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CONSTANTA MARITIME UNIVERSITY MARINE AUXILIARY MACHINERY. Practical problems and guidelines for rudder and steering gears design. Draft Edition. Naval Architect and Marine Engineer: IORDAN NOVAC Ph.D. CONSTANTA 2013 This page intentionally left blank Chapter 4 Maneuvering of Ships ‘The history of scientific research on maneuvering of ships started already in 1749 with the classic work of Buler on equations of motion of a ship, but shipbuilding still remained for almost two centuries fully based on a shipbuilder’s experience-based knowledge. In about 1920, some first attention on a more analytic approach appeared when single-plated rud- ders were replaced by flow-line-curved rudders. This development was based on research on airfoils, carried out in the new aviation industry. More systematic work on maneuvering, has been started during World War II. Shortly after this War, [Davidson and Schiff, 1946] published a paper dealing with maneuvering problems on a (for that time) modern ap- proach. ‘The first International Symposium on Ship Maneuverability was held in 1960 in Washington in the U.S.A. There, among others, [Norrbin, 1960] gave his view on the "state of the art” of scientific work carried out on maneuverability of ships. Since then, an increasing attention has been paid on research in this particular hydrodynamic field. Especially, (inter)national organizations - such as the IMO (International Maritime Organization), the ITTC (International Towing Tank Conference) and the SNAME (Society of Naval ‘Architects and Marine Engineers) - became more active in the stimulation of research on those aspects of ship maneuverability which are vital for safer shipping and cleaner oceans. Results of this (and other) research are treated in this Chapter. During the last four decades, research on ship maneuverability was also stimulated strongly by the increasing ship size problems (crude oil carriers and container vessels), the related shallow water problems when entering harbors, the increasing ship speed problems (nuclear submarines and fast ferries), newly-developed experimental oscillatory techniques (planar motion mechanismns) and - last but not least - the enormous developments in the computer industry with related new possibilities for computer simulations. In some parts of this Chapter on Maneuvering of Ships, very fruitful use has been made of the following references: ‘© The "Principles of Naval Architecture”, 1989, Chapter IX on Controllability by C.L. Crane, H. Eda and A. Landsberg. @ Various Proceedings of the International Towing Tank Conference; particularly those CHAPTER 4. MANEUVERING OF SHIPS of the 22nd ITTC (1999), which presents detailed procedures on conducting full scale maneuvering trial tests. « A paper on *IMO’s Activities on Ship Maneuverability” in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Marine Simulation and Ship Maneuverability (MARSIM) in October 1993 at St. John's in Canada by S.D. Srivastava. For more detailed information on maneuvering of ships, reference is given to these publi- cations. 4.1 Introduction Controllability encompasses all aspects of regulating a ship's trajectory, speed and orien- tation at sea, as well as in restricted waters where positioning and station keeping are of particular concern. Controllability includes starting, steering a steady course, turning, slowing, stopping and backing. In the case of submarines, diving has to be added to these controllability tasks too. The study of the complex subject of controllability is usually divided into three distinct areas of functions: ‘© Course keeping (or steering) ‘This aspect yields the maintenance of a steady mean course or heading. Interest centers on the ease with which the ship can be held to the course. © Maneuvering ‘This aspect yields the controlled change in direction of motion; turning or course changing. Interest centers on the ease with which change can be accomplished and the radius and distance required to accomplish the change. © Speed changing ‘This aspect yields the controlled change in speed including stopping and backing. Interest centers on the ease, rapidity and distance covered in accomplishing changes. Performance varies with water depth, channel restrictions and hydrodynamic interference from nearby vessels and obstacles. Course keeping and maneuvering characteristics are particularly sensitive to the ship's trim. For conventional ships, the two qualities of course keeping and maneuvering may tend to work against each other; an easy turning ship may be difficult to keep on course whereas a ship which maintains course well may be hard to turn, Fortunately, a practical compromise is nearly always possible. Since controllability is so important, it is an essential consideration in the design of any floating structure. Controllability is, however, but one of many considerations facing of naval architects and involves compromises with other important characteristics. Some solutions are obtained through comparison with the characteristics of earlier successful designs. In other cases, experimental techniques, theoretical analyses, and rational design practices must all come into play to assure adequacy. Three tasks are generally involved in producing a ship with good controllability: 4.2. REQUIREMENTS AND TOOLS ‘ Establishing realistic specifications and criteria for course keeping, maneuvering and speed changing. @ Designing the hull, control surfaces, appendages, steering gear and control systems to meet these requirements and predicting the resultant performance. © Conducting full-scale trials to measure performance for comparison with required criteria and predictions. ‘This chapter will deal more or less with each of these three tasks. Its goal is to give an introduction to the basics of controllability analysis and some of its many facets. In a next lecture, manners will be given that should lead to the use of rational design procedures to assure adequate ship controllability. 4.2 Requirements and Tools In this section, some basic information is given on maneuvering requirements, rudder types, required rudder areas and rudder control systems. 4.2.1 General Requirements Each sailing ship must have a certain amount of course stability; ie. it must be able to maintain a certain direction or course. During sailing, the drift angle (the angle between the path of the center of gravity and the middle line plane of the ship) may not show large fluctuations. The phenomena “course” and "drift angle” have been defined in figure 4.1. ‘The rudder angle, required to compensate for external disturbances by wind and waves, may not be too large. Figure 4.1: Definition of Course and Drift Angle CHAPTER 4. MANEUVERING OF SHIPS ‘The sailing ship must be able to change its course relatively fast, with small overshoots. ‘Also, the path overshoot (or path width) has to stay within certain limits. ‘The ship must be able to carry out turning maneuvers within limits, defined later. It must remain well- maneuverable during accelerating and decelerating the ship and it must have an acceptable stopping distance. Also, the ship must be able to maneuver at low speeds without assistance of tugs. For this, certain demands on design, performance and control of the rudder are required. 4.2.2. Rudder Types ‘The type of rudder and its location and placement relative to the propeller have significant influence on rudder effectiveness and ship controllability. Rudders should be located near the stern and should be located in the propeller stream for good controllability. Figure 4.2 shows the major rudder types available to the designer. Its performance char- acteristics are of major importance to the controllability of the ship. ‘SIMPLETYPE; RUDDER POST COMPOUND; BUTT SIMPLE FULLY BALANCED BALANCED; WITH FIKED ‘STRUCTURE: WU ; s oe ieee rs BALANCED; UNOERHUNG: UNDERHUNG;SHALLOW SPADE;MERCMANT TYPE SPADE; TRANSOM STERN. DEEP HORN noRW [corres ypoen Figure 4.2: Various Rudder-Fin Arrangements All-movable rudders are desirable for their ability to produce lange turning forces for their size. The required rudder moment is strongly influenced by a careful choice of the balance ratio; this is the rudder area forward of the rudder stock divided by the total rudder area. Usually, this balance ratio varies between 0.25 for ships with a small block coefficient and 0.27 for ships with a large block coefficient. Structural considerations, costs, the need for additional stabilizing side forces provided by a horn and the considerations may require use of other types of rudders such as the semi-suspended (or horn) rudder. The horn type is also favored for operations in ice. 4.2, REQUIREMENTS AND TOOLS 4.2.3 Rudder Size ‘The rudder area should be determined and verified during the initial ship arrangement study. A good first step is to use the 1975-Rules value of Det Norske Veritas for a minimum projected rudder area: 2 Ante (rosso. (z) } (44) in which: projected rudder area length between perpendiculars beam draft rg B d ‘This formula 4.1 applies only to rudder arrangements in which the rudder is located directly behind the propeller. For any other rudder arrangement Det Norske Veritas requires an increase in the rudder area by - at least; - 30 percent. A twin screw (or more) arrangement should be combined with rudders located directly behind the propellers for maximum low- speed maneuverability, A single rudder placed between two propellers may be inadequate, because the rudder blade does not swing sufficiently into the flow of a propeller to generate the needed turning moment. 4.2.4 Rudder Forces and Moments ‘A rudder behind a ship acts as an airfoil or a wing; it produces lift and drag in a proper flow. A cross section of a rudder (or a lifting surface) is such that at a rudder angle (or angle of attack of the flow) a relative large force perpendicular to the flow direction comes into existence. Figure 4.3 shows the components of the force produced by the rudder. The rudder profile has been placed with an angle of attack a in a homogeneous flow with a constant velocity V. Practically, V is defined as the velocity of the fluid far before the rudder. For small angles of attack, a, the total force P on the profile acts at about ¢ ~ 0.25 - ¢, provided that the span width s is large with respect to the chord length c. This force P can be decomposed in a lift force L perpendicular to the flow and a drag force D in the direction of the flow. The total force P can be decomposed in a normal force IV and a tangential force T, too. Rudder forces are made dimensionless by the stagnation pressure 4pV? and the projected rudder area Ay: L D oO = Tv, we (4.2) N id Ov = a Oa From the force components, as presented in figure 4.3, follows: CHAPTER 4. MANEUVERING OF SHIPS = chord length ‘t= wing section thickness ‘Figure 4.3: Forces on a Rudder Section ViF+Di = VP? Leosa+Dsina and Cy =Cycosa+Cpsina Deosa—Lsina and Cr =Cpeosa ~Czsina (43) For the rudder moment, it is important to know about which point it has been defined. ‘The moment M. about the front (or nose) of the rudder is: MM. M.=N- id Cu = (4.4) 6 ant a Ae a) ‘Thus the chord length c has been used for making the rudder moment dimensionless, so: (4.5) An example of these characteristics has been given in figure 4.4. The lift coefficient increases almost linearly with the angle of attack until a maximum value is reached, whereupon the wing is said to “stall”. At small angles of attack, the center of the lift forces acts at about c/e ¥ 0.25. At higher angles of attack - before stalling of the wing - the flow starts to separate at the suction side of the wing and the center of the lift force shifts backwards, for instance to about ¢/c = 0.40. ‘The moment M;s about the rudder stock is: My =N-(e~a) (46) A rudder moment is called positive here, when it is right turning. Sometimes, a definition of the rudder moment about a point fixed at e = 0.25 -c will be found in the literature. 4.2. REQUIREMENTS AND TOOLS c £ fo RO ~0,25| & e Figure 4.4: Lift, Drag and Moment: Characteristics of a Wing Section The aspect ratio s/c of the rudder is an important parameter. The geometrical aspect ratio is defined by the ratio of the mean span width § and the mean chord length 2: (47) For an arbitrary rudder plan form can be written: me 2 ea tus AR=T (48) Because of the finite aspect ratio, three-dimensional effects will appear at the upper and lower side of the rudder; see figure 4.5. A fluid flow around the comers appears, of which the effect on the lift coefficient will increase with a decreasing aspect ratio. Figure 4.5: Flow Around Corners of a Lifting Surface ‘At larger aspect ratios, the flow becomes more two-dimensional over a larger part of the rudder surface. The flow around the comers can be avoided by walls or end-plates. A rudder which almost joints the stern of the ship at the upper side of the rudder, has a CHAPTER 4. MANEUVERING OF SHIPS considerably increased effective aspect ratio. Then, theoretically, the effective aspect ratio is twice the geometrical aspect ratio. A flat plate has a relative large increase of the lift coefficient with the angle of attack, so a high 8C;,/da value. From the lifting surfaces theory, see [Abbott and von Doenhoff, 1958], follows: Cr rece Ge =2* fora fat plate (with a in radians) The great disadvantage of a flat plate as a rudder is the fast flow separation; the flow will separate already at small angles of attack. A flat plate stalls already at a small angle of attack. A wing section thickness, é, of 9 percent of the chord length, c, is often considered as a practical minimum value, so t/e > 0.09. 4.2, REQUIREMENTS AND TOOLS The lift, drag and moment coefficients (',, Cp and Cy) of symmetrical NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) wing sections for 0.06 vw=Ke, {1 (7+4) +E (e+-1) et} for: t2 t (4.28) h An example of the time histories of the rudder angle 5(t), the course 1 (t) and the rate of turn a(t) during a turning test is given in figure 4.25. Equation 4.24 can also be written as: UO =atbt+ceF (4.5) CHAPTER 4. MANEUVERING OF SHIPS with: (4.26) W et | (4.27) (4.28) ‘Thus, Nomoto’s first order indices K and T can be found very easy when applying the equations 4.22 and 4.28 to the time history of a turning circle as given in figure 4.25. 4.7.2, Use of Zig-Zag Maneuver Data Now, Nomoto’s K and T indices in equation: Th +b =K (6. +6) (4.29) will be determined for a zig-zag maneuver. The correction angle 6, in here is a required rudder angle to compensate for an asymmetry of the ship, when sailing a straight line. At time ¢ = 0, the ship has a rate of turn equal to to. An integration of equation 4.29 between the boundaries t = 0 and ¢ = t,, with = Hp at both boundaries, results in: te Ti + Vlg = Kote + K (4.30) or: : Ue = Kbste + K | 6,dt (4.31) 3 Ina similar way, it can be found that: 4.7. ESTIMATION OF NOMOTO’S K AND T INDICES Figure 4.26: Integration Boundaries for Analysing Zig-Zag Maneuvers ‘ v. = K6t,+K | 6,at (4.32) i Ul = Kt +K / Sydt (4.33) 3 The integral f §,d can be determined by a numerical integration of the time history of the a rudder deflection angle. The unknowns K and 6, can be solved from equations 4.32 and 4.33. Generally, these values does not fullfil equation 4.31, because the initial conditions will play a role at the beginning of a zig-zag maneuver. The time constant J” can be determined from an integration of equation 4.29 over the trajectory between f and é. (alternatively between ts and f, or between te and t,), because of a relatively large response, so: , Ps Til? +wRy = Keaig+K [at (4.04) é ie i ral +0 = Két\e + f 5,dt (4.35) Tif + vite = Keath +x faa (4.36) a Ne or: CHAPTER 4. MANEUVERING OF SHIPS T (athe) = (Wen) — KB. (tet) — K f buat (4.37) a ¢ 7 (ia-‘o) = (vi-vs) —KB.(K-4) —K f 5a (4.38) i 0 T (to-do) = (vo-de) - Kb (t-te) — / bd (4.39) Again, equation 4.37 will be affected by initial conditions, so equations 4.38 and 4.39 can be used to determine the turning capacity coefficient K’. A simple method for determining Nomoto’s manoeuvering indices K and T from full-scale zigzag trial data is given by [Journée, 1970]. 