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Evolutia probelor de sprint pe plan mondial

Probele de sprint sunt: 100m, 200m, 400m.Probele sunt valabile pentru participarea
masculin i feminin. Alergrile de vitez urmresc parcurgerea distanei precizate,
prin prob, ntr-un timp ct mai scurt. n timpul desfurrii cursei se pot atinge viteze
ntre 9m/s - 12m/s, n unele cazuri chiar mai mari, de regul dup 30m, adic dup
lansarea de la start, cnd se obine viteza maxim.
Pe parcursul acestui referat vom urmari cum au evoluat aceste probe de sprint prin
prisma recordurilor mondiale atat la fete cat si la baieti.
BAIETI

Usain Bolt doborand recordul la 100m 18 Aug 08, Beijing


(sursa: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Usain_Bolt_winning.jpg 16:19 07/09/11)

100 m BAIETI
Cronometrare electronica
9" 69. Usain Bolt, JAM, 18 Aug 08, Beijing
9" 72. Usain Bolt, JAM, 31 Mai 08, New York
9" 74. Asafa Powell, JAM, 09 Sep 07, Rieti

9" 77.
9" 77.
9" 77.
9" 77.
9" 79.
9" 84.
9" 85.
9" 86.
9" 90.
9" 92.
9" 93.
9" 95.

Asafa Powell, JAM, 18 Aug, Zurich.


Asafa Powell, JAM, 11 Iun 06, Gateshead.
Justin Gatlin, USA, 12 Mai 06, Doha.
Asafa Powell, JAM, 14 Iun 05, Athens.
Maurice Greene, USA, 16 Iun 99, Athens.
Donovan Bailey, CAN, 29 Iul 96, Atlanta.
Leroy Burrell, USA, 06 Iul 94, Lausanne.
Carl Lewis, USA, 25 Aug 91, Tokyo.
Leroy Burrell, USA, 14 Iun 91, New York.
Carl Lewis, USA, 24 Sep 88, Seoul.
Calvin Smith, USA, 03 Iul 83, Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs.
Jim Hines, USA, 14 Oct 68, Mxico City.

Cronometrare manuala
9" 9 Donald Quarrie, JAM, 22 Mai 76, Modesto
9" 9 Harvey Glance, USA, 01 Mai 76, Baton Rouge
9" 9 Harvey Glance, USA, 03 Apr 76, Columbia
9" 9 Steve Williams, USA, 27 Mar 76, Gainesville
9" 9 Steve Williams, USA, 22 Aug 75, Berlin
9" 9 Steve Williams, USA, 16 Iul 75, Siena
9" 9 Silvio Leonard, CUB, 05 Iun 75, Ostrava
9" 9 Reynaud Robinson, USA, 01 Iul 72, Eugene
9" 9 Eddie Hart, USA, 01 Iul 72, Eugene
9" 9 Steve Williams, USA, 21 Iun 72, Los Angeles
9" 9 (9"95) Jim Hines, USA, 14 Oct 68, Ciudad de Mxico
9" 9 (10"10) Charles Greene, USA, 20 Iun 68, Sacramento
9" 9 (10"14) Ronnie Ray Smith, USA, 20 Iun 68, Sacramento
9" 9 (10"03) Jim Hines, USA, 20 Iun 68, Sacramento
10" 0 Roger Bambuck, FRA, 20 Iun 68, Sacramento
10" 0 Charles Greene, USA, 20 Iun 68, Sacramento
10" 0 Oliver Ford, USA, 31 Mai 68, Albuquerque
10" 0 Paul Nash, RSA, 02 Apr 68, Krugersdorp.
10" 0 Enrique Figuerola, CUB 17 Iun 67, Budapest
10" 0 Jim Hines, USA, 27 Mai 1967, Modesto
10" 0 (10"06) Bob Hayes, USA, 15 Oct 64, Tokyo
10" 0 Horacio Esteves, VEN, 15 Aug 64, Caracas
10" 0 Harry JeRome, CAN, 15 Iul 60, Saskatoon
10" 0 Armin Hary, FRG, 21 Iun 60, Zurich
10" 1 Ray Norton, USA, 18 Apr 59, San Jose
10" 1 Leamon King, USA, 27 Oct 56, Santa Ana
10" 1 Leamon King, USA, 20 Oct 56, Ontario

