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Sarah Johnson

Social Studies
Grade 6

Unit Plan

Strand A: Heritage and Identity: Communities in


Canada, Past and Present
Overall Expectations/Objectives:
A1.Application: assess contributions to Canadian identity made by
various groups and by various features of Canadian communities and
regions (FOCUSON:Cause and Consequence; Patterns and Trends)
A2.Inquiry: use the social studies inquiry process to investigate different
perspectives on the historical and/or contemporary experience of two or
more distinct communities in Canada (FOCUSON:Perspective)
A3.Understanding Context: demonstrate an understanding of significant
experiences of, and major changes and aspects of life in, various historical
and contemporary communities in Canada (FOCUSON:Significance;
Continuity and Change)

Specific Expectations:
A1.2evaluate some of the contributions that various ethnic and/or
religious groups have made to Canadian identity
A2.2gather and organize information from a variety of primary and
secondary sources using various technologies that present different
perspectives on the historical and/or contemporary experience of two or
more communities in Canada
A2.1formulate questions to guide investigations into different perspectives
on the historical and/or contemporary experience of two or more distinct
communities in Canada
A2.5evaluate evidence and draw conclusions about perspectives on the
historical and/or contemporary experience of two or more distinct
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communities in Canada
A3.5describe interactions between communities in Canada, including
between newcomers and groups that were already in the country
A3.6identify key differences, including social, cultural, and/or economic
differences, between two or more historical and/or contemporary
communities in Canada
A3.7describe significant changes within their own community in Canada

Critical Question for the Unit:


How did the relationships between European Explorers and the First
Nations Peoples benefit /harm each side of the interaction?

Vision:
Ideal
-

Citizen:
Thinks of both sides of an interaction
Develops empathy towards marginalized or mistreated people
Thinks critically about what is shown in the News and/or History
Textbooks, looks for multiple sources of information on a subject
Content Goals:
Personal/Social values
- Understands the complexity
- Develops empathy
of the interactions between
- Becomes increasingly
First Nations and European
committed to social justice
explorers
- Learns about the goals and
strategies used by each
group of peoples.
Critical Thinking:
Individual and collective action
- Can analyze controversial
- Works cooperatively in
issues
groups with others.
- Sees the issue from varying
- Plan and solve demanding
perspectives
problems.
- Possesses tools to think
critically about the
questions of the Unit and
the Lessons.
Information gathering and
reporting:

Sarah Johnson
-

Gather information from a


variety of sources
Use multiple medias of
information.

Overview:
In this unit, students will study interactions between First Nations
Peoples and early European Explorers. The overall goal of the unit is for
students to think critically about these interactions, and form an
opinion of who they think benefited form the relationship and how,
based on evidence. Students will fill out a chart throughout the entire
unit that will be their guide to comparing these two groups of people.
The pillars of comparison are: Religion, Food, Trade, Disease,
Disrespects, and Help. Students will gain knowledge in class of these
interactions, and be required to do their own research outside of the
classroom. Part way through the unit, there will be a U-Shaped debate,
where students can express their opinions and consider other
evidence. The unit will include a trip to the Royal Ontario Museum
where students will answer questions to guide them in comparing the
Canada and Canada: First Peoples exhibits. The unit will then expand
on the knowledge of early interactions, and continue to look at how
these interactions changed over the course of history. The unit will
close with an examination of the way these interactions have shaped
Canada in present day life, and what repercussions we are
experiencing now. The summative evaluation is a small essay where
students are required to analyze the relations examined in the entire
unit, and form an evidence based opinion answer to the question:
How did the relationships between European Explorers and the First
Nations Peoples benefit /harm each side of the interaction?

Sarah Johnson
Unit Plan:
Lesson 1:
Introduction
What are we
talking about and
where will we get
our information?

- Teacher will facilitate a lesson where students


will brainstorm what they know about the
differences in the lives of the European explorers
and the First Nations peoples. Teacher will write
these on the board as they are said, no judgments
will be made, every contribution is a good one.
- Students will then brainstorm some of the
different goals they might think that the European
explorers and the First Nations peoples may have
had. Teacher will write these on the board as well.
- Discuss with the class similarities and
differences.
Where we get our knowledge:
- Discuss with class what primary sources
historians might base information on, when
discussing this time period. Get their theories.
- Explain that we rely on primarily written
documents, which are from the European
Explorers. We can also find out information form
the First Nations Peoples perspectives from
stories and legends passed down through
generations (Canadas First Nations Project, 2001).
- These are both subject to interpretation, and are
of the opinion of the creator; this is why it is so
important to research different viewpoints about a
subject.
- Distribute checklist for Summative Evaluation
(See Appendix 1). Ensure that each student
understands the three parts to the assignment,
and that they will be taking place throughout the
unit. Answer any questions they may have.
-Distribute Interactions between European
Explorers and First Nations Peoples Assignment.
Discuss the success criteria and ensure that each
student understands what is asked of them. (See
Appendix 3)
- Distribute the Evaluating Acts assignment.
Discuss the success criteria and ensure that each
student understands what is asked of them. (See
Appendix 5)

Sarah Johnson

Lesson 2: cultural
differences

Assessment: If they able to successfully


brainstorm some preexisting knowledge on the
topic. If they are able to contribute to the
discussion of similarities and differences between
the brainstormed concepts.
See Lesson Plan 2
Begin by reading creation story.
- Religion/Spirituality: Discuss the differences
between the two creation stories read, and
discuss the religious beliefs of the European
Settlers.
- Language: Show students map of the First
Nations Peoples language regions, and the
European Explorers language region map.
Discuss the overlap and how this might affect
trade. Listen to Mikmaq story.
Language barrier activity: communicate what you
had for breakfast to the person beside you without
talking.
- Food: Discuss the differences in the way that the
First Nations Peoples and the European Explorers
got their food.
- Trade: Discuss what each side had to offer for
trade, and what each side wanted to gain. Discuss
fairness using guiding questions (See Lesson Plan
2).
- Distribute ROM assignment questions and
checklist (See Appendix 3). Ensure each students
understanding; answer any questions they may
have.

Lesson 3: ROM

Lesson 4: Early

Assessment for learning: how well the students


can answer questions comparing the examples,
and draw conclusions based on the information
given. Observe well they answer the questions
guiding the discussion (See Lesson Plan 2).
- Visit to the ROM, specifically looking at the
exhibits of the First Peoples Canada and the
Canada exhibits. Students will be guided by
questions on ROM handout (See Appendix 3).
Assessment: See Checklist in Appendix 3. Observe
student engagement and ask them questions
throughout the day to check for understanding.
See Lesson Plan 4
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Interactions
(3 classes)

Lesson 5: Trends
of early
interactions

Class 1: Begin by watching reading Mikmaq


description of their first encounter. Ask them
questions to engage their interest in what each
side is feeling. Discuss Jacques Cartiers voyage,
and his encounter with the First Nations Peoples.
Compare maps of Mikmaq territory and John
Cartiers voyages. Discuss the interaction with
guiding questions (See Lesson Plan 4). Introduce a
third example of an account of early interaction,
from the Ojibwa tribe. Discuss the fairness,
benefits, and drawbacks to all three of these
interactions.
Assign students into groups of four, and ask them
to choose an interaction between a European
Explorer and a First Nations Peoples. Review
Interactions between European Explorers and
First Nations Peoples Assignment (See Appendix
3).
Class 2: In their groups, they have one full class
in a computer lab to research and create a 10minute presentation on the encounter of their
choice. They must include the pros and cons for
each side during this interaction.
Class 3: Each group gives a 10-minute
presentation on the interaction they chose to the
class, and explains the pros and cons.
Assessment: See evaluation chart (Appendix 3)
Summarize some of the main trends that were
brought up in the interactions the students
presented the class before. (Eg: Disease,
disrespect, help, survival skills,).
Disease: talk about the epidemics of measles,
influenza and small pox. How these affected the
First Nations Peoples.
- Does anyone know what immunity means?
connect with the vaccinations we get today.
Disrespect- highlight situations such as Jacques
Cartiers kidnapping. Ask the students why they
acted this way. Discuss.
- Why do you think that the Europeans acted
in this way?
- Why do you think the First Nations Peoples
acted in this way?
Help- Highlight how the First Nations often helped
the European Explorers with navigation
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assistance. Discuss how this would have been
beneficial to the explorers. Discuss the survival
skills that the First Nations Peoples taught the
European Explorers, and how they helped them
through the winter. Highlight the technology and
resources the Europeans provided for the First
Nations Peoples (guns, gunpowder, etc).
- Who benefited from this interaction?
- Did one side benefit from helping the other
side?
- Why do you think both side acted in this
way?
Discussion: Did you see these trends in the ROM
exhibit? If so, what did you see?