4.7.3 Experimental Data on K and T ‘The maneuvering indices K and 7’ are made dimensionless with ship length L and initial forward speed Up by: (4.40) Figure 4.27 shows a graphic presentation of K’ and 7’ indices in relation to the size of the ship for various types, as they have been published by Kensaku Nomoto on the First Symposium on Ship Maneuverability in Washington in 1960. Nevertheless the spreading of the data points, the figure shows that K’ does not depend very much on the ship size, but that 7” increases with the ship size. 0 0 2 30 40 90 © 010 2 30 40 50 60 Displacement (tonx 1000) Displacement (on x 1000) Figure 4.27: Non-Dimensional Presentation of K and T' Indices of Nomoto Figure 4.28 shows the data points for K’ and 7", obtained from various zig-zag trials, with the upper and lower curves set at 1.25 and 0.75 times the mean. In the literature, 4.7. ESTIMATION OF NOMOTO’S K AND T INDICES sometimes the overshoot angle is basis for analyzing results of zig-zag maneuvers. However, Nomoto has pointed out that the overshoot angle is nearly proportional to K'/T", with the rudder angle 6, fixed. Figure 4.28 confirms Nomoto's suggestion that the parameters K’ and 7’ provide a more useful basis for analyzing results of zig-zag maneuvers than does the overshoot angle. [Source| PNA, 1989] ag aro a z eee Figure 4.28: Relationship of Steering Quality Indices K’ and T’ 08 Tomales Test toss or [amc SRM caLL|S BEER memes ee 3] bh ct eee z Ce Figure 4.29: Correlation of Zig-Zag Maneuver Performance Data Figure 4.29 shows the relationship between the parameters K’ and 7" and the rudder area, ‘Ap. Together with formula 4.1 of Det Norske Veritas, this relationship may be useful as design tools in selecting a rudder area. CHAPTER 4. MANEUVERING OF SHIPS 4.8 Speed Changing Stopping, coasting, backing and accelerating are important ship maneuvers; the first three particularly when near land, other vessels and fixed structures. However, the interactions between hull and propeller(s) during these maneuvers are quite complex. Because of this and the transient character of maneuvering, empirical calculations of the characteristics of these maneuvers are sometimes used when adequate motion equation coefficients are not available for simulation. ‘Stopping is decelerating the ship speed from any given ahead speed until the ship comes to rest. When discussing stopping capabilities, at least two ahead speeds should be considered; a crash stop from "full-ahead sea-speed” and a stop from “harbor speed”. Harbor speed may be 12 knots for a slow ship, such as a tanker, or about 15 knots for a fast ship, such ‘as a container vessel. Although in practice "emergency full astern” is almost never ordered from "fullahead sea-speed”; it is a customary machinery acceptance trial and the results are useful as a relative measure of stopping ability. Coasting refers to decelerating without using backing power. Time and distance required for a ship to decelerate to a slower speed is often of interest in ship handling. Decelerating more generally means that engine power ahead is insufficient to maintain steady forward speed. In that case, the unbalanced longitudinal force (ie., thrust is less than resistance) ‘then causes the ship to decelerate until resistance again equals thrust, at some lower speed. Rarely will a ship-handler coast a ship to near dead-in-the-water, because of the very long time it takes. However, decelerating at the least sustainable ahead power at which the ship will steer is very important to the ship handler. ‘The distance required to thus decelerate is critical to getting a ship’s speed down from the harbor approach velocity to a speed regime at which tugs can be effective in controlling the ship. In harbors where berthing may be located near the harbor entrance, this figures in harbor design, siting of terminals and in tthe selection and use of tugs. In some places it has led to the use of braking ships. Backing a ship is a maneuver of accelerating from rest to a given astern speed or distance. A backing propeller, on the other hand is one in which the blades are turning with negative angle of attack, producing astern thrust. Accelerating means increasing ship speed from rest or from a particular ahead speed to a higher ahead speed. ‘The principal performance indexes of these maneuvers reflect the time and distance from the initiation to completion. To simplify analyses, we often assume that the ship travels on a straight line during stopping. This is generally not true except in the case of some multi- screw ships with opposite rotating propellers, in the absence of appreciable wind, current and rudder angle and with controls-fixed straight-line stability. For the backing or stopping of ships with single-screws or uni-rotating multi-screws, the rotation of the propeller tends to swing the stern to port: if the propellers are right-handed (positive rotation according to sign convention) and to starboard if they are left-handed (negative rotation). Other factors may cause the ship to veer in the opposite direction. When a ship deviates from its straight path during a stopping or backing maneuver, the distance traveled is measured along its curved track. But the projections of this distance - termed head reach and side reach - are generally of greater importance as performance indexes. 4.8. SPEED CHANGING 4.8.1 Stopping Suppose a ship sailing in calm water at a straight path, with a speed Up. Its stopping distance and stopping time can be obtained by stationary model tests. At a range of forward speeds U, the remaining longitudinal force X(U,n) is measured at a range of propeller rates n; see figure 4.30. This force consists of resistance and thrust contributions. 4K(U,n) — increasing U n0 Figure 4.30: Breaking Force as Function of Forward Speed and Propeller Rate ‘Newton's second law provides the following equation of motion in the longitudinal direction: Stim-%)-V} =-X(U,n) (4.41) In here, —X; is the added mass in the longitudinal direction, which is assumed to constant here. Then: r dt ee ~m— x0) ay (4.42) fF; Toe eat ~(m—x0 [xy om % In here, t—to is the time span required to reduce speed from Up to U. The covered distance during that time span is s — 59. From equation 4.41 can be found: rs (m — Xa) ~ pm — Xi Uy == f Xa is From this follows for U = 0: CHAPTER 4. MANEUVERING OF SHIPS . i ¢ im —Xeh= pp f X-ad bo Lugt/m see") —= m-Xq, (m/sec) —* V Figure 4.31: Virtual Mass as Function of Forward Speed and Propeller Rate ‘This added mass, — Xz, is depending on forward ship speed and propeller rate, as has been shown in figure 4.31 Figure 4.32 shows an example of the measured and computed stopping distances at several initial speeds of a tanker in full load and in ballast condition. 4.8.2 Coasting Coasting with the propeller *windmilling” consists of reducing the ahead power to that level necessary to cause the propeller to rotate without producing any thrust. In that case, the ship would be slowed solely by its hull resistance. When coasting with the propeller stopped, the ship would be slowed by its hull resistance plus the resistance of the locked propeller. Tn practice, the propeller’s rpm is likely to be slightly less than its zero-slip value, so that it exerts some sternward thrust. With feedback engine control it may circle between very slow ahead and astern. 4.8.3 Backing Many operators feel that backing time should be established primarily on the basis of ‘maneuverability around docks. In the case of clearing a ship slip, the astern speed achieved after the ship has traveled one ship length may be an adequate criterion for judging backing speed. However, a poll of the operators did not suggest what the speed should be, but 48. SPEED CHANGING at spant Un) Figure 4.32: Measured and Computed Stopping Distances of a ‘Tanker rather indicated that experience and the particular hydrographic conditions would dictate the desirable astern speed. The astern speed, U, reached in differential time at starting from rest may be obtained by equating the product of the instantaneous accelerating force, X, times the distance traveled, s, to the kinetic energy of the ship at speed U. Thus: (m— Xa) 0? (4.44) 4.8.4 Accelerating Acceleration ahead is important for naval ships that may have a change position rapidly in a task force or accelerate suddenly for other tactical reasons. The acceleration may be found from: (m- Xa) 4 =T (Un) -{1-t}- RU) (4.45) with the variables: thrust T’, thrust deduction fraction t and resistance R. Figure 4.33 shows an example of the acceleration force and the acceleration as functions of the ship speed. Figure 4.33-a shows typical relationships amongst 2, 7’, X and speed for a steam turbine. ‘The thrust curves 1 and 2 in the figure apply to the case where the initial speed is greater than zero. In the case shown, because the thrust is greater than resistance at the initial speed, there is no equilibrium and theship accelerates. At” execute”, the thrust is increased rapidly to the amount desired. Then thrust curve 1 applies. Of course, the time to reach total equilibrium at maximum speed will be quite long. This is because resistance will very gradually approach the thrust curve as speed approaches maximum and there is gradually diminishing unbalanced thrust remaining to cause acceleration. CHAPTER 4. MANEUVERING OF SHIPS {[Soures: PNA, 1969) Figure 4.33: Acceleration Force and Acceleration as Functions of Ship Speed If the final desired speed after acceleration is less than the maximum speed, then much less time and distance are needed. Then the maximum available thrust of curve 1 is utilized until the desired speed is reached and the thrust: is appropriately reduced to equal the resistance at the desired speed, curve 2. This technique is useful in conducting maneuvering ‘rials to shorten the time needed to "steady up” on the approach course. Figure 4.33-b shows the relationship defined by equation 4.45 between i: and the ship speed, U, corresponding to the thrust curves 1 and 2. The relationship between time, velocity and distance is as follows: aU t= fi wu sn [ua (4.46) This page intentionally left blank STEERING GEAR rr SSNS STEERING GEAR ? SSNS The Basic Requirement for Steering Gears Steering gear is required to: a. be continuously available; b. move the rudder rapidly to any position in response to the order from the bridge during manoeuvring, and hold it in the required position; c. have arrangements for relieving abnormal stress and returning the rudder to its required position; d. maintain the ship on course regardless of wind and weather. For a given prssage, the distance actually travelled (and fuel consumed) will depend upon a vessel's ability to maintain the desired course. For a given sensitivity of autopilot, the ability to maintain course depends upon the sensitivity of the steering gear. The rapid and accurate response of well maintained electro-hydraulic steering minimises the distance travelled and results in an economy of operation far in excess of the other systems. Rudder Carrier Bearing Fe = Zi i) ces aon: (oe ships seating ALTERNATIVE CARRIER BEARING (TAYLOR-PULLISTER DUNSTOS TYPE) Fig. 1 This type of carrier bearing with a conical seat (Fig. 1) has the advantage that the seat and side wall will located the rudder stock. The angle of the conical seal is. shallow to prevent binding. Bearing weardown occurs over a period of time, and allowance is made in the construction of the steering gear for a small vertical drop of the rudder stock (approx. TM (ndepinig Krave STEERING GEAR * 2 ee eeeeraesesrme 55 | 5 6mm). Lifting of the rudder and stock by heavy weather is prevented by jumping stops between the upper surface of the rudder and the stem frame. External rudder stops are fitted to limit its movement to, say 39° each way from the mid position. In the steering gear there are also stops set to limit the angle to which the rudder can be moved by the gear. These are set to, e.g. 37° each way from the mid position. The latter are necessary to prevent the rudder being forced against the outside stops. The outside stops prevent unlimited rudder movement, which could arise from damage, causing the rudder to become disconnected. The result of this being, possibly, contact with the propeller. Limits on the telemotor are set at 35° each way from the mid-position. Ram Type Hydraulic Steering Gear relief valves supply valves replenishing tank forward FOUR RAM STEERING GEAR DIAGRAMMATIC ARRANGEMENT Fi ig The tiller, keyed to the rudder stock, is of forged or cast steel. For hydraulic gears with four cylinders, the tiller has two arms, which slide in swivel block arrangement designed to convert linear movement of the rams to the rotary movement of the tiller ams and rudder stock. The rams are of close grained hard cast iron or steel with working surfaces ground to a high finish. Each pair of rams is bolted together, the jointed ends being boxed vertically and bushed to form top and bottom bearings for the trunnion arms on the swivel block (see Fig. 2). Crosshead slippers bolted to the sides of the rams, slice on Tiana Renter STEERING GEAR os | NEES 5 SY The machined surfaces ofife guide bean, so atthe glands inthe cylinders are relieved of side loads. The guide beams also serve to brace each pair of cylinders which tend to be pushed apart by the hydraulic pressure on the arms. The cylinders have substantial feet bolted to the stools on which the gear is mounted. In four cylinder sets adjacent cylinders are cross braced by heavy brackets (not shown in the sketch of the four ram type) which in conjunction with the guide beams, preserve alignment Operation Of Four Ram Gear The pipe arrangement (Fig. 2) on the simple sketch of the four ram system shows the connections from two pumps to four rams. Because of the non-reverse lock arrangements, one pump can be stopped with the valves left open. All four rams work together but in the event of damage, either pair of rams can be isolated from the pressure pumps and allowed to idle with the bypass open. The remaining pair of rams then operate as a two ram gear. The by-passes are in parallel with the relief valves. The rudder can be locked by closing the supply valves, in an emergency. The relief valves between the pipes connecting the opposing rams are designed to list if pressure in the system rises to about 10 percent above normal. This will occur due either to the rudder being hit by a heavy sea or from direct loading. By-passing of oil from one side of the system to the other through the relief valves permits the rams to move and abnormal stress on the rudder stock is thereby avoided. The hunting gear will cause the rudder movement to be corrected by putting the pump on stroke. Each pump has suction connections through non-return valves from the replenishing tank. Losses of oil from the system are automatically made up from this reserve of oil. A certain amount of leakage occurs in the pump and this oil is drained to the replenishing tank. Where an overhead tank is fitted (V.S.G. pump) the oil is caused to flow from the pump casing by a centrifugal action produced by rotation of the cylinder block. Other oil flowing back into the pump gives a cooling action. In connection with the upkeep of electro-hydraulic gears, it might be mentioned that failures have occurred due to the fracturing at the necks of the pipes which carry the oil between the ram cylinders and the pumps. These pipes and ram cylinders works at pressures in the vicinity of 900lb per sq. in., and the cylinder relief valves are set at 1,000Ib per sq. In one case, when the pipes fractured at the neck, the cylinders were emptied of oil and the rams were flamed from side to side by heavy seas striking the rudder. Special attention should be paid to these high pressure oil pipes after any heavy weather. Itis now a requirement of the Classification Societies that a brake of some kind should be fitted to these hydraulic gears. (see Fig. 3). (narra Krtete STEERING GEAR *% SSNS STEERING GEAR = SSNS Rotary Vane Gear The principle of the Rotary Vane Unit is illustrated in Fig. 4. PRINCIPLE OF ROTARY VANE STEERING GEAR 1) rudder stock 5) fixed vane 2) casing 6) port pressure chambers 3) vane boss 7) starboard pressure chambers, 4) rotary vane 8) pressure manifold Fig. 4 The rudder stock is tapered in way of the rotor which is keyed to it. The stator is secured to the ship's structure to prevent is