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ADVERBUL

Adverbul este partea de vorbire care exprima caracteristica unei actiuni, stari sau insusiri si descrie sau
modifica verbe, adjective sau chiar alte adverbe.
De cele mai multe ori, adverbul indica unde, cand sau cum are loc o actiune si in ce imprejurari se
desfasoara.

FOLOSIREA ADVERBELOR
Adverbele pot determina verbe, adjective sau alte adverbe.
Exemple:
Mary opened quickly the door. - determina verbul "opened"
Mary a deschis repede usa.
The shirt was incredibly expensive. - determina adjectivul "expensive"
Camasa era incredibil de scumpa.
She spoke extremely fast. - determina adverbul "fast"
Ea a vorbit extrem de repede.

FORMAREA ADVERBELOR
Adverbele se formeaza de cele mai multe ori prin adaugarea terminatiei -ly la forma de singular a
adjectivului. Insa, atentie, nu toate cuvintele cu terminatia -ly sunt adverbe, ca de exemplu:
lovely (minunat), lonely (singur), friendly (prietenos), neighborly (apropiat), motherly (mamos), acestea
fiind adjective.
Modificari in formarea adverbelor:

la terminatia in -y a unui adjectiv, pentru a deveni adverb, terminatia se va inlocui cu -i+-ly


Exemple:
easy (usor) => easily (cu usurinta)
angry (furios) => angrily (cu furie)
lucky (norocos) => luckily (cu noroc)

la terminatia in -le a unui adjectiv, pentru a deveni adverb, terminatia -e va dispare si se va


inlocui cu -y
Exemple:
gentle (delicat) => gently (cu delicatete)
probable (probabil) => probably (cu probabilitate)
terrible (teribil) => terribly (teribil)

la terminatia in -ic a unui adjectiv, pentru a deveni adverb, se va adauga -ally


Exemple:
economic (economic) => economically (cu economie)
tragic (tragic) => tragically (tragic)
basic (fundamental) => basically (fundamental)

Evident, pot exista si exceptii:


public (public) => publicly (in public)
Exista si adverbe cu forme neregulate:
Exemple:
good (bun) => well (bine)
true (adevarat) => truly (intr-adevar)
whole (intreg) => wholly (in intregime)
hard (greu) => hard (cu greutate)
fast (rapid) => fast (repede)
early (recent) => early (devreme)

POZITIONAREA ADVERBELOR
Adverbele pot fi asezate fie la inceputul propozitiei, fie in mijloc, fie la final.
Exemple:
Sometimes Mary goes to the church.
Uneori, Maria merge la biserica.
I rarely make a mistake.
Eu rareori fac o greseala.
Tony visits his mother frecquently.
Tony isi viziteaza mama frecvent.
In propozitiile negative, de obicei adverbele se pozitioneaza dupa not.
Exemplu:
You do not often miss the train.
Tu nu pierzi des trenul.
In propozitiile interogative afirmative sau negative cu n't, adverbele aflate in mijlocul propozitiei urmeaza
de obicei subiectul propozitiei.
Exemple:
Is it always this cold in March?
Este intotdeauna atat de frig in luna martie?
Doesn't he usually know the answers?
El nu cunoaste de obicei raspunsurile?

TIPOLOGIA ADVERBELOR
1.

Adverbe de mod
Acestea raspund la intrebarea: how? (cum?)
Se aseaza dupa verb si dupa complementul acestuia:
He runs fast.
El alearga repede.
Exemple:

fast (rapid)
quickly (repede)
easily (cu usurinta)
eagerly (cu nerabdare)
loudly (tare)
patiently (cu rabdare)
well (bine)
carefully (cu atentie)
beautifully (frumos)
softly (incet)
2.
3.

Adverbe de loc
Acestea raspund la intrebarea: where? (unde?)
Se aseaza in general dupa verbul principal si dupa complementul acestuia:
I searched everywhere.
Am cautat peste tot.
Exemple:
ahead (inainte)
back (in spate)
forward (inainte, in fata)
here (aici)
there (acolo)
somewhere (undeva)
outside (afara)
inside (inauntru)
near (aproape)
backwards (inapoi)
outwards (spre exterior)
upwards (in sus)

4.
5.

Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa


Acestea raspund la intrebarea: when? (cand?)
TIMP: today (astazi); yesterday (ieri); tomorrow (maine); now (acum); last year (anul trecut); later (mai tarziu)
DURATA: all day (toata ziua); not long (nu mult); for a while (pentru un timp); since last year (de anul trecut)
FRECVENTA: sometimes (uneori); frequently (frecvent); never (niciodata); often (des); yearly (annual)
De obicei, adverbele de timp se aseaza la sfasitul propozitiei sau la inceput:
I wrote a letter yesterday.
Am scris o scrisoare ieri.
Later he called his mother.
Mai tarziu, a sunat-o pe mama sa.

Adverbele care indica durata se aseaza la finalul propozitiei:


He drove all day.
A condus toata ziua.
Adverbele de frecventa se aseaza de obicei in fata verbului principal, dar dupa verbele auxiliare (be, have, may,
must):
I often read a story in the evening.
Deseori citesc o poveste seara.
You must always be polite.
Trebuie sa fii intotdeauna politicos.
6.
7.

Adverbe de siguranta si probabilitate


Exemple: certainly (desigur); definitely (cu siguranta); probably (probabil); surely (cu siguranta); maybe (poate);
obviously (evident); perhaps (poate); really (intr-adevar)
De obicei, se aseaza intre verbul auxiliar si cel principal:
I have probably missed the train.
Probabil am pierdut trenul.

8.
9.

