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# EC6503 TRANSMISSION LINES

AND WAVEGUIDES
QUESTION BANK
FRANKLIN VIJAY S
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR /ECE
ANJALI AMMAL MAHALINGAM
ENGG., COLLEGE KOVILVENNI
TIRUVARUR (DT)

REGULATION 2013

## UNIT 1: TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY

General theory of Transmission lines - the transmission line - general solution - The infinite line Wavelength, velocity of propagation - Waveform distortion - the distortion-less line - Loading and
different methods of loading - Line not terminated in Z0 - Reflection coefficient - calculation of
current, voltage, power delivered and efficiency of transmission - Input and transfer impedance Open and short circuited lines - reflection factor and reflection loss.
.
PART A:
1. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of co-axial and open wire transmission line.
The open wire line is easy to construct. It is comparatively cheaper. Since insulation
between the conductors is air, the dielectric loss is very small. This line is balanced to the
earth. The main disadvantage of this line is that there is significant energy loss due to
radiations. So it is unsuitable at higher frequencies (
).
The main advantage of the co-axial cable is that electromagnetic fields cannot leak into the
free space; hence radiation losses are totally absent. Outer conductor provides very
effective shielding to the external electromagnetic fields. The co-axial cable transmission
line is costlier. The losses in the dielectric increase as the frequency of the signal increases.
Hence above
this line cannot be used.

## 2. List the primary and secondary line constants of transmission line.

1. Resistance
3.
Capacitance
2. Inductance
4.
Conductance

These 4 line parameters are constants are called as Primary Constants of the transmission
line. These constants are assumed to be independent of frequency for the transmission line.

Apart from
impedance (

All these constants are fixed at one particular frequency but change their values as the
frequency changes. These are constants are called as Secondary Constants.

## other constants related to the transmission line are characteristic

), and p propagation constant ( ).

## 3. Define characteristic impedance of a line.

The ratio of the voltage applied and the current flowing is the input impedance of the line.
This input impedance of the infinite line is called characteristic impedance of a line. It is also
defined as the impedance looking into an infinite line having same electrical properties. It is
denoted as .
4. When does a finite line appear as an infinite line?
Consider an infinite line with
, we get:

When

This show that finite line is terminated in its characteristic impedance behaves as an
infinite line, to the sending end generator.
QUESTION BANK

## 5. State properties of the infinite line.

No waves will ever reach receiving end hence there is no reflection.
The at the sending end decides the current flowing when voltage is applied.
effect on the sending end current.

has no

## 7. What is wavelength of a line?

The distance the wave travels along the line while the phase angle is changing through
where

is phase shift

## 8. What is distortion? What are its types?

When the received signal is not the exact replica of the transmitted signal then the signal
is said to be distorted. There exists some kind of distortion in the signal.

## 9. Define distortionless line. State the condition for distortionless line.

A line in which there is no phase (or) frequency distortion and also it is correctly terminated, is
called a distortionless line. The condition for distortionless line is
.
10. Define phase distortion and frequency distortion.
Frequency distortion:
The attenuation constant is a function of frequency. Hence the different frequencies
transmitted along the line will be attenuated to the different extent. For example a voice
signal consists of many frequencies. And all these frequencies will not be attenuated equally
along the transmission line. Hence received signal will not be exact replica of the input signal
at the sending end. Such a distortion is called frequency distortion.
Phase distortion (or) delay distortion:
The phase constant also varies with frequency. Now the velocity is given by:
.
Thus the velocity of propagation of waves also varies with frequency. Hence some waves will
reach receiving end very fast while some waves will get delayed than the others. Hence all
frequencies will not have same transmission time. Thus the output wave at the receiving end
will not be exact replica of the input wave at the sending end. Such a distortion is called phase
(or) delay distortion.

QUESTION BANK

## EC6503 - TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

11. If a line is to have neither frequency nor delay distortion, how do you relate attenuation
constant and velocity of propagation to frequency? (or) How distortion can be reduced in
a transmission line?
The condition for distortionless line is
.
The phase constant is given by:

and

## . Thus for the condition

the velocity of propagation becomes independent of frequency. This eliminates the phase
distortion and a direct function of frequency.

is given by:
)

## Thus for the condition

, the value becomes
frequency. This eliminates the frequency distortion.

and it is independent of

The process of increasing inductance of a transmission line artificially is called loading
of a line, and such a line is called loaded line.

