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-ence -al Verb (dis)approve bury deny dismiss propose rehearse remove renew revive survive -ance Verb annoy (disappear attend, disturbs endure enter ignore inherit perform rely resemble resist signify tolerate Adjective arrogant distant (an)important (inrelevant reluctant 116 Noun breakage coverage package postage storage wreckage Noun shortage Noun dis)approval arrival burial denial dismissal proposal rehearsal removal renewal revival survival Noun annoyance Gisjappearance attendance disturbance endurance entrance ignorance inheritance performance reliance resemblance resistance (in)significance (intolerance Noun arrogance distance (un)importance (in)relevance reluctance Verb confide depend differ exist insist obey occur offend persist, recur Adjective absent Gin)competent Gin)convenient evident innocent intelligent (impatient present violent “cy Adjective (in)accurate (injadequate (indecent (in)efficient (in)frequent immediate infant timate (literate pregnant private redundant secret urgent vacant Noun confidence (in)dependence difference existence insistence obedience ‘occurrence offence persistence recurrence Noun absence incompetence (in)convenience evidence intelligence (impatience presence violence Noun (inaccuracy (in)adequacy (indecency (in)efficiency (in)frequency immediacy infaney intimacy (literacy pregnancy privacy redundancy secrecy urgency vacancy Word formation list Qi -dom ity Adjective Noun Adjective Noun bored ‘boredom (un)able (inability free acer (in)active (in)activity wise wisdom complex complexity credible credibility Earoon ‘Abstract noun’ curious curiosity king kingdom (un)equal inequality star stardom (un)famitiar (un)familiarity ferocious ferocity ful (inflexible (inflexibility (n)formal (informality Noun Noun (Quantity) generous generosity arm armful hostile hostility cup cupful immune immunity fist fistful intense intensity hand handful major majority house houseful minor minority room roomful (im)mobile (im)mobitity spoon spoonful objective objectivity (omoriginal (un)originality personal personality phood (un)popular (un)popularity Person Abstract noun prosperous prosperity adult adulthood (impure (im)purity child childhood Gin)secure n)security father fatherhood Gin)sensitive (in)sensitivity man manhood severe severity mother ‘motherhood similar similarity neighbour ncighbourhood* simple simplicity parent parenthood Gin)sincere (in)sincerity woman ‘womanhood stupid stupidity oe subjective subjectivity Svea city where people live (invalid (in)validity Adjective Noun ing likely likelihood Verb Noun advertise advertising build building Noun gather gathering anxiety like liking notorious notoriety live living sober sobriety meet meeting various variety record recording say saying set setting sulfier suffering 117 Word formation list -ment -ship ( Verb Noun Person Abstract noun: achieve achievement champion championship (dis)agree (disagreement companion companionship amaze amazement friend friendship amuse amusement leader leadership announce announcement member membersh pe argument owner ownership, arrange arrangement a partnership commit commitment ae ccholarship* content contentment ee nee develop development disappoint disappointment “scholarship discourage discouragement money given to someone to help pay for their embarrass embarrassment studies employ (un)employment maponsorship encourage encouragement = Sime money given to someone/an organization to help eee nana pay for something, eg an event aa ones Adjective Noun improve improvement hard hardship invest investment involve involvement a judge judgement/judgment aoe manage management Verb Noun measure ‘measurement diagnose diagnosis move movement ‘emphasize emphasis (re)pay (repayment punish punishment ; refresh refreshment ston replace replacement ay noon Pee eae collide collision settle settlement ee conversion treat treatment erode otomon. exclude exclusion —_ expand expansion include inclusion Adjective Noun persuade persuasion (un)aware (un)awareness supervise supervision careless carelessness close closeness (un)conscious (unconsciousness cson deaf deafness Verb Noun Cimetectve {ineffectiveness a ompartson (unfriendly (un)friendliness_ great greatness hard hardness hopeless hopelessness (un)selfish_ (un)selfishness serious seriousness still stifiness thorough thoroughness tired tiredness useful usefulness weak ‘weakness 118 Word formation list Qa -ation th aoe Noun Adjective Noun adapt adaptation = a administer administration as death apply application lone io combine combination oa fear compile compilation baad ae consider consideration — ease expect expectation te Mate explain explanation ne 7 identity identification mae ce imagine imagination Verb Noun inflame inflammation oe th inform information 5 ee inspire inspiration interpret interpretation ene observe observation prepare preparation verb a present presentation close closure publish publication compose composure (dis)qualify (dis)qualification depart departure realize realization a exposure resign resignation ai failure cary variation lease nies proce procedure “tion sign signature Verb Noun y accommodate accommodation a (react (re)action Adjective Noun associate association difficult difficulty coaed collection (dis)honest (dis)honesty complicate complication ate pale compose composition safe eafety (dis)connect (dis)connection (un)eertain (ameertainty contaminate contamination demonstrate demonstration Verb Noun direct direction discover discovery evolve evolution enter entry hesitate hesitation imitate imitation inhibit inhibition investigate investigation (de)motivate (de)motivation