Lesson 6:
Alliances

Assessment: how did the students engage in class


discussion? Were they accurately filling out the
chart during the lesson?
Introduce the conflict between French and English
settlers at the time based around monopoly of the
Fur Trade. Discuss the regions they inhabited and
the First Nations Peoples they may have
encountered, using knowledge from previous
lessons.
Who do you think did the hunting for the fur
trade?
Discuss that the First Nations Peoples hunted for
the European companies. New France allied with
the Hurons and the Algonquins, using them as
their main hunters. The English allied with the
Iroquois in an agreement called the Covenant
Chain (The Encyclopedia of New York State, 2013).
Introduce the Great peace of 1701. This was an
agreement in Montreal that created peace due to
the 100 year tension between New France and the
Iroquois Confederacy. (Canada in the Making,
2005).
Who do you think that these alliances benefited?
Explain to the class that we will be doing an entire
unit on the fur trade after this unit.
Assessment: Do they understand who is on which
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side of the alliances? Ask them about the sides.
Are they understanding the dynamic relations
between the sides, and considering who
benefited? Observe their contribution to class
discussion.
Lesson 7: Ushaped Debate

See Appendix 1.
Students prepare an opinion in answer to the
question How did the relationships between
European Explorers and the First Nations Peoples
benefit /harm each side of the interaction?
Students stand in a U shape, with the bottom of
the U being people who believe that both sides
benefited equally. As the debate goes on students
have the opportunity to move around the circle
and defend their points.

Lesson 8:
Beginning of
Marginalization

Assessment: See Checklist (Appendix 1)


- Discuss some of the changes that began to
happen to the relationship between the Europeans
and the Aboriginals:
- Metis: a person of French and Aboriginal
ancestry, who formed a cultural group distinct
from both European and Aboriginal peoples. The
Mtis were originally based around fur trade
culture, when European traders married First
Nations women in the communities they traded
with. The Mtis created their own communities
and cultural practices, distinct from that of the
First Nations. This term has also come to mean
anyone with First Nations mixed ancestry who selfidentifies as Mtis. (First Nation Education
Steering Committee, 2010).
- More settlers coming to Canada: As more and
more settlers began to move to Canada, they
needed more and more land. The First Nations
Peoples did not understand the term of
landownership, as in their belief they were the
spiritual guardians of the land, not the owner of it.
(Canada in the Making, 2005). The land was
considered to be a gift form a spirit, whos
resources were precious and to be used only for
survival.
Ask students:
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-

Do you think that the confusion the First


Nations Peoples felt would have affected
their future?
Do you think that it is fair that the
Europeans are claiming their land?

The Europeans kept treaties with the aboriginal


population to keep the peace, but continually
bought their land for their own and gained power.
The British gained the majority of the control, and
began to view the First Nations Peoples as British
Subjects, and no longer a separate nation.
(Canada in the Making, 2005).
Show students Map of Land distribution: (See
Appendix 4)
-

How did this benefit or harm both groups?


Is this fair? Why or why not?

Assign students to one of the following Acts that


occurred between the Europeans and the First
Nations Peoples. Ensure an even amount of
students are covering each Act or Treaty.
1) British North American Act- 1867
2) Sale of Selkirk Lands- 1869
3) Numbered Treaties 1-5 1871-1921
4) Numbered Treaties 6-11 - 1871-1921
5) Indian Act 1867
Assign Act/Treaty Assignment (See Appendix 5)

Lesson 9: Indian
Act, Residential
Schools
(2 classes)

Assessment: observe answers to discussion


questions in class and participation.
Class 1: Begin the class by splitting the students
up into expert groups (those who researched
the same act). Allow them 20 minutes to discuss
what they have learned, and to compare notes
and opinions on the act.
- Split these expert groups up into new groups, so
there is one person in each group that researched
each act. Allow them the remainder of the class to
teach each other about the act that they
researched.
Class 2:
- Minds on, ask various students in the class to
summarize each treaty, add on aspects they may
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miss.
- Begin a class discussion on what the
consequences of these various treaties and acts
were. Discuss who benefited and how.
- Introduce the concept of residential schools.
Show students picture of First Nations Children in
a classroom, (See Appendix 6). Guide discussion:
What do you notice that seems unusual about this
photo? Draw attention to the clothes they are
wearing, their haircuts, the decoration of the
room, etc. Is there anything traditional to their
culture?
- Show students this website:
http://www.wherearethechildren.ca/flash/WATCSite
.html and introduce the interactive map and
discuss the growing number of residential schools
then the slow decline.
- Play the Blackboard of
http://www.wherearethechildren.ca/flash/WATCSite
.html for an introduction to residential schools and
a summary of the changing relationships between
the First Nations Peoples and the Europeans.
Assessment: assess the students performance on
the group teaching assignment using the checklist
(See Appendix 4). Observe how they answer
discussion questions in class.
Lesson 10:
Summary

See Lesson Plan 10


- Introduce the origins of the cod fishing industry
beginning with John Cabot. Discuss how the First
Nations Peoples style of fishing differed from our
own, and how overfishing has progressed since
John Cabot discovered this area.
- Compare maps from early European explorer
interactions to later, and to present day. (Maps in
Lesson Plan) Discuss the shifting boarders and
the land ownership.
- What do you notice about the land?
- Is all of this land inhabitable?
-What would the conditions of this land be like?
What changed the relationship between the
European Explorers and the First Nations People?

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Summative evaluation due in the next class, when
we begin our new unit on the Fur Trade!

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Lesson 2: Cultural Differences
Objectives:

A1.2evaluate some of the contributions that various ethnic and/or


religious groups have made to Canadian identity
A2.2gather and organize information from a variety of primary and
secondary sources using various technologies that present different
perspectives on the historical and/or contemporary experience of two or
more communities in Canada
A3.5describe interactions between communities in Canada, including
between newcomers and groups that were already in the country
A3.6identify key differences, including social, cultural, and/or economic
differences, between two or more historical and/or contemporary
communities in Canada
Concepts of Disciplinary Thinking:
Perspectives, Interrelationships, Cause and Consequence.
Critical Thinking Question:
What cultural factors affected the early interactions between the First
Nations Peoples and the European Explorers?
Connection to other Curricular area/connection for students:
- Language arts: auditory comprehension, writing.
Connection to students own values and life.
Materials:
- A copy of the stories to read
- An overhead projector or a computer projector to show class the
images/maps
- Speakers to play the audio recording
- Printed off worksheets
- Extra copies of the chart, incase a student lost or left it at home
- Pencils
Minds on:
Begin by reading the students the creation story of the Iroquois Tribe:
The first people were the Sky People, they lived beyond the sky
because there was no earth beneath. One day the chief's daughter
became very ill and no one was able to provide a cure for her sickness.
A wise elder was consulted and he told them to dig up a tree and lay
the girl beside the hole that remained. The Sky People respected the
elder and began to dig up the tree. Suddenly the tree fell down

