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ME 413 Systems Dynamics & Control

Chapter 10: TimeDomain Analysis and Design of Control Systems  Chapter 10:
Time ‐ Domain Analysis and Design of
Control Systems: Block Diagram Reduction
A. Bazoune

10.1 INTRODUCTION

Block Diagram : Pictorial representation of functions performed by each component of a system and that of flow of signals. R (s )
C (s )
G (s )
Cs() = Gs() Rs() Figure 101. Single block diagram representation.

Components for Linear Time Invariant System(LTIS): Figure 102. Components for Linear Time Invariant Systems (LTIS).

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Chapter 10: TimeDomain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Terminology : Disturbance U ( s )
R (s )
G 1 ( s )
G
( s )
C (s )
2
Es() = Rs() ± bs()
m (s )
±
b ( s )
H (s )

Figure 103.

Block Diagram Components.

1. Plant : A physical object to be controlled. The Plant G

2 ( s )

particular quantity or condition is to be controlled.

, is the controlled system, of which a

2. Feedback Control System (Closed loop Control System) : A system which compares output to some reference input and keeps output as close as possible to this reference.

3. Open loop Control System: Output of the system is not feedback to the system.

4. Control Element G

1 ( s )

, also called the controller , are the components required to generate the

appropriate control signal M ( s ) applied to the plant.

5. Feedback Element H ( s ) is the component required to establish the functional relationship between

the primary feedback signal B ( s ) and the controlled output C ( s ) .

6. Reference Input R ( s ) is an external signal applied to a feedback control system in order to

command a specified action of the plant. It often represents ideal plant output behavior.

7. The Controlled Output C ( s ) is that quantity or condition of the plant which is controlled.

8. Actuating Signal E ( s ) , also called the error or control action, is the algebraic sum consisting of the

reference input R ( s ) plus or minus (usually minus) the primary feedback B ( s ) .

9. Manipulated Variable M ( s ) (control signal) is that quantity or condition which the control

elements G

1 ( s )

apply to the plant G

2 ( s )

.

10. Disturbance U ( s ) is an undesired input signal which affects the value of the controlled output

C ( s ) . It may enter the plant by summation with M ( s ) , or via an intermediate point, as shown in the block diagram of the figure above.

11. Forward Path is the transmission path from the actuating signal E ( s ) to the output C ( s ) .

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Chapter 10: TimeDomain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 12. Feedback Path is the transmission path from the output C ( s ) to the feedback signal B ( s ) .

13. Summing Point : A circle with a cross is the symbol that indicates a summing point. The (+) or ()

sign at each arrowhead indicates whether that signal is to be added or subtracted.

14. Branch Point: A branch point is a point from which the signal from a block goes concurrently to other blocks or summing points.

Definitions

G ( s ) Direct transfer function = Forward transfer function.

H ( s ) Feedback transfer function.

GsHs( ) (

) Openloop transfer function. Cs( ) Rs( ) Closedloop transfer function = Control ratio Cs( ) Es( ) Feed forward transfer function. E (s )
R (s )
G (s )
C (s )
Input
Output
B (s )
H ( s )

Figure 104 Block diagram of a closed loop system with a feedback element.

10.2 BLOCK DIAGRAMS AND THEIR SIMPLIFICATION Figure 105

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Chapter 10: TimeDomain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Parallel Connections Figure 105

Parallel Connection.

Closed Loop Transfer Function (Feedback Connections) E (s )
R (s )
G ( s )
C (s )
B (s )
H ( s )

Figure 10.4 (Repeated)

Feedback connection

For the system shown in

Figure 104, the output C ( s ) and input R ( s ) are related as follows:

where

Cs()= GsEs() ()

Eliminating E ( s ) from

E ( s )=−=−R (

s

)

(

B s

)

R

(

s

)

these equations gives

H ( sC) ( s )

C ( s )= G ( s )[ R ( s )H ( sC) ( s )]

This can be written in the form

[1 + GsHs() ()]Cs()= GsRs() ()

 or () Cs () Gs R () s = 1 () () + G s Hs The Characteristic equation of the system is defined as an equation obtained by setting the denominator polynomial of the transfer function to zero . The system is Characteristic equation for the above

1+G ( s ) H ( s ) =0

.

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Chapter 10: TimeDomain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Block Diagram Algebra for Summing Junctions C = G +R± X
=+ GR ±GX
(
)
C = GR ± X
= G
(+
R±X G
)

Figure 106

Summing junctions.

Block Diagram Algebra for Branch Point Figure 107

Summing junctions.

