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Blood Type Testing Lab

Members
Group 11-2
Tanyaporn Kachayoungyuen (New)
Watcharit Athikhamanon (Key)
Introduction
According to Mendels studies, he said that there are two alleles for every gene and
the dominant will carry its phenotype expressed in a heterozygote. However the scientist also
discover that some traits can have more than two alleles at the population level, that code for
their phenotypes. But it does not mean that a gene as individual will have more than two
alleles because an individual can only have two maximum alleles, one from mom and one
from dad, no matter how many alleles exist in the population level.
The human ABO blood type is such a great example of multiple alleles. Humans can
have red blood cells that contain type of A (I A), type B (IB), or type O (i). These three
different alleles can be combined in different ways following Mendel's Laws of Inheritance.
The result can be either two A alleles (IAIA) or one A allele with one O allele (I Ai). Also for
type B blood, either be two B alleles (IBIB) or one B allele with O allele (IBi). And lastly for
type O blood, it can only be two recessive O alleles (ii). All of these are examples of
complete dominance. Furthermore, there is one blood type that is co-dominance, type AB
blood. For this, the A allele and B allele are dominance equally and will be expressed equally
if they are paired together in the genotype of I AIB.
An antigen is one of the substance that can make your immune system to produce
antibodies against it. An antigen is commonly knew as proteins or polysaccharides. It
includes an exotic substance from the environment, for instance chemicals, bacteria, viruses,
or pollen. It could be found inside the body as bacterial toxin or tissue cells. Nucleic acids
and Lipids are antigenic only when both of them are combined with proteins. An antibodies
are protein that found in blood or other fluids, and it used by immune system to differentiate
an uncommon object, such as viruses. An antibodies are produced by the white blood cell call
B cell.
After an antigen enters to human body, it will make the immunes system to begin the
process that will produce an antibodies against it. The shape of an antibodies are always in Y
shaped. The action between the antibody and antigen are similar to the battle with the army. It
seem like the army (antibody) fighting against the enemy (antigen). A lymphocyte, white
blood cell, will notice the antigens that came in as an exotic substance and it will produce
antibodies that exactly same type of an antigen. In difference kinds of antibody has a
difference model of binding spot or shape. And it will locks the one that have the same kind
and shape of antigen. The antibodies damage the antigen (pathogen) which it will be engulfed
and digested by macrophages.
From the information above, we will use them as a background to make our lab. In
this lab, we are going to test and identify the blood type group by using a drop of anti-A,
anti-B and anti-AB and mix with a drop of blood.

Materials:

2 Microscope Slides
Anti-A, -B, -AB
Markers
Lancets
Lancet Device
Ethanol
Cotton Ball
3 toothpicks

Method:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Draw two circles of 1 cm diameter on each slide (total 4 circles).


Mark the circles as control, Anti-A, Anti-B, and Anti-AB.
Wait for your teacher to come and puncture.
Drop a single blood into each circle.
Drop a single antibody
a) Control: dont put any antibody
b) Anti-A: drop a single of anti-A
c) Anti-B: drop a single of anti-B
d) Anti-AB: drop a single of anti-AB
6. Use toothpick mix the blood with antibody (use different toothpick for each).
7. Wait for 10 second.
8. Keep the result.
Results
Picture-the photo of blood coagulation after adding antibodies

Table Coagulation in blood after adding antibodies


Coagulation/No coagulation
Control

Anti-A

No coagulation

Anti-B

Coagulation

Anti-AB
Coagulation
This blood type experiment is aim to find out what blood type that New has. And also
to determine what blood type containing in her blood. We have to add an antibodies, and if
the blood start to get coagulate meaning that its contain the corresponding antigen.
According to the results, there are four difference samples from the same person
blood, but each of the samples will be added with a difference antigen. The result have point
out that only anti-B and anti-AB were coagulated. The reason that the coagulation also
happened in sample with anti-AB is because in an antigen AB it also containing the antigen
that can correspond to her blood, so it will make her blood get clumped. From the result we
can report that New has B blood type because the blood also get clumped with an anti-B as
well.
Discussion
News scenario
My fathers blood type is O and my moms blood type is B. For sure that my fathers
genotype could be only two recessive O alleles (ii) while my mothers genotype can be either
two B alleles (IBIB) or one B with one O (IBi). Therefore, there are two ways that these alleles
could be combined.
IB