10" 1 Ira Murchison, USA, 04 Aug 56, Berlin


10" 1 Willie Williams, USA. 03 Aug 56, Berlin
10" 2 Ira Murchison USA Los Angeles, California, USA Iun 29, 1956
10" 2 Bobby Morrow, USA, 29 Iun 56, Los Angeles
10" 2 Bobby Morrow, USA, 22 Iun 56, Bakersfield
10" 2 Ira Murchison, USA, 01 Iun 56, Compton
10" 2 Bobby Morrow, USA, 19 Mai 56, Houston
10" 2 Heinz Futterer, FRG, 31 Oct 54, Yokohama
10" 2 Emmanuel McDonald Bailey, GBR, 25 Aug 51, Belgrad
10" 2 Norwood Ewell, USA, 09 Iul 48, Evanston
10" 2 Lloyd La Beach, PAN, 15 Mai 48, Fresno
10" 2 Harold Davis, USA, 06 Iun 41, Compton
10" 2 Jesse Owens, USA, 20 Iun 36, Chicago
10" 3 Takayoshi Yoshioka, JPN, 15 Iun 35, Tokyo
10" 3 Ralph Metcalfe, USA, 23 Sep 34, Dairen, China
10" 3 Ralph Metcalfe, USA, 15 Sep 34, Osaka
10" 3 Christian Berger, HOL, 26 Aug 34, Amsterdam
10" 3 Eulace Peacock, USA, 06 Aug 34, Oslo
10" 3 Ralph Metcalfe, USA, 12 Aug 33, Budapest
10" 3 (10"38) Eddie Tolan, USA, 01 Aug 32, Los Angeles
10" 3 (10"38) Ralph Metcalfe, USA, 01 Aug 32, Los Angeles
10" 3 Arthur Jonath, GER, 05 Jun 32, Bochum
10" 3 Percy Williams, CAN, 09 Aug 30, Toronto
10" 4 Eddie Tolan, USA, 25 Aug 29, Copenhagen.
10" 4 Eddie Tolan, USA, 08 Aug 29, Stockholm
10" 4 Charles Paddock, USA, 23 Apr 21, Redlands
10" 6 Jackson Scholz, USA, 16 Sep 20, Stockholm
10" 6 Donald Lippincott, USA, 06 Iul 12, Stockholm

Progresia recordului mondial in timp

200 m BAIETI
Cronometrare electronica
19" 30. Usain Bolt, JAM, 20 Aug 08, Beijing
19" 32. Michael Johnson, USA, 01 Aug 96, Atlanta
19" 66. Michael Johnson, USA, 23 Jun 96, Atlanta
19" 72. Pietro Mennea, ITA, 12 Sep 79, Mexico City
19" 83. Tommie Smith, USA, 16 Oct 68, Mexico City
Cronometrare manuala
19" 8 Donald Quarrie, JAM 03 AUg 71, Cali
19" 8/19"9y Don Quarrie, JAM, 07 Jun 75, Eugene
19" 8 Tommie Smith, USA, 16 Oct 68, Mexico City
20" 0y Tommie Smith, USA, 11 Jun 68, Sacramento
20" 2y Henry Carr, USA, 04 Apr 64, Tempe
20" 3y Henry Carr, USA, 23 Mar 63, Tempe
20" 5y Paul Drayton USA, 23 Jun 62, Walnut
20" 5 Livio Berruti ITA, 03 Sep 60, Rome
20" 5 Livio Berruti ITA, 03 Sep 60, Rome
20" 5 Ray Norton, USA, 02 Jul 60, Stanford
20" 5 Stone Johnson, USA, 02 Jul 60, Stanford
20" 5y Peter Radford, GBR, 28 May 60, Wolverhampton
20" 6 Ray Norton, USA, 30 Apr 60, Philadelphia
20" 6 Ray Norton, USA, 19 Mar 60, Berkeley
20" 6 Bobby Morrow, USA, 27 Nov 56, Melbourne
20" 6 Thane Baker, USA, 23 Jun 56, Bakersfield
20" 6 Andrew Stanfield, USA, 28 Jun 52, Los Angeles
20" 6y Andrew Stanfield, USA, 26 May 51, Philadelphia
21" 2y Willie Applegarth, GBI, 04 Jul 14, London