Adverbe de grad
Exemplu: almost (aproape); nearly (aproape); quite (destul); just (doar); enough (destul); scarcely (abia);
completely (complet)
Se aseaza fie in fata adjectivului sau adverbului determinat, fie in fata verbului principal:
You were just leaving.
Tocmai ai plecat.
She has almost finished.
Ea aproape a terminat.
ATENTIE:
o

Enough se aseaza dupa adjectiv sau verb:


I didn't study enough.
Nu am studiat suficient.

Too se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului:


Tony works too much.
Tony lucreaza prea mult.

Very se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului:


Mary is very beautiful.
Mary este foarte frumoasa.

10. Adverbe de legatura


De obicei pozitionate la inceputul propozitiilor, aceste adverbe fac legatura intre o idee exprimata in propozitia
din care fac parte cu o idee exprimata intr-o propozitie anterioara.
Exemple:
however (totusi)
I would like to eat a cake. However , I don't have enough money.
Mi-ar placea sa mananc o prajitura. Totusi, nu am suficienti bani.
nevertheless (totusi, cu toate astea)
You were very ill; nevertheless, you found time to call me on my birthday.
Ai fost foarte bolnav; cu toate astea, ti-ai facut timp sa ma suni de ziua mea.
therefore (de aceea, asadar)
He won the contest, therefore he got another medal.
A castigat concursul, asadar a mai primit o medalie.
Alte exemple de adverbe de legatura: also (de asemenea); consequently (in consecinta); finally (in sfarsit);
meanwhile (intre timp); otherwise (altfel); thus (asadar); instead (in schimb); hence (prin urmare); furthermore
(mai mult, in plus)

GRADELE DE COMPARATIE ALE ADVERBELOR


Adverbele formeaza comparativul si superlativul la fel ca adjectivele.

pentru adverbele monosilabice, se va adauga terminatia -er la comparativ si -est la superlativ


Exemplu:
hard - harder - hardest (greu - mai greu - cel mai greu)

pentru adverbele formate din mai multe silabe, vor fi precedate de more la comparativ si de most
la superlativ
Exemplu:
patiently - more patiently - most patiently (rabdator - mai rabdator - cel mai rabdator)

Unele adverbe au forme neregulate pentru comparativ si superlativ:


Exemple:
badly - worse - worst (rau - mai rau - cel mai rau)
little - less - least (putin - mai putin - cel mai putin)
well - better - best (bine - mai bine - cel mai bine)
much - more - most (mult - mai mult - cel mai mult)

EXERCITII
1.

Scrie adverbul corespunzator fiecarui adjectiv in parte:


Exemplu: easy - easily
efficient
rapid

quick
sure
hard
bad
good
probable
close
deep
careful
beautiful
2.

Scrie la fiecare propozitie adverbul corespunzator adjectivului din paranteze:


Exemplu:
She swims _______ (good)
She swims well.
a) My brother ran _______ (quick) to the bus.
b) Mary is _______ in love. (deep)
c) It is _______ morning. (near)
d) She _______ left the house. (quiet)

3.

Completeaza cu gradele comparativ si superlativ urmatoarele adverbe ca in exemplu:


Exemplu: fast - faster - fastest
a) well
b) hard
c) little
d) much
e) early
f) often

4.

Formeaza adverbe din urmatoarele adjective:


a) regular
b) terrible
c) fantastic
d) nice
e) heavy

5.

Pozitioneaza corect adverbele din paranteze in urmatoarele propozitii:


Exemplu:
I must write an exercise. (also)
I must also write an exercise.
a) Did you enjoy the movie? (both)
b) Tony drives his car. (carefully)
c) We went to the theatre. (yesterday)
d) My father will buy flowers for my mother. (probably)
e) I will move to Paris next year. (definitely)

6.

Gaseste adjectivul in prima propozitie si completeaza spatiile goale cu adverbul


corespunzator:
Exemplu: Mary is happy. She smiles happily.
a) My brother is a careful driver. He drives _______
b) Her French is fluent. She speaks _______
c) Our mum was angry. She spoke to us _______

d) She is a good dancer. She dances _______


e) John is a wonderful singer. He sings _______
7.

Construieste propozitii cu urmatoarele cuvinte, asezandu-le corect:


Exemplu: watch I TV sometimes / I sometimes watch TV
a) I always my wash car
b) You the sleep often during day
c) He alone his homework does never
d) Mother my loudly speaks
e) Fluently German speaks Tony

8.

Alege adverbul potrivit pentru urmatoarele propozitii:


Exemplu:
He must be pretty lazy: I've hardly (ever / never / usually / ever since) seen him working.
Raspuns: I've hardly ever seen him working.
a) I have (seldom / hardly ever / usually / ever) met such a beautiful girl.
b) Have you (ever / never / still / usually) seen this movie?
c) It was a horrible accident and Mary is (still / already / yet / always) in the hospit al.
d) I'm afraid I haven't read that book (already / ever / never / yet).
e) My father is (usually / once a week / daily / every morning) at work at 9 o'clock.

9.

Aranjeaza cuvintele pentru a forma propozitii:


a) I'll / you / see / soon
b) I / immediately / help / need
c) ? / where / you / now / are
d) ? / what / yesterday / you / did / do
e) was / arrogant / then / he / very

10. Alege adverbul corespunzator in propozitiile urmatoare:


a) We wanted to go to Paris; (otherwise / moreover / instead) we went to London.
b) You need to work harder; (instead / accordingly / otherwise) you'll get fired.
c) I really don't know why he came; (otherwise / instead / in contrast), I would tell you.
d) John has very little money; (in contrast / nonetheless / similarly), his brother is a millionaire.
e) She is a very smart woman; (therefore / in contrast / still) it is not at all surprising that she got
the job.