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Lb engleza

Lectia

nr.1:

Articolul

a/an/the

(un/o)[partea

I]

Articolul "an" se pune inaintea cuvintelor ce incep cu o vocala [An= a , e, i, o ,u]


Articolul "a" se pune inaintea cuvintelor ce incep cu o consana [A= b,c,d,f... ]

IMAGINE

ENGLEZA

ROMANA

This is an apple.

Acesta este un mar.

This is a banana.

Aceasta este o banana.

This is a coat.

Aceasta este o haina.

This is a dress.

Aceasta este o rochie.

This is an egg.

Acesta este un ou.

This is an ice cream.

Aceasta este o inghetata.

This is an orange.

Aceasta este o portocala.

This is an umbrella.

Aceasta este o umbrela.

A/An sau The


IMAGINE

Lectia

nr.2:

Articolul

ENGLEZA

ROMANA

This is a house.

Aceasta este o casa .

This is the house where I live.

Aceasta este casa unde


locuiesc.

This is a bed.

Acesta este un pat.

This is the bed in my bedroom.

Acesta este patul din


camera mea.

This is a dress.

Aceasta este o rochie.

This is the dress that I bought.

Aceasta este rochia pe


care am cumparat-o.

a/an/the

(un/o)[partea

II]

Exista doar trei articole in limba engleza: a, an si the.


Utilizarea lor poate fi mult mai complicata dar in general este simpla, insa poate fi frustant pentru un incepator
deoarece se aplica uneori regula "dupa cum suna bine".
In general nu se folosesc articole pentru a vorbi despre lucruri in general - the nu inseamna toate/toti .
Exemplu:

A si an

"Books are expensive." = (= Cartile sunt scumpe) (Se refera la faptul ca toate cartile sunt
scumpe)
"The books are expensive." = (Nu toate cartile sunt scumpe, doar cele despre care vorbesc
acum.)

A si an reprezinta articole nehotarate. Se refera la ceva ce persoana cu care se discuta nu stie neaparat despre ce
este vorba..
Folosim a cand substantivul la care ne referim incepe cu o consoana.
Folosim an cand substantivul la care ne referim incepe cu o vocala.
Exemplu:

"I saw an elephant at the zoo." (=Am vazut un elefant la zoo)


"I ate a banana for lunch." (= Am mancat o banana la pranz)

The
Folosim the atunci cand persoana cu care se discuta stie sau isi poate da seama despre ce se discuta.
Exemplu:

"The apple you ate was rotten." (=marul care l-ai mancat a fost stricat)
"Did you lock the car?" (= ai inchis masina? )

Folosim the deasemenea cand lucrul despre care vorbim a fost descris anterior.
Exemplu:

"She's got two children; a girl and a boy. The girl's eight and the boy's fourteen."(= are doi
copii: un baiat si o fata.Fata are opt ani si baiatul patru spre zece ani )

Folosim de asemenea the atunci cand stim ca lucru despre care vorbim este unic.
Exemplu:

the sun, the wind, the world, the North Pole etc.(=soarele,vantul,lumea,Polul Nord)

Totusi daca doriti sa descrieti o anume instanta atunci ar trebui sa folositi a/an.
Exemplu:

"I could hear the wind." / "There's a cold wind blowing."


"What are your plans for the future?" / "She has a promising future ahead of her."

Lectia nr.3: Pronumele personal


The Personal Pronoum
Pronumele
este
partea
de
vorbire
care
tine
locul
unui
substantiv.
Pronumele personal este acel pronume care desemneaza anumite persoane si in limba engleza are urmatoarele
forme:
Persoana

Nominativ

Dativ

Acuzativ

(to) me

me

II

You

(to) you

you

III m

He

(to) him

him

III f

She

(to) her

her

III n

It

(to) it

We

(to) us

II

You

(to) you

III

They

(to) them

it
us
you
them

Pronumele personal la persoana I sg. (I) se scrie intotdeauna cu litera mare oricare ar fi locul lui in
propozitie.

Folosiri:

Pronumele personal are functia de subiect sau nume predicativ in Nominativ.