rotating. In the annular space between rotor and stator are fitted fixed vanes, located equidistantly round the inside of the stator, and rotary vanes, located equidistantly round the outside of the rotor. This combination forms two sets of alternative pressure chambers each set connected hydraulically to the manifold. Fluid is delivered under pressure to either of these pressure chambers thus turning the rudder. Normally the unit is fitted with three rotary and three fixed vanes which permits a working rudder angle of 70°, i.e. 35° port to 36° starboard. The vanes also act as rudder stops and allow for a maximum angle of 80°. When specially large rudder angles are required only two moving and two fixed vanes are fitted, thus permitting a rudder angle of 130°. The pump delivering the hydraulic medium is drive by a continuously running electric motor. Duplicate motors and pumps are normally provided one set being for stand-by duty, except when in narrow waters. As a protection against overload, relief valves are connected hydraulically (to the two manifolds. These are set to lift at a pre-determined pressure and safeguard the hydraulic) system in the event of the rudder encountering an abnormally high resistance. By-passing of fluid, following the lifting of the relief valves, permits the rotor to tum. Unepirng Krotae STEERING GEAR os SE 9 5 In passenger ships, if emergency steering gear is not fitted, the rotary vane unit is supplied with dual pressure chambers this being the equivalent of the four ram steering gear. The layout of a typical system is shown in Fig. 5. STEERING GEAR ~ SSNS Rotary Vane Construction ROTARY VANE STEERING GEAR anchor bolt ‘solating valves S a {close t@ lock gear) oS 2 el sealing strips 0 anchor bolt 9 ap ° 0] gastiron o Ol forwear S ell lio} ° o|° hein! rubber | o] ° shock le absorber ellll| Je lo ° | manifolds oy lel 0} anchor Bracket moving vane (key and \ pic fixed vane (dowels and cap screws) fig. 6 \Vanes in the gear shown (fig. 6) are of spheroidal graphite cast iron, the fixed ones being held to the stator by high-tensile steel dowel pins and cap screws. Moving vanes are keyed to the cast steel rotor which in tum is fitted to a taper on the rudder stock and keyed. Vanes are sealed by steel strips back by synthetic rubber laid in slots. Weight of the gear is supported by a rudder carried bearing beneath it in this design. Rotation of the gear is prevented by two anchor bolts held in fixed anchor brackets with rubber shock-absorbing sleeves. The bolts have outer cast-iron bushes to take wear from the steering gear flanges. Top and bottom stator flanges are welded on after oil manifold grooves have been machined. Hydraulic pressure is supplied by variable delivery pumps, with electric motor drive, running at constant speed in the same direction. Pumps may be of the Hele-Shaw radial piston type or of the axial piston V.S.G. In both, the stroke of the pump pistons can be carried and flow of oil to and from the pump can be reversed. When the operating rod of the pump is mid position, there is no flow of oil. Crcerenen wt STEERING GEAR i? SSNS Hele-Shaw Pump HELE-SHAW VARIABLE DELIVERY PUMP. fig. 7 The constant speed Hele-Shaw pump has it output controlled by a simple pushipull rod attached to guide rings in the pump. Without stopping or starting the pump, the output can be varied from zero to full in either direction. The pump consists of a bronze cylinder body with seven or nine radial cylinders which is rotated at constant speed in one direction (Fig. 7). The radial cylinder block rotates on a fixed steel central piece having two ports opposite to one another and in line with the bottom of the rotating cylinders. In each cylinder there is an oil hardened steel piston having a gudgeon pin with bronze slippers on the end. The slippers revolve with the cylinder block in grooves machines in a pair of floating rings. These are the rings, which are moved horizontally by the control rod. Movernent of the floating rings from the mid-position displaces the circular path of rotation of the pistons from that of the cylinder block and produces a pumping action. When the rod is in mid-position and the centres of rotation of pistons and block coincide, there is no pumping action. Uneprare Ronte STEERING GEAR - ed SSNS V.S.G. Pump (variable speed gear) piston swashplate casing ae Ls) _drive shaft suction a discharge N WAr = ports \ Yi axial cylinder block SIMPLIFIED ARRANGEMENT OF V.S.G. PUMP ig. 8 The V.S.G. pump has a cylinder block with axial cylinders. The sketch (Fig. 8) shows a simplified arrangement. Piston stroke and oil flow are varied by angular movement of the swash plate. The V.S.G. pump has been developed in recent years to operate with higher pressure with a resulting decrease in size of steering gears. Higher pressure means a casing of fabricated steel rather than cast iron. The cylinder block with its pistons is driven through the drive shaft by a simple constant-speed electric motor. The pistons ate tired through piston rods and bearings to a swash plate or tilting box. With the latter vertical, the pistons rotate with the cylinder block but have no axial movement. When the swash plate or titing box is set at an angle by the controller the pistons are caused to reciprocate in their cylinders and produce a pumping action. Stepless changes of pump delivery from zero to maximum in either direction is achieved, through lever or servo controls. Pump Anti-Reverse Locking Gear When two pumping units are fitted and only one is running, the idle pup would be driven in the reverse direction by oil pressure from the other but anti-reverse rotation locking gear if fitted in the flexible coupling between the motor and pump. It consists of steel pawls on the motor coupling rim. These paws with the motor and pump running, are thrown out towards the rim by centrifugal force. With the pump stopped, the pawls retum to their normal inward position and engage the teeth of a fixed ratchet secured to the pump base. Unoponre Kewtaoe STEERING GEAR * SSNS Hunting Gear The pump control is moved by the telemotor through a floating lever. The other end of this lever is connected through a safety spring link to the rudder stock or tiller (Fig. 9). buffer Sodgerstock spring or tiller G floating lever variable delivery pump telemotor HUNTING GEAR A A, fig.9 The telemotor is the receiver of the hydraulic remote control system from the wheel on the bridge. The linkage through the floating level of telemotor, pump and rudder stock forms the hunter gear. The pump is only required to deliver oil when the steering wheel is moved. The hunting gear retums the pump operating rod to mid-position as soon as the helmsman stops turning the wheel. When the rudder has moved through the angle corresponding to the wheel position, it will remain there until the wheel and telemotor ate moved again. The sketch shows simply, the operation of the hunting gear. The telemotor moves the end of the floating rod A to A; and the pump control is moved, therefore from B to B;. Pumping of the hydraulic oil causes movement of the rams and the end of rod C moves to C; thus causing the pump control to be pulled back to the neutral position B. | RSS oS Unioponiy Krone STEERING GEAR os nr nT rere: 95 1 if the rudder is displaced by a heavy sea through lifting of the relief valves, the hunting gear is moved by the rudder stock. This will put the pump on stroke and the rudder will be restored to its previous position. Control And Control Systems Electro Hydraulic Steering Gear With these systems the motor runs continuously. Duplicate motors and duplicate feeders are normally provided and in certain installations a change-over switch is provided so that each motor may be supplied by either feeder. Short circuit protection only is provided in these feeder circuits, the normal overload protection being replaced by an overload alarm. Control Systems These are of three basic types:- () Non Follow Up Systems With these systems the gear will run and the rudder will continue to turn while the steering wheel or other controller is moved from its central position. Rudder movement is stopped only when the steering control is centred once again (or when the rudder is brought up against the stops). It will be obvious that placing the filler amidships merely stops application of helm and does not remove it. Removal of helm must be effected by moving the tiller to the opposite side. Controllers with non follow up systems take the form of a wheel or a tiller lever or push buttons. A rudder indicator is fitted to indicate rudder movement. (ii) Follow Up Systems With these systems movement of the rudder follows the movement of the steering controller e.g. if the controller is moved to indicate a desired rudder position the rudder will tum until the actual rudder angle is the same as the desired rudder angle shown on the steering pedestal after which rudder movement will cease, the controller remaining offset from its central position. (ii) Automatic Systems With these systems the steering control circuits are controlled by signals received from the master compass, so that the ship is automatically held on to a selected course. Primarily the system is so arranged that when the vessel is on course the rudder is amidships but as soon as the compass indicates an error the auto pilot applies an amount of rudder sufficient to bring the vessel back on course. By the time the vessel is on course again the applied correcting rudder has been removed. With some systems, should it be required to alter the course being steered by the auto pilot by a few degree, this can be done by a Trim Switch and without necessarily reverting to hand steering. Undepiring Kraut STEERING GEAR * SSNS POWER SYSTEM CONTROL SYSTEM to main switchboard protection | protection —— a) ram qear fig. 10 Any and all of the above systems can be applied to both all electric or electro hydraulic steering systems so that the following may be fitted:- () Hand Electric (Follow Up) (ii) Hand Electric (Non Follow Up) (iii) Hand Hydraulic (“Telemotor Contro!”) (iv) Automatic and its normal practice to fit at least two of the systems (i), (i) and (ii). Fig. 10 indicates Follow Up, Non Follow Up and Auto Systems fitted to electro hydraulic power systems. Thus it will be obvious that an electric system of steering control consists essentially i)Steering pedestal or bridge unit. This produces electrical impulses by operation of the steering control. ii) Amplifier or control unit to transmit these impulses to the steering flat. iliyafter power unit to transtate these impulses into mechanical movement of the power steering system. STEERING GEAR os seen og DIAGRAM OF TELEMOTOR SYSTEM fig.11 The telemotor has become, on many vessels, the standby steering mechanism, used only when the automatic steering fails. It comprises a transmitter on the bride and a receiver connected to the variable delivery pump through the hunting gear. Transmitter and receiver are connected by solid drawn copper pipes. Liquid displaced in the transmitter causes a corresponding displacement in the receiver and of the pump control. The transmitter (Fig. 11) consists of a cylinder with a pedestal base which contains a piston operated by a rack and pinion from the steering wheel. The make up of tank functions automatically through spring loaded relieve and make up valves. Excess. pressure in the telemotor system causes oil to be released through the relief valve to the make up tank and loss of oil is made up through the lightly loaded make up valve. The two valves are connected to the cylinder through a shut off valve (which is normally left open) and the by-pass which connects both sides of the pressure system, when the piston is in mid-position. There is also a hand operated by-pass. The tank must be kept topped-up. The working fluid is a mineral oil of low viscosity and pour point and this givens some protection against rusting. As an alternative to mineral oil, a mixture of glycerol (glycerine) and water has been used. The receiver in the steering gear is shown as two fixed rams with moving opposed cylinder. Centring springs are fitted to bring the cylinders to mid-position. Movement of the telemotor received is limited by the stops set at 35°. The telemotor is connected to the hunting gear through a control spindle. By switching the change-over pin, the control spindle can be operated from the emergency steering position on the poop. STEERING GEAR a SSNS Charging The System The system is provided with a priming tank and hand pump which are situated in the steering gear compartment . When charging, the shut off between the make up tank and transmitter is closed and the wheel is brought to the mid position so that the piston is at the centre of its travel and the top and bottom parts of the cylinder are connected through the by-pass. The priming tank is filled (and then kept topped-up as necessary) and the hand pump operated with the charging valve open. Each section of the pipe is progressively filled with air being released through the bleed screws. At the last section the non-retum valve is opened to allow oil from the end of the pipe to be returned to the priming tank. Pumping is continued for some time, then the non-return valve is closed while pressure is maintained with the pump. The bleed screw at the top of the cylinder is cracked open to get rid of any remaining air. After closing the bleed screw on the cylinder, the shut off between the cylinder, and make up tank is opened and the tank is brought up to level. For an initial charges, pipes are disconnected so that the sections of pipe can be washed through. During the charging operation, joints are checked for leakage and when the system is full, a further check is made with the shut off closed and pressure maintained with the pump. At this stage, if the non-return valve is opened, each stroke of the hand pump should produce a discharge back to the tank which exactly coincides with the movement of the pump lever. The system is made ready for testing and operation by closing the charging and non- return valves and opening the shut-off valve. The hand by-pass valve must be closed Charging Steering Gear The steering gear itself must be completely filled with oil and all air must be excluded. Thus the air release valves are opened on hydraulic cylinders and pumps, also stop valves and by-pass valves in the system. The variable delivery pump can be used to pump the oil around the system (while keeping the replenishing tank topped-up). It can be put just on stroke by the handwheel (Fig. 11) and turned by a bar. The rams may be filed through the filling holes until all air has been displaced, before starting to pump the system through. Charging methods for steering gears and telemotors vary from one type to another. STEERING GEAR im aed SSNS ‘Alternative Types Of Steering Systems The type of system shown in Fig. 12 is powered by fixed, instead of variable capacity hydraulic pumps. Control is effected by directional and proportional valves. This system may be used on rotary units. cceora conta vale (shy soperieyten) propertona conta ve vote manfold ec metre et fig. 12 STEERING GEAR * SSNS The Electrical Single Motor Steering Gear See Fig. 13 i balers agromati =) {a La | potentiometer theostat ] | OL: ‘THE ELECTRICAL SINGLE MOTOR STEERING GEAR fig.13 The armature of the telemotor is fed directly from the mains and so is the potentiometer rheostat. If B is moved, say down, by the wheel then current flows due to the difference of potential between A and B. The telemotor field is now excited and the telemotor rotates so as to bring A into line again and restore equilibrium. Through a screw nut, frame and fulcrum arrangement the reverser switch is moved up and so closed. Mains current the flows through the brake field (to release the brake), through the rudder motor series field and through the rudder motor armature. The shunt field of the rudder motor (not shown) is permanently connected to the mains but this is insufficient to cause rotation unless the series field is also excited. Rotation of the rudder motor is arranged to hunt back the rheostat contact A through a floating lever frame and screw nut arrangement as well as opening the reverser switch. Ursoprning Katee STEERING