2OM PB =8OM
DeoareceOM=OP+PM OM=4+x PB=8(4+x)=32+8x
Perimetrulbazeimici=Pb =32cm
(PB +Pb)apotematrunchiului
Arialateralaatrunchiului=
2
(32+8x+32)2x
160= (64+8x)x=160 8x2 +64x160=0/:8 x2 +8x20=0
2
x2 +10x2x20=0 x(x+10)2(x+10)=0 (x+10)(x2)=0
x+10=0 x=10 x2=0 x=2
Deoarecelucramcusegmentesolutiavalablilaestex=2 PM=2cmiarMM'=4cm

In DM'PMdr.inP M'P2 =M'M2 PM2 M'P2 =42 22 =164=12 M'P= 12 M'P=23cm


DacaM'P=23cm O'O=23cm DacaPM=2cm OM=6cm AB=12cm
Decielementeletrunchiuluisunt:l=8cm,L=12cm,atr=4cm,htr =23cm.
Ariatotala= Arialaterala+Ariabazeimari+Ariabazeimici
Ariabazeimari=AB =L2 =122 =144cm2 Ariabazeimici=Ab =l2 =82 =64cm2
Ariatotala=160+144+64=368cm2 .
h
2323
Volumultrunchiului=(AB +Ab +ABAb)=(144+64+14464)=(208+96)
3
33
23
6083
Volumul=304 Volumultrunchiului=cm3 .
3
3
VO'
O'M' VM'
VO 23
4
VM 4
b)O'M'OM DVO'M'~ DVOM == ==
VOOMVMVO6VM
6(VO23)=4VO 6VO4VO=123 2VO=123 VO=63cm
6(VM4)=4VM 6VM4VM=24 2VM=24 VM=12cm.
PB VM 41212
Arialateralaapiramidei===288cm2 .
2
2
AB VO 14463
Volumulpiramidei===2883cm3 .
3
3
c) d(O(BCC'B')
M'M ^ BC
OM ^ BC
OM,M'M (OMM'O')

BC ^ (OMM'O')

ConstruiescOE ^ M'M.DeoareceOE (OMM'O')siBC ^ (OMM'O') BC ^ OE OE ^ BC


DinOE ^ M'MsiOE ^ BC OE ^ (BCC'B') d(O(BCC'B')=OE
VOOM636
In DVOMdr.inO OE== OE=33cm
VM12
d(OVB).ConstruiescOF ^ VB d(OVB)=OF
VOOB636266
630
In DVOBdr.inO OF=== OF=cm.
VB655
5
In DVOBdr. VB2 =VO2 +OB2 VB2 =(63)2 +(62)2 =108+72=180 VB=65cm.

d)V
Deoarecesectiuneaesteunpatratcuaria100cm2

4
O'M'
23 S
O

laturasectiuniiestel' =100 l'=10cm


l'10
Dacal'=10cm ST== ST=5cm
2
2
O'M'+OM
IntrapezulOMM'O'seobservacaST=
2
STesteliniemijlocieintrapez SO'=SO=3cm

e)d(B'ADD') d(BADD')
V
Planul(ADD')esteinclusinplanulfeei
lateraleatrunchiuluidepiramida,care
D'C'
O'
A'B'

esteinclusinplanulfeeilateraleapiramidei
dincareprovinetrunchiul.

C
O

d(B'ADD') esteechivalentacud(B'VA'D')
d(BADD') esteechivalentacud(BVAD)

AB
d(B'VA'D') formezpiramidaB'VA'D'siscriuvolumuleiindouamoduri.
Aria DVA'D'd(B'VA'D')Aria DA'B'D'VO'
Aria DA'B'D'VO'
VB'VA'D' == d(B'VA'D')=
33
Aria DVA'D'
l2 64VM'B'C'88
Aria DA'B'D'===32cm2 .Aria DVA'D'=Aria DVB'C'===32cm2
2222
3243
d(B'VA'D')= d(B'VA'D')=43cm
32
d(BVAD) formezpiramidaBVAD siscriuvolumuleiindouamoduri.
Aria DVADd(BVAD)Aria DABDVO
Aria DABDVO
VB'VA'D' == d(BVAD)=
33
Aria DVAD
L2 144
VMBC 1212
2
Aria DABD===72cm .Aria DVAD=Aria DVBC= ==72cm2
22
22
7263
d(BVAD)= d(BVAD)=63cm
72