He knows the rules. subiect
Who is it ? It is I! nume predicativ
Pronumele in cazul Acuzativ este folosit cu functia sintactica de complement direct sau complement
indirect.
I see him. complement direct
I work for him. complement indirect
I dont want to talk to her. complement indirect
Pronumele personal in Dativ are functia sintactica de complement indirect.
I give a book to him. complement indirect
I give him a book. complement indirect (trece in fata CD dar dispare prepozitia).
Pronumele personal it se foloseste:
Pentru a inlocui substantive ce denumesc lucruri, animale:

The book is interesting. It is on the table.

in expresii care denumesc timpul, vremea, distanta, temperatura:

It is five oclock. - timpul


How far is Bucarest ? It is 180 Km. distanta
It is cold. temperaturi
It snows. - vreme

Pronume si adjective demonstrative

Forma

Singular

Plural

de apropiere

this

these

de departare

that

those

Adjectivele demonstrative sunt singurele care se acorda in numar cu substantivul.

Adjective si pronume cantitative:


some; any; no (folosite ca adjective);
none (folosit doar ca pronume);
much (folosit pentru a exprima cantitatea);
many (folosit pentru a exprima numarul).

Observatii:

Some se foloseste in propozitii cu verbul la afirmativ.

I have some books.

Any se foloseste in propozitii cu verbul la negativ sau interogativ.

Have you any books ?


I havent any books.

No se foloseste in propozitii cu verbul la afirmativ, acest adjectiv avand sens negativ

In limba engleza intr-o propozitie nu pot exista doua negatii.

I have no books.

Adjective si pronume posesive

Forma

Adjective

Pronume

my

mine

II

your

yours

III m

his

his

III f

her

hers

III n

its

its

our

ours

II

your

yours

III

their

theirs

Observatii:

Pronumele posesive sunt folosite pentru a inlocui adjective posesive si substantivele lor:

This is my pencil. It is mine.

in limba engleza adjectivele posesive se acorda in numar si gen cu posesorul:

A boy loves his mother.


A girl loves her father.

Gramatica: Adjectivul
|| Pagini: Adjectivul part.1 || Adjectivul part.2 || Adjectivul part.3

Gradele de comparatie
1.pozitiv = adjectivul nu se schimba
2.comparativ

- de inferioritate (2.1.)
- de egalitate (2.2.)

- de superioritate (2.3.)
3)superlativ
- relativ (3.1.)
- absolut (3.2.)

2.1. Comparativ de inferioritate

1.

pt adj scurte (mono si bisilabice) se formeaza din:

not so/not as + adj + as


Ex:This room is not so big as the bedroom.
sau
This room is not as big as the bedroom.
1.

pt adj lungi se formeaza:

less + adj + than


Ex:The chair is less comfortable than the bed.

2.2. Comparativ de egalitate

Atat pt adj scurte cat si pt lungi:


as + adj + as
Ex: The bed is as good as the chair.
Ideea de egalitate mai poate fi sugerata si prin constructia:
the same + subst + as
! as si nu like !!!
Ex: This room is the same size as the other one.

Schimbare de valoare gramaticala

Adjectiv---------------------------------------Substantiv
big, small---------------------------------------size (masura)
long, short---------------------------------------length (lungime)
broad, narrow---------------------------------------breadth (largime pt ceva concret)
wide, narrow---------------------------------------idth (largime pt ceva abstract)
high, low---------------------------------------height (inaltime)
deep, shallow---------------------------------------depth (adancime)
heavy, light---------------------------------------weight (greutate)
strong, weak---------------------------------------strength (putere)..etc.

Constructii cu comparativul de egalitate:


as brave as a lion
as blind as a bat
as black as coal
as busy as a bee
as cool as a cucumber
as clear as daylight
as dry as a bone
as easy as ABC
as fresh as a daisy
as hairy as a gorilla
as mad as a hatter (palarier)
as poor as a church-mouse
as silent as a grave
as wise as Solomon
as soft as silk
as smooth as grass
as gentle as a lamb....etc.

2.3. Comparativul de superioritate

- pt adj scurte
adj + er + than
Modificari ortografice:
1.

daca adj se termina in "e", se adauga doar r

Ex: nice - nicer


1.

daca adj se termina in y precedat de consoana, se transforma y in ier

Ex: pretty - prettier


Exceptii:shy - shyer
sly - slyer
wry - wryer (stramb)
3) daca adj se termina in consoana precedata de vocala, dublez consoana finala
Ex: big - bigger
- pt adj lungi
more + adj + than
Ex: The book is more interesting than the movie.
Adj provenite din latina sunt urmate de to si nu de than
Ex: He is superior to me.

3.1. Superlativul relativ


the + adj +est
Ex: large - the largest
silly - the silliest
Modificarile ortografice sunt la fel.