GEAR - SSNS ‘Steering Gear Testing, Drills And Examinations Under International (IMO, SOLAS) regulations the Master must , within 12 hours before each departure (except for ships on short voyages on which the tests must be carried out weekly) ensure that the steering gear is checked and tested in order to be sure that it is working satisfactorily. The requirements for steering gears depend on the age and size of the vessel, which may not have all the equipment included in the list of tests and checks, so the words ‘where applicable’ are included in the regulations, an extract from which follows. The test procedure shall include, where applicable, the operation of the following: a) the main steering gear; b) the auxiliary gear; c) the remote steering gear control systems; d) the steering positions located on the navigating bridge; e) the emergency power supply; 4) the rudder angle indicators in relating to the actual position of the rudder; g) the remote steering gear control system power failure alarms; h) the steering gear power unit failure alarms; and i) the automatic isolating arrangement and other automatic equipment required for steering gear. The checks and tests shall include: a) the full movement of the rudder according to the required capabilities of the steering gear, b) a visual inspection of the steering gear and its connecting linkage; and ©) the operation of the means of communication between the navigating bridge and the steering gear compartment. Prior to the tests, the deck department should be informed and it should be verified that there are no obstructions in way of the rudder. The oil level in the supply tank should be checked and topped-up to about 75% of its capacity and where arrangements are provided for testing low level alarms these should be operated. The engineer officer should check over linkages to ensure that they are free and will not be impeded or prevented from operating satisfactorily, check that sliding surfaces are properly lubricated, and check for leakages from the system. Rams should be lubricated with system oil, and the engineer office should check that individual grease nipples or the central greasing system, if fitted for the ram guides, are full and providing lubrication. The connecting pin should be removed from the steering from its navigating bridge position and inserted (into position for control of the steering gear from within the steering gear compartment). The rudder should be moved hard over using each power unit in tum before cutting off the power to test the audible and visible alarms on the bridge. At the same time, the position of the tiller as indicated in the steering compartment should be checked against the position indicated on the bridge by the rubber angle indicator using (testing) the communication system provided and it would be verified that the light provided on the bridge to indicate the running motor of the power unit is working. Local testing or local emergency operation of steering gears powered by fixed capacity hydraulic pumps is carried out by manual operation of the directional control valves. With the connecting pin replaced in position for telemotor steering, the tiller should be operated from the bridge by (say) the port power unit. Disconnecting the power SSS Unaoprniy Krave STEERING GEAR * |: 3 Sh supply to that unit would test the automatic start-up arrangements (if provided) for the starboard unit which could otherwise be started manually from the bridge. The test should be repeated using the starboard motor. With both power units running, opening the power supply breaker and then closing it would check the automatic restart arrangements. Each control system provided should be tested and in case of electric systems, the power supply should be interrupted to test the audible and visible alarms on the navigating bridge. If a hydraulic system is fitted, the level of the hydraulic fluid should be checked. Itis too late to start tracing lines and ascertaining the functions of valves at the time of an emergency and all relevant staff should be familiar with the operation of the steering gear and the disposition and purpose of the isolating and bypass valves for emergency use and be aware of the procedures to be followed in the event of any failure. The regulations require that emergency steering gear drills be carried out at least every three months. These drills must include direct control from the steering gear compartment, the communications procedure with the navigation bridge and, where applicable, the operation of alternative power supplies. Simple operating instructions with a block diagram showing the change-over procedures for remote steering gear control systems and steering gear power units must be permanently displayed on the navigation bridge and in the steering gear compartment. On vessels operating a checklist system, the testing of the steering gears will be covered on the "Preparation for Departure” checklists. On vessels with two steering gears, on standby, both are normally running to give a faster rudder response. International Regulations For Steering Gear These now require either that cargo vessels in general must have an auxiliary steering gear as a backup for the main gear (and that if the rudder stock is over 356mm (14 in.) in diameter this second gear must be power operated) or that power units and connections are duplicated. ‘Power unit’ described the pump and motor or equivalent. Short-circuit protection only is to be provided for electric motors and power circuits. There must be two widely separated power circuits from the main ‘switchboard, one of which may pass through the emergency switchboard. A rudder indicator must be fitted on the bridge. Passenger Vessels ‘At maximum service speed the main steering gear of a passenger ship must be able to move the ruder from 35° on one side to 35° on the other, and 28 seconds is allowed for that part of the movernent from 35° to 30°. Main and auxiliary gears are required or duplicated pump and motor power units. Any auxiliary steering gear must be power operated if the rudder stock is over 230 mm (9 in.) If the duplicated power unit alternative is used, each pump and motor (or equivalent) must be capable of meeting the performance criteria STEERING GEAR os Stricter International Regulations for the Steering Gears of tankers over 10,000 tons gross were made effective for new vessels from 1980 and at a later date for existing ships. The steering gear must be able to meet the performance requirement of being above to move the rudder from 35° on one side to 35° on the other with 28 seconds being allowed for that part of the movement from the 35° extreme to 30° at the other. Main and auxiliary gears are required or there may be duplication of power units. Design of the system should be such that a single failure in its piping or one power unit (pump and motor or equivalent) will not leave the steering gear inoperable. The hydraulic oil reservoir for both steering gears must be fitted with a low level alarm connected to both bridge and engine room. Permanently piped to each reservoir is a fixed storage tank which must hold enough oil to recharge at least one of the steering gears. Duplicated and widely separated electrical supply circuits are required from the main switchboard with short-circuit protection only for these and the motors. Failure alarms are to be fitted on the bridge, with manual or automatic means of restarting the power unit motors. As well as the two bridge steering gear controls with audible and visual alarms, a local control in the steering gear compartment is also required. Rudder position is to be indicated in the steering gear compartment as well as on the bridge and means of ‘communication provided. Main steering gear power units must be arranged to restart automatically when the electrical supply is restored after a failure. The possibilty of total loss of electrical power is to be guarded against, by provision of alternative power for operation of the steering gear, the bridge control and the rudder indicator. The emergency supply is to be automatically connected within 45 seconds of main supply failure and must be capable of continuous operation for 30 minutes. The standard of performance when the equipment is working on the alternative supply is that at least it will move the rudder from 15° on one side to 15° on the other in 60 seconds. It must be capable of this with the ship at its deepest draught and running ahead at one-half the maximum ahead service speed or 7 knots, whichever is greater. The alternative power supply can be taken from the emergency source of electrical power. Other suggestions are for an independent power source used solely for steering and located in the steering compartment, such as batteries, diesel or air motor pump drive. Air motors have been fitted in a number of ships. A hand operated or air powered pump is sometimes installed and connected to two of the rams. This can be used as a rudder positioning device. Such a pump is convenient if the vessel is dry clocked and there is no power available to operate the rudder or to provide a fixed rudder angle to aid towing. This pump should not be considered as an emergency steering pump unless the system has been so designed and passed by the Classification Society. Regulations require that the steering gear compartment must be readily accessible and arrangements made to ensure working access to the machinery and controls. This must include handrails and gratings (or other non-slip surfaces) to make safe working conditions in case there is a leak of hydraulic oil. It should be noted that the Government and Classification Society regulations while broadly similar to the IMO rules outlined above, differ in some respects and may be more stringent. STEERING GEAR * SSNS ‘Steering Gear For Large Tankers And Other Vessels The major pollution risk with loss of steering on a larger tanker, make it necessary to have complete hydraulic system redundancy on new tankers of 100,000 dwt and above. This implies either two complete and independent hydraulic steering gears or two interconnected circuits with automatic isolation of one from the other should there be a loss of hydraulic fluid The principle of a steering gear suitable for any vessel, including tankers of more that 100,000dut, is shown in Fig. 3. The four-ram gear consists of two pairs of rams, each pair being capable of supplying 50% of the torque required. For normal full ahead running they are operated together to provide 100% torque, with one pump and motor power unit in use. The system operated in the same way as other four- ram arrangements, but duplication of the hydraulic pipework as well as pump and motor power units gives and additional safeguard with complete hydraulic system redundancy. The same sort of design can also be used in conjunction with duplicated rotary vane cylinders (one chamber above the other) as indicated in the sketch. Oil loss from a fracture in the pipe system would lower the level in the reservoir of the running pump and through the float switch and control unit shut down the isolating valves. The two sets of piping and associated pairs of rams would now be isolated. The leak could be in either pipe and ram set, however, and the problem remains whether to shut down the running pump and then start the other. One proposal is that a second lower level float switch be fitted to each reservoir. If, after closure of the isolating valves, no further oil loss occurred, the running pump would be left in operation, but continuing drop in oil level would initiate shutdown of the running pump and start of the other in 45 seconds. A number of proposals have been advanced for shutdown and isolating arrangements. There is the risk that the apparent increase in safety is jeopardised by added complexity and greater number of components exposed to failure. Posted Instructions ‘An example of plasticized posted steering gear operational instructions, normally posted in the wheelhouse, engine room control room and steering gear compartment Unceprnry Krastae STEERING GEAR * SSNS Emergency Steerage Initial Condition Both steering gears stopped. Establish communications with the bridge via the "Talk Back” headset. Establish communications with the bridge via a portable VHF handset. Operation ‘Two operators required for emergency steering. 1. Synchronise the compass heading repeaters. Steering Gear to Bridge. 2. Start the steering gear. Port or Starboard. (Note: Only one steering gear can be used during emergency operation. ). 3. Switch off the bridge remote control electrics. Switch situated 1 meter above the steering motor drive. 4. Steer to Bridge instructions by pushing in the solenoid knobs situated on a block on the top of the steering gear pump To put the rudder in a Starboard direction. To put the rudder in a Port direction. Returning to Normal Operation ‘Switch on the bridge remote control electrics. Switch situated 1 meter above the steering motor drive. Failure Of Hydraulics One System Failure Stop the failed Steering Gear. First - Close Outlet from Header Tank. Situated underneath the tank. Second - Close Retum to Header Tank. Situated on the side of the tank. lure on the Pump to Vane Unit Pipes it - Close the relative double seat lock valve on the vane unit Second - Close Outlet from Header Tank. Third - Close Return to Header Tank. Complete Failure Put a Hydraulic Lock on the Rudder First - Close both double seat lock valves on the vane unit Second - Close Outlet's from Header Tank's. Third - Close Retum's to Header Tank's. STEERING GEAR - General Points In the event of a steering gear motor stator burning out, by inspection of the electric motor register for the vessel, it can be noted, that other not so important motors have the same stator, which can be used in an emergency. If only one steering gear is. operational, ports in general, require that the vessel hire a tug escort. Sluggish and erratic response of the steering gear has been caused by ingress of hydraulic oil into the electrical solenoids. Worn bushes in the telemotor linkages have caused hunting of the steering gear. (Undeprnny Kraubee STEERING GEAR * er SSNS Unit 7 - Steering Gear QUESTIONS 1. Name three basic requirements for steering gears. 2. Why are jumping stops fitted? 3. Ina ram type hydraulic steering gear, how is side loading relieved on the cylinder glands? 4. How are ram cylinders braced against hydraulic pressure which tends to push them apart? 5. How can the rudder be locked, in an emergency, in a hydraulic steering gear? 6. How is a hydraulic steering gear protected against overloading by heavy seas on the rudder? 7. In hydraulic steering gears, why should special attention be paid to high pressure oil pipes (especially after heavy weather)? 8. What rudder angle is permitted by a rotary vane steering gear with two moving and two fixed vanes? 9. Describe how the rotor is attached to the rudder in a rotary vane steering gear. 10. How are the vanes sealed in a rotary vane steering gear? 11. What prevents rotation of the stator in a rotary vane steering gear? 12. How many radial cylinders are there in a Hele-Shaw Pump? 13. How is the pumping action produced in a Hele-Shaw Pump? 14. How is the oil flow varied in a V.S.G. pump? 15. How is the idle pump prevented from running in the reverse direction when two pumping units are fitted? 16. What fitting restores the rudder to its required position after it has been displaced by a heavy sea? 17.Name three types of control systems for electro hydraulic steering gears. 18. What is the working fiuid in a telemotor control system? 19. What precaution must be taken when charging a hydraulic steering system, 0 that it will operate properly? 