## 13. Define reflection coefficient.

The ratio of the amplitudes of the reflected and incident voltage waves at the receiving end of
the line is called reflection co-efficent.

## 14. Define reflection loss.

The reflection loss is defined as the number of nepers or decibels by which the current in the
load under image matched conditions would exceed the current actually flowing in the load.
Let
is the load current under image matching condition and
under image mismatch condition, then reflection loss is given by:
|

(or)

|

## 15. Define insertion loss.

The insertion loss of a line or network is defined as the number of nepers or decibels by which
the current in the load is changed by insertion of a line or a network in between the load and the
source.
QUESTION BANK

## 16. What is return loss? Write its expression.

The return loss is defined as the ratio of the power at the receiving end due to incident wave to
the power reflected by the load. It is also called Singing point.
[| | ]
PART B:
1. Obtain the general solution of transmission line and write its physical significance. (or) Derive
the expressions for the voltage and current at any point on a transmission line in terms of
propagation constant, length and characteristic impedance of the line. (16) ***
2. Explain the waveform distortion in transmission line. Derive the conditions required for a
distortionless line. (8) ***
3. Explain the reflection on lines not terminated in characteristic impedance
diagrams. (8)***

with phasor

4. Derive the equation of attenuation constant and phase constants of a transmission line in terms
of line constants
and . (8) ***
5. Give an account on inductance loading of Telephone cables. Derive Campbells equation. (8) ***
6. A cable has been uniformly loaded by an inductance such that
. Assume leakage
conductance to be nil, deduce an expression for attenuation and phase constant without
neglecting . (8)
7. Derive the equations for input and transfer impedance of transmission lines. (8)
8. Write a short note on reflection factor and reflection loss. (6)
UNIT 2: HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSMISSION LINES
Transmission line equations at radio frequencies - Line of Zero dissipation - Voltage and current
on the dissipation-less line, Standing Waves, Nodes, Standing Wave Ratio - Input impedance of the
dissipation-less line - Open and short circuited lines - Power and impedance measurement on
lines - Reflection losses - Measurement of VSWR and wavelength.
PART A:
1. What are the standard assumptions made for RF line?
When a line, either open-wire or coaxial is used at frequencies of a megahertz or more, some
standard assumptions are considered:
At very high frequency, the skin effect is considerable. Hence it is assumed that the
currents may flow on the surface of conductor, then the internal inductance becomes
zero.
Because of skin effect, resistance increases with while the line reactance increases
directly with . Hence it is assumed that is
.
The lines at radio frequency is constructed such that may be considered zero.

QUESTION BANK

## 2. What is small and zero dissipation line.

i.
is small with respect to
, then the line is considered as small dissipation line. This
concept is useful when lines are employed as circuit elements (or) where resonance
properties are involved.
ii.
is completely neglected, then the line is termed as zero dissipation line. This concept is
useful when the line is used for transmission of power at a high frequency and the losses
are neglected completely.
3. For the line of zero dissipation what will be the values of characteristic impedance,
propagation constant, attenuation constant and phase constant.
According to the standard assumptions for line at a high frequency,
and
.
The value of the characteristic impedance is real and resistive, it is represented by the
symbol .

is given by:
(

)(

and

## 4. Explain standing waves.

When a line is not terminated correctly into its characteristic impedance
, then the part of
energy transmitted returns back to the source as reflected wave. Then the distribution of voltage
along the length of the line is not uniform, but a line consists maximum and minimum values of
voltages. The points along the line where magnitude of voltage or current is zero are called
Nodes while the points along the line where magnitude of voltage or current is maximum are
called Antinodes.
5. Define standing wave ratio.
The ratio of the maximum to minimum magnitudes of current or voltage on a line having
standing waves is called the standing-wave ratio, . i.e.,
|

## 6. Express standing wave ratio in terms of reflection coefficient

The standing-wave ratio then may be defined in terms of the reflection co-efficient as:
| |
where is reflection coefficient
| |
7. Write the relation for reflection coefficient in terms of
The reflection coefficient in terms of
and as:
where

and

is characteristic impedance
QUESTION BANK

## EC6503 - TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

8. Give the minimum and maximum value of SWR and reflection coefficient.
When
i.e., when the line is short circuited,
, Reflection is maximum

When

## i.e., when the line is open circuited,

, Reflection is maximum

to

to

## 