Block Diagram Reduction Rules

In many practical situations, the block diagram of a Single Input Single Output (SISO), feedback control system may involve several feedback loops and summing points. In principle, the block diagram of (SISO) closed loop system, no matter how complicated it is, it can be reduced to the standard single loop form shown in Figure 104. The basic approach to simplify a block diagram can be summarized in Table 1:

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Chapter 10: TimeDomain Analysis and Design of Control Systems TABLE 101

Block Diagram Reduction Rules

 1 Combine all cascade blocks 2 Combine all parallel blocks 3 Eliminate all minor (interior) feedback loops 4 Shift summing points to left 5 Shift takeoff points to the right 6 Repeat Steps 1 to 5 until the canonical form is obtained

TABLE 102.

Some Basic Rules with Block Diagram Transformation X
G 1 G
Y
X
G G
Y
Y =(GG )X
2
1
2
1
2
X
G
1
Y =(G ±GX)
±
Y
X
G ± G
Y
1
2
1
2
G
2
u
u
y
y
= G u
G
G
y
1
= y
u
u
u
1/ G
G
u
u
y
G
G
y
y = Gu
y
y
G
u
y
G
u 1 G
1
y
e
= Gu − u
(
)
2
12
u
u
G
2
2
u
y
u
G
G
1
1
y
y = Gu − u
1
2
u
u
1/ G
2
2
G
1/ G
2
2
G 1 y
u
y = G − Gu
(
)
1
2 █ Example 1: A feedback system is transformed into a unity feedback system
R ( s )
C ( s )
G ( s )
R ( s )
C ( s )
1 H ( s )
GsHs() ()
H ( s )
C
G
1
GH
=
=
=
Closed ‐ loop Transfer function
R
1 ± G H
H 1 ± G H

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Chapter 10: TimeDomain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Example 2:

Reduce the following block diagrams 7/14

ME 413 Systems Dynamics & Control

Chapter 10: TimeDomain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Example 3:   Example 4  G 1 and G 2 are in series
H 1 and H 2 and H 3 are in
parallel
G 1 is in series with the
feedback configuration.
C(s)
G G
3
2
= G
1
R(s)
1 + G G
(
H
- H
+ H
)
32
1
2
3

Example 5: The main problem here is the feedforward of V 3 (s). Solution is to move this pickoff point forward.

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Chapter 10: TimeDomain Analysis and Design of Control Systems   9/14

ME 413 Systems Dynamics & Control

Chapter 10: TimeDomain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Example 6: 10/14

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Chapter 10: TimeDomain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Example 7

Use block diagram reduction to simplify the block diagram below into a single block relating

Y ( s ) to R ( s ) . Solution  Example 8

Use block diagram algebra to solve the previous example.

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Chapter 10: TimeDomain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Solution MultipleInputs cases

In feedback control system, we often encounter multiple inputs (or even multiple output cases). For a linear system, we can apply the superposition principle to solve this type of problems, i.e. to treat each input one at a time while setting all other inputs to zeros, and then algebraically add all the outputs as follows:

TABLE 103: Procedure For reducing Multiple Input Blocks

 1 Set all inputs except one equal to zero 2 Transform the block diagram to solvable form. 3 Find the output response due to the chosen input action alone 4 Repeat Steps 1 to 3 for each of the remaining inputs. 5 Algebraically sum all the output responses found in Steps 1 to 5 █ Example 9 :
We shall determine the output C of the following system:
D(s )
R ( s )
G s
()
G s
()
C ( s )
2
1

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Chapter 10: TimeDomain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Solution

Using the superposition principle, the procedure is illustrated in the following steps: Step1
:
R
( s )
C
( s )
Put
D ( s )≡ 0
as shown in Figure (a).
G s
()
G s
()
1
2
Step2
:
The block diagrams reduce to the block
shown in Figure. b
Figure (a)
Step 3
:
R
( s )
C
G sG s
() ()
The output
due to input R ( s ) is
C
( s )
1
2
R
shown in Figure (c) and is given by the
relationship
G G
1
2
=
⋅ R
Figure (b)
C R
1 + G G
1
2
Step 4:
Put
R ( s )≡ 0
as shown in Figure (d).
R
( s )
G sG s
() ()
C
( s )
1
2
1+ G sG s
() ()
1
2
Step 5:
Put
‐1
into a block, representing
the negative feedback effect. (Figure d)
Figure (c)
Step 6
: Rearrange the block diagrams as
D ( s )
shown in Figure (e).
C
()
s
D
G s
()
G s
()
1
2
Step
7: Let the
1
block be absorbed into
the, summing point as shown in Figure (f).
−1
Step
8: By Equation (7.3), the output
C
U
Figure (d)
due to input U is :
G
2
C
=
⋅ U
C
()
s
U
D ( s )
D
1 + G G
1
2
G s
()
2
Step
9: The total output is C:
−1
G s
()
1
GG
G
12
2
CC
=
+
C
=
⋅+
R
U
R
U
1
+
GG
1
+
GG
12
12
Figure (e)
G
2
=
⋅+
[
GR U
]
1
1
+
G G
C
()
s
1
2
D ( s )
D
G s
()
2
G s
()
1
Figure (f)

Example 10:

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