20.How is control effected on an electro-hydraulic steering gear with fixed capacity pumps? ndepinng Krave ‘This page intentionally left blank: ‘Ship Construction Stern Frame thas already been indicated that the form of the stern frame is influenced by the stern profile and rudder type. To prevent serious vibration at the after end there must be adequate clearances between the propeller and stern frame, and this will to a large extent dictate its overall size. ‘The stern frame of a ship may be cast, forged, or fabricated from steel plate and sections. On larger ships it is generally either cast or fabricated, the casting being undertaken by a specialist works outside the shipyard. To ‘ease the casting problem with larger stern frames and also the transport problem it may be cast in more than one piece and then welded together ‘when erected in the shipyard. Fabricated stern frames are often produced by the shipyard itself, plates and bars being welded together to produce a form similar to that obtained by casting (see Figure 21.3). Forged stern frames are also produced by a specialist manufacturer and may also be made in more than one piece where the size is excessive or shape complicated. Sternpost sections are of a streamline form, in order to prevent eddies being formed behind the posts, which can lead to an increase in the hull resistance. Welded joints in cast steel sections will need careful preparation and preheat, Both the cast and fabricated sections are supported by horizontal webs. ‘Two forms of stern frame are shown in Figure 21.3, one being a casting and the other fabricated, so that the similarity of the finished sections is indicated. Of particular interest is the connection of the stern frame to the hull structure for, if this is not substantial, the revolving propeller supported by the stern frame may set up serious vibrations. The rudder post is carried up into the main hull and connected to the transom floor which has an increased plate thickness. Also the propeller post may be extended into the hull and connected to a deep floor, the lower sole piece being carried forward and connected to the keel plate. Side shell plates are directly welded to the stern frame (Figure 21.3), a ‘rabbet, i.e. a recess, sometimes being provided to allow the shell plate to fit flush with the sternpost section. Rudders Many of the rudders which are found on present-day ships are semibalanced, ice. they have a small proportion of their lateral area forward of the turning axis (less than 20 per cent). Balanced rudders with a larger area forward of the axis (25 to 30 per cent), and un-balanced rudders with the full arca aft of the axis are also fitted. The object of balance is to achieve a reduction in torque since the centre of lateral pressure is brought nearer the turning axis. However the fully balanced rudder will at low angles tend to drive the sou us TZ TAN YEMNOUS3S — guy wets 01 pepion ous, || anvua nazis ) “oauvowevs ‘90m jwuozy04 x t soot ‘anys NUBLS "31S 18¥9 XX NOUDIS | i Je gem jequozpoH, oS er ee eel Ship Construction gear, which does not matter a great deal with power steering gears but is Tess satisfactory with any form of direct hand gear. Designs of rudders are various, and patent types are available, all of which claim increased efficiencies of one form or another. Two common forms of rudder are shown in Figure 21.4 each being associated with one of the stern frames shown in Figure 21.3. RUDDER CONSTRUCTION Modern rudders are of streamlined form except those on small vessels, and are fabricated from steel plate, the plate sides being stiffened by internal webs. Where the rudder is fully fabricated, one side plate is prepared and the vertical and horizontal stiffening webs are welded to this plate. The other plate, often called the ‘closing plate’, is then welded to the internal framing from the exterior only. This may be achieved by welding flat bars to the webs prior to fitting the closing plate, and then slot welding the plate as shown in Figure 21.4. Other rudders may hhave a cast frame and webs with welded side and closing plates which are also shown in Figure 21.4. ‘Minor features of the rudders are the provision of a drain hole at the bottom with a plug, and a lifting hole which can take the form of a short piece of tube welded through the rudder with doubling at the side and closing plates. To prevent internal corrosion the interior surfaces are suit- ably coated, and in some cases the rudder may be filled with an inert plastic foam. The rudder is tested when complete under a head of water 2.45 m above the top of the rudder. RUDDER PINTLES Pintles on which the rudder turns in the gudgeons have a taper on the radius, and a bearing length which exceeds the diameter. Older ships may have a brass or bronze liner shrunk on the pintles which turn in lignum vitae (hardwood) bearings fitted in the gudgcons. Modern practice is to use synthetic materials like “Tufnol’ for the bearings, and in some cases stainless steels for the liners. In either case lubrication of the bearing is provided by the water in which it is immersed. Until recently it ‘has not been found practicable to provide oil-lubricated metal bearings for the pintles, but Queen Elizabeth 2 has this innovation. RUDDER STOCK A rudder stock may be of cast or forged steel, and its diameter is determined in accordance with the torque and any bending ‘moment it is to withstand. At its lower end it is connected to the rudder by ‘a horizontal or vertical bolted coupling, the bolts having a cross-sectional area which is adequate to withstand the torque applied to the stock. This ‘coupling enables the rudder to be lifted from the pintles for inspection and service. sroppmy p12 TANOLL ‘anys sv Humescanis | TP gine pee j “01S JBM YW NOLLOAS Ship Construction RUDDER BEARING The weight of the rudder may be carried partly by the lower pintle and partly by a rudder bearer within the hull. In some rudder types, for example, the spade type which is only supported within the hull, the full weight is borne by the bearer. A rudder bearer may incorp- orate the watertight gland fitted at the upper end of the rudder trunk as shown in Figure 21.5. Most of the rudder’s weight may come onto the bearer if excessive wear down of the lower pintle occurs, and the bearers illustrated have cast iron cones which limit their wear down. RUDDER TRUNK Rudder stocks are carried in the rudder trunk, which as a rule is not made watertight at its lower end, but a watertight gland is fitted at the top of the trunk where the stock enters the intact hull (Figure 21.5). This trunk is kept reasonably short so that the stock has a minimum ‘unsupported length, and may be constructed of plates welded in a box form with the transom floor forming its forward end. A small opening with water- tight cover may be provided in one side of the trunk which allows inspection of the stock from inside the hull in an emergency. Steering Gear ‘Unless the main steering gear comprises two or more identical power units, ‘every ship is to be provided with a main steering gear and an auxiliary steer- ing gear. The main stecring gear is to be capable of putting the rudder over from 35° on one side to 35° on the other side with the ship at its deepest draft and running ahead at maximum service speed, and under the same conditions from 35° on either side to 30° on the other side in not more than 28 seconds. It is to be power operated where necessary to meet the above conditions and where the stock diameter exceeds 120mm. The auxiliary steering gear is to be capable of putting the rudder over 15° on one side to 15° on the other side in not more than 60 seconds with the ship at its deep- ‘est draft and running ahead at half the maximum service speed or 7 knots whichever is greater. Power operated auxiliary steering gear is required if necessary to meet the forgoing requirement or where the rudder stock iameter exceeds 230 mm. The main stecring gear for oil tankers, chemical tankers or gas carriers of 10000 gross tonnage or more and every other ship of 70000 gross tonnage ‘or more is to consist of two or more identical power units which are capable fof operating the rudder as indicated for the main stecring gear above and whilst operating with all power units. If a passenger ship, this requirement is to be met when any one of the power units is inoperable. Steering gear control for power operated main and auxiliary steering gears is from the bridge and steering gear compartment, the auxiliary ‘sSuuvoq soppy S17 FUND x03 NISMS ANY ‘ontuva@ HBGANY GANIaNOD (e) 70}109643, JO/ “eid eseain wary waCaNY G3NOuAIM SOLSNNA (¥) XO8 ONIJSMUS ONY waruuvo Wada G3NIEWOD (@) Sida osea%5 X08 ONLINUS ONY USI aLYEvESS (©) Ship Construction steering gear control being independent of the main steering gear control (but not duplication of the wheel or steering lever). Steering gear on ocean-going ships is generally of the clectro-hydraulic ‘Where the rudder stock is greater than 230mm an alternative power supply is to be provided automatically from the ship's emergency power supply or from an independent source of power located in the steering gear compartment. Sterntube ‘A sterntube forms the after bearing for the propeller shaft, and incorp- orates the watertight gland where the shaft passes through the intact hull. Two forms of sterntube are in use, that most commonly fitted having water- lubricated bearings with the after end open to the sea. The other type is closed at both ends and has metal bearing surfaces lubricated by oil. In the former type the bearings were traditionally lignum vitae strips and the tail shaft (aft section of propeller shaft) was fitted with a brass liner, but Tufnol strips are now often fitted. The latter form of sterntube is preferred in many ships with machinery aft, where the short shaft is to be relatively stiff and only small deflections are tolerated. Where this patent oil lubricated stern- tube is fitted, glands are provided at both ends to retain the oil and prevent the ingress of water, white metal (high lead content) bearing surfaces being provided and the oil supplied from a reservoir. Both types of sterntube are illustrated in Figure 21.6. Shaft Bossing and ‘Twin-screw or multi-screw vessels have propeller shafts which leave the line of shell at some distance forward of the stern. To support the shaft over- shang, bossings or ‘A’ brackets may be fitted. Bossings arc a common feature on the larger multiple-screw passenger ships and are in effect a moulding of the shell which takes in the line of shaft for some distance. Access from inside the hull is thus provided to the shaft over a great proportion of its length, and it is afforded greater protection. Many large liners having high speeds are shown to have benefited by a decrease in resistance when bossings have been fitted rather than ‘A’ brackets. However large liners of more recent design have in some instances had extended shafts solely supported by ‘A’ brackets of improved design. Brackets CONSTRUCTION OF BOSSING AND ‘A’ BRACKETS The shaped frames and plating forming the bossing terminate in a casting known as the This page intentionally left blank 450 Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 450-488 (2012) Dot 10.6119MST-012-0118-1 A PROPOSAL ON STANDARD RUDDER DEVICE DESIGN PROCEDURE BY INVESTIGATION OF RUDDER DESIGN PROCESS AT MAJOR KOREAN SHIPYARDS Hyun-Jun Kim’, Sang-Hyun Kim’, Jung-Keun Oh’, and Dae-Won Seo! Key words: rudder concept design, rudder initial design, rudder detailed design ship maneuvering performance, Korean major shipyard. ABSTRACT Recently, @ very large vessel's maneuvering performance, rudder performance and rudder design’s importance are con- sidered to be an important subject. However, there have been {ew studies onthe design process of rudder device before. The aim ofthis paper is to investigate a design process of rudder device and to propose a generalized design process of rudder device. Firstly we investigated the rudder device design proc- ess of Korean major shipyards. And the differences of a torque calculation method, rudder section design, mancuver- ing performance examination method, etc. were analyzed theoretically. Secondly, the design process of rudder device ‘was divided into concept design, intial design and detail de- sign, rudder profile and design method have been selected through rudder form determination process. And principal dimension and steering gear capacity were determined. Ma- neuvering performance was also examined by simulation too. In detail design, design criteria which had been considered in rudder initial design was investigated thoroughly. Also a rudder torque, rudder cavitation performance and rudder struc- ture analysis were estimated. And maneuvering performance was also examined by model test. Finally, based on the results of investigation, the design process of rudder device was ‘generalized and proposed. Paper submited 12/579; revised 1/191; acceped 01/19/12. Author for curespondence: Sang- Fier Kin (e-mall: Kishin. ac) "Daenoo Shipbulng de Marine engincering Co, LTD, Seow, Korea “Department of Naval Archiecrie d Ocean Engineering, Schoo! of Me- ‘chanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, Korea *Rescarch Instiate of Marine Systems Seoul Natonal Universi, Seoul, Kora “Regional Research Centra for Transporation Sytem ofthe Yellow Sea nha Universi Incheon, Korea. L INTRODUCTION Recently, great attention has been paid to a very large ves- sel’s maneuvering performance because of the seriousness of sea pollution problems from stranding and collision aceidents, In this perspective, excellent rudders have been studied in many domestic and international research institutions, uni- versities and enterprises until now. Although experimental studies have been extensively made on the subject, no sys- temized or generalized rudder design process has been known until now. At this point, this paper suggests the standard rudder device design process which was compared with and generalized from the various processes of Korean major shipyards. For this, rudder design process of Korean major shipyards was firstly examined. And then, based on the results of investigation and analysis, the design process of rudder device was generalized and proposed. Il. COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS OF THE RUDDER DEVICE DESIGN PROCESS OF KOREAN MAJOR SHIPYARDS 1, General Considerable Factors for Rudder Device Design General factors considering rudder design process of Ko- ean major shipyards are things such as ship's maneuvering performance, possibility of installing and removing propellers, steering gear capacity for rudder’ control and avoidance of ‘erosion by cavitation. In addition, shipyard ‘A’ takes account ‘of ship owners’ requirement and balance ratio of classification ‘guidance and design regulations, as well as the selection of a shaft diameter considered with rudder stock's stiffness. And shipyard ‘B” considers lightweight of rudder device, high lit ‘capacity compared with same kinds of steering gear and con- stancy of initial design form. 1) General Considerable Factors for Rudder Device Design General factors considering rudder design process of Ko- ean major shipyards are things such as ship’s maneuvering performance, possibility of installing and removing propellers, HJ. Kim ta. Proposal on Standard Rudder Device Design Procedure ast steering gear capacity for rudder’ control and avoidance of erosion by cavitation, In addition, shipyard A? takes account of ship owners’ requirement and balance ratio of classification ‘guidance and design regulations, as well as the selection of a shaft diameter considered with rudder stock's stiffness. And shipyard “B" considers lightweight of rudder device, high lift ‘capacity compared with same kinds of steering gear and con- stancy of intial design form. ‘A. Principal considerations for classification regarding rudder device design Strength bearing torque and rudder force which carries thickness and quality of rudder stock was the principal con- sideration for classification regarding rudder design at Korean ‘major shipyards. In detail, pintle, bearing bush and sleeve are all considered for rudder stock. Forging, quality of casting material and welding part are also considered important. For quality of casting material, strength of rudder hom casting, stern boss casting and rudder upper and lower casting arc specially taken into consideration. B. Computational standards of steering gear capacity Computational standards of stering gear capacity have great influence on balance rato. Tn shipyard “A, toque es timated from both classification standard and data selected ffom vessels shouldbe satisfied andi is varied according to tnaker options and arrangement space. Shipyard "B’ exper tatialy selets