IB

IB i

IB i

IB i

IB i

IB

IB i

ii

IB i

ii

The first Punnett Square is when two B alleles (IBIB) multiply with two recessive O
alleles (ii), which result I got was there is 100% of B blood type. And for the second Punnett
Square is when one B allele with one O allele (I Bi) multiply with two recessive O alleles (ii),
which the result will be 50 % of B blood type and 50% of O blood type. But according to my
family, my all two brothers also have B blood type as same as me. It seems that my family
follow the first Punnett Square. So, from doing this I discover that my moms phenotype is
IBIB which is the dominant over my fathers allele (ii).
Keys scenario
From my scenario, both of my mom and dad is B blood type. So, there are four
possible scenarios that could support the reason why I have B blood type as well.

1.

Mom = iBiB x

Dad = iBiB

2.

Mom = iBi

Dad = iBi

IBIB:IBi:ii 1:2:1 B3:O1

3.

Mom = iBiB x

Dad = iBi

IBIB:IBi:ii 2:2:0 B4:O0

4.

Mom = iBi

Dad = iBiB

IBIB:IBi:ii 2:2:0 B4:O0

IBIB:IBi:ii 4:0:0 B4:O0

According to the scenarios, I think that my mom and dad could be either 1, 3, or 4
because from those phenotype its have an equal charge (100% B) for me to be B blood type
which possibly causes my two older brothers to have blood type B as well, but the charge that
could be scenario 2 is still possible because there is 75% charge that it could be B blood type
because another 25% is O blood type. If my mom and dad are scenario 2, my younger
brother/sister could have O blood type.
The reason that blood coagulates can happen only with some antibodies because if the
antibodies and antigen is not the same kind that it not use to bind, so the blood coagulates
will not form, for instance if you using A blood type with antibodies B, it will not form
coagulates because in A blood type doesnt contain antigen B. And if we put an antibodies A
in A blood type, so it will form blood coagulates because the antigen and antibodies are
matched by antibodies A will bind with antigen A.
Conclusion
In this lab, we are trying to test and determine the blood type by using a drop of
antibody. First of all, we draw four circles and mark them as control, Anti-A, Anti-B and
Anti-AB. Then, drop a single blood to each circle and follow by drop a single anti-A to AntiA circle, anti-B to Anti-B circle and anti-AB to Anti-AB circle. But no antibody is added to
control circle. Use a different toothpick to mix each blood and antigen in each circle. The
result that we got is there are coagulation in both Anti-B and Anti-AB, while there is no
coagulation in Anti-A. Since we know that if the blood cells have antigen which is different
from those antibodies, the antibodies will react and recognize as a stranger and will result in
blood clotting. From our result, we can determine that the tested blood is type B blood
because the bloods sample show the coagulation with antibody B and AB which both of
them contain the antigen-B. Furthermore, we can ensure this by looking at News scenario of
the discussion part. We know that News dad has O blood type and her mom has B blood
type, so there are two possible ways to combine those alleles because B blood type can be
either IBIB or IBi. Therefore, the possible offspring can be either 100% of B blood type or 50%
of B blood type with 50% of O blood type. According to News family, we know that all of
her brothers including herself have B blood type which is related to the first possible
offspring which was made by IBIB from mom multiply with ii from dad.
This experiment give out the accurate data because the result of blood type group was
the same as what we had known before. During the experiment, we are carefully and make
sure that we go from step by step in order to get the most accurate data. But however in this
experiment, it might be a very few errors that might occur. The problem is at the last part of
the experiment, when we have to observe the coagulation of result. This may depends on
each persons eyes because everyone doesnt have same ability to observe things. But for our

result, the amount of coagulated blood is much and clear enough to see and be able to
determine the blood type group.

References
Antibody - antigen complex. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/about-microbiology/microbes-and-the-humanbody/antibody-antigen-complex
Vorvick, L.J. (2013). Antigen. Retrieved from
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002224.htm
Multiple Alleles. (2014). Multiple Alleles. Retrieved from
http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/usdagen/mult_alleles.html.
Scoville H., (n.d.). Multiple Alleles. Retrieved from
http://evolution.about.com/od/Evolution-Glossary/g/Multiple-Alleles.htm