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Coming

to Terms with Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation


in Music Education
Dr. Al Holcomb
Revised 2/22/15

1. Assessment is the collection of information (data, evidence) for the ultimate purpose
of improving teaching and learning.


Who is assessed?
Students (by teachers, self, peers, others)
Teachers (by students, self, others)

By whom?
Teachers, students, parents, communities, districts, states, national organizations and
agencies

What can be helpful for music teachers to assess?
Student potential, growth and achievement toward identified curricular outcomes
(e.g., knowledge, skills, understandings, dispositions)
Student attributes, values, and practices inside and outside of the classroom (e.g.,
identity, motivation, engagement, musical interests, learning styles, efficacy)

How and when are student best assessed?
Continuously/formatively/informally - embedded in instruction, within and across
learning experiences and processes through observing, questioning, discussing to
evaluate growth and identify areas for improving teaching and learning
(differentiating, revising)
Summatively to evaluate individual achievement toward identified outcomes


Note:
Assessment of individual student musical performance that could be embarrassing to a
student should not be implemented in front of others until trust mutual support have been
established.

2. Assessment Loop is a term used to describe the continual process of collecting
assessment information (evidence, data) and using it to plan and improve learning.
Also known as data driven instruction.

3. Measurement is the process of applying a standard criterion to collected


information (data, evidence) to determine level of growth or achievement, thus
decreasing subjectivity in evaluation.
4. Interpretation is the process of attempting to derive meaning from collected
information (data, evidence) that is inappropriate, too difficult or too subjective to
apply a standard criterion for measurement.

5. Evaluation is the process of making a judgment (e.g., below expectation, passing,


good, fair, poor, satisfactory, proficient, novice, A) about student growth or
achievement.
6. Formative assessment is implemented throughout the learning process
(embedded) for the purpose of improving teaching and learning. Examples:
observing, questioning, and engaging in discussion with students to determine if
more time, differentiation, or revisions are needed.

7. Summative assessment occurs at the end of a defined instructional period or


event (e.g., chapter, series of rehearsals, unit) to determine desired if curricular
outcomes were achieved at the desired level (below expectation, proficient,
advanced level) and often used as a means of demonstrating curricular
accountability.

8. Grading is a type of summative assessment that usually involves the assignment
and reporting of letter grade (A F) or score (1 100) used to summarize
individual student achievement.

Note: Some student evidence demonstrated should NOT be formally evaluated and
graded, such as talent, aptitude, creativity, intelligence

a. Criterion based grading takes its name from the fact that each student is
assessed by their ability to meet specific learning criteria (e.g., outcomes,
learning targets, lesson objectives).

b. Normative grading (comparative grading or grading on the curve) is based
the belief that student achievement is normally distributed in a large group
or class with top 2% of assigned the highest grade (A+), the bottom 2%
assigned the lowest grace with most students receiving the average grade.
(See Normative and Criterion-based Grading in Files.

c. Idiographic grading is based on an individual students achievement


compared with potential achievement.


The Assessment-driven Instructional Process (not always implemented in order or
with each step) influenced by Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTIghe.
Planning Assessment
Identifying specific student curricular outcomes (knowledge, skills, dispositions,
experiences that show linkage to standards) that will be used to develop over-time
goals or objectives with awareness of the students and context.
Designing assessment tasks (e.g., questions, discussions, projects, tests,
demonstrations, documents, reflections, portfolios, video making,) that will capture
and provide evidence of desired outcomes.
Identifying specific dimensions and achievement criteria (identifying specifically
what you are looking at and level of expectation-how you will know they got what you
taught). This is when you choose or develop rubrics if needed.
Communicating and discussing expectations with students (communicating
learning outcomes, questions to answer, enduring understandings; sharing rubrics or
developing them with students.
Designing learning experiences with assessment outcomes in mind
Implementing Assessment
Assessing
Measuring/interpreting
Evaluating
Reflecting and Reporting
Reflecting on teaching and learning to identify what learning strategies were
effective and area for teaching improvement.
Reporting outcomes (issuing progress reports to students, school and parents as
appropriate).