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Confidential Psychological Report

Student: L.W.
DOB: 6/30/2003
Age: 11 years, 4 months
Gender: Male
School: FRE
Report Date: 11/14/14
Grade: 5th
Examiner: Kaitlin Walsh Bateman, MS. Ed.S. in progress., School Psychology Intern
Supervising Psychologist: Rebecca McNaughton, MS, CAS, NCSP, School Psychologist
Reason for Referral
L was referred for this initial evaluation as he was a transfer to the district from an online school,
and his previous IEP from when he was a student at SSD in the past had lapsed. L is continuing
to be homeschooled and online school, but is also a part-time public school student in the district
for certain specials and units of inquiry each day. L will shut down when schoolwork (either
group or individual) becomes too difficult, and has difficulty transitioning between classes.
Concerns around academics, intelligence, social-emotional status, and social difficulties were
also conveyed by his parents and teachers. Parents were also concerned about L displaying
characteristics of Autism, and although he has never been formally diagnosed, would like more
information about some of his behavioral characteristics, which may present on the autism
Assessment Procedures
Behavioral Observations
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fifth Edition (WISC-V)
Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)
Behavior Assessment System for Children Second Edition (BASC-2) Parent and Teacher
Rating Scales
Gilliam Autism Rating Scale Third Edition (GARS-3)
Behavioral Observations
L was observed by the examiner on one occasion in the classroom setting during group and
whole classroom time. This observation took place at 3:20pm and lasted hour. This
observation represents a small glimpse into the students behavior in the classroom, and may not
fully represent what occurs on a regular basis.
As the examiner entered the classroom, the students were working on a history assignment in
small groups. The teacher approached and let the examiner know that L was having some
difficulty starting, but that a classmate that sits next to him was helping and encouraging him, as
he works really well and feels comfortable with this female student. L looked up from his group
when the examiner approached, and was writing his initials with pencil on his forehead, as his
classmates in the group looked on. The teacher came by to give M&M rewards to the students
who were working hard, and L received some extra as he had done a good job yesterday, she had
commented. L organized his pencil box while the others in the group worked on their
assignment. He showed his large bunch of pencils to another student, and the teacher asked him
to figure out a problem having to do with the number of pencils he was holding. He then

continued to eat his M&Ms while organizing his pencil box and did not continue on his
worksheet. Eventually the teachers aide came to Ls side and asked him what he had done as far
as work. At this point it was time to clean up and join the rest of the class at the front of the room
for a whole group task.
L walked to his desk, put away his assignment and started to play with a folder in his desk,
spinning it around. He then took a large plastic bag that was in his desk, opened it and swung it
around. Teacher asked for all students to join the circle when desks were cleared. L looked up
and said, My desk is not cleared, then started to organize his desk. The teachers aide came
over to tell him to grab his script that the class will be reading, and not to worry about cleaning.
He said that he has too much stuff. She assured him that it is ok, and he proceeds to sit with the
other students in a large circle at the front of the classroom.
In the group, the students are asked to read a sentence aloud from the script. L held the script, but
did not know what line they were on. The teacher pointed to where they were so he can follow
along. L curled up the script, flipped it around, and used it as a scope to look through. At times it
seemed as if he was following along, as he turned the page when the other students did, and at
other times he did not. When it was time for him to speak his part, the student sitting next to him
pointed to where he should be looking. He didnt read anything, and after a few seconds passed
the teacher asked him if he wanted to read or say pass. He shook his head, and they moved on
to the next student. When it came around to him a second time, he also acknowledged that he
will pass. At this point, the teacher leaned in and asked him if anything was wrong, and he did
not answer her. She said it is ok if he goes to his desk, and he didnt move. He put his paper that
he had been playing with next to him, and sat on it. He had his fingers in his mouth and was
staring off.
When the teacher started to assign play parts to the students, most of the students were excited
and wanted to pick a part. L did not appear interested, and when the teacher asked him if he
wanted a part, he shook his head no. He continued to play with his script, and put his hands
and/or fingers in his mouth. Eventually the children went back to their seats, and his seatmate
asked why he didnt want to be in the play. He answered, but it was indecipherable to the
examiner. She asked if he can help her with something play-related instead. He continued to
swing a plastic bag around while the teacher asked the students to write the homework in their
planners. The teacher came around to L and asked him to write his paragraph on Pocahontas and
then asked him if he needed her to write it in his planner, as it is a long word. She then wrote it,
and he wrote his other homework, which was reading. At this point, it was the end of the day and
all students were packing up their belongings to leave.
Cognitive Functioning
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fifth Edition (WISC-V)
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fifth Edition (WISC-V) was administered to
assess Ls intellectual functioning. Subtest scores on the WISC-V are standardized to have a
mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. This means that 2 out of 3 people will obtain subtest
scores between 7 and 13. Intelligence quotients and index scores have a mean of 100 and a