approximate figues from maximum torque tstimated with Jossel-Beaufoy method and DaV rule. And rnaximum torque was reckoned 0 1000ton-m. shipyard ‘Cis ap to make economical selections because stering gear e pacity goes in proportion a price. Distance between rudder and propeller Gap between the movable and the fixed of rudder device is 50 mm in common, Some veses which sim at minimizing tap caviation adopt 35 mm. Distance between rudder and propeller shouldbe designed forthe cavitation not to influence fn the distance, whichis adjusted to install and remove the propeller 2) Comparison of Rudder Device Design Process in Korean ‘Major Shipyard “Major shipyards have something in common with design- ing rudder device although there ae differences in detail in the our processes of rudder design like in Fig. 1. Here is the order of rudder torque calculation, process of rudder type, method of maneuvering performance investigation and considerable factors for concept design. ‘A. Order of rudder torque calculation Each shipyard has a difference in the order of caloulating rudder torque. Shipyard ‘A’ calculates torque after designing rudder form while shipyard “B’ makes comparisons among, vessels and then approximates torque at the last stage of de- ‘Onder of rr torque calculation ~ Determination oF rar form Examination of manewering performance Considerable fctors for concept desin process Fig. 1. Difference of shipyard design process, signing. This shipyard confers torque to deciding stecring gear capacity B. Determination of rudder form Determination of rudder form, which means determining section form and movable part area, has the second difference in rudder design process. Every major shipyard has difference in process. Rudder area, distance between rudder and pro- poller and distance between stem and rudder are to be con- sidered sooner or later than the determination of rudder form. . Examination of maneuvering performance ‘The third difference is in the methods to examine the ma- rneuvering performance. They are divided into three, one by previous ship data, another by model test, and the third by simulating maneuvering math model, of which the second and the third one show differences. Difference in model test ‘method may lie in various towing tank environments, and that in simulation method can be explained by the fact that each shipyard uses its own way concerning maneuvering perform- ance. 1D. Considerable factors for concept design process ‘The other difference is in the considerable factors for con- ‘cept design. Most of all, ship owners’ requirement should be reflected on concept design. Korean major shipyards use great ‘amount of data base for shipbuilding. Accordingly, it is im- ‘portant to get information of similar kinds of vessels, and be ‘Prepared to meet the ship owners’ requirement and classifica- tion standards, Therefore, each shipyard considers factors dif ferently. 3) Rudder Design Process Outline Just above, we analyzed and compared the design process ‘of some Korean major shipyards. Let us begin with the pro- ‘posal ofthe rudder device design process. Fig. 2 shows rudder design process outline. As the diagram indicates, the rudder design process is compared of concept design, initial design and detail design. Ill. RUDDER CONCEPT DESIGN PROCESS ‘One of the most important points of the rudder concept design process is thatthe draft should meet ship owners” re= quirement. Fig. 3 summarizes the process of rudder concept design. Firstly, specifications of similar ships should be ‘Rudder concep design prosess Rudder nial design process Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 20, No.4 (2012) ‘Table 1. Comparison of bit error rates forthe simulation. High-speed Line 12% 1g. (ange Cargo Ship_| 14% (/70)-1.4% (/50)% Ta | sat Cargo sip 123% Waterside Vessel 20-23% | Fig 2, Rudder design proces outing. 7 Rader Arse Assumption Mssumption Total Area and Movable pats Satisfy IMO MSC.137 Consider Da Guideti Comaron seep YES: Ship one ‘cilieton sanders Foi ‘teonaee det YES [roam toons, rotons) ‘ig 3. Rudder concept design flow chart investigated such as hll form factors, steering gear (YP. imvyder area and maneuvering performance. Secondly, $P°° wrath be concluded, and rudder area bo estimated. Thirdly, Po esimated rudder’ area should be compared with that of tee far ships and then, ship owner's requirement and classi samntpar standard are tobe examined. Finally, estimation of (laning index) and T (following index) leads to finishing ‘concept design process. 1. Investigation of Similar Ship's Specifications Rudder area is estimated with regard 10 sf ns of simile ships. This trend is reflected on the decision of hull izing ship owmers’ requirement. Itis convenient 0 decide optimized rudder design through iteration. 2. Assumption of Rudder Ares ‘The rudder area has a grcat influence on ship's tuming ability, There are various methods of deciding rudder area. But DnV method and A/Ld method will be described here. Firstly, DaV method appears as follows. Ae oat Ar;-001 05 ® where A= rudder ea ‘Srl, assumption by A/LA is as fllow. Aor? (5 Sco o 70 60, ‘Also Table 1 summarizes the value of A/LA of diverse ships. +3, Judging Fitness of Concept Design Process timated rudder area is compared with that of similar ships ship ovmer’ requirement is examined with consideration of price and rudder size proper fr ship; concept design is sera tinized through classification standards. 44, Assumption of K (turning index), T (following index) 1K (tuming index) and (following index) are assumed to cevalunte the turing ability of the ship as the ast course of Concept design. K shows tendency of tuming velocity, T dis Shaye tendency of tring angle velocity, When ship makes» via using angle 10981), 20°(62) and 30°(63), and the angle peed is 0/5, 0.6%sc¢ and 0.8756 each, angle speed i @ multiple of adder angle. 0.4°/see= K,8, = K, x10", K, =0.04/se¢ 0,6° /se0= Kyd, = K, x10", K, =0.03/82¢ 08° /see = K,8, = K, X10", K, =0.027 806 ® ‘As Eq, @) shows, K (Cuming index) isthe turing angle speed, multiple of the rudder angle. K is varied withthe si Trradder angle and loaded state even ofthe same ship. K can be just assumed from the sizeof ship and rudder angle ip use. ‘And the bigger mudder angle causes more turing resistance, ‘Moreover, ship fuming seems to take some time, not imme Gately afer getting rudder angle. This delay is due to human He. Kim et al. Proposal on Standard Rudder Device Design Procedure ca ¥ = = ¥ “Examination of rudder DESIGN CRITERIA Examination of Ruder ~ Propeller ength Consideration of tm fame (length AP ~ transom) ———— = Determinations of tering Gear Capacity Consideration of Joss Beaufoy Method mergine Tnvestigation of ‘manewverng pesformance by — FINISH ig 4. Rudder inal design flow chart. feeling. At the beginning of turing, subtle angle speed makes it difficult to feel tuming. As time passes on, accumulated angle speed makes it possible to recognize tuning by sight. ‘This time-clapse is called T (following index) [7 IV. RUDDER INITIAL DESIGN PROCESS Rudder initial design process is embodiment of results from the concept design. So, this process consists of courses able to bbe examined and compared with in the points of economy or basic layout functions like rudder form or dimension. Fig. 4 shows the rudder initial design flow chart. This diagram tells us that the rudder initial design is clasified by decision of rudder profile, design, dimension, criteria and assumption of steering gear capacity 1, Determination of a Rudder Type NACA lines are generally used when rudder type deter- ‘mined with no specific requirement of ship owners’ or ma- neuvering test results. NACA lines are suitable in thin section {or resistance, and in thick one for strength, Rudder types ae divided onthe basis ofthe profile and design on the one hand, and into ordinary and performance on the other hand. ee ‘Twisted Schilling ‘ig. 5. Classification of rudder prof. ‘Naca Kort Nozale Ss Pall spade KSR HERUS Semi spode Fig. 6. Clastfiaton of addr design. 1) Decision of Rudder Profile There are five kinds of redder profile (Becker rudder standards): Twist, Flap, Schilling, NACA series and Kort Nozze a appear in Fig. 5. Let us focus on the twist rudder forthe moment. ‘The twist rudder can be specified by the section form, which has twist, section a the leading edge. The feature can reduce the erosion ‘of movable part and clearance. The flap rudder is used much lately, As additional flap angles are given to conventional rudder angles, his type brings about high lift. And itenhances its maneuvering ability and turing ability at low speed, com- pared with conventional rudders. The shilling rudder is designed for high lift by rudder sec- tion form. The section profile has rounded leading edge and «fishtail trailing edge. Firstly, a rounded leading edge pro- ‘motes good flow properties at all rudder angles. Secondly, a fishtail tailing eige accelerates the flow and recovers lift over the aft section of the rudder. The NACA series isa type gen- cally used for economical reasons. The mudder section i ‘wider than that ofan airplane, and the shape of edge is varied according to ship's series. It makes the rudder increase the strength and decrease the stall. Let us move onto the Kort Nozzle. The Kort Nozzle is the trailing edge of rudder plato fitted with propeller. When the angle of attack is changed, the tur- ing ability is increased by the thrust of small propeller, and turing is easly gotten during the stoppage. It makes ship- building possible without tugging because the angle ofatack «an be changed into 90 or more. 2) Rudder Design Decision ‘Thore ae four kinds of rudder design (Becker rudder stan- dards can be consulted when rudder design decision is made): Full spade, KSR (King support rudder), Herus support, Semi spade. Let us examine the fll spade rudder in Fig. 6 for the first. 4st -Joumal of Marine Scionce and Technology, Vol 20, No.4 (2012) Ke ‘Table 2. Balance ratio and area ratio of general cargo ship. Fig. 7. Coeliient Ke for ordinary rudder Profile Type = fe ‘Acad Conon | Asem Condon aaa | RS rat ro ‘Rudder Area Ratio (AL) 11.7% —-= = TRder Balance Ratio (AVA 222405 Nace sein ea u 030 Fat side o> 0 090 Mine 4 12 090 Tlollow 5 135 030 Profile Type Fishtail = 1 | Schilling mdder 14 08 lg. 9. Decslon of rudder dimensions. Flap rudder @| -. WwW 3 Senin ec 3 + s ig. 8. Coetitent Ke for performance rudder, The full spade rudder consists wholly of movable part andit doesn't have a horn. In this type, the weight loaded on rudder as well as the rudder weight is supported by one shaft. Re- cently, the full spade rudder type is used for very large vessels, because it ean avoid gap cavitation [2]. The KSR(King Sup- port Rudd) is supported by the large shaft because it reduces a fatigue and bending moment. The Herus is designed for relatively slow and large vessels (.x. bulk carriers and tank- ers). The type increases hydrodynamic efficiency by installing the Herus suppor. Finally, take a close look atthe semi-spade rudder. It is composed of the rudder horn, pintle and semi- spade blade. As vessels are getting bigger and horsepower needed is increasing, there is growing necessity of rudder fit in size and shape bearing uid weight [4]. Accordingly, the semi-spade rudder, which is in need of small torque, is in- creasingly used. 3) Decision of Ordinary and Performance Rudder Section can be decided from coefficient Ke varied accord- ing to the shape of section. Ordinary rudder has kinds of types such as Single plate, NACA series, Flat side, Mixed and Hollow. Fig. 7 shows coefficient Ke for ordinary rudder. And performance rudder fit for vessels can be selected from Fish tail (Schilling) and Flap rudder as shown in Fig. 8. 2, Decision of Rudder Dimensions The aspect ratio and balance ratio offer the key to under- standing decision of rudder dimension. Fig. 9 shows neces- sary components of deciding rudder dimension. ‘a? refers to minimum tip clearance. Classification rules shows Eq. (4) 2s below. ‘Mininaum Tip Clearance (DNV) =a20.2.R(m) (4) where a= distance of 0.7 R; R= radius of propeller. 'b’ must be designed not to exceed end bulk-head. When it comes to propeller removal, ‘c” need to maintain adequate dimension to avoid damage. When a ship docked, the distance ‘a’ with BLL (Bottom Line) and rudder needs to be fixed ade- quately. General distance = 400(mm) © As early as 1996, Sohn studied the effect of rudder area with reference to changes in span distance on course stability ofa ship. It is widely known that the lift coefficient increases ‘a the aspect ratio goes up. On the contrary, increasing aspect. ratios alo likely to impede the stability course [5]. Therefor, aspect ratio 2.0 (1.6 in general) is used in Korean major shipyards. Balance rato is important to determine the stecr ing gear capacity and it usually ranges from 23 t0 28%. The area rato and balance ratio in general cargo ship appear in ‘Table 2. HJ. Kim et al. Proposal on Standard Rudder Device Design Procedure lg, 10, Rudder design criteria, 3, Investigation of Rudder Design Criteria Distance between rudder and propeller, distance between ‘null bottom and rudder, and influence of stern frame are to be ‘considered when rudder design criteria is investigated. First of all, distance between rudder and propeller is proper to be located near just behind the propeller. In Fig. 10, ifthe interval between ‘a’ and ‘b’ gets larger, the vibration becomes smaller, and the performance of propeller propulsion improves greatly. az02R © b> (0.7-0.04Z)R o © (0.48-0,02Z) R o where, R = propeller diameter/2 ‘Z=number of propeller blade 4. Assumption of Steering Gear Capacity The steering gear capacity is estimated by using Jossel- ‘Beaufoy method. This method will be examined later again in Bg. (9) through (14) at 5.2. 5, Investigation of Maneuvering Performance by Simulation Simulation method is practical to calculate ship's motion control for the optional steering motion. Itis essential to make ‘an accurate assumption of the maneuvering hydrodynamic forces which describe rationality of the maneuvering mathe- matical model and characteristics of fluid. KORDI (The Ko- rean Ocean Research and Development institute) and Korean major shipyards have made research and constructed maneu- ‘ering hydrodynamic coefficient data base (DB) on tanker hull form. And they have developed the M-view program which ‘can estimate a maneuvering ability of the ship in initial design, V. RUDDER DETAIL DESIGN PROCESS Layout for the rudder structure, form and dimensions are determined during the process of rudder detail design. Also, if = Determination of Scring Gea Capacity by dtd amination Decnato f Ric fm way del cannon Enaron oer Seb do Exeriton fn ons by dil xanlson of ue aransme ySeal nanos oral tan ol of ew = +t > Caan af Ree Toape Jou Deney Med x Coaiciplaron sorb of aor Determines rs & Gap fom £ -ieamsemer of Vly Permine mito of isaeepremanc by aber erst & sie Esato tees pounce yr dma - sre of MineeingPeomanc PMO Test Fe nang Tes) Zig. Tes Turing Any, Yer Cosi Ai, Spying Ay sani Seg ear Copy Sis eae afree Appin prt fr IACS aes Csr ring and retin wing i lg Ht, Ruder detail design flow chart. ‘the information of rudder initial design has mistakes, the process of initial design has to be repeated.; therefore, the process of rudder detail design can have course of feedback. Fig. 11 summarizes the process of rudder detail design, To sum up, the process of rudder design is comprised of, making decision of rudder structure, steering gear capacity, rudder area and rudder form. And it is also followed by handling erosion of cavitation, and assessing velocity performance and ‘maneuvering performance. 1. Decision of Rudder Dimension Letus focus on decision ofthe rudder form. Rudder profile ‘or rudder form design at the initial stage are considered first ‘when rudder dimension is decided atthe detail design process. Secondly, distance between the rudder center of gravity (CG) and the AP. should be adjusted to be minimal. As Fig. 12 show, for example, ‘h” should be minimal when “d’ and rudder center of gravity (CG) are fixed [3]. 