Pentru adj lungi:


the most+ adj
Ex: This is the most expensive thing.
! dupa superlativ urmeaza prepozitiile of sau in
Ex: He is the best of all/the best in my group.
! daca se face comparatie intre 2 elemente, comparativul implica superlativul:
the + comparativ
Ex: Between you and me, I am the older.

3.2. Superlativul absolut


very + adj
very poate fi inlocuit cu:extremely
exceptionally
tremendously
awfully
! nu toate adj au grad de comparatie, unele definesc ideea de unitate (own, complete, proper, perfect, marvelous,
maximum, minimum).
Altele au sufixe si prefixe:
extra - large
over - crowded
super - fine
ultra - short
priceless

Comparatia neregulata
good - better - the best
bad - worse - the worst
ill - worse - the worst
many - more - the most
much - more - the most
little - less - the least
near - nearer - the nearest (cel mai apropiat); next (urmatorul)
far - farther - the farthest (in spatiu)
far - further - the furthest (in timp)
late - later - the latest; the last (ultimul); the latter (ult din 2)
Dintre 2, primul este the former, nu the first.
up - upper - the upmost
in - inner - the inmost
out - outer - the outmost
fore - former - the foremost
old - older - the oldest
old - elder - the eldest (doar atributiv, pt membrii aceleiasi familii)
Ex: My elder brother is older than me. (fratele meu mai mare)

Comparatia neregulata
good - better - the best
bad - worse - the worst
ill - worse - the worst
many - more - the most
much - more - the most
little - less - the least
near - nearer - the nearest (cel mai apropiat); next (urmatorul)
far - farther - the farthest (in spatiu)
far - further - the furthest (in timp)
late - later - the latest; the last (ultimul); the latter (ult din 2)
Dintre 2, primul este the former, nu the first.
up - upper - the upmost
in - inner - the inmost
out - outer - the outmost
fore - former - the foremost
old - older - the oldest
old - elder - the eldest (doar atributiv, pt membrii aceleiasi familii)
Ex: My elder brother is older than me. (fratele meu mai mare)

Constructii adjectivale
1.

cu mult mai = much/ a lot + comparativ

Ex: It is much warmer today / a lot warmer today


1.

de departe cel mai = by far + superlativ

Ex: This is by far the hottest day of the year.


1.

din ce in ce mai = comp + and + comp

Ex: It is warmer and warmer


! pt adj lungi se repeta doar "more"
Ex: It is more and more interesting.
1.

cu cat mai, cu atat mai (the + comparativ the + comparativ)

! Expresia e obligatoriu sa se repete identic si verbul "to be" lipseste:


Ex: The more, the better (cu cat mai mare, cu atat mai bine)

! Mai multe adjective care determina acelasi substantiv se despart prin virgula. Daca nu apare virgula intre ele
atunci cel care nu este urmat de virgula este adverb.
! Ordinea adjectivelor care determina un substantiv va tine cont de cele subiective (primele expuse) si de cele
obiective (imediat langa substantiv).
! Un adjectiv poate sa determine si un verb. Verbul va fi obligatoriu "to be" sau orice alt verb de perceptie care
poate fi inlocuit cu "to be".

Ex: I am intelligent
He looks happy sau He is happy.

Adjectivul demonstrativ
1.
2.
3.
4.

anuleza articolul substantivului


invariabil ca forma (M/F)
se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care il determina
daca nu determina un substantiv devine pronume demonstrativ

"this" - aceasta, acesta (singular apropiere)


"these" - acestea, acestia (plural apropiere)
ambele merg cu "here".
"that" - acela, aceea (singular departare)
"those" - acelea, aceia (plural departare)
ambele merg cu "there".
! Indepartarea in spatiu presupune si indepartarea in timp. Deci "that" si "those" se vor cupla cu trecutul.
Ex: This book is good. (this = adjectiv, book = substantiv)
This is a good book. (this = pronume)

Adjectivul posesiv
1.
2.
3.
4.

invariabil ca forma si numar


anuleaza articolul substantivului
se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care-l determina
forme: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their

Ex: My book.

Adjectivul interogativ
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

pozitie initiala in propozitie


invariabil ca forma
anuleaza articolul
determina un substantiv
forme: what, which, whose, how much, how many.

Diferenta: what./which
Which presupune selectie dintr-un numar limitat.
Ex: Which boy is your best friend?
What nu presupune selectie.
Ex: What days of the week do you know?
Diferenta how much / how many
How much presupune cantitatea si se foloseste pentru substantive nenumarabile.
Ex: How much money do you want?