standard deviation of 15; thus 2 out of 3 people will obtain IQ and index scores between 85 and
L came willingly to test with the examiner on all occasions. Since the examiner had never met L
before this assessment, they spent time getting to know one another and build rapport before
testing started. This seemed to put L at ease, and he spoke candidly about some of his interests,
such as Hot Wheels cars, mountain biking, skiing, and snowboarding. L appeared happy,
animated, and was talkative, although the examiner had some difficulty understanding his speech
at times. Once getting to know L, the examiner had an easier time understanding his words.
During testing, L was focused, attentive, and persevered throughout each task. He thoroughly
enjoyed certain subtests, and appeared to want to show off his knowledge to the examiner. He
responded very well to praise, and worked diligently throughout. He took frequent breaks across
the three days that they worked together. Overall, L exhibited strong attention, good eye-contact
on occasion, and a positive attitude toward testing.
Ls unique set of thinking and reasoning abilities make his overall intellectual functioning
difficult to summarize by a single score, as his nonverbal reasoning abilities are shown to be
much better developed than his verbal reasoning abilities. Processing complex visual information
by forming spatial images of part-whole relationships and/or by manipulating the parts to solve
novel problems without using words is a strength for L, while making sense of complex verbal
information and using verbal abilities to solve novel problems is a less well-developed ability.
The Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) is derived from a combination of seven subtest scores, and is
considered the most representative estimate of global intellectual functioning. Due to his
variability between subtests on each index, as well as variability between indices, Ls FSIQ is
not easily summarized, and should be interpreted with caution. Ls overall performance resulted
in a Full Scale IQ score of 86. His overall thinking and reasoning abilities are at or better than
approximately 18% of his same-aged peers, which classifies his general cognitive functioning in
the Low Average range.
Scores on the WISC-V are grouped into five indices, which combine into a Full Scale IQ Score.
Ten core subtests of the WISC-IV were administered to L, from which his composite scores were
derived. L obtained a score of 78 on the Verbal Comprehension Index, which assesses acquired
verbal knowledge, verbal reasoning, and concept formation. This indicates he is in the Very
Low range and performing at or above approximately 7% of his same-aged peers. Overall, L
may have difficulty performing as well as other same-aged peers when asked to understand and
communicate verbal information. This may be the case with a classroom lecture or if he is
required to give an oral response to a question.
On the Visual Spatial Index, a measure of ones ability to visualize, remember images and
details, and have an awareness of ones surroundings, L scored a 108. This puts him in the
Average range, or above 70% of his like-aged peers. L should perform as well as other sameaged peers when asked to understand and communicate with visual information, perceive visual
patterns, and put visual information in order. This may be the case when he is working with
pictures, videos, maps, charts, or completing a hands-on project.