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through the hole and dragged the chief's daughter with it. As the girl
fell she saw that below was only an ocean of water. Two swans were
alarmed by the girl falling and decided she was too beautiful to drown
so they swam to catch her. They landed her on the back of the Great
Turtle, and all of the animals of the earth gathered. The Great Turtle
councils that the Sky Woman is a symbol of good fortune. He orders
the animals to find where the Sky World tree had landed in the ocean
and to bring it back with its earth-covered roots. The swans lead the
animals to the place where the tree had fallen into the ocean. First
otter, then muskrat, and then beaver dove in search of the tree. Each
animal came back to the surface without the tree and died from
exhaustion. Many other animals tried but they also died. An elder
woman toad volunteered. She dove and remained below a long time.
All of the animals thought she had been lost, when at last she surfaced
and before dying managed to spit a mouthful of earth onto the back of
the Great Turtle. This earth was magical and contained the power of
growth. The island grew and grew until it was large enough for the Sky
Woman to live on. The two swans set the woman upon the island and
circled it encouraging it to grow into the world island it is today. Yet the
world was dark. Again the Great Turtle called for the animals to gather.
They decided to put a great light in the sky. A little turtle volunteered
and climbed up to the sky with the help of the other animals' magic.
Little turtle climbed into a black cloud and crawled around the sky
collecting the lightning as she went. She made a big bright ball from
the lightening and threw it into the sky. Then she collected more for a
smaller ball which she also threw into the sky. The first ball became
the sun, the second ball became the moon. Then the Great Turtle
commanded the burrowing animals to make holes in the corners of the
sky so that the sun and moon could go down through one and climb up
again through the other as they circled. So there was day and night.
The Sky woman lived on the island on top of the Great Turtle's back.
She gave birth to twins, one good called Tharonhiawagon, one evil
called Tawiskaron. From the breast of Sky Woman grows three sisters
corn, beans, and squash. (Canadas First Nations Project, 2001).
James Axtell. (1981). The Indian Peoples of Eastern America: A
Documentary History of the Sexes. Oxford University Press.
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/earth.html
- Today we are going to discuss some of the major cultural differences
between the Tribes of the First Nations People and the early European
Explorers. We are going to talk about their Religion, their Language,
their Food Source and their reasons for trade. We will discuss how
these affected their interactions with each other.
Religion
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First Nations Peoples:
- The story that we read, is a creation story that was told by the
Iroquois Tribe. Lets look at another one. This is a creation story from
the Huron Tribe.
Conrad, Finkel, Jaenen, Copp, Clark, Pitman. (1993). History of the
Canadain Peoples: Beginnings to 1867. Vol.1.
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/world.html
A group of beings similar to humans lived in longhouses in the sky.
They lived in harmony and in the centre of their village stood a
celestial tree blossoming with the light of peace and knowledge. One
day a curious woman had her husband uproot the tree. She fell
through the hole down to the world below. A Canada goose saw the
woman falling, took pity on her and flew down to rescue her. He placed
her on the back of a turtle and the Great Turtle Island (North America)
came into existence. (Canadas First Nations Project, 2001).
What are some similarities about the story?
What are some differences?
What do these stories tell us about how the people think of the land?
What do these stories tell us about how people think about the spirits?
Do you think that these stories were important to the people who told
them? Why or why not?
- The Huron believed that everything they made was living and alive,
even things they made (Canadas First Nations Project, 2001). An
example of this is a pipe, (show students image of pipe). The pipe is
considered to be a living thing, and is sacred for prayers.

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Canadas First Nations Project. (2001). The Applied History Research


Group. University of Calgary and Red Deer College.
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/home.html
Activity: think about something that is sacred to you. It could be a toy
or something that holds a memory, anything you want. Think about
how you treat it, and how you would feel if someone else was to
display it. Would you like it?
Early European Explorers:

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Canadian Geographic.(N.D) Historic Map of Canada. Canadian


Geographic Enterprise.
http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/mapping/historical_maps/1791.asp
Most of the English Speaking explorers were protestant
Most of the French Speaking explorers were catholic (Jacques Cartier)
- French Speaking Catholic Priests often wanted to convert the
Native American population to their faith. (Heidenreich, 2001).
It is up to you to research some of the values and beliefs of the
Christianity faith, and compare them to aspects of the First Nations
Peoples faith of the specific group that you have chosen.
How do you think the religious differences might affect the
relationships between the two groups of people? Guide students to
think about rituals and customs. One group might take offense to
something that was not meant as offensive. One group might not
understand the ceremony and do something wrong.
Language
First Nations
- Show students an example of Native Canadian Language
- Example: Iroquoian languages include Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga,
Cayuga, Seneca, Erie, Neutral, Tobacco, and Huron. Iroquoian
speakers occupied territories from Lake Erie to the mouth of the St.
Lawrence. (Canadas First Nations Project, 2001).
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Canadas First Nations Project. (2001). The Applied History Research


Group. University of Calgary and Red Deer College.
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/home.html
-

What language did they speak where we are now?


Why dont we learn Algonquin in school? We only learn French and
English.

- Review active listening with the students. Even if they do not


understand what the words are tell them to listen to the pronunciation
and the expression in the persons voice. Play an example of a story
told in both English and Mikmaq from the CBC website.
www.cbc.ca/aboriginal/2009/02/legends-project-3.html.
European Explorers
- View map of 1775 Canada again:
- Point out the overlapping language regions.
-Why might this make it hard for both sides to understand each other?
- What do you think that each side did to communicate?
- Activity: try to communicate what you had for breakfast this morning
to your neighbor without saying a word. These are some of the
challenges both sides faced during this time.

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Heidenreich, C. (2001). Pathfiners & Passageways: The Exploration of


Canada. Library and Archives Canada. http://epe.lacbac.gc.ca/100/206/301/lacbac/explorers/www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/explorers/h24-220-e.html
Food Source
First Nations Peoples
-First Nations Peoples all across the country hunted and gathered food
for nutrition and medical purposes (Aboriginal Affairs and Northern
Development Canada, 2013). The amount of meat or fish they ate
depended on their local environment, as they lived off the land that
surrounded them. The First Nations of the plains were skilled hunters,
as buffalo was their main food source. They hunted with spears, bows
and arrows, and traps. The First Nations of the plateau caught salmon
for their major food source, where they fished with spears and nets.
They would eat a small amount of their meat when it was caught, then
smoke the rest and save it for winter. (Aboriginal Affairs and Northern
Development Canada, 2013). At the time of early European contact,
the First Nations Peoples used a combination of hunting and gathering
techniques and farming to support themselves. Sharing was a central
part to their culture; everything that was harvested or caught was for
the entire tribe. (Dickason, 1992). The First Nations Peoples cycled
through their food sources around the year as the seasons changed
(Dickason, 1992). This allowed the populations to regrow and replenish
themselves before they harvested or hunted them again.
European Explorers
European explorers brought with them their own knowledge of farming
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and hunting that was different than the First Nations Peoples. The
European explorers were not accustomed to the cold harsh Canadian
winters, and found themselves underprepared. The survival of many
European explorers is largely due to the help of the First Nations
peoples (Canada in the Making, 2013). For example, many European
explorers got scurvy during the winter, which is caused by a lack of
vitamin C. The First Nations Peoples taught them how to boil certain
leaves from trees to save them from this disease (Canada: A Peoples
History, 2005).
I am going to let you fill out the specifics of this section in your chart.
You are to choose a specific group of First Nations Peoples and discuss
their food sources, and a group of European Explorers and their food
sources. Research examples on the website provided and use
evidence!
Trade
- The First Nations People possessed wonderful and essential
knowledge of the land and nature. They possessed skills and
knowledge that made it possible to survive the cold Canadian winters.
They helped the early European Explorers survive the harsh conditions
by providing supplies such as furs and food. The Europeans loved the
furs, and began to send them home (Canada in the Making, 2013). This
began the concept of the Fur Trade that we will address in our next
unit.
- The Europeans also had items that would aid the First Nations
Peoples. They had technology that the First Nations Peoples did not
have access to before, such as iron kettles, guns, gunpowder, and new
tools (Canada in the Making, 2013).
- Overtime, these two groups of people slowly became more
interdependent on each other (Canada in the Making, 2013). They
participated in trading ceremonies that incorporated both cultures
(Canada in the Making, 2013).
Who benefited from these trades?
How did they benefit?
Do you believe these trades were fair?
Do we still trade today? give an example of trades we make in
todays society.