How many inseamna numar si se foloseste la substantive numarabile.


Ex: How many books do you want?

Adjectivul relativ
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

pozitie mediana
introduce o propozitie secundara
invariabil
determina un substantiv anulandu-i articolul
forme:

whatever (fara selectie),


whichever (selectie din numar limitat),
whose (a, al, ai, ale cui).
Ex: You may take 1/ whatever books you want 2/.

Adjectivul nehotarat
SOME = unii, niste, vreo, cativa
Utilizare:
1.

In propozitia enuntiativa urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural.

Ex: I have some money / friends.


1.

In propozitia interogativa in care se face o afirmatie sau o invitatie.

Ex: Would you like some coffee?


1.

In propozitia in care stiu sigur ca primesc raspuns pozitiv.

Ex: Mother, can you give me some money?


Aici "some" pp o certitudine comparativ cu "any".
1.

In propozitia interogativa in care intrebarea nu se refera la "some".

Ex: Why are there so many people in some restaurants?


Aici, cu sau fara "some" propozitia are aceeasi logica, ea nu se refera la "some", important este "so many"
1.

In propozitia negativa al carui sens este afirmativ.

Ex: I never go home without buying some chocolate.


Sensul real este: I always buy chocolate when I go home.
1.

Cand poate fi inlocuitorul lui "certain".

Ex: Certain people/some people believe they are the best.

ANY
Este inlocuitorul lui "some" in:
1.

Propozitia interogativa la care nu stiu ce raspuns voi primi.

Ex: Is there any milk left?


1.

In propozitia enuntiativa dar cu sensul de oricine, oricare, orice.

Ex: Any book is good for you.


1.

In propozitia care contine un adverb negativ de genul: hardly, barely, scarcely (de abia, cu greu, deloc).

Ex: I hardly eat any bread (nu mananc paine aproape deloc)
1.

In propozitia care contine "if". (if = incertitudine)

Ex: If you find any books, buy them.


1.

In propozitia care contine o expresie de indoiala: maybe, perhaps.

Ex: I doubt there are any good films in town.


1.

In propozitia negativa in care verbul este negat.

Ex: I havent any friends here.

NO
Se foloseste numai in propozitia negativa in care verbul este la afirmativ.
Ex: I have no friends here.

EVERY (fara particularizare)


Ex: Every day I go to my office. (nu ma duc chiar in fiecare zi)

EACH (cu particularizare)


Ex: Each person has a name. (fiecare, particularizare)

EITHER (fiecare din doi)


NEITHER (nici unul din doi)
! Dupa each, every, either sau neither rmeaza substantiv numarabil la singular iar acordul cu verbul se face la
singular.

Expresii cu every si each


Each other = unul pe altul (pp reciprocitate)
Every bit/inch = fiecare bucatica
Every right = tot dreptul
Every now and than = din cand in cand
Every other day = alternativ
Every so often = la interval regulat de timp fara a sti exact cand.

SUCH ( astfel)
Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil.
Ex: I have such friends/information.

SUCH A
Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular.
Ex: This is such a man of honor.

ALL
Urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural.
Ex: All books/information must be used.

WHOLE
Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular.
Ex: I like the whole book.
! Pt perioade de timp se poate folosi si "whole" si "all"
Ex: Im home all the morning/ the whole morning. (whole este cotat ca fiind mai puternic)

THE OTHER
Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular sau plural.
Ex: The other child/children can swim.
Expresia "The other day" = some days ago, cere obligatoriu trecutul.
Ex: I was there the other day. (Am fost acolo acum cateva zile)

OTHER
Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural.
Ex: Give me other examples.

Daca e precedat de "no" poate fi urmat si de numarabil la singular.


Ex: No other man is as good as you are.

ANOTHER
+ substantiv la singular (different, in addition)
Ex: Would you like another drink? = vrei inca unul (suplimentar) sau un altul (diferit)?

BOTH
+ substantiv numarabil la plural (pt. doi)
Ex:I like both kids -> acordul in plural
Both are intelligent.

SEVERAL
Mai multi intr-un numar nedefinit.
+ substantiv numarabil la plural.
Ex: We spent several days there.

MOST = majoritatea
+ substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil.
Ex: Most books/information can be read easily.

ENOUGH
! Daca e urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural are pozitie mobila.
Ex: I have enough money/money enough to be happy.
! Daca e urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular se aseaza dupa el.
Ex: He is man enough to understand me.