400 m BAIETI
Cronometrare electronica
43" 18. Michael Johnson, USA, 26 Aug 99, Sevilla
43" 29. Harry Reynolds, USA, 17 Aug 88, Zurich
43" 86. Lee Evans, USA, 18 Oct 68, Mexico City
Cronometrare manuala
44" 1. Lee Evans, USA, 14 Sep 68, Echo Summitt

44" 1 (44"19) Larry James, USA, 14 Sep 68, Echo Summit


44" 5 Tommie Smith, USA, 20 May 67, San Jose
44" 9 Michael Larrabee, USA, 64, Los Angeles
44" 9y Adolph Plummer, USA, 25 May 63, Tempe
44" 9 Carl Kaufmann, FRG, 06 Sep 60, Rome
44" 9 Otis Davis, USA, 06 Sep 60, Rome
45" 2 Louis Jones, USA, 30 Jun 1956, Los Angeles
45" 4 Louis Jones, USA, 18 Mar 55, Mexico
45" 8 George Rhoden, JAM, 22 Aug 50, Eskilstuna
46" 0y Herbert McKenley, JAM, 05 Jun 48, Berkeley
46" 2y Herb McKenley, JAM, 21 Jun 47, Salt Lake City
46" 2y Herb McKenley, JAM, 01 Jun 46, Champaign
46" 0 Grover Klemmer, USA 06 Jun 41, Philadelphia
46" 0 Rudolf Harbig, GER, 12 Aug 39, Frankfurt am Main
46" 1 Archibald Williams, USA, 19 Jun 36, Chicago
46" 2 William Carr, USA, 05 Aug 32, Los Angeles
46" 4 Ben Eastman, USA 26 Mar 32, Palo Alto.
47" 0 Emerson Spencer, USA, 12 May 28, Palo Alto
47" 4y Herman Phillips, USA, 05 May 28, Madison
47" 6 Eric Liddell, GBR, 11 Jul 24, Colombes
47" 4y Ted Meredith, USA, 27 May 16, Cambridge, Mass.
47" 8y Maxie Long, USA, 29 Sep 1900, New York
(sursa: http://www.athletix.org/ data 07/09/11 ora 15:39)

FETE

Florence Griffith-Joyner, 17 Jul 88, Indianapolis


(sursa: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_8_ENa7sVpug/SxjSNImUvKI/AAAAAAAAJJA/9C-lb5dCkwk/s1600h/FlorenceGriffith_1061_Final_Trials8.jpg 4:47 08/09/11)