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Consolidation/Debrief:
- Review some of the key points they should have written in their chart
during the lesson by asking students to share a point with the class
that they believe is important, and what box it should be in.
- Give students this website: http://www.sfu.museum/time/en/flash/
It is an interactive website where students can explore a virtual model
of the Xyatem longhouse in British Columbia. They can see what their
spiritual beliefs were, what they ate, how they hunted, and how they
lived. (Winter, 2009).
- Remind students that they are responsible to research using the
websites provided and fill in the chart with more detail than provided in
class.
Next Steps/Extensions:
- Remind students that they are going to the Royal Ontario Museum on
a field trip next class. Provide them with the Question sheet that they
should fill out. Explain the questions and what give students an
opportunity to ask any questions they are unsure of.
- Students have the opportunity to fill out the chart in as much detail
as they want. To expand on the activity, students could brainstorm
their own additional pillars for comparing the interactions between the
two groups. This could be done as a class through brainstorming, or
individually. This may increase the involvement of students by ensuring
they are researching part of the interactions that they are interested
in.
Accommodations/Modifications:
- If there are any English Language Learners in the class, provide a
translated version of the Mikmaq audio stories, so they can get the
most from the experience.
- If not all students have access to a computer and internet at home,
provide 15 minutes at the beginning of the next class for them to
explore the interactive website.
- Make the worksheets available in electronic copy if any student learns
better from technology assistance.
- Adjust the complexity of the task, and level of support provided by
becoming more or less focused on scaffolding the students learning.
Allow more or less individual research depending on ability.
- Adjust the constraints/limits placed on the task by expanding or
reducing the size of the chart.
- Adjust the assessment criteria, or type of assessment for the task
- Provide an alternate medium or location for the student to
demonstrate learning
Assessment:
Formative: Observe how the students are filling out the chart they are
provided with. Are they accurate? Are they putting the new concepts in
the correct categories? Observe how they are participating in the class
20

Sarah Johnson
discussion and answering the questions asked.
Evaluation:
Evaluation will be based on the quality and completion of the chart
handed in with the summative evaluation. See Checklist in Appendix 1.
Multiple Intelligences:
verbal linguistic
logical/mathematical
musical/rhythmic
bodily/kinesthetic
visual/spatial
interpersonal
intrapersonal
naturalist
existential
Objectives:
My goal for this lesson is to get students thinking critically about some
of the underlying factors affecting the interactions between European
Explorers and First Nations Peoples. I would like students to engage in
discussion about how the differences in culture would make
interactions more or less challenging, and connect to the idea of
communicating to someone without using words. The students must
think critically about the repercussions these differences, and how
each side responded to them. The students must take the base of
knowledge provided in this lesson, and expand on it with their own
research. Their own research will reveal more complex detail on the
differences and the way they affected interactions. Students will use
this knowledge to begin to form their opinion on who benefited from
the interactions and how, and who was harmed from the interactions
and how.
Broad Understanding:
From this lesson, I would like the students to understand some of the
cultural differences between the First Nations Peoples and the early
European explorers. I would like them to understand that these
differences affected the goals of each group, and the way they
interacted with each other. I would like the students to understand the
challenges and benefits that these differences in culture and lifestyle
brought to the relationship. By exploring the differences, and
discussing with the class or with small groups, and then consolidating
their knowledge with further research at home, the students will get a
variety of view points on each of the pillars provided in the lesson.
Requisite Tools for Critical Thinking
Background Knowledge: before this lesson, students will need to have
a basic understanding that different groups of people have different
cultures. Students will have to have a basic understanding of Canadian
Geography to understand the maps and where interactions took place.
Students will also need to understand the climate of Canada.
21

Sarah Johnson
Criteria for Judgment: to answer the question students will compare
how the groups differed based on Religion, Language, Food and
Objectives of Trade. The students must research on their own further
details on what these differences were, and apply this knowledge to
how the factors affected interactions. By comparing and evaluating the
differences and their benefits or consequences, students will think
critically about the information.
Concepts of Disciplinary Thinking: the lesson addresses the concepts of
cause and consequence, interrelationships and perspective. Students
address the cause and consequence of the factors affecting the
relationships between the First Nations Peoples and the early European
explorers. The students also examine the interrelationships and how
the factors affected the relationships. Students must look at
information from both the perspective of the First Nations Peoples and
the European Explorers.
Critical Thinking Vocabulary: Perspective, Spirituality, First Nations
Peoples, Huron, Colonies, Iriquonia, Sustainable, Gunpowder, Trade,
Culture.
Strategies: to assist the students with critical thinking I have provided
a graphic organizer chart that the students are to fill in to compare the
two groups. I have also developed a series of questions that will
facilitate discussion and help the students begin to consider various
viewpoints. I have also provided the checklist of assessment for the
assignment at the beginning of the lesson, so students know they must
compare viewpoints and think critically about who benefited or was
harmed, and how.
Habits of Mind: Researching, Evaluating Evidence, Examining Multiple
View Points, Critical Thinking.

22

Sarah Johnson
Lesson 4: Early Interactions
Objectives:

A2.2gather and organize information from a variety of primary and


secondary sources using various technologies that present different
perspectives on the historical and/or contemporary experience of two or
more communities in Canada
A2.5evaluate evidence and draw conclusions about perspectives on the
historical and/or contemporary experience of two or more distinct
communities in Canada
A3.5describe interactions between communities in Canada, including
between newcomers and groups that were already in the country
A3.6identify key differences, including social, cultural, and/or economic
differences, between two or more historical and/or contemporary
communities in Canada
Concepts of Disciplinary Thinking:
Interrelationships, Cause and Consequence, Perspectives.
Critical Thinking Question: Based on evidence of cultural
differences, from the perspective of each group, is the interaction
beneficial or harmful?
Materials:
- Story
- Overhead projector/Computer projector to display images.
Connection to Curricular area/connection for students:
- Geography, looking at and comparing maps
- Media literacy- selecting relevant information
- Presentation skills and public speaking skills
Minds on:
- Read students story of Miqmak description of encounter with
Europeans.
A young woman consulted an elder regarding a strange dream. She
said she saw a small white island moving through the great waters. On
this floating island were trees and living beings. One man stood apart
from the others and he was dressed in rabbit skins and he had hair on
his face. The elder had never heard of such as dream as this and
offered the girl no explanation. All became clear the next morning
when the young girl awoke with what appeared to be a small island

23

Sarah Johnson
moving toward her village. The Mi'kmaq men took up their weapons to
kill what they thought to be hairy-faced bears on the moving island.
But they stopped in surprise to discover the bears were actually men
with white skin. The island was actually a large boat. White men
jumped from the ship into smaller boats and came towards shore. A
man stood apart from the others because he was dressed in white. The
boats landed and the strange men attempted to speak to the Mi'kmaq.
The man dressed in white made signs of friendship and spoke in
earnest but his language was unknown. The young woman was
brought forward by the elder and asked if this was the man of her
dream. "Yes" she replied. Magicians and prophets of the tribes were
angered because the dream of prophecy came to a young girl and not
them. They believed they would have readied themselves against this
man in white who was a priest and teacher of white men.
The Applied History Research Group, (2000), University of Calgary.
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/gulf.html
Lets look at a map of the Mikmaq territory:

Hipwell, B. (2005). Mikmaq Nation. Aboriginal Sustainability Network.


http://www.aboriginalsustainabilitynetwork.org/peoples-places/mikmaq
Discuss what each side might be thinking or feeling, guide questions.

