Sunteți pe pagina 1din 21

The Nervous System

Electrical
Communication

Chapter 35-2 and 35-3


Objectives: Students will
A. Identify the role and parts of the nervous
system
B. Compare the central and peripheral N.S.
C. Compare the 3 types of neurons.
D. Compare the two categories of motor neurons.
E. Identify the 7 parts of the neuron and
summarize how impulses begin and continue.
F. Summarize the relationship between the
nervous system parts.

A. Identify the role and parts of the nervous system

The Nervous System


Main Function (Obj. A):
Controls and coordinates
functions throughout the
body and responds to
internal and external stimuli.
Create your link word and
reminder now!
Our nervous system
allows us to feel pain.

A. Identify the role and parts of the nervous system

The Nervous System


Consists of: brain, spinal cord, and

nerves (sense organs & movement).

Can you name the 5


sense organs?
Sense Organs: Eyes, Skin, Ears, Nose & Tongue

B. Compare the central and peripheral N.S.


Central Nervous System
Out of the 3 N.S. parts, which 2 are in the middle of
your body?:

Consists of: Brain and Spinal Cord


Cerebrum
brain

Cerebellum
Medulla Oblongata

Spinal Cord

B. Compare the central and peripheral N.S

Peripheral Nervous System


What is peripheral vision?
Consists of: Nerves
extending from CNS
Sensory division =
messages travel from body
(sense organs = 5) to brain
Motor division = messages
travel from brain to body =
movement

B. Compare the central and peripheral N.S.


C. Compare the 3 types of neurons.

Peripheral N.S.
Sensory Neuron
carry impulses from
sense organs (body)
to spinal cord & brain
Fun Fact:
Where can the largest cells in the
world be found?
The giraffes sensory and motor
neurons! Some must bring impulses
from the bottom of their legs to their
spinal cord several meters away!!

Which is the sensory neuron pathway?

B. Compare the central and peripheral N.S.


C. Compare the 3 types of neurons.

Central N.S.
Interneuron
- processes impulses in
brain and spinal cord
- connects sensory and
motor neurons

Which # is the interneuron?

B. Compare the central and peripheral N.S.


C. Compare the 3 types of neurons. Which is the motor neuron pathway?

Peripheral N.S.
Motor Neurons
carry impulses from the
brain & spinal cord to
body
Causes body movement
like car motors make
cars move

Axon
End

Axons branching out


to muscle fibers

B. Compare the central and peripheral N.S.


C. Compare the 3 types of neurons.

Sensory
Neuron (PNS)

Interneuron = Brain

Synapse

Synapse

Interneuron
(CNS)

Motor
Neuron
Synapse

Motor Neuron
(PNS)

Sensory
Neuron
= Body

Muscle
Contracts
= Body

B. Compare the central and peripheral N.S.


C. Compare the 3 types of neurons.

Understanding Check

Which type of neuron is responsible for each of


the following?
Which division of the nervous system is it?

1. Forehead Burn

1. Sensory = PNS

2. Stomach Cramps

2. Sensory = PNS

3. Inhaling Oxygen

3. Motor = PNS

4. Spinal Cord

4. Interneuron = CNS

5. Warm Bath

5. Sensory = PNS

6. Sweet Smell

6. Sensory = PNS

7. Leg Kick

7. Motor = PNS

8. Brain

8. Interneuron = CNS

9. Smile

9. Motor = PNS

Start-up for 5/21/15


Create as many words as you can at least
three letters long off of the following:
NERVOUS SYSTEM DIVISIONS

B. Compare the central and peripheral N.S.


C. Compare the 3 types of neurons.

Understanding Check

Which type of neuron is responsible for each of


the following?
Which division of the nervous system is it?

1. Forehead Burn

1. Sensory = PNS

2. Stomach Cramps

2. Sensory = PNS

3. Inhaling Oxygen

3. Motor = PNS

4. Spinal Cord

4. Interneuron = CNS

5. Warm Bath

5. Sensory = PNS

6. Sweet Smell

6. Sensory = PNS

7. Leg Kick

7. Motor = PNS

8. Brain

8. Interneuron = CNS

9. Smile

9. Motor = PNS

D. Compare the two categories of motor neurons.


Autonomic or Somatic?
How are motor neurons divided?
Why?
Autonomic (Of what word does this
one remind you?) =
Automatic responses internally.
Where does this happen?
Glands, blood vessels, and organs.
Somatic =
Skeletal muscle responses, visual
movement.

E. Identify the 7 parts of the neuron and summarize how impulses begin
and continue.

How are nerves


related to neurons?
A nerve is an organ
containing a bundle of
nerve cells called
neurons.
How are messages
transmitted?
Neurons carry
electrical messages
called impulses
throughout the body.

The Nerve

Picture shows hundreds of


severed neuron axons

E. Identify the 7 parts of the neuron and summarize how impulses begin
and continue.
1. Cell body: contains nucleus & most of the cytoplasm
2. Nucleus: contains genetic material and controls cells activities.
3. Dendrites: projections that receives impulses into the neuron to the cell
body.
4. Axon: long projection that carries impulses away from cell body
5. Myelin Sheath: insulating membrane surrounding the axon
6. Nodes: impulses jump from one to the next, increases impulse speed
7. Axon Terminals: releases neurotransmitters, chemical that transmits
impulse across a synapse

Parts of a Neuron

1
3

7
5

E. Identify the 7 parts of the neuron and summarize how impulses begin
and continue.

Starts from environment or another stimulated neuron

Impulse in a Neuron
dendrite
Axon

cell body

cell
body

TYPICAL MOTOR
NEURON

synapse

muscle
tissue

E. Identify the 7 parts of the neuron and summarize how impulses begin
and continue.

Because neurons never touch, chemical


signalers called neurotransmitters must
travel through the space called synapse
between two neurons.
Neurotransmitters (pink

spheres)

Synapse

(gap)

The message
is transferred
when
RECEPTORS
receive
neurotransmitters.

Communication with Neurons


Nerves work together with muscles for
movement. An impulse begins when one
neuron is stimulated by another neuron or
by the sense organs.
The impulse travels down the axons of
Sensory neurons to the brain cells called
Interneurons.
The brain will then send an impulse
through motor neurons to the necessary
muscle or organs, telling it to contract.

F. Summarize the relationship between the Nervous System Parts

Nervous
System

Central
Nervous
System
Brain

Peripheral
Nervous
System

Spinal
Cord

Sensory
(neurons)
Division

Motor
(neurons)
Division

Interneurons

Somatic
Skeletal
Muscle
Movement

Autonomic
Internal
Organ
Movement

Sight
Smell
Taste
Touch
Hearing

Understanding Check
1. What comprises the central nervous
system?
2. Name the three types of neurons.
3. Why do impulses occur?
4. What is the name of the chemical
messenger that transmits impulses across
the synapse?
5. What are the two divisions of the
peripheral nervous system?