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Morgan Stacy

Content Area Literacy

Pre/During/Post Strategy Design
Content Area: Science Oklahoma HS Environmental Science
Title of Informational Text: Interactions among invaders: community and

ecosystem effects of multiple invasive species in an experimental aquatic

system (DOI 10.1007/s00442-008-1176-x)
Objective of Lesson: The objective of the lesson aligns with standard HS-LS2-6
from the Oklahoma Academic Standards for Science. It states that Students who
demonstrate understanding can: Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that
the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and
types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a
new ecosystem. The paper fits this standard because it shows extreme
fluctuations in conditions or the size of any population can challenge the
functioning of ecosystems in terms of resources and habitat availability. This is
listed as a Disciplinary Core Idea in the Oklahoma Academic Standards for
Science Handbook.
ELA Common Core Standard: The ELA Common Core Standards addressed by
this lesson are as listed below:
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science
or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging
conclusions with other sources of information.
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and
technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any
gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
This information is also provided by Oklahoma Academic Standards for
Science Handbook. The website where this can be found is:
Pre-reading Strategy
Identification: Bio-impressions
1. First, I will as paired students to list the parts of the lab procedure, and how we
can recognize each one. They include Problem (Hypothesis), Materials,
Procedure, Data, Results, Conclusion and Discussion.
2. Partners will share what they have come up with, and we will come up with a
unified answer as a class. From this answer we will come up with a visual very
much like the one presented on page 54 of our text under the Bio-Impression

3. We will then read the title of the paper and the abstract together, but this time the
students will make their own visual filling in what they think the Problem
(Hypothesis), Materials, Procedure, Data, Results will be in the paper. This is
more or less a prediction.
4. After the students have read the parts of the paper that I have assigned they will
be able to amend their first draft.
Rationale for Strategy in Relation to Objective, Standard, and Text:
As a part of the CC standards and the standards set out by the state of Oklahoma
students should be able to evaluate the claims, evidence and reasoning presented in a paper. In
order to perform these actions students should know how to pick out and classifying the
information presented in a paper. For example, a student should know the procedure of the
experiment in a paper when they read it.

During Reading Strategy

Identification: Question-Answer Relationship (QAR)
The students will use this strategy when they are finding the information to
perfect their Bio-Impression. Some answers will be readily available with headings to denote
important information, while other will have to be searched for.
1. This activity will begin when we read the abstract and title of the
paper. I will help students answer the questions I provided in the first
activity by helping them choose which QAR strategy to use. In the
prediction stage most of the answers will be gathered on their own,
and will depend on their prior knowledge of the ecosystem and
2. The students will read assigned paragraphs on their own, and use QAR
as modeled in step 1. They will use these answers to make their final
visual for the bio-impression. In this part of the activity all parts of the
lab write up will be used including the Conclusion and Discussion
portion that was omitted previously.
3. When the students are finished we will discuss which answers they
found directly, answers they had to summarize the text for, and the
answers they had to use past knowledge of the subject to find.
Rationale for Strategy in Relation to Objective, Standard, and Text:
Student will have to verify different portions of the text to the definitions that
were provided in order to classify the information. Also, by classifying the discussion and
conclusion of the paper students will have to cite textual evidence to support their answers as a
result of the In My Head model of QAR.

Post-reading Strategy
Identification: Discussion Web
Explanation: In this activity we will look closer at the discussion and conclusion of a
lab write up, and review what the students came up with in the previous activity. We will

compare the information we obtained in the paper about homeostasis and ecosystem to the
information presented by our textbook. The final product of this activity will be a visual, and the
students will be able to use it on an upcoming quiz over ecosystems and homeostasis.
1. Student will be able to use laptops and to make their visuals
during the discussion web activity.
2. As a class we will come up with a question from the research paper that
we can use to compare it to the text. The questions would have to revolve
around how interactions between ecosystems affect homeostasis.
3. Then as a class we will come up with 2 ways the research paper
corroborate with the textbook, and 2 ways it challenges the textbook.
4. Student will then get back with their partners and come up with at least
two more for each category. It is important for students to cite the
information that lead them to their challenges and corroborations.
5. After a specific amount of time we will come back together, discuss what
the students have come up with, and decide a conclusion on if the research
paper challenges or corroborates the textbook information.
6. The students will be assessed over the research paper activities by having
to write several paragraphs discussing the conclusion we came up with.
This will take place of the reason portion on the visual. The paper will
have to have evidence from both texts to support their position.
Rationale for Strategy in Relation to Objective, Standard, and Text: In order to
provide a list comparing the paper and the book, students will have to cite textual evidence from
both texts. They will also have to verify that the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusion in the
paper match up with the lab procedure outlined in the textbook. Last, through this activity
students will either use the textbook to corroborate or challenge the information presented in the