24

Sarah Johnson
-

Would the Mikmaq be afraid of these new people?


Who were these white skinned people?
Do you think they expected to see anyone?
Think about the cultural differences between the group that we
talked about last class, do you think these will affect the
perspective of each side?

- Show image of Jacques Cartiers Voyage:


- Point out where they would have crossed paths.

25

Sarah Johnson
Canadian Museum of Civilization. (2013). Virtual Museum of New
France: The Explorers. Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation.
http://www.civilization.ca/virtual-museum-of-new-france/theexplorers/jacques-cartier-1534-1542/
- In 1534, Jacques Cartier explored the Gulf of the St. Lawrence
(Canadain Museum of Civilization, 2013).
- According to his record of his initial contact with the Mikmaq, he was
sailing close to the Prince Edward Island shoreline when he saw the
Mikmaq peoples. The second day, he went to shore and put down his
knife and wooden belt on a stick, using this as a signal of his good
intentions. He returned to his ship. On the next day, the Mikmaq tried
to achieve contact by boarding 40 of 50 canoes to meet him. Cartier
felt threatened and refused, firing two shots of his gun into the air.
However, their persistence the second day changed Cartiers mind.
The Mikmaq wanted to trade with the European Explorers. The
Mikmaq bartered with fur pelts for iron and knives that the Europeans
had brought with them. (Canadain Museum of Civilization, 2013).
Ask the class: How is the interaction going so far? How are some of the
cultural similarities/difference we learned about last class affecting the
situation? Who do you think is benefiting from this interaction? Is this
interaction fair? How is this relationship benefiting both sides?
- Now, lets remember that that was Cartiers first hand account of what
happened.
- Not long after that interaction, Cartier kidnapped the two sons of the
Chief Donnacona, the chief of the Stadaconda Tribe at that time. They
were used as guides and translators to help Cartier navigate. Cartier
also erected a large Cross on Tribes Territory, claiming it as Frances.
(Canadas First Nations Project, 2001)
- Cartier was also the first European to refer to First Nations Peoples as
Savages, and wrote in his journal that they would be easy to convert
to Christianity. (Canadas First Nations Project, 2001)
Show students a video further explaining this interaction:
Watch Canada: A Peoples History Episode 1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5vLJFetmtXc - 1:10 1:23.
CBC Learning. 2001. Canada: A Peoples History. CBC.
http://www.cbc.ca/history/
Begin a discussion about the movie and the summary:
-Who do you think benefited from this interaction?
- Why do you think that Cartier believed he could take the people from
their home?
- Why did Cartier want Donnacona?
26

Sarah Johnson
- Was this interaction fair?
- How did some of the cultural similarities/difference we learned about
last class affect the situation?
-Read another narrative to the students, providing evidence of another
interaction:
This narrative is a composite of information from a History of the
Ojibwas:
Strange persons were living on the continent. Possibly spirits in the
form of men or just extraordinary people. A council was called to
discuss the information and an expedition was planned to seek out the
new strangers. The expedition was led by a shaman. The Anishinabeg
traveled east from the Great Lakes toward the territories of the
Ottawa. It was here they discovered a clearing where the trees were
cut cleanly and not from stone axes. Possible explanations for the
felled trees was a huge beaver, but they also believed it may have
been the work of the strange people they were seeking. The
Anishinabeg explored further down river and discovered the remains of
a winter village that had been occupied by the strange men in the
previous season. They were encouraged to search the river edge
further and encountered a settlement. Strange people greeted them.
The Anishinabeg liken the foreigners to squirrels because of the way
they stored their goods. They did not dig holes in the ground like a
squirrel, but they built up a wood case around their provisions in a
hollow of a tree. They traded for cloth, metal axes, knives, flint, steel,
beads, blankets, and firearms in exchange for furs. Upon returning
home the Anishinabeg explorers recounted their encounter with the
strangers. The trade goods were prized and the Anishinabeg entered
into a commercial initiative, establishing regular trade with the
French.
Canadas First Nations Project. (2001). Andrew J. Blackbird's The
History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians; J.G. Kohl's Kitrchi-Gami;
and William Whipple Warren's History of the Ojibwas:. University of
Calgary and Red Deer College.
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/home.html
- Summarize the key points of the passage that was read.
- This is an encounter that the Ojibwa Tribe had with European
Explorers.
- They traded with each other for items that they both needed or
desired.
Who benefited from this relationship?
Do you think the trades were fair?
How did some of the cultural similarities/difference we learned about
27

Sarah Johnson
last class affect the situation?
Show students this map of the Early European Contacts with North
America:
Discuss which groups of people they may have come into contact with,
who was competing for resources, etc.

Dickason, O. P. (1992). Canada's First Nations: A history of founding


peoples from earliest times (Vol. 208). University of Oklahoma Press.

28

Sarah Johnson
Consolidation/debrief:
- I have given you a brief summary of the explorers and the
interactions they had with certain First Nations Peoples Groups.
- In your predetermined groups of 4, you will be researching an
early European Explorer and describing his interaction with a
specific tribe of First Nations People. You must describe the pros
and cons of the interaction for both the First Nations Peoples and
European explorers. By next class, you must get your interaction
approved by me. You will have next class to research your topic,
and the class after that you will be presenting to the class.
- Remember to look at your checklist to make sure you complete
all the success criteria of the assignment, and so that you know
what you will be graded on. (See Appendix 2)
Next Steps/Extensions:
- Students are continuing research and work on their chart. They are
also taking a specific example of an interaction and identifying the
benefits and harms of this interaction or each side. The students will
then be required to present these presentations to the rest of the class.
To extend this, students may also look into the future and explain how
this interaction affected each group in the future, and explain how the
affects of the interaction may or may not be evident in present day.
Expanding on the interaction will introduce cause and consequence on
a larger scale. This was not put into the lesson plan at this stage, due
to the longer nature of the unit and the vast amount of material being
incorporated into a shorter time.
Accommodations:
Adjust the complexity of the task, and level of support provided
Adjust the constraints/limits placed on the task, by changing the length
of the presentation or giving more rigid criteria.
Encourage small group discussion instead of class discussion if
students are apprehensive about participating in discussion in such a
large group.
Adjust the assessment criteria, or type of assessment for the task by
modifying the assessment chart/checklist.
Provide an alternate medium or location for the student to
demonstrate learning, such as a computer lab.
Could be broken up into multiple lessons, depending on time
constraints and speed of childrens understanding.
Assessment: Are they able to answer and discuss the questions asked
of them during class time. E.g.: Who benefited form this interaction?
Was the interaction fair? . Do they appear to be thinking from multiple
perspectives when answering questions? Are they participating in
discussion? Observe how the students fill out their chart and
participate in class.
29

