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XLIX

Engineering Design Firm


9201 University City Blvd
Charlotte, NC 28223
Individual Beam Design Package
ETGR 1201-031
Mark Stevenson
April 14, 2015

1201 Academic Integrity Statement


I have neither given nor received any unauthorized help on this assignment, nor witnessed any violation of the
UNC Charlotte Code of Academic Integrity.

Students Signature

April 14, 2015


Date

Problem Statement:
The purpose of this assignment is to design and test basswood prototype beams for Flexible Beam Inc. The
basswood prototype beams must be designed built and tested to meet the design requirements. A budget has
been implements of no more than $10.00. The beam is required to hold the specified X-Axis load of 300 lbs. for
it to be successful; the beams designed will include a Safety Factor of 1.5 to ensure that the beam can hold more
than the required 300 lbs. If the beam is to fail before the X-Axis Load of 300 lbs. then the beam and the design
will fail.

Design and Performance Requirements:


When designing the beam prototypes the X-Axis Load of 300 lbs. and the X-Axis Deflection range were taken
into consideration. With the X-Axis Deflection range having a minimum of 0.05 in. and a maximum of 0.200 in
the beam must stay within this range to be taken into consideration. A Safety Factor of 1.5 was implemented
into the designing of the prototype beams to ensure that the beams would not fail when the designated X-Axis
Load was applied. The prototype beams deflections lay as close to the center of the X-Axis Deflection range to
ensure that the deflection limitations would be meet. Using thicker wood did come with a heavier weight but
this does not necessarily mean that the proposed beams will be stronger. If the testing goes as planned the
performance of the proposed beams should meet the performance requirements that were set forth in the design.

Constraints:
The basswood for the beam prototypes may only be obtained from the 1201 Lumber Yard and only materials
out of the Discovery Box may be used when assembling the beam. The cross section dimensions cannot exceed
2 x 2 and 24 in length. The beam may not weigh more than 240 grams after final assembly. The beam will be
tested with 18 support length with the weight center-loaded. Deflection of the beam has to be within the
specified range of 0.05 in. and 0.200 in. the overall cost of the beam prototype cannot exceed $10.00.

Assumptions:
The basswood has no defects
The Modulus of Elasticity of basswood is 1.46 x 106 psi
The Density of basswood is 28 lb/ft3

Research:
Adhesive Bonding Techniques:1
Surfaces should be clean; free from dirt, oil, oxides, and resinous deposits; and generally well seasoned.
The adhesive should be spread evenly and uniformly over the entire surface. (Hoyle, Robert J. 1989,
361)
Uniform pressure improves the mating of the surface. (Hoyle, Robert J. 1989, 361)
Excessive pressure can squeeze too much adhesive from the joint and result in a poor bond result.
Glued members must remain clamped until the glue bond strength is well developed.
Problems in Use of Wood for Structures:2
Wood properties vary from species of wood to species of wood.
Properties can also vary depending on what part of the tree the wood came from
Duration of loading causes strength changes: The longer a load remains on a wood member, the
weaker the wood member becomes. (Stalnaker, Judith J. 1989, 11)
Advantages of Wood as a Structural Material:3
Economy
o Less costly to construct compared to other materials.
Appearance
o If taken care of properly wood can have visual appeal to it.
Ease of working and reworking the material.
High strength per weight ratio.
Thermal insulating properties.
Beam Failure Types:4
Plastic hinge to form.
o The beam collapses as if a hinge was implemented into the beam.
Lateral-torsional buckling along the length of the beam.
Local buckling of the beam cross-section.

1 Hoyle, Robert J., and Frank E. Woeste. Wood Technology in the Design of Structures. 5th ed. Ames:
Iowa State University Press, 1989. 361.
2 Stalnaker, Judith J., and Ernest C. Harris. Structural Design in Wood. New York: Van Nostrand
Reinhold, 1989. 11.
3 Stalnaker, Judith J., and Ernest C. Harris. Structural Design in Wood. New York: Van Nostrand
Reinhold, 1989. 11.
4 "Factors Affecting Beam Strength." Factors Affecting Beam Strength. Accessed April 13, 2015.
http://www.tatasteelconstruction.com/en/reference/teaching-resources/architectural-teachingresource/elements/design-of-beams-structural-steel/factors-affecting-beam-strength.

Cross Section of Proposed Beams:

Calculations:
Deflection:
3
PL
=
48 EI

Inertia:
I=

P: Concentrated load
L: Length between supports
E: Modulus of elasticity

B H3
12

B: Base length of beam


H: Height of beam
Calculated
Volume (in3)

X-Axis Calculations

Y- Axis Calculations

Total Cost
of Wood
and Glue
Joints ($)

Inertia
(in4)

Deflection
(in)

Inertia
(in4)

Within Sp
Range W
Safety Fac
1.5

Beam
Configuration
on Primary
Axis

Calculated
Mass
(grams)

I Beam #1

143

19.5

$7.30

.2240

.1115

.0442

.2824

Yes

I Beam #2

165

22.5

$7.75

.3003

.0831

.0546

.2285

Yes

226

30.75

$8.85

.2797

.0893

.4956

.0252

Yes

H Beam
I: Moment of Inertia

Deflection
(in)

Bill of Materials:
Beam
Name:

I Beam #1

H Beam

I Beam #2

Material Name

Cost ($)

Material Name

Cost ($)

Material Name

Cost ($)

5/16 x 1

$2.25

5/16 x 1

$3.25

5/16 x 1

$2.25

5/16 x 1

$2.25

5/16 x 1

$3.25

5/16 x 1

$2.25

1/4 x 1

$1.80

3/16 x 1

$1.35

5/16 x 1

$2.25

Glue Joints (2)

$1.00

Glue Joints (2)

$1.00

Glue Joints (2)

$1.00

Total:

$7.30

$8.85

$7.75

Decision Matrix:
5 = Excellent
4 = Very Good
3 = Good
2 = Fair
1 = Poor
Relative
Weights

Evaluation
Criteria

20%

Cost
Safety
Factor of
1.5
Ease to
Build
Within
Deflection
Range
Availability
of Wood
Total:

25%
10%
35%
10%
100%

I Beam #1
Rating
Score

Alternatives
H Beam
Rating
Score

I Beam #2
Rating
Score

.80

.40

.60

1.25

1.25

1.25

.40

.30

.4

1.75

1.40

1.05

.5

.5

.5

4.70

3.85

3.80

Bibliography:
"Factors Affecting Beam Strength." Factors Affecting Beam Strength. Accessed April 13, 2015.
http://www.tatasteelconstruction.com/en/reference/teaching-resources/architectural-teachingresource/elements/design-of-beams-structural-steel/factors-affecting-beam-strength.
Hoyle, Robert J., and Frank E. Woeste. Wood Technology in the Design of Structures. 5th ed. Ames: Iowa
State University Press, 1989. 361.
Stalnaker, Judith J., and Ernest C. Harris. Structural Design in Wood. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold,
1989. 11.