The Fluid Reasoning Index measures a childs ability to have a deliberate, but flexible control of
attention, as well as the capacity to think logically, reason, and to solve problems in unfamiliar or
novel situations, independent of acquired knowledge. On this index, L scored a 105, which puts
him in the Average range, or above 63% of his same-aged peers. He should perform as well as
same-aged peers when it comes to problem-solving, drawing inferences, and thinking
L received a score of 97 on the Working Memory Index, which measures auditory attention and
the ability to process information in memory, as well as his ability sustain attention, concentrate
and exert mental control. Working memory is also ones ability to hold information in immediate
awareness, and then use it within a few seconds. This indicates L is in the Average range, or
performing at or better than 42% of his peers. He should perform as well as his same-aged peers
in the classroom when remembering information he has just heard, initial mastery of material,
following instructions or multi-step directions, and staying on track during complicated tasks, as
this is all part of ones working memory.
Lastly, L obtained a score of 80 on the Processing Speed Index, which measures the ability to
process simple or routine visual information quickly and without errors. He is in the Low
Average range, and performs at or better than approximately 9% of his peers in this area. L may
have difficulty in comparison to his same-aged peers when asked to mentally process
information quickly, such as when copying information from the board or a book, or in the skills
needed to scan letters in the process of reading. These results appear to be a valid representation
of Ls overall cognitive functioning.
Standard Score
Verbal Comprehension
Visual Spatial
Fluid Reasoning
Working Memory
Processing Speed
Full Scale IQ


Percentile Rank

Descriptive Classification
Very Low
Low Average
Low Average

Executive Functioning
Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)
The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) is a norm-referenced
questionnaire to evaluate the executive functioning of children ages 5-18. The BRIEF t-scores
have a mean of 50 and an average range of 40-60. Scores above 65 are considered significant and
indicate a level of difficulty that may affect learning. The overall composite is called the Global
Executive Control (GEC) which is divided into two index scores, Behavior Regulation (BRI) and
Metacognition (MI). The BRI contains three subscales: Inhibit, Shift, and Emotional Control,
and the MI contains five subscales: Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, Organization of
Materials, and Monitor.
Ls parents and 5th grade teacher, Ms. O, both completed the BRIEF (parent and teacher forms,
respectively). The results convey the following information:

Emotional Control
Working Memory
Organization of Materials

Parent T-Score

Teacher T-Score

Percentile (Parent/Teacher)

*Indicates scores in the Clinically Significant range.

Both parents and Ms. O rated L as Clinically Significant for both the Shift and Emotional
Control scales. Ms. O also rated him as Clinically Significant for the Inhibit scale.
Characteristics of difficulty with a childs ability to shift include him having trouble moving
freely or transitioning from one activity to another, as well as with flexibility in problem-solving.
Emotional Control includes a childs ability to appropriately control his emotional responses.
Difficulty with inhibiting may include a childs ability to control impulses or stop unwanted
behavior. Therefore, for both parent and teacher, Ls Behavior Regulation Index (BRI) was in
the Clinically Significant range due to the high ratings on these three subscales.
Ms. O rated L as Clinically Significant for the Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and
Monitor scales. His parents also rated L as Clinically Significant for the Plan/Organize and
Monitor scales. The characteristics of a child who has difficulty initiating includes having trouble
when starting a task, generating ideas, and using problem-solving strategies. Children with
working memory difficulties may exhibit signs of having trouble remembering something he has
just heard, or following multi-step directions. The Plan/Organize scale represents a childs ability
to anticipate future events, set goals, and grasp main ideas; so if there are deficits than the child
may have difficulty with those types of things. Lastly, a child who has trouble monitoring
himself, may exhibit characteristics of having difficulty with checking their work, or assessing
their own performance. Due to ratings being in the Clinically Significant range for these
subscales, Ls Metacognitive Index (MI) was also in the Clinically Significant range according to
his teachers ratings. Both teacher and parents ratings also put L in the Clinically Significant
range for his overall Global Executive Composite (GEC) when compared to his same-aged peers.
Social Emotional Functioning
Behavior Assessment System for Children Second Edition (BASC-2)
The Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) includes questions
concerning the observable behavior of the child designed to assess his or her social and
emotional functioning. It consists of questionnaires with many items describing positive adaptive
behaviors and potentially problematic behaviors of concern. Areas of reported behaviors include
the general Behavioral Symptom Index, Externalizing Problems Composite, Internalizing
Composite, School Problems Composite, Additional Clinical Scales, and Adaptive Skills