Sarah Johnson
Evaluation: The students will be evaluated on their short presentation
in class. This evaluation will be based on Checklist (See Appendix 2).
Multiple Intelligences:
verbal linguistic
logical/mathematical
musical/rhythmic
bodily/kinesthetic
visual/spatial
interpersonal
intrapersonal
naturalist
existential
Objectives
The goal for this lesson is that students will consider the multiple
perspectives of the early interactions between these groups of people.
The students will begin to think critically about what each side may
have been feeling, and if they were treated fairly or not. I would like
the students to gain an understanding of where these interactions took
place, and with whom. The students will understand how to look at an
interaction from various perspectives, and apply this to their own
research. They will choose a specific interaction not covered in class,
and examine it using critical thinking, evaluating the evidence, and
considering multiple perspectives.
Broad Understanding
By the end of the lesson, that the students will be able to consider how
different interactions varied based on a large number of underlying
factors. They will take the cultural differences they learned in a
previous lesson (Religion, Food, Language, and Trade) and apply these
to the interaction of their choice. Students will understand that in
every interaction, there are many factors at play that will affect the
course of the interaction. Students will understand that all interactions
between these groups were not the same. Students will consider that
there are multiple perspectives to every interaction and relationship.
Requisite Tools for Critical Thinking
Background Knowledge: The students must use their knowledge of the
cultural differences between the groups, taught in a previous lesson in
this unit, to analyze the perspective of both groups in a specific
interaction. The students must have a basic understanding of Canadian
Geography to understand the map. Students must also have a basic
understanding of how to make a presentation/public speaking.
Criteria for Judgment: to answer the critical thinking question students
must consider both perspectives of the examples given in class, and
use their previous knowledge of cultural differences to explain the
various perspectives. The students must consider what occurred in the
interaction, and what this may have meant for both sides, using
30

Sarah Johnson
evidence. The students will use the criteria of religion, language food,
trade, and other factors that may affect the perspective of each side.
Concepts of Disciplinary Thinking: Perspectives, and Critical Thinking.
Critical Thinking Vocabulary: Voyage, European, First Nations Peoples,
Mikmaq, Stadaconda, Chippewa, Perspective, Interaction, Trade.
Thinking Strategies: Students will use their chart as a graphic organizer
to compare underlying reasons for a variation in perspective. Students
will begin thinking critically about the interactions based on discussion
questions provided in class. On the students worksheet, there is a list
of helpful definitions. Maps will be used to illustrate where boarders
are, and compared to maps of European exploration. Students will be
given a handout (see appendix 2) with a checklist for success.
Habits of mind: Critical thinking, Evaluating evidence, considering
multiple viewpoints of an interaction, researching, identifying key
ideas.
Lesson 10: Summary and Extensions
Objectives:

A3.Understanding Context: demonstrate an understanding of significant


experiences of, and major changes and aspects of life in, various historical
and contemporary communities in Canada (FOCUSON:Significance;
Continuity and Change)
A2.5evaluate evidence and draw conclusions about perspectives on the
historical and/or contemporary experience of two or more distinct
communities in Canada
A3.5describe interactions between communities in Canada, including
between newcomers and groups that were already in the country
A3.6identify key differences, including social, cultural, and/or economic
differences, between two or more historical and/or contemporary
communities in Canada
A3.7describe significant changes within their own community in Canada
Concepts of Disciplinary Thinking: Continuity and Change,
Interrelationships.
Critical Thinking Question: What are the consequences of the early
interactions between the First Nations Peoples and the early European
explorers?

31

Sarah Johnson
Connection to Other Curricular Areas/connection for student:
- This lesson relates the changes that have occurred to modern
day consequences.
- Students will look at the change in land possession, population
distribution, and the effects on sustainability.
- Connection to Geography
- Connection to Language Arts
- Connection to Science (Sustainability and Environmental Issues)
Materials:
- Computer projector to show images/video to students.
- Computer
- Internet access
Minds on:
Ask students:
-Has anyone heard of the cod? Do you know where cod comes from?
Watch History Minute on John Cabot:
https://www.historicacanada.ca/content/heritage-minutes/john-cabot
- Why is he so excited?
- Raise your hand if you think this is a good thing, raise your hand
if you think this is a bad thing.
Historica Canada. 2013. Heritage Minute: John Cabot. Historica Canada.
https://www.historicacanada.ca/content/heritage-minutes/john-cabot
Action:
-Does anyone remember what First Nations Tribe lived on
Newfoundland?
- Show students map again:

32

Sarah Johnson

Hipwell, B. (2005). Mikmaq Nation. Aboriginal Sustainability Network.


http://www.aboriginalsustainabilitynetwork.org/peoples-places/mikmaq
-

June 24, 1497, the Italian John Cabot landed on the Atlantic
coast, in what is now Newfoundland. He was originally searching
for India. (Canadas First Nations Project, 2001)
He discovered the huge amount of Cod that inhabited these
waters.
He reported this back to England, and this began the Cod
Industry that thrives in Newfoundland today. (Canadas First
Nations Project, 2001)
Now lets look at what this has done to the ecosystem today:
Cod fishing has been a very successful industry for over 500
years, but the problem of overfishing has caught up to
Canadians.
In 1992, the cod population was reduced to critical levels and
there was a mandatory moratorium on cod fishing in Canada, no
one was allowed to fish for them until their populations would
hopefully return. (David Suzuki Foundation, 2012)
It has been over 20 years and the population is still struggling to
recover. (David Suzuki Foundation, 2012).
This is detrimental to the food chain, and can have serious
environmental repercussions.

Activity: Brainstorm some possible environmental/social/economic


repercussions.
*Write out words such as sustainability, moratorium and environment
on the board and define them for the students. Also define what an
33

Sarah Johnson
Issue is.
What has changed in the way we gather our food? Consider the way
the First Nations People fished.
How has this affected our environment?
What do you think some possible repercussions of this change are?
Lets look at what else has changed over time.
Do you remember when we looked at the map of the First Nations
Population before contact? Look how much of Canada they inhabited.
Show students map.

Dickason, O. P. (1992). Canada's First Nations: A history of founding


peoples from earliest times (Vol. 208). University of Oklahoma Press.

34

Sarah Johnson

Discuss the regions who inhabited these areas by comparing with this
map:

Canadas First Nations Project. (2001). The Applied History Research


Group. University of Calgary and Red Deer College.
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/home.html
Now, lets also look at a modern day map

35

Sarah Johnson

Government of Canada. (2013) Aboriginal Affairs and Northern


Development Canada.
Government of Canada. http://www.aadncaandc.gc.ca/eng/1290453474688/1290453673970
-What differences do you notice?
- What are the similarities?
- What do you notice about the land?
- Is all of this land inhabitable?
-What would the conditions of this land be like?
Consolidation/Debrief:
Throughout the years we have seen a large change in the way that
the European Explorers and the First Nations Peoples interact with each
other. We have discussed some reasons on why these changes may
have occurred, and who benefited from these changes. We can see
how these interactions continue to affect us even to this day. Does
anyone have any questions about the Unit? (Take time to answer
questions, if there are no questions, allow students time to begin their
summative project)
Now you have a wide base of information on the interactions between
the European Explorers and the First Nations People. Complete your
summative evaluation task (See Appendix 1) combining this knowledge
and additional research you have done on your own. Use evidence to
36