2. Calculation of Rudder Torque Jossel-Beaufoy method is used for rudder torque ealeula- 456 Journal of Marine Scionce and Technology, Vol 20, No.4 (2012) PINTLE GENTER tion. ‘The Jossel-Beaufoy method is used to get the value of ‘moment and rudder force. The Jossel-Beaufoy method is given as =5884U,' sina © =1564U? sing (CP), =(0.195+0:305sina)xe (10) 0, = A0¥20436-1.82510° ay where a= angle of attack Ur{an/s), U(knots) = influx speed ‘Viknots) = trial speed ‘A= rudder area idder chord length d= rudder stock and rudder front length Qu = torque of rudder stock ‘The variables of formula stated above are rudder area, in- ‘lux speed and angle of attack. The aspect ratio, balance ratio ‘and sweepback angle, which are considered in calculating the lif for blade section, are not generally taken into consideration in these formula, The characteristics of rudder horn part are not considered, either. Rudder aspect ratio kp, Rudder soction {form coefficient k, Coefficient of rudder position in propeller wake kyare used in IACS formulato solve perpendicular force, point of application and torque affection rudder. Fy = 0312 KK AV? a2) =c@-h) a3) Qn = Fur a4) Fig. 13, Decision of rudder dimensions “Taming Ability | Seume + wseas7 ‘Yaw checking Stoppin | by ooo Fig. 14. Type of resolution MSC.137. where Fy = rudder normal force ‘Am rudder arca \V= ship speed r= angle of atack k= balance ratio of rudder c= rudder chord length Qu=torque of rudder ‘The two formula above don’t have factors for propeller and ‘hull form, but they are used extensively in partial affairs [6] 3. Counterpian on Erosion of Rudder Let us now examine a counterplan on erosion of rudder ‘more closely. To begin with, the eritical problem of erosion is, cavitation. Cavitation is related to erosion damages on rudder. It generally occurs around leading edge of lower-fae, behind gap of lower pintle and rudder shoe. Fig. 13 shows cavitation Part and main part of erosion of 2,700 TEU container ship. ‘Toputit more concretely, withthe increase of ship size and speed, loading on the propeller is increasing, which in tum increases the rotational speed in the propeller slipstream The rudder placed in the propeller slp stream is therefore subject to severe cavitation with the increased angle of attack due to the increased rotational induction speed ofthe propeller. Now, the methods to reduce rudder erosion willbe examined. The Hol Kimet lA Proposal on Standard Ruder Device Design Procedure “ ‘Table. Summary of maneuverability of MSC.137. Tom Deseripion Cea implementing lef a | Alvanee< 457 Taming sity [and turing tet at ie | Tata ameter < rentnapeet [SL —— tia Taig cating 10° bow nate | 5 ‘silty fd angle leo TH ZT toner zigemg |v > 30000 20° (is Ovenoot Anh) |10 235 N/mm? for Rey $235 N/mm? Rex: yield strength [N / mm), with: Rey Smin[0.7-Ryy 5 450] (AGS UR S10.1.3.1) cs Before significant reductions in rudder stock diameter due to the application of steels with Rex, exceeding 235N/mm? are accepted, GL may require the evaluation of the elastic rudder stock deflec- tions. Large deflections should be avoided in order to avoid excessive edge pressures in way of bearings. (IACS UR $ C4 The permissible stresses given in G.1.3. are applicable for normal strength hull structural steel. When higher tensile steels are used, higher values may be used which will be fixed in each individ- ual case. IACS UR $ D Rudder Force and Torque Da Rudder force and torque for normal rudders D.1.1 The rudder force Cj is to be determined by the following formula: Cy =132-A-v? yong “3 +m [IN] y : ship's speed [kn], defined as: v=¥ for ahead condition v=% for astern condition “1 + coefficient, depending on the aspect ratio A, defined as: xy =(A42)/3 where A need not be taken greater than 2 © + o0efficient, depending on the type of the rudder and the rudder profile according to Table 144 Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 14-5 Rules —|_ Ship Technology Part 41 Seagoing Ships Chapter § Structural Rules for Container Ships Section 14__ Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement D2 —_Rudder force and torque for rudder blades with cut-outs (semi-spade rudders) D.2.4 The total rudder force Cp is to be calculated according to 0.1.1. The pressure distribution over the rudder area, upon which the determination of rudder torque and rudder blade strength are to be based, is to be derived as follows: ‘The rudder area may be divided into two rectangular or trapezoidal parts with areas A, and A2. The re- sulting forces Cai and Cro of each part may be determined by the following formulae: A cu =Ce-AL BM ince St IN) A Cao =Cq AZ IN 2 =Cx “2 IN] ACS UR 10.2.2) D.2.2 The resulting torques Qa; and Qz2 related to the partial rudder area A; and Az may be deter- ‘mined by the following formulae: Qei=Cei-n [Nm] Qr2=Cr2-te [Nm] 11.m + Pattial levers [m, defined as: =o, (Kyi) 02 (a-hya) yi, ki ratios, defined as: (IACS UR $10.2.2) D.2.3 The total rudder torque Qx is to be determined by to the following formulae: Qe =Qei+Qn2 [Nm] with Qp 2 QR sin rina: Minimum total rudder torque [Nm], defined as: Qemin = CR A.2min fianin + minimum total lever {m], defined as: 204 A amin -(61 “Ar +62 -A2) {for ahead condition (IACS UR $10.22) E Scantlings of the Rudder Stock ea Rudder stock diameter E.1.1. The rudder stock diameter required for the transmission of the rudder torque is to be dimen- sioned such that the torsional stress will not exceed the following value: Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 14-7 Rules | Ship Technology Part 4. Seagoing Ships CChepter—§ Structural Rules for Container Ships Section 14 _ Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrange 2S (N/mm ‘The rudder stock diameter for the transmission of the rudder torque is therefore not to be less than de- termined by the following formula: D,=42-YQq [mm] (ACS UR $10.3) 1.2 __ Incase of mechanical steering gear the diameter of the rudder stock in its upper part which is ‘only intended for transmission of the torsional moment from the auxiliary steering gear may be 0.9 D,. The length of the edge of the quadrangle for the auxiliary tiller is not to be less than 0.77 D, and the height not less than 0.8 D,. 1.3 The rudder stock is to be secured against axial sliding. The degree of the permissible axial Clearance depends on the construction of the steering engine and on the bearing. £2 —_ Strengthening of rudder stock £21 If the rudder is so arranged that additional bending stresses occur in the rudder stock, the stock diameter has to be suitably increased. The increased diameter is, where applicable, decisive for the scanilings of the coupling For the increased rudder stock diameter the equivalent stress of bending and torsion is not to exceed the following value: oy a fokesee UE pN/mm?] k; % + bending stress [N / mm}, defined as: «oy = 10.2-Mp pF My + bending moment [Nm] at the neck bearing Dr + imereased rudder stock diameter [om]. The increased rudder stock diameter may be deter- ‘mined by the following formula: Dy + diameter ofthe rudder stock according to E 1.1 t torsional stress [N / mm?], defined as: 51-05 i (ACS UR S10.4:3) Note Where a double-piston steering gear is fitted, additional bending moments may be transmitted from the steering gear into the rudder stock. These additional bending moments are to be taken into account for determining the rudder stock diameter. Edition 2013 Germanischer Lioyd Page 14-8 Rules | Ship Technology Part 4. Seagoing Ships Chapter § Structural Rules for Container Ships Section 14 __ Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement B3 Analysis E31 General ‘The evaluation of bending moments, shear forces and support forces for the system rudder - rudder stock may be carried out for some basic rudder types as shown in Fig. 14.3 — Fig. 14.5 as outlined in E.3.2— £33, (IACS UR $10 Annex 1.) 3.2 Data forthe analysis ‘The load pa on rudder body in general is to be determined by the following formul ~ SR nm Pee as ON For semi-spade rudders the loads prio and pracon rudder body are to be determined by the following formulae: Caz Prio = {kN /m] mole Cer = KN Pao = ge N/m 410-50 —_: lengths [m] of the individual girders of the system Tio—Iso __ : moments of inertia [cmt] ofthe individual girders of the system Zz : spring constant [kN / m] of support in the sole piece or rudder hom respectively, defined as: 1 Port Unit displacement [m//kN] of rudder horn due to a unit force of 1 kN acting in the centre of support, defined as: for the support in the rudder hom (Fig. 14.4) ‘guidance value for steel ed distances [m] according to Fig. 14.4 ly moment of inertia [emt] of rudder horn around the x-axis at d/2, (see also Fig. 14.4) f + unit displacement [m / kN] due to a torsional moment of the amount 1 -, defined as: a in general 2 Zui/t fae for steel G + modulus of rigity [KN‘n?}, defined as: G=7.92:10" for steel i : torsional moment of inertia [m4] 4 + breadth [mm] ofthe individual plates forming the mean horn sectional area “ + plate thickness [mm] within the individual breadth u; Fr : mean sectional area [m?] of rudder horn Edition 2013 Germanischer Lioyd Page 14-9 Rules | Ship Technology Part 1. Seagoing Ships Chapter 5 Structural Rules for Cortaner Ships Section 14 Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement (IACS UR $10 Annex 2.) Prio} System M Q Fig. 14.4 Semi-spade rudder r > Boe lS System Fig.14.5 Spade rudder Edition 2013 Page 14-10 Rules | Ship Technology Pat 4. Seagoing Ships ‘Chapter Structural Rules for Container Ships ‘Section 14 _ Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement By 2=Lo Jz-0 5 System ™ Q Fig. 146 Spade rudders with rudder trunks inside the rudder body E.3.3 Moments and forces to be evaluated 3.3.1 The bending moment Mg and the shear force Q, in the rudder body, the bending moment My, in the neck bearing and the support forces B,, Ba, B3 are to be evaluated. “The $0 evaluated moments and forces are to be used for the stress analyses required by E.2.1 and G.1 and by Section 13, C.5. IACS UR S10 Annex 3.) 3.3.2 For spade rudders (see Fig. 14.5) the moment M, and forces B2 and Bs may be determined by the following formulae: fog Bm 4) mre (soethD) m By=Cy +B) (NI M B= WN) 0 410-40 + lengths according to Fia. 14.5 x1%2 rudder breaths [mi] according to Fig. 14.5 ACS UR $10 Annex 4.) 3.3.3 For spade rudders with rudder trunks (see Fig. 14.6) the moment My and forces By and Bs may be determined by the following formulae: 2g tx Meri = Crt ‘o(t fos) [Nm] Go: 2-x, + Mena = Cra A822) Mp =max[Mcri 3 Merz] Mp =Mcr2—Mcri_ [Nm] My Be 5 tag + 650 {N] Edition 2013 Germanischer Lioyd Page 14-11 Rules 1 Ship Technology Part 4. Seagoing Ships Chapter 8 Stuctural Rules for Container Ships Section 14 __ Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement By=Cg +B [NI o—¢30 _: lengths according to Fia. 14.6 x1—x3 _; rudder breaths [m] according to Fig. 14.6 E4 Rudder trunk E. In case where the rudder stock is fitted with a rudder trunk welded in such a way the rudder ‘trunk is loaded by the pressure induced on the rudder blade, as given in 0.1.1, the bending stress op in the rudder trunk, is to be in compliance with the following formula: ose [N/mm?] k ‘material factor as defined in Section 2, A.2, with k207 For the calculation of the bending stress, the span to be considered is the distance between the mid- height ofthe lower rudder stock bearing and the point where the trunk is clamped into the shell or the bottom of the skeg. E.4.2_ The weld at the connection between the rudder trunk and the shell or the bottom of the skeg is to be full penetration. Non destructive tests are to be conducted for all welds. £.4.3 The minimum thickness of the shell or the bottom of the skeg is to be 0.4 times the wall thick- ness of the trunk at the connection. ‘The fillet shoulder radius is to be ground, The radius is to be as large as practicable but not less than 0.7 times the wall thickness of the trunk at the connection, if the wall thickness is greater than 50 mm. In case Of smaller wall thickness, the radius is not to be less than 35 mm. E44 Alternatively a fatigue strength calculation based on the structural stress (hot spot stress) (see ‘Section 20, A.2.6) can be carried out. 4.4.1 _ In case the rudder trunk is welded directly into the skeg bottom or shell, hot spot stress has to be determined acc. to Section 20, C. Inthis case FAT class Aog = 100 has to be used, see Section 20, C.3. E.4.4.2__ In case the trunk is fitted with a weld flange, the stresses have to be determined within the radius. FAT class Aop for the case E 2 or E 3 according to Section 20, Table 20.3 has to be used. In adgi- tion sufficient fatigue strength of the weld has to be verified e.g. by a calculation ace. to E 4.4.1. Note The radius may be obtained by grinding. If disc grinding is carried out, score marks are to be avoided in the direction of the weld. The radius is to be checked with a template for accuracy. Four profiles at least are to be checked. A re- ort is to be submitted to the Surveyor. F Rudder Couplings FA General F.1.1 The couplings are to be designed in such a way as to enable them to transmit the full torque of the rudder stock. Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 14~12 Rues | Ship Technology Part 4 Seagoing Ships Chapler 5 Stuctural Rules for Container Sips Section 14 __ Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement F.A2 ‘The distance of the bolt axis from the edges of the flange is not to be less than 1.2 times the ameter ofthe bolt. In horizontal couplings, at east 2 bolts are to be arranged forward of the stock axis, F.1.3 The coupling bolts are to be fitted bolts. The bolts and nuts are to be effectively secured against loosening. F.1.4 For spade rudders horizontal couplings according to F.2 are permissible only where the re- Quired thickness of the coupling flanges tris less than 50 mm, otherwise cone couplings according to F.3 are to be applied. For spade rudders ofthe high lift type, only cone couplings according to F.3 are permit- ted FAS If a cone coupling is used between the rudder stock or pintle, as the case can be, and the rudder blade or steering gear (see F 3), the contact area between the mating surfaces is to be demon- ‘strated to the Surveyor by blue print test and should not be less than 70 % of the theoretical contact area (100 %). Non-contact areas should be distributed widely over the theoretical contact area. Concentrated areas of non-contact in the forward regions of the cone are especially to be avoided. The proof has to be demonstrated using the original components and the assembling of the components has to be done in due time to the creation of be print to ensure the quality ofthe surfaces. In case of storing over a longer period, sufficient preservation of the surfaces is to be provided for. If alteratively a male/female calibre system is used, the contact area between the mating surfaces is to be checked by blue print test and should not be less than 80 % of the theoretical contact area (100 %) and needs to be certified. After ten applications or five years the blue print proof has to be renewed, F2 Horizontal couplings F.21 The diameter dy of coupling bolts is not o be less than determined by the following formula: Dk dy 062. PSE Im) D rudder stock diameter [mm] according to E ky + material factor forthe bolts analogue to C.2 2 total number of bolts, which is not to be less than 6 e mean distance [mm] ofthe bott axes from the centre of bolt system (ACS UR $ F.22 The thickness t, of the coupling flanges is not to be less than determined by the following for- mula: ty 0.62. eo [om] ith ty 2 tp nin D,n,e : parameters according to F.2.1 ke + material factor for the coupling flanges analogue to C.2 {emin_¢ minimum thickness {mm}, defined as: tein =0.9+d ‘The thickness of the coupling flanges clear of the bolt holes is not to be less than 0.65 ts ‘The width of material outside the bolt holes is not to be less than 0.67 dy (ACS UR $ F.2.3 The coupling flanges are to be equipped with a fitted key according to DIN 6885 or equivalent standard for relieving the bolts. ‘The fitted key may be dispensed with ifthe diameter of the bo! Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 14-13 Rules | Ship Technology Pat 11 Seagoing Ships Chapter 5 Structural Riles for Cortaner Ships Section 14 __ Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement F.24 For the welded joint between the rudder stock and the flange see Section 19, 8.4.4 FS Cone couplings F.3.1 Cone couplings with key F.3.1.1 Cone couplings have to have a taper c on diameter of 1 : 8 to 1: 12 and be secured by a slug- ging nut. The slugging nut itself is to be carefully secured, e.g. by a securing plate as shown in Fig. 14.7. ‘The taper cis to be determined by the following formut on fond z yd, : lameters according to Fig. 14.7 t + coupling length according to Fig, 14.7; wit: f215-d (acs UR $10.62.1) F.3.1.2 For couplings between stock and rudder a Key is to be provided, the shear area a, of which is not to be less than determined by the following formula: 16-Qp 2) nen SOE) dy Rey Rett : yield strength [N/mm?] of the key material (ACS UR $10.62 1) ee i 1 insulation ae 1 | |) sealing’ asic i dy Ys 9 Lath T securing, = dt pate for mut Fig. 14.7. Cone coupling with key and securing plate F.3.1.3 The effective surface area a, of the key (without rounded edges) between key and rudder ‘stock or cone coupling is not to be less than determined by the following formula: 5:Q a= Oe fom’) ea Rena Raia: yield strength [N/mm?] of the key, stock or coupling material, whichever is less. 2013 Germanischer Lioyd Page 14~14 Rules 1 Ship Technology Patt 4. Seegoing Ships Chapter 5 Structural Rules for Container Ships Section 14 __ Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement F.3.1.4 The height hy, outer diameter d, and external thread diameter d of the slugging nut are to be at least as determined by the following formulae, see Fig. 14.7: hy =0.60-dg dy =max(1.2-d, ;15-d, | dg =0.65-dg dy, dy: diameters according to Fig. 14.7 (ACs UR 10.622) F.3.1.5 _Itis to be proved that 50 % of the design yield moment will be solely transmitted by friction in the cone couplings. This can be done by calculating the required push-up pressure and push-up length according to F.3.2.4 for a torsional moment Qis= 0.5 Qr. F.3.2 Cone couplings with special arrangements for mounting and dismounting the coup- lings F.3.21 Where the stock diameter exceeds 200 mm the press fit is recommended to be effected by @ hydraulic pressure connection. in such cases the cone is to be more slender, e~ 1 :1210~ 1 : 20. (ACS UR $10.62.3) F.3.2.2 _In-case of hydraulic pressure connections the nut is to be effectively secured against the rud- der stock or the pintle. A securing plate for securing the nut against the rudder body is not to be provided, see Fig. 14.8. Fig. 14.8 Cone coupling without key and with securing flat bar F.3.2.3 A securing flat bar will be regarded as an effective securing device of the nut, if its shear area ‘A; is not less than determined by the following formula: P, Pe + push-up force [N] as defined in F. Ecition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 14~15 Rules 1 Stip Technology Patt 4. Seagoing Ships Chapter 5 _‘Stuctual Rules for Container Ships Section 14 _ Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement mu ‘tictional coefficient between nut and rudder body, with: my =03 normally 4 ‘mean diameter ofthe frictional area between nut and rudder body, see Fig. 14.8 4, : thread diameter ofthe nut F.3.24 _ For the safe transmission ofthe torsional moment by the coupling between rudder stock and rudder body the push-up length and the push-up pressure are to be determined by the following formulae. F. Push-up pressure ‘The push-up pressure Preq is not to be less than determined by the following formulae: Preg = MK] Pega} Peg? ] = 2:0 Pout Eero 10° (N/mm? Mp. Baan mas “10° [N/mm?] dn 3 Mean cone diameter [mm] € cone length [mm] 0 ‘tictional coefficient, defined as: by #03 My bending moment [Nm] in the cone coupling (e.g. in case of spade rudders) It has to be proved that the push-up pressure does not exceed the permissible surface pressure in the cone. The permissible surface pressure is to be determined by the following formula: 0.8-Rey -(I-a2) Pe leat Rew : yield strength [N / mm?] of the material of the gudgeon a + ratio of diameters, defined as: eae dy dy : outer diameter [mm] of the gudgeon, with: dy 21.5-dyy (ACS UR $10.62.) F.3.24.2 Push-up length ‘The push-up length A¢ is not to be less than determined by the following formula: at=min[at, ;A¢) Prat, 0.8-Reg »(]- Ae = [mm] Edition 2013 Germanischer Lioyd Page 14-16 Rules | Ship Tecnology Part 4. Seagoing Ships ‘Chapter Structural Rules for Container Ships Section 14 Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement 16 Read Beat -B-c Pq _—_;-Pustrup pressure according to F. ny, ‘mean cone diameter {mm} Rim: Mean roughness fmm], with: Roy ¥001 « ratio of diameters according to F. ° taper on diameter according to F.3.2.1 UR $ 08-Rin © In case of hydraulic pressure connections the required push-up force P, for the cone may be determined by the folowing format: Pome dure (+00) ™ The value 0.02 is a reference for the friction coefficient using oil pressure. It varies and depends on the ‘mechanical treatment and roughness of the details to be fixed. Where due to the fting procedure a partial pust-up effect caused by the rudder weight is given, this may be taken into account when fring the required push-up length, subject to approval by GL. G Rudder Body, Rudder Bearings G1 Strength of rudder body G.1.1.__The rudder body is to be stiffened by horizontal and vertical webs in such a manner that the rudder body will be effective as a beam. The rudder is to be additionally stiffened at the aft edge. (acs UR s G.1.2 The strength of the rudder body is to be proved by direct calculation considering loads accord- ing to E.3, (IACS UR $10.42) For rudder bodies without cut-outs the permissible stresses are not to exceed the following 64 =110 N/mm? for bending stresses due to My +1=50 N/mm? for shear stresses due to Q1 oy = oh 43-7 =120 N/mm? {for equivalent stresses dus to bending and shear Mp, Qi: moment and force according to E.3.3 and Fig. 14.3 and Fig. 14.4 (ACS UR $10.5.1(2)) 2.14 incase of openings in the rudder plating for ecoees to cone coupling or pine nut the penis: stresses according to G.1.5 apply. Smaller permissible stress values may be required if the corner radi are les than determined by te folowing formula: Edition 2013 ‘Germanischer Lloyd Page 14-17 Rues | Ship Tecnology Part 41. Seagoing Ships ‘Chapter 5 Structural Rules for Container Ships Section 14__ Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement Fe =0.15-hy hy height of opening G.1.5 __In rudder bodies with cut-outs (semi-spade rudders) the following stress values are not to be exceeded: oy = 90 N/mm? for bending stresses due to My 1=50 N/mm? for shear stresses due to Q, +4250. N/mm? for torsional stresses due to M, {for equivalent stresses dus to bending and shear oy: = foe +3 =100 N/mm? ‘for equivalent stresses due to bending and tor- sion Mp + bending moment [Nm], defined as: £ Mp=Cpa fi +B > Q + force [N], defined as: Q=Cro fi, f2 +: distances {m] according to Fig. 14.9 IACS UR $10.5.1(b)) As first approximation the torsional stress %, may be determined in a simplified manner by the following My Dent Mi. + torsional moment [Nm], defined as: My-Cr2“e Cra partial rudder force [N] of the partial rudder area A2 below the cross section under consid- eration e lever [m] for torsional moment. (horizontal distance between the centre of pressure of area Ap and the centre line a-a of the effective cross sectional area under consideration, see Fig. 14.9. The centre of pressure is to be assumed at 0.33 -c2 aft of the forward edge of area Az, where c) = mean breadth of area Az). Te [N/mm?] e + distance [em] between the vertical webs according o Fig. 14.9, with: Engg =12-h h : breath fem] of rudder haif distance between the vertical webs according to Fig. 14.9 t : plate thickness [om] according to Fig. 14.9 ‘The radil in the rudder plating are not to be less than 4-5 times the plate thickness, but in no case less than 50 mm. Ezition 2013 ‘Germanischer Lloyd Page 14-18 Rules 1 Ship Technology Part 4. Seagoing Ships ‘Chapter 5 Stuctural Rules fr Container Ships Section 14 _ Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement Fig. 14.9 Geometry of a semi-spade rudder G2 Rudder plating G24 ‘The thickness t of the rudder plating is to be determined by the following formula: teLteapq-E+25 [oun] with 2 tin a : the smaller unsupported width [m] of a plate panel PR design pressure {kN / mm}, defined as: g 10-74 Pe 10°-A tin + minimum thickness according to Section 6, B.2 ‘The influence of the aspect ratio of the plate panels may be taken into account by the factor f; according to Section 3, 82.2. (IAGS UR 810.52) 6.2.2 To avoid resonant vibration of single plate fields the frequency criterion as defined in Section 12, B6.3 for shell structures applies analogously. 6.2.3 For rudder piating in way of coupling flanges see Section 19, 8.44.1. 6.2.4 For connecting the side plating of the rudder to the webs tenon welding is not to be used. Where application of filet welding is not practicable, the side plating is to be connected by means of slot ‘welding to fiat bars which are welded to the webs. G.2.5 The thickness of the webs is not to be less than 70% of the thickness of the rudder plating according to G.2.1, but not less than determined by the following formula: tin =8-VK [mm] Webs exposed to seawater are to be dimensioned according to G.2.1 G3 Transmitting of the rudder torque G.3.1 For transmitting the rudder torque, the rudder plating according fo G.2.1 is to be increased by 25 % in way of the coupling. A sufficient number of vertical webs is to be fitted in way of the coupling, G32 __ Intentionally left blank. Ga Rudder bearings G.4.1.__In way of bearings liners and bushes are to be fitted. Their minimum thickness is to be less than: tin =8 mm for metalic materials and synthetic material Edition 2013 Germanischer Lioyd Page 14-19 Rules | Ship Technology Part 1. Seagoing Ships Chapter § Stuctural Rules for Container Ships Section 14 _ Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement Where in case of small ships bushes are not fitted, the rudder stock is to be suitably increased in diame- ter in way of bearings enabling the stock to be re-machined later. G.4.2 An adequate lubrication is to be provided. G43 The bearing forces result from the direct calculation mentioned in E.3. As a first approximation the bearing force may be determined without taking account of the elastic supports. This can be done as. follows: ‘© normal rudder with two supports: ‘The rudder force Cp is to be distributed to the supports according to their vertical distances from the centre of gravity of the rudder area. * semi-spade rudders: B= cae ™ as support force in the rudder hon By =Ca-By IN] as support force in the neck bearing be distances according to Section 13, Fig. 13.1 G.4.4 The projected bearing surface Ay (bearing height x external diameter of linet) is not to be less than determined by the following formula: Ay=2L [mm?] 4 Bi ‘support forces [N] B1 - B3 according to Fig. 14.3 to Fig. 14.6 q : permissible surface pressure according to Table 14.2 ACS UR $10.8.1 Table 14.2. Permissible surface pressure q Bearing material N/mm] |white metal, oil lubricated 45 synthetic material! 53 steel 2, bronze and hot-pressed 79 bronze-graphite materials 1 syntneic materials to be of approved type. Surface pressures exceeding 5 N/mm? may be accepted in accordance lth bearing manufacturer's specication and tests, but inno case more than 10 N/m? 2 Stainless and woar resistant sto! an approved combination with stock ner. Higher eurface pressures than 7N / ma? may be accepted if verified by tests 4s inless and wear resistant steels, bronze and hot-pressed bronze-graphit materials have a considerable difference in potential to non-alloyed steel. Respective preventive measures are required. G46 _ The bearing height is to be equal to the besring diameter, however, is not to exceed 1.2 times. the bearing diameter. Where the bearing depth is less than the bearing diameter, higher specific surface pressures may be allowed. (IACS UR $10.82) 6.4.7 __ The wall thickness of pintle bearings in sole piece and rudder hom is to be approximately 1/4 of the pintie diameter. Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 14-20 Rules | Ship Technology Part 1. Seagoing Ships Chapter § Structural Rules for Cortaner Ships Section 14_Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement os Pintlos G51 Pintles are to have scantlings complying with the conditions given in G.4.4 and 6.46. The pintle diameter d is not to be less than determined by the following formula: 4=035-JBK, {mm B support force in the rudder horn according to G.4.3 (CS UR 107.1) G.5.2 The thickness t of any liner or bush is not to be less than determined by the following formula: ,01- JB, mm with £2 tpn By: support force in the rudder hom according to G.4.3 ‘nin + minimum thickness of beerngs liners and bushes according to G.4.1 5.3 Where pintles are of conical shape, their taper on diameter is to comply with the following: 4:8t01:12 if keyed by stugging nut 121210 1:20 if mounted with ol injection and hydraulic nut (ACS UR $10.71 G.5.4 The required push-up pressure req for pintle bearings is to be determined by the following formula: =04-20% EN mm? Peg 04 (N/a?) B + support force in the rudder horn according to G.4.3 pintle diameter [mm] according to Fig. 14.7 oy : mean cone diameter {mmi] ‘ + cone length {mm} G.5.5 The pintles are to be arranged in such @ manner as to prevent unintentional loosening and falling out. For nuts and threads the requirements of F 3.1.4 and F 3.2.2 apply accordingly. (IACS UR $10 coe Bearing clearances 6.1 _ For metallic bearing material the bearing clearance should not to be less than determined by the following formula: dp ob 41.0 frm] Toth? Emm dy : inner diameter {mm] of bush (IACS UR $10.83) G62 _ If non-metallic bearing material is applied, the bearing clearance is to be specially determined considering the material's swelling and thermal expansion properties. (IACS UR $10.83) Edition 2013 Germanischer Lioyd Page 14-21 Rules | Ship Technology Part 4. Seagoing Ships Chapter 5 Structural Rules for Container Ships Section 14 __ Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement G63 __The clearance is not to be taken less than 1.5 mm on diameter. In case of self lubricating ‘bushes going down below this value can be agreed to on the basis of the manufacturer's specification. (ACS UR $10.83) H Design Yield Moment of Rudder Stock ‘The design yield moment Qr of the rudder stock is to be determined by the following formula: = 0.02564. [vm Dy ‘stock diameter [mm] according to E.1.1. Where the actual diameter D,, is greater than the calculated diameter D,, the diameter D,, is to be used, However, D, need not be taken greeter then 1.145 "Dy 1 Stopper, Locking Device uM ‘Stopper ‘The motions of quadrants or tilers are to be limited on elther side by stoppers. The stoppers and their foundations connected to the ship's hull are to be of strong construction so that the yield strength of the applied materials is not exceeded at the design yield moment of the rudder stock. 2 Locking device Each steering gear is to be provided with a locking device in order to keep the rudder fixed at any posi- ‘ion, This device as well as the foundation in the ship's hull are to be of strong construction so that the yield strength of the applied materials is not exceeded at the design yield moment of the rudder stock as ‘specified in H. The design yield moment need only be calculated for a stock diameter based on a speed vom 12kn, Ls Regarding stopper and locking device see also the GL Rules for Machinery Installations (I-1- 2), Section 14, J Intentionally left blank K Devices for Improving Propulsion Efficiency K1 The operation of the ship and the safety of the hull, propeller and the rudder are not to be at- fected by damage, loss or removal of additional devices that improve the propulsion efficiency (e.9. spoil ers, fins or ducts). K2 Documentation of strength and vibration analyses are to be submitted for devices of innovative design. in addition sufficient fatigue strength of the connection with the ship's structure has to be verified. ‘The scantiings of the devices are to be in compliance with the required ice class, where applicable. The relevant load cases are to be agreed upon with GL. L Intentionally left blank Edition 2013 ‘Germanischer Lioyd Page 14-22 This page intentionally left blank