100 m FETE
Cronometrare manuala
13" 6 Marie MejzlIkova II, CZE, 05 Aug 22, Prague
12" 8 Mary Lines, GBR, 20 Aug 22, Paris
12" 0 Myrtle Cook, CAN, 02 Jul 28, Halifax
12" 0 Tollien Schuurman, NED, 31 Aug 30, Amsterdam
11" 9 Tollien Schuurman, NED, 05 Jun 32, Haarlem
11" 9 Stanislawa Walasiewicz, POL, 01 Aug 32, Los Angeles
11" 8 Stanislawa Walasiewicz, POL, 17 Aug 33, Poznan
11" 5 Fanny Blankers-Koen, NED, 05 Sep 43, Amsterdam
11" 5. Marjorie Jackson, AUS, 22 Jul 52, Helsinki
11" 4. Marjorie Jackson, AUS, 04 Oct 52, Gifu
11" 3. Shirley de la Hunty Strickland, AUS, 04 Aug 55, Warzaw
11" 2. Wilma Rudolph, USA, 19 Jul 61, Stuttgart
11" 2. Wyomia Tyus, USA, 15 Oct 64, Tokyo
11" 1. Irena Kirszenstein - Szewinska, POL, 09 Jul 65, Prague
11" 1. Wyomia Tyus, USA, 31 Jul 65, Kiev
11" 1. Barbara Ferrell, USA, 02 Jul 67, Santa Barbara
11" 1. Ludmila Samotjosova, URS, 15 Aug 68, Leninakan
11" 1. Irena Kirszenstein-Szewinska, POL, 14 Oct 68, Mexico City
11" 0. Wyomia Tyus, USA, 15 Oct 68, Mexico City
11" 0. Cheng Chi, TAW, 18 Jul 70, Sdstadt
11" 0. Renate Meissner - Stecher, DDR, 02 Aug 70, Berlin
11" 0. Renate Stecher, DDR, 31 Jul 71, Berlin
11" 0. Renate Stecher, DDR, 03 Jun 72, Potsdam
11" 0. Ellen Stropahl, DDR, 15 Jun 72, Potsdam
11" 0. Eva Gleskov, CZE, 01 Jul 72, Budapest
10" 9. Renate Stecher, DDR, 07 Jun 73, Ostrava
10" 8. Renate Stecher, 20 Jul 73, Dresden
Cronometrare automata
11" 21 Wyomia Tyus, USA, 14 Oct 68, Mexico City
11" 12 Barbara Ferrell, USA, 14 Oct 68, Mexico City
11" 08 Wyomia Tyus, USA, 15 Oct 68, Mexico City
11" 07. Renate Stecher, DDR, 02 Sep 72, Munich
11" 01. Annegret Richter, DDR, 25 Jul 76, Montreal
10" 88. Marlies Oelsner -Ghr, DDR, 01 Jul 77, Dresden
10" 81. Marlies Ghr, DDR, 08 Jun 83, Berlin
10" 79. Evelyn Ashford, 03 Jul 83, Colorado Springs
10" 76. Evelyn Ashford, USA, 22 Aug 84, Zurich
10" 61. Florence Griffith-Joyner, 16 Jul 88, Indianapolis
10" 49. Florence Griffith-Joyner, 17 Jul 88, Indianapolis

200 m FETE
28" 6 Marie MejzlIkova I, CZE, 21 May 22, Paris
27" 8 Alice Cast, GBR, 20 Apr 22, Paris
26" 8y Mary Lines, GBR, 23 Sep 22, Waddon
26" 2y Eileen Edwards, GBR, 20 Aug 24, London
25" 4 Eileen Edwards, GBR, 12 Jun 27, Berlin
23" 6. Stanislawa Walasiewicz, POL, 15 Aug 35, Warzaw.
23" 6. Marjorie Jackson, AUS, 25 Jul 52, Helsinki
23" 4. Marjorie Jackson, AUS, 25 Jul 52, Helsinki
23" 2. Betty Cuthbert, AUS, 16 Sep 56, Sydney
23" 2y Betty Cuthbert, AUS, 07 Mar 60, Hobart/Tasmania
22" 9. Wilma Rudolph, USA, 07 Jul 60, Corpus Christi
22" 9y Margaret Burvill, AUS, 22 Feb 64, Perth
22" 7. Irena Kriszenstein -Szewinska, POL, 08 Aug 65, Warzaw
22" 5. Irena Kriszenstein -Szewinska, POL, 18 Oct 68, Mexico City
22" 4. Chi Cheng, TAW, 12 Jul 70, Munich
22" 4. Renate Stecher, DDR, 07 Sep 72, Munich
22" 1. Renate Stecher, DDR, 21 Jul 73, Dresden
Automatic Timinng
22" 58 Irena Szewinska-Kirszenstein, POL, 18 Oct 68, Mexico City
22" 40 Renate Stecher, GDR, 07 Sep 72, Munchen
22" 21. Irena Szewinska, POL, 13 Jun 74, Potsdam
22" 06. Marita Koch, DDR, 28 May 78, Erfurt
22" 02. Marita Koch, DDR, 03 Jun 79, Leipzig
21" 71. Marita Koch, DDR, 10 Jun 79, Karl-Marx-Stadt
21" 71. Marita Koch, DDR, 21 Jul 84, Potsdam
21" 71. Heike Drechsler, DDR, 29 Jun 86, Jena
21" 71. Heike Drechsler, DDR, 29 Aug 86, Stuttgart
21" 56. Florence Griffith-Joyner, USA, 29 Sep 88, Seoul
21" 34. Florence Griffith-Joyner, USA, 29 Sep 88, Seoul

400 m FETE
Hand Timing
64" 4y Mary Lines, GBR, 17 Jul 22, London
62| 4y Mary Lines, GBR, 18 Aug 23, Bromley
60" 8y Eileen Edwards, GBR, 16 Jul 24, London
55" 2. Polina Lazareva, URS, 10 May 57, Moscow
54" 0. Maria Itkina, URS, 08 Jun 57, Minsk
53" 6. Maria Itkina, URS, 06 Jul 57, Moscow
53" 4. Maria Itkina, URS, 12 Sep 59, Krasnodar
51" 9. Sin Kim Dan, North Korea, 23 Oct 62, Pjongjang

51" 0. Marilyn Neufville, JAM, 25 Jul 70, Edinburgh


51" 0 Monika Zehrt, GDR, 04 Jul 72, Paris
49" 9. Irena Szewinska, POL, 22 Jun 74, Rome
Automatic Timing
50" 14. Riitta Salin, FIN, 04 Sep 74, Rome
49" 77. Christina Brehmer, DDR, 09 May 76, Dresden
49" 75. Irena Szewinska, POL, 22 Jun 76, Bygdoszsz
49" 29. Irena Szewinska, POL, 29 Jul, 76, Montreal
49" 19. Marita Koch, DDR , 02 Jul 78, Leipzig
49" 03. Marita Koch, DDR, 19 Aug 78, Potsdam
48" 94. Marita Koch, DDR, 31 Aug 78, Prague
48" 89. Marita Koch, DDR, 29 Jul 79, Potsdam
48" 60. Marita Koch, DDR, 04 Aug 79, Turin
48" 16. Marita Koch, DDR, 08 Sep 82, Athens
47" 99. Jarmila Kratochvilova, CZE, 10 Aug 83, Helsinki
47" 60. Marita Koch, DDR, 06 Oct 85, Canberra
(sursa: http://www.athletix.org/ data 07/09/11 ora 15:39)

Din aceste date statistice se poate observa ca recordul mondial sa imbunatatit


dramatic la probele de sprint pe parcursul anilor ajungandu-se la timpi de: 9" 69/10" 49
la 100m, 19" 30/21" 34 la 200m si 43" 18/47" 60 la 400m. Carui fapt se datoreaza
aceasta imbunatatire? Specialistii care au studiat aceste probe de sprint au observat ca
caracteristica fiziologica si biochimica comuna tuturor acestor probe este aceea ca de
se realizeaza in cea mai mare parte in conditii anaerobe, deci in timpul alergarii de
viteza, atletul contracteaza, o insemnata datorie de oxigen. Din cele expuse rezulta ca
performanta sportive in aceste probe se coreleaza mai putin cu eficienta aparatelor
circulator si respirator, si depinde in special de starea functionala si eficienta aparatului
neuromuscular si sistemului nervos central , care prin mobilitatea sa functionala ridicata
asigura, alternanta rapida a excitatiei si inhibitiei aparatului locomotor (contradictierelaxare ) ceea ce in ultima instanta se concretizeaza in calitatea motrica de baza a
alergatorului pe distante scurte de viteza.
Acest lucru a dus la schimbarea criteriilor de selectie a tinerilor atleti si a
metodelor de antrenament folosite. Selectia tinerilor pentru aceste probe si antrenarea
lor in continuare trebuie sa tina seama in primul rand de aceste insusiri ale aparatului
neuromuscular, stiut fiind ca viteza este calitatea motrica greu de dezvoltat la cei care
dispun de un tip metabolic aerob inadecvat probele de sprint. Antrenamentele specifice
au inceput inca de la tinerii atleti care au parte de antrenori specializati care sunt
obisnuiti cu performanta si capabili sa scoata ceea ce este cel mai bun dintr-un tanar
sprinter. Conditia fizica este ceea ce ii intareste pe sprinteri iar puterea este cel
maiimportant component al fortei unui sprinter.Pentru a obtine cat mai mult
princonditionare,antrenamentele din timpul sezonului trebuie sa inceapa de la un volum

scazutla unul mare si de la o intensitate joasa la una ridicata inainte de intoarcerea


finala la unvolum scazut si la o intensitate joasa inainte de competitiile mojore.Tinerii
sportivi necesita mai multa conditionarecorporala pe ansamblu decat ceiadulti.Corpurile
acestora trebuie sa se obisnuiasca cu volume si intensitati de antrenamentmai scazute
inainte de a fi pregatiti fiziologic sa se antreneze si sa exerseze mai mult.Familializarea
graduala a tinerilor sportivi le permite sa se dezvolte complet siadecvat.Prin urmare
antrenorii trebuie sa puna accent pe dezvoltarea fizica in ansamblumai mult decat pe
antrenament specific de sprint.Pe masura ce tanarul sportiv sematurizeaza si
capacitatea sa de sprint devine mai vizibila,antrenorul si sportivul vor puteasa hotarasca
pentru ce tip de competitie este mai potrivit acesta-sprinturi scurte ca cele de100-200
metri sau sprinturi de rezistenta ca cele de 400 de metri.Dar retineti ca la antrenarea
tinerilor sportivi cu cat antrenamentul este mai putinspecializat.cu atat este
mai bine.Conditionarea generala presupune imbunatirea fortei si aflexibilitatii in
toate grupele de muschi precum si imbunatatirea capacitatii pulmonare
sicardiace.Exemple
de
antrenament
de
forta
include:antrenament
cu
greutatiatasate,alergare pe dealuri si alergare de rezistenta.Capacitatea pulmonara si
cardiacacreste
odata
cu
alergarea
pe
distante
lungi
cu
intensitate
scazuta.O conditionare maispecifica implica dezvoltarea fortei si puterii in grupele de
muschi
folosite
cu
precadere
la
alergare:gluteali,tendoanele
poplitee,cvadricepsii,muschiul gastrocnemian sisoleus,dorsiflexori sau ai gleznei,flexori
sau ai degetelor de la picioare,precum si dezvoltarea incheieturii umarului pentru
miscarea bratelor.Conditia fizica avansata implicade asemenea adaptarea corpului la
cerintele energetice specifice sprinterilor.
Cu toate ca metodele de antrenament si de selectie sau imbunatatit dramatic pe
parcursul ultimilor ani, cum se explica ca recordurile mondiale la probele de sprint fete
stau in picioare de peste 2 decenii in timp ce recordurile la baieti sunt spulberate
aproape in fiecare an? Dupa parerea mea este nevoie ca in atletismul feminin sa apara
un fenomen precum Usain Bolt sau Assafa Powel. Asta are nevoie atletismul feminin
pentru ca recordurile mondiale sa fie doborate.
Ce definete, oare, civilizaia noastr? Viteza! Oamenii cuceresc timpul i
spaiul, accelernd fr de ncetare mijloacele de a le strbate. Viteza nu este altceva
dect msura timpului de care ai nevoie ca s poi parcurge o distan... i, uneori, este
vorba de distana care ne separ de moarte... Opera de art trebuie s exprime tocmai
ceea ce nu se supune morii, ns trebuie s o fac printr-o asemenea form, care s
rmn i o mrturie asupra epocii n care triete atletul.
Constantin Brancusi