Sarah Johnson
support your opinion!
Next Step/Extensions:
- After this unit if it were possible to arrange, the students would
benefit from visiting an Aboriginal Reserve. They could then
apply their knowledge of causes for the interactions, and apply it
to what they see today. They may see how the events they
learned about in class affected the population of peoples. They
may also be able to extend their knowledge of language, religion,
and cultural practices by seeing them in person. They may also
notice some of the differences in culture in present day, as
opposed to what they learnt about.
- If time allowed, students would benefit from doing their own
research a current environmental issue in Canada, and how it
relates to early interactions between the First Nations Peoples
and the early European explorers.
- After this unit is complete, a unit on The Fur Trade will further
develop the students understanding of the factors that made
Canada the way it is today.
Accommodations/Modification:
- Allow students to discuss in small groups if they are not
comfortable discussing in class.
- Give students the case of the cod industry and allow them to
research the repercussions of unsustainable fishing.
- Allow students to view the maps on a computer or paper if they
cannot see the board, or if no projector is available.
Assessment: Check students understanding based on if they are
participating in the discussion and contributing. Ask the student
questions to ensure they are following and gaining knowledge from the
lesson.
Evaluation: See checklist in summative evaluation (Appendix 1).
Multiple Intelligences:
verbal linguistic
logical/mathematical
musical/rhythmic
bodily/kinesthetic
visual/spatial
interpersonal
intrapersonal
naturalist
existential
Objectives:
The goal of this lesson is to introduce some of the long term
consequences of the early interactions the students have learned
about. The ideas of cause and consequence will be reinforced through
analyzing the exploration of Canada, and the cod crisis we are facing
37

Sarah Johnson
today. It will also be reinforced by looking at the population distribution
of the First Nations Peoples, and thinking about the Acts and Treaties
the students have learned about. Students will think critically about
how these interactions have changed over time, and what some of the
consequences of these interactions are. Students will connect
knowledge of the past events to present day issues and trends. This
lesson concludes the unit, extending the ideas beyond the context of
history and into the present.
Broad Understanding:
Students will understand the idea of cause and consequence. They will
be able to make connections between current issues and past events
that contributed to them. The students will extend the knowledge they
have acquired of European and First Nations Peoples interactions, and
understand how these have affected what Canada is today.
Requisite Tools for Critical Thinking:
Background Knowledge: Students must apply knowledge they learned
previously in the unit, and compare it to what is occurring in Canada
today. Students must have a basic understanding of what
environmental issues are. The students must have a basic
understanding of the Geography of Canada, and a basic understanding
of the concept of international trade.
Criteria for Judgment: to answer the question, students must take
previous knowledge and apply it to a modern day setting. Students
must look back on their chart and of the treaties they have studied,
and apply it to current issues in Canada. Using the criteria of Food,
Language, Religion, Trade, Disease, Disrespect, and Help, students will
evaluate how interactions shaped trends apparent in present day
Canada.
Critical Thinking Vocabulary: Population Distribution, Cod, John Cabot,
Trade, Sustainability, Environment, Moratorium, Environmental Impact,
Issue, Reserve
Concepts of Disciplinary Thinking: Cause and Consequence, Continuity
and Change
Strategies: highlight differences using maps of the changes in
distribution. Define words such as Sustainability and Moratorium in the
lesson; write the definitions so students can read them. Discuss some
of the changes they may see and ask questions that will encourage
creative thinking.
Habits of Mind: Reflection on past knowledge, application of past
knowledge onto new concept, critical thinking

38

Sarah Johnson
References:
BC Archives. (N.D) First Nations in British Columbia. British Columbia
Archives.
http://www.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/exhibits/timemach/galler07/frames/ind
e
x.htm
Canada in the Making. (2005). Early Canadiana Online. Canadiana.org.
Edited by: Dr.
Jean-Claude Robert.
http://www.canadiana.ca/citm/index_e.html
Canadas First Nations Project. (2001). Andrew J. Blackbird's The
History of the
Ottawa and Chippewa Indians; J.G. Kohl's KitrchiGami; and William Whipple Warren's History of the Ojibwas:.
University of Calgary and Red Deer College.
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/home.html
Canadas First Nations Project. (2001). The Applied History Research
Group.
University of Calgary and Red Deer College.
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/home.html
Canadian Geographic.(N.D) Historic Map of Canada. Canadian
Geographic Enterprise.
http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/mapping/historical_maps/1791.asp
Canadian Museum of Civilization. (2013). Virtual Museum of New
France: The
Explorers. Canadian Museum of Civilization
Corporation.
http://www.civilization.ca/virtual-museum-of-newfrance/the- explorers/jacques-cartier-1534-1542/
CBC Learning. 2001. Canada: A Peoples History. CBC.
http://www.cbc.ca/history/
Conrad, Finkel, Jaenen, Copp, Clark, Pitman. (1993). History of the
Canadain Peoples:
Beginnings to 1867. Vol.1.
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/world.html
David Suzuki Foundation. (2012). Report Shows Canada Must do More
for its Oceans. http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/oceans/

39

Sarah Johnson
Dickason, O. P. (1992). Canada's First Nations: A history of founding
peoples from
earliest times (Vol. 208). University of Oklahoma
Press.
First Nation Education Steering Committee. (2010). English first
peoples: Teacher resource guide . http://www.fnesc.ca
Government of Canada. (2013) Aboriginal Affairs and Northern
Development Canada. Government of Canada. http://www.aadncaandc.gc.ca/eng/1290453474688/1290453673970
Heidenreich, C. (2001). Pathfiners & Passageways: The Exploration of
Canada.
Library and Archives Canada. http://epe.lacbac.gc.ca/100/206/301/lacbac/explorers/www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/explorers/h24-220e.html
Hipwell, B. (2005). Mikmaq Nation. Aboriginal Sustainability Network.
http://www.aboriginalsustainabilitynetwork.org/peoplesplaces/mikmaq
Historica Canada. 2013. Heritage Minute: John Cabot. Historica Canada.
https://www.historicacanada.ca/content/heritage-minutes/johncabot
James Axtell. (1981). The Indian Peoples of Eastern America: A
Documentary History of the Sexes. Oxford University Press.
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/earth.html
Legacy of Hope Foundation. (2009). Where Arte The Children?
Healthing the Legacy of Residential Schools. Canadian Heritage.
http://www.wherearethechildren.ca
Library and Archives Canada. (2006). Aboriginal Document Heritage.
Government of Canada.
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/aboriginal-heritage/020016- 3100e.html
The Applied History Research Group, (2000), University of Calgary.
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/gulf.html
The Encyclopedia of New York State. (2013). Covenant Chain. Syrcuse
University Press.

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http://www.syracuseuniversitypress.syr.edu/encyclopedia/entries/conve
na
nt-chain.html
Toronto Public Library Gallery. (2004). Frozen Ocean: Search for the
North West Passage.
http://ve.torontopubliclibrary.ca/frozen_ocean/fo_intro.htm
Winter, B. (2009). A Journy Into Time Immemorial. SFU Museum of
Archeology and Ethnography. http://www.sfu.museum/time/en/flash/

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Appendix
Appendix 1:
Summative Activity
How did the relationships between European Explorers and the
First Nations Peoples benefit /harm each side of the
interaction?
Comparison Chart
Provided is a chart that you must fill out over the course of this unit.
We will introduce and discuss the concepts in class, but you must do
additional research on your own, with the websites provided. You must
bring this chart to every class, and to the Royal Ontario Museum Field
Trip. You will be handing in the chart along with your summative paper.
It is likely that you will need additional space in the chart to record
your information, please use a separate sheet of lined paper.
U-Shaped Debate
Use this chart to guide the U-shaped debate we will be having in class.
You will need to prepare an opinion answering the question: How did
the relationships between European Explorers and the First Nations
Peoples benefit /harm each side of the interaction? You will then have
the opportunity to state why you have made your opinion, using
evidence from what you learned in class and what you learned from
your own research. You have the option to switch locations in the U at
any point in the debate. The bottom of the U is if you believe that both
group benefited equally, and you must still have evidence to support
this opinion, and reasons that they benefited. If you believed that the
Europeans benefited more, you will be on the left side of the U. If you
believe the First Nations Peoples benefited more you will stand on the
right side of the U. Please see the checklist attached for the success
criteria for this assignment.
Summative Paper
In the summative paper, you must write a 1-page essay answering the
question: How did the relationships between European Explorers and
the First Nations Peoples benefit /harm each side of the interaction?
Use the chart to guide your response, and be sure to use proper essay
format. You may type or handwrite your assignment. Please see the
checklist attached for the success criteria for this assignment.