Results are based on T-Scores, ranging from 0-100 with a mean of 50. Clinical Scale scores
below 59 are indicative of typical or average behavior. Scores between 60 and 69 are mildly
elevated, and represent the at-risk range. Over 70, behaviors are considered clinically
significant and over 80 are interpreted as extreme. Conversely, scores on the Adaptive Scales are
scored in the opposite direction with higher scores indicative of strengths and scores below 40
suggestive of areas of skills deficits/weaknesses, while scores below 30 indicate are considered
clinically significant.
The results indicate the following:
Conduct Problems
Externalizing Problems
Internalizing Problems
Attention Problems
Learning Problems
School Problems
Attention Problems
Behavioral Symptoms
Social Skills
Study Skills
Activities of Daily Living
Functional Comm.
Adaptive Skills

T-Score / Percentile
61 / 86
62 / 88
48 / 52
58 / 82
33 / 3
53 / 70
47 / 45

83 / 99**
71 / 96*
64 / 89
70 / 96

T-Score / Percentile
61 / 87
63 / 90
49 / 62
58 / 83
55 / 75
74 / 96*
43 / 21
59 / 85
64 / 89
66 / 91
66 / 93
82 / 98**
87 / 99**
77 / 98

30 / 3*
48 / 42
44 / 29
39 / 15
25/ 1*
35 / 8

25 / 1*
36 / 9
39 / 16
38 / 14
29 / 4*
31 / 4


*Indicates score in the Clinically Significant Range

**Indicates scores in the Extreme Range

Both parents and teacher completed the BASC-2 parent and teacher rating scales. The teacher
rated L as Clinically Significant for the Depression scale, which may include the child can seem
withdrawn, pessimistic, and/or sad. Some items that have been marked as sometimes, often,
or almost always were Seems lonely, Is easily upset, and Is sad. Scores in this range
warrant further follow-up. Both parents and teacher rated L as Clinically Significant for
Atypicality, which includes the child engaging in behaviors that are considered strange or odd,
with a general disconnect from his surroundings. Teacher also rated him as Clinically Significant
for Withdrawal, which includes the child being frequently alone, difficulty with making friends,
and/or is unwilling to join group activities.

As for the Adaptive Skills area, both Ms. O and parents rated L in the Clinically Significant
range for both Adaptability and Functional Communication. Difficulty with Adaptability can
include the child having trouble when adapting to changing situations, and taking much longer to
recover from difficult situations than most others his age. Functional Communication problems
can include the child demonstrating unusually poor expressive and receptive communication
skills, and difficulty seeking out and finding information on his own.
Gilliam Autism Rating Scale Third Edition (GARS-3)
The GARS-3 is a norm-referenced screening instrument used to identify persons who have
severe behavioral problems that may be indicative of autism spectrum disorders. Its six subscales
are related to the Autism Societys definition of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which describe
specific, observable, and measurable behaviors. The subscales are Restricted/Repetitive
Behaviors, Social Interaction, Social Communication, Emotional Responses, Cognitive Style,
and Maladaptive Speech.
The Autism Index mean for the normative sample is 100, with a standard deviation of 15. The
higher the Autism Index score, the greater is the probability that the person has ASD. Also, the
greater the index score, the more severe the autistic behavior is. The results of the teacher and
parent reports are the following:
Restricted/Repetitive Behaviors
Social Interaction
Social Communication
Emotional Responses
Cognitive Style
Maladaptive Speech
Autism Index Score

Scaled Scores (Parent/Teacher)

