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Digestive System

Leslie Torres, Haane Blas


Jennifer Bui, Thony Ho
Dan Agulto
Period three - table four

Introduction
The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food
into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. The digestive system
is made up of:
Mouth
Epiglottis/Pharynx
Esophagus
Liver
Stomach
Pancreas
Duodenum
Small intestine
Large intestine
Appendix
Rectum
Anus

Mouth
The mouth is the beginning of the
digestive tract.
Digestion starts when youre taking
the first bite of food.
Chewing will break the food into
small pieces that are gets easier to
digested, while the saliva mixes in
with the food to begin the process of
breaking down the food into a form
your body can absorb and use.
The structure of the mouth include
the lips, mouth cavity, gums, hard
soft palate, teeth, and the tongue
and salivary glands.

Epiglottis/Pharynx
The epiglottis is shape is like a leaf,
with a stem attached to the anterior
part of the thyroid cartilage.
When you eat food the epiglottis folds
over the glottis stopping food and liquid
to enter the windpipe.
The epiglottis sits in an upright position
which allows the air to pass through the
larynx and in the trachea and lungs.
Chewed food reaches the pharynx
which is the throat and sets the
extrinsic muscles off and the larynx
move upward, which makes the
epiglottis touch the base of your tongue
and blocks the glottis making the food

Esophagus
The esophagus important function is to
carry food, liquids, and saliva to the
stomach from the mouth.
The esophagus transport food to the
stomach on the muscular lining.
The wall of the esophagus is composed of
four layers that inside and out: submucosa,
mucosa, muscularis propria and adventitia.
The layers that form the esophagus are
pinched together by sphincter muscles, to
prevent food or liquids to leak from the
stomach back into the esophagus and
mouth.

Liver

Provides the body with energy


Fights off infections and toxins
Cleanses blood
Regulates supply of body fuel
Manufactures essential body
proteins
Regulates the balance of
hormones
Regulates body cholesterol
Regulates supplies of essential
vitamins and minerals
Produces bile
eliminates toxic substances
aids digestion

Stomach
Structure:
The stomach lies in the upper
abdominal cavity
Divided into three regions:
fundus
body
antrum
Walls of the stomach are made
up of muscle layer, submucosa
and mucosa
Submucosa: layer of areolar
connective tissue lying beneath
a mucous membrane
Mucosa: mucous membrane

Stomach
Functions:

Temporary storage allowing time for digestive enzymes to act


Chemical digestion
Mechanical breakdown and production of chyme
Limited absorption of water, alcohol and some fat-soluble drugs
Non-specific defense against microbes
Preparation of ion for digestion further along the tract
Production of intrinsic factor needed for absorption of vitamin B12 in the
terminal ileum
Regulation of the passage of gastric contents into the duodenum

Gastric Juice:

a thin, clear, virtually colorless acidic fluid secreted by

the stomach glands and active in promoting digestion.

two litres of gastric juices are secreted daily by glands in the mucosa

Stomach
Gastric Acid Function:

The water further liquefies the food swallowed.


The hydrochloric acid:
o
acidifies the food and stops the action of enzymes
from saliva;
o
kills ingested microbes;
o
provides the acid environment required for effective
digestion by pepsin.
The mucus prevents accidental injury to the stomach by
lubricating the contents, and prevents chemical injury by
acting as a barrier to the corrosive gastric juice.

Pancreas
Makes enzymes to digest
proteins, fats, and carbs in the
intestines
Produces hormones insulin and
glucagon
Digests the food we eat
Secretes insulin to raise blood
sugar
Trypsin and chymotrypsin digests
proteins
Amylase breaks down
carbohydrates
Lipase breaks down fats into
fatty acids and cholesterol
Secretes glucagon to decrease
blood sugar

Duodenum
Receives chyme from stomach
Preps for absorption in the small
intestine
Chyme mixes with chemical
secretion from pancreas, liver
and gallbladder in order to
facilitate chemical digestion
Four layers:
Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis
Serosa

Small Intestine

20-feet long, 10 inches in diameter


has three sections:
duodenum
jejunum
ileum
receives substances from duodenum
at jejunum, food is finished being digested
now small intestine begins to absorb it
linings of the small intestine contains villi and
microvilli
capillaries move in and out and takes
nutrients into the body by active
transport
it is actively moving
the nutrients needed
into the body
at ileum, food is mostly digested and absorbed
that needs to be taken in
substance is emptied into the large
intestine

Large Intestine
6-foot long muscular tube that connects to
the small intestine
The Ascending(right)colon. the beginning of
the large intestine
The Transverse(across) colon, across the
body towards the rest of the intestine
The descending(left)colon, follows down
the intestine
The Sigmoid is the last part connected to
the intestine which is before the rectum &
Anus

Appendix
The Appendix is a thin tube about four
inches long. Normally, the appendix
sits in the lower right abdomen
A good fact about the Appendix is it
acts as a storehouse for good bacteria,,
restarting the digestive system after
diarrhea illness

Rectum

The rectum (Latin for "straight") is an 8-inch


chamber that connects the colon to the anus
The rectum acts as a temporary storage
facility for feces / waste material
The feces remain in rectum until it is then
transferred or moved down to the Anus
When anything type of gas is in the rectum,
it sends a message to the brain to let the
body know it is ready to deposit waste

Anus
Function:

The anus is the last part to the digestive system it


is about two inches long.,
Parts of the anus have specific jobs, the upper
anus detects and sends the message to the brain
telling it that it has large wastes.
The pelvic floor muscle is another part of the
anus, it is known to be always tight and keeps the
waste where it needs to be.
The internal sphincter is a part of the anus which
lets the brain know to use the bathroom.

Sources

http://www.newhealthguide.org/Epiglottis-Function.html
http://www.liver.ca/liver-health/how-liver-works.aspx
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10011.php
http://www.innerbody.com/image_dige02/dige21.html
http://umm.edu/programs/gi-hepatology/services/barretts/normal-function
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/ns_overview/hic-the-structure-and-fun
ction-of-the-digestive-system
http://www.elu.sgul.ac.uk/rehash/guest/scorm/254/package/content/index
.htm
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/ns_overview/hic-the-structure-and-fun
ction-of-the-digestive-system