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Here are the resources you are to use:


http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/iroq.html
http://ve.torontopubliclibrary.ca/frozen_ocean/fo_intro.htm
http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/hist/frobisher/frint01e.shtml
http://www.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/exhibits/timemach/galler07/frames/ind
ex.htm
http://www.beyondthemap.ca/english/first_contact.html
http://www.canadiana.ca/citm/themes/aboriginals/aboriginals2_e.html
http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/aboriginal-heritage/020016-1000e.htm
Remember to use proper language. Here are some helpful definitions:
Aboriginal: a term defined in the Constitution Act of 1982 that refers to all
indigenous people in Canada, including Indians (status and non-status),
Mtis, and Inuit people. More than one million people in Canada identified
themselves as Aboriginal on the 2006 Census, and are the fastest growing
population in Canada.
First Nations: the self-determined political and organizational unit of the
Aboriginal community that has the power to negotiate, on a government-togovernment basis, with BC and Canada. Currently, there are 615 First Nation
communities, which represent more than 50 nations or cultural groups and 50
Aboriginal languages. This term does not have a legal definition but should be
used instead of the term Indian, which is inaccurate, and offensive to many.
First Peoples refers to First Nations, Mtis, and Inuit peoples in Canada, as
well as indigenous peoples around the world.
Mtis: a person of French and Aboriginal ancestry belonging to or descended
from the people who established themselves in the Red, Assiniboine, and
Saskatchewan river valleys during the nineteenth century, forming a cultural
group distinct from both European and Aboriginal peoples. The Mtis were
originally based around fur trade culture, when French and Scottish traders
married First Nations women in the communities they traded with. The Mtis
created their own communities and cultural practices, distinct from that of
the First Nations. This term has also come to mean anyone with First Nations
mixed ancestry who self-identifies as Mtis.

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Inuit: Aboriginal peoples whose origins are different from people known as
North American Indians. The Inuit generally live in northern Canada and
Alaska. Inuit has, in recent years, replaced the term Eskimo.
Indian: a term used historically to describe the first inhabitants of North and
South America and used to define indigenous people under the Indian Act.
The term has generally been replaced by Aboriginal peoples, as defined in
the Constitution Act of 1982.

Source: First Nation Education Steering Committee. (2010). English


first peoples: Teacher resource guide . Retrieved from
http://www.fnesc.ca
First Nations Peoples

Early European
Explorers

Religion

Language

Food Source

Objective of Trade

Disease

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Disrespect

Helpfulness

Success Criteria for the U-Shaped Debate


Comes to class prepared with an opinion
/2
Opinion has evidence and examples to
support it
Participates in debate and discussion

/5

Acts respectfully and listens to others while


engaged in the debate
Total

/3

/5

/15

Success Criteria for Summative Assignment


Hands in completed chart.
/5
Knowledge
- Chart must be fully complete and contain
evidence.
Proper Essay Format:
/5
Communicati
- Introduction and Conclusion, paragraphs,
on
opening and closing sentences.
Opinion is clear
Opinion is supported with evidence from
class and from the websites provided for
additional research
Uses a variety of the categories from the
chart

/2
/10
/3

Thinking
Application
Knowledge
and
Understandin
g

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Spelling and Grammar

/3

Communicati
on

References (include a bibliography)

/2

Communicati
on

Total

/25

Appendix 2:
Questions for Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) Field Trip
Checklist for ROM fieldtrip:
Behaves in a respectful manor throughout the entire
fieldtrip
Stays with assigned group
Completes questions assigned
Spends time studying artifacts and asks questions
Fills out chart during the field trip

Comparing the First Peoples Canada exhibit and the Canada


exhibit.
Questions:
1) What are some similarities you notice?

2) What are some differences?

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3) Why do you think these exhibits are separated?

4) Should they be separated?

5) Look at some of the cultural objects; do you think that the people
who owned these objects would want them on display like this?
Why?

Appendix 3:
European Explorer and First Nations Peoples Interaction
Assignment
You will be assigned into groups of four. In this group, you must choose
one encounter between an early European Explorer and a group of
First Nations Peoples. You must get the interaction approved by the
teacher at the beginning of next class. You will have all of the next
class in the computer lab with your group to do research and work on
this presentation. You must create a 5 minute presentation on the
benefits and drawbacks (pros an cons) for both sides for this
interaction.
Here are the websites you can use to find your information:
* DO NOT USE OTHER SOURCES*
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/encounters.ht
ml
http://ve.torontopubliclibrary.ca/frozen_ocean/fo_intro.htm
http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/hist/frobisher/frint01e.shtml
http://www.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/exhibits/timemach/galler07/frames/ind
ex.htm
http://www.beyondthemap.ca/english/first_contact.html
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Here is your Checklist:

To succeed on this assignment you must:


Identify the location of the interaction
/2
Accurately identify the First Nations Tribe
and the European Explorer
Accurately Describe the interaction.
- Using descriptive details
- Historically accurate
- Clear and concise
Use visuals to help explain/clarify
Identify the perspective of both sides of
the relationship
Identify the benefits and the drawbacks or
pros and cons of the interaction for each
group of people. Be sure to explain why it
is a benefit or a drawback using
evidence.
Use multiple sources of information
Total:

/2
/5

/2
/4
/8

Knowledge and
Understanding
Knowledge and
Understanding
Thinking/Comm
unication

Application/
Thinking
Application

/2
/25

Appendix 4:

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Canada in the Making. (2005). Early Canadiana Online. Canadiana.org.


Edited by: Dr. Jean-Claude Robert.
http://www.canadiana.ca/citm/index_e.html

Appendix 5:

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Acts and Treaties between European and First Nation Peoples


You have been assigned one of the following acts or treaties:
6) British North American Act- 1867
7) Sale of Selkirk Lands- 1869
8) Numbered Treaties 1-5 1871-1921
9) Numbered Treaties 6-11 - 1871-1921
10)
Indian Act 1867
You will be responsible for researching about the topic and coming up
with answers to these five questions based on your topic.
1) Who was involved in the act/treaty?
2) Were both sides consulted?
3) What was the goal of the act/treaty?
4) Who benefited from the act/treaty?
5) What was the result?
You will have 20 minutes to discuss the answers to these questions at
the beginning of the next class with other people who have done the
same topic. This is your expert group.
You will then be put in a new group, containing people who researched
the four other topics. You explain the answers to your questions, and
allow them to write down the answers on a separate piece of paper. By
the end of this, each group member should have the answers to the
five questions, for each of the five Treaties/Acts.
Here are the resources you may use:
http://www.canadiana.ca/citm/specifique/specifique_e.html
http://www.canadiana.ca/citm/education/lesson7/lesson7_e.pdf
http://eco.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.91942/2?r=0&s=1
http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100032291/1100100032292?
utm_source=maindex_e.html&utm_medium=url
http://www.canadiana.ca/citm/themes/aboriginals_e.html
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/treaty.html
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/aboriginal-heritage/020016-3100e.html

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Checklist:
Comes to class prepared to teach
their topic
Accurately describes the answers
to the five questions to the group
Records the answers of the other
group and asks questions when
needed
Discusses and works cooperatively
with the group they are assigned.
Total:

/2
/5
/2
/1
/10

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Sarah Johnson

Appendix 6:

Legacy of Hope Foundation. (2009). Where Arte The Children?


Healthing the Legacy of Residential Schools. Canadian Heritage.
http://www.wherearethechildren.ca

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Appendix 7:

Government of Canada. (2013) Aboriginal Affairs and Northern


Development Canada.
Government of Canada. http://www.aadncaandc.gc.ca/eng/1290453474688/1290453673970

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