4 / 14
4 / 10
9 / 14
68 / 106

Percentile (Parent/Teacher)
2 / 91
2 / 50
16 / 25
37 / 91
25/ 37
9 / 37
1 / 65

Ls parents and teacher were given the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale - Third Edition (GARS 3) as
there were some concerns around his behavior, social and functional communication, and
atypicality from both parents and the school staff. Parents rated L with an Autism Index score of
68, which indicates that there is a Probable level of ASD, with minimal support required. He was
rated with more difficulty in the areas of Emotional Responses, and Cognitive Style by parents.
Emotional Responses subscale measures the extreme emotional responses to everyday situations,
and examples include becomes upset when routines are changed and temper tantrums when
frustrated. Cognitive Style includes measures of idiosyncratic fixated interests, characteristics,
and cognitive abilities. Items from this subscale include, talks about a single subject
excessively, and displays excellent memory.
Ms. O rated L with an Autism Index score of 106, which indicates that there is a Very Likely
level of ASD, requiring very substantial support. He was also rated with more difficulty among
all of the subscales, with the highest percentile ranks in the areas of Restricted/Repetitive
Behaviors, Emotional Responses, and Social Interaction. Restricted/Repetitive Behaviors
measures stereotyped behaviors, fixated interests, routines, or rituals. Examples include, uses
toys or objects inappropriately, and repeats unintelligible sounds (babbles) over and over.

Social Interaction measures deficits in social behaviors, such as does not initiate conversations
with peers or others and seems indifferent to other persons attention (doesnt try to get,
maintain, or direct the other persons attention).
L is an 11 year, 4 month old 5th grade boy who attends Frisco Elementary in the afternoons only,
while being homeschooled in the mornings by his parents. He is a very likable child, and has a
variety of interests both in and out of school. Concerns were brought to the team from both
parents and teachers about his academic performance, overall cognitive ability, and social and
emotional status, as well as difficulty with social interactions.
Ls unique set of thinking and reasoning abilities make it difficult to summarize his overall
cognitive functioning with one single score, as his nonverbal abilities are much better developed
than his verbal abilities. He has some personal weaknesses in the areas of Verbal
Comprehension, which is his ability to understand and communicate verbal communication. He
also has some deficits with processing speed, which measures the ability to process simple or
routine visual information quickly and without errors. He may have more difficulty in the
classroom when also to follow multi-steps directions or stay on track during complicated tasks.
In regards to executive functioning, L may have difficulty when it comes to shifting, or
transitioning, between activities or tasks, as well as appropriately controlling emotional
responses according to parents and teacher. His teacher also has concerns about his ability to
inhibit, or control his impulses. Both parents and teacher see signs of L also having difficulty
when anticipating future events, setting goals, and grasping main ideas, as well as difficulty with
checking his own work and assessing his own performance. Teacher also sees L as having
difficulty starting a task, generating ideas, and using problem-solving strategies, as well as
following multi-step directions, or remembering something he has just heard.
When it comes to Ls social-emotional functioning, both parents and teacher notice that L
exhibits signs of atypicality, which includes a child who exhibits odd or strange behavior and/or
a general disconnect from surroundings in comparison to same-aged peers. They both also
indicated that adaptability and functional communication were difficult for L. Lastly, teacher
indicated that L may show signs of depression and withdrawal, which should warrant some
follow-up with a counseling professional.
Finally, Ls parents and teacher have indicated that L displays signs of Autism Spectrum
Disorder, with parents indicating a probable concern, and teacher indicating a very likely
concern. Further follow-up should be warranted. These results appear to be a valid representation
of Ls cognitive, executive, and social-emotional functioning at this time.
1. Provide L with opportunities to work with other peers in the classroom to build social
skills. Perhaps L can also work with a model peer to learn from him or her about
appropriate reactions in social situations.
2. Break down assignments and schoolwork for L that tend to cause him to shutdown, or
become anxious or aggravated when the work becomes too hard for him.

3. Provide L with a graphic organizer, or other type of writing accommodation, to help him
to generate ideas so that he can get his thoughts on paper before he becomes
4. Give L class notes prior to a lecture, so that he can follow along rather than have to write
things down as teacher speaks and repeat multi-step directions for L until he understands
what he has to do, as he has difficulty with following more complicated directions.
5. L should be able to have more time to complete tests and in class assignments due to his
processing speed deficits.
6. Provide L with a daily schedule that is easily accessible and give him 5-minute prompts
before a transition, to ease his anxiety around this area of difficulty for him.
7. Continue to provide L speech and language services to help him build verbal
comprehension as well as help him articulate more clearly, especially as he grows older.
8. Continue to provide L with academic and social opportunities to learn and grow which
commensurate with his current abilities.

Kaitlin Walsh Bateman, School Psychologist Intern