operate ‘operation perc perception predict prediction prescribe prescription receive reception recognize recognition reduce reduction repeat repetition (dis)satisty (dis)satisfaction (re)solve (re)solution subscribe subscription substitute substitution 119 Word formation list People cant Verb Person Noun Person apply, applicant electricity electrician assist assistant history historian confide confidant(e) library librarian consult consultant mathematics mathematician contest contestant music musician defend defendant politics politician inhabit inhabitant occupy occupant t participate participant aa as bicycle cyclist -ar environment environmentalist motor (car) ‘motorist ie Person nature naturalist, lie liar 1 lis nove novelist psychiatry psychiatrist -ative science scientist Verb ‘Person specialism ere represent representative -or -er Verb Person = oon act actor employ employer collect, collector lecture lecturer communicate communicator ‘manufacture manufacturer compete competitor (present presenter conduct conductor co reader contribute contributor research researcher’ demonstrate demonstrator win swinner, distribute distributor instruct instructor invent inventor spectate spectator 120 Word formation list Qa Nouns formed with up, down, in, away, out, back up- out- upbringing outbreak upkeep outburst uprising outcome uproar outline upset outlook upturn output outset down. downfall ae downpour breakout downside checkout downturn handout knockout ere lookout payout breakdown turnout workout ne income shack input comeback insight drawback intake feedback setback -away ——— back- hideaway background runaway takeaway Miscellaneous Verb Noun Verb Noun (mis)behave (mis)behaviour sell sale(s) choose choice succeed success complain complaint think thought die death try trial give gift weigh weight know knowledge laugh laughter Adjective an = ia high height prove proof receive receipt respond response 121 Word formation list Adjectives -able -ible Verb Adjective ‘Noun Adjective accept (un)acceptable access (in)accessible advise (in)advisable flexibility (inflexible afford affordable sense (in)sensible* agree (dis)agreeable Verb Adjective = ras 7 comprehend (in)comprehensible approach (un)approachable respond (ir)responsible avoid (un)avoidable * sensible: bear (un)bearable showing or having good sense eg Cycling with a believe (un)believable broken arm is not a very sensible thing to do. compare (in)comparable —— consider (in)considerable a desire (un)desirable dispense (in)dispensable ee ee, een eg She seemed insensible to the dangers involved. invitate invitable note notable -al notice noticeable pay payable Noun Adjective predict (unpredictable. accident accidental prefer preferable addition. additional prevent preventable alphabet alphabetical regret regrettable behaviour behavioural rely (un)reliable centre central remark (un)remarkable culture, cultural, respect respectable ecology ecological understand understandable emotion, (un)emotional work (un)workable environment environmental oe Adjective exception (un)exceptional comfort (un)comfortable ee ae fashion (un)fashionable globe global knowledge knowledgeable intention intentional eee (un)memorable medicine medicinal coe eee method methodical == Sener rmonument rmonumenial value valuablefinvaluable’ nation nailonal “invaluable: occasion occasional extremely useful. eg invaluable advice/experience/help occupation occupational origin (un)original parent parental person (m)personal practice (im)practical profession, (un)professional sensation (un)sensational_ society social temperament temperamental tradition traditional universe universal 122 Word formation list Qa ial nate Noun Adjective Noun Adjective benefit beneficial accuracy (in)accurate commerce commercial adequacy inadequate controversy (un)controversial appropriacy (inappropriate face facial consideration {in)considerate finance financial fortune (unfortunate industry industrial moderation (im)moderate influence influential manager ‘managerial ae ‘matrimony matrimonial residence residential Verb Adjective secretary secretarial administer administrative substance (in)substantial argue argumentative territory territorial compare comparative consult consultative fant imagine (un)imaginative inform (un)informative Verb Adjective prevent preventative — oa provoke provocative please Gani represent (un)representative rely reliant resist resistant signify (in)significant tolerate (in)tolerant sent Verb Adjective appear apparent confide confident depend (in)dependent differ (in)different insist obey (dis)obedient persist persistent recur recurrent Noun Adjective absence absent (in)competence (in)competent (inconvenience (inconvenient ‘evidence evident (in)frequency (in)frequent innocence innocent intelligence intelligent (impatience (impatient presence present violence violent 123 Word formation list «ive -ing/-ed Verb Adjective ‘The following verbs can be used to form participle act (in)active adjectives adopt adoptive egworryinghvorried appreciate (un)appreciative alarm, amaze, amuse, annoy, asionish, bore, assert (un)assertive confuse, convince, depress, disappoint, disgust, attend Gn)attentive embarrass, entertain, excite, exhaust, fascinate, ao Cun)attractive frighten, frustrate, increase, interest irritate, communicate (un)communicative motivate, move, refresh, relax, satisfy, shock, compete (uncompetitive surprise, terrify, threaten, thrill, tire, worry conclude (in)eonclusive ae (un)eonstructive ‘The following -ing adjectives are commonly used cooperate Cun)cooperative jet che noun in Brackets create (un)ereative Verb Adjective ay ee close closing (date) vee Cae consult consulting (room) oe defensive recur recurring (illness, nightmare, — = problem, theme) = jones com Ramin) isruy Ms support supporting (actor, actress, divide divisive ppes a explode explosive : express expressive extend extensive cous impress eee Noun Adjective inclu inclusive ine ieee ae offend Gn)offensive a ee oe ee caton cautious produce (un)productive eae cures coo eae danger dangerous ie Le disaster disastrous receive (un)receptive Snour (un)slamorous respect Gir)respective ae ee pare (Gniesvonsive humour humorous speculate speculative ae aes succeed successive ae ca support (un)supportive —— ae Noun Adjective nerve nervous aggression (un)aggressive number: numerous effect ineffective poison poisonous expense Gn)expensive religion (inyreligious secret secretive suspicion suspicious sense (insensitive ey Adjective infect infectious vary various 124 -full-less Root beauty cheer colour count deceit delight effort end event, faith fault flight gratitude hair harm heart help home hope job meaning pain peace point power price relent resource respect skill sleep speech stress success taste thought time truth use waste wonder worth youth -ful beautiful careful cheerful colourful deceitful delightful eventful faithful faulty grateful hairy harmful helpful hopeful meaningful painful peaceful powerful resourceful respectful skilful*/skilled* stressful successful tasty*/asteful* thoughtful* truthful useful wasteful wonderful youthful careless cheerless* colourless countless effortless endless ‘uneventful unfaithful faultless flightless ungrateful hairless harmless heartless helpless*/unhelpful* homeless hopeless jobless meaningless painless pointless powerless priceless* relentless unresourceful disrespectful unskilled sleepless speechless unstressful unsuccessful tasteless thoughtless timeless untruthful useless worthless* Word formation list Qa cheerless: used mainly to describe the weather or a room which is not bright or pleasant helpless: unable to do anything to help or protect yourself unhelpf priceless: used to describe an object which has a very high value; it is worth so much money that the price cannot be calculated (compare with worthless below) skilful & skilled: both can be used to describe a person who has the necessary ability, experience and/or training to do something well. eg He's a skilful footballer: This work was done by skilled crafismen. |: not willing to help other people skilled: can also be used to describe a job or piece of work that requires special skill and training eg Nursing is a skilled job. tasty: used to describe food with a strong and pleasant flavour tasteful: used to describe clothes, decoration ete which is attractive and shows good taste thoughtful: to describe a person who is quiet and serious because they are thinking about something b to describe someone who thinks and cares about the feelings and needs of other people worthless: used to describe an object with no value in money (compare with priceless above) Noun Adjective allergy allergic drama dramatic optimism optimistic pessimism, pessimi science scientific strategy strategic 125 Word formation list Noun Adjective caution cautionary literature literary revolution revolutionary Verb Adjective imagine imaginary volunteer (involuntary sory. Verb Adjective advise advisory celebrate celebratory contradict contradictory explain explanatory introduce itroductory migrate migratory oblige obligatory prepare preparatory satisfy (un)satisfactory supervise supervisory ly Noun Adjective friend (unfriendly life lively time (untimely 2 Noun Adjective chat chatty cloud cloudy ease easy fault faulty fog fogey frost frosty ‘grass grassy guilt guilty hair hairy hill hilly mist misty mud muddy rain rainy rock rocky sleep sleepy sun sunny wealth wealthy 126 Verbs -ate Noun Verb alien alienate assassin assassinate difference differentiate value evaluate Adjective Verb active activate captive captivate dominant dominate valid validate en- Noun Verb act enact circle encircle courage encourage (discourage) danger endanger force enforce list enlist rage enrage ust entrust Adjective Verb able enable. large enlarge rich entich sure ensure ify Noun Verb class classify example exemplify glory glorify identity identify note notify (dis)qualification Adjective clear clarify just justify purify simplify solidify Adjective black bright broad dark dead deaf deep Noun character climate computer criticism ‘emphasis maximum memory minimum moisture pressure revolution standard summary symbol sympathy Verb blacken brighten broaden darken deaden deafen deepen fatten flatten harden heighten, lengthen, lessen Joosen redden sadden sharpen shorten soften stiffen straighten strengthen sweeten thicken tighten weaken widen Verb threaten, Verb characterize acclimatize computerize criticize emphasize maximize ‘minimize moisturize pressurize revolutionize standardize summarize symbolize sympathize Word formation list Qa Adjective Verb commercial commercialize familiar familiarize formal formalize general generalize item itemize modern modernize social socialize special specialize stable stabilize visual visualize Verbs formed with up, down, over, under, out up- update upgrade uphold uplift uproot upset upstage down- downgrade download downplay downshift downsize over: overcook overeat overestimate overexpose overflow overhear overheat overload overlook overrate overrule overrun overshadow oversleep overspend overstay overstretch overtake overthrow overwork 127 Word formation list under- underachieve undercharge undercut underestimate undergo underline underrate understate undertake undervalue out outgrow outlast outlive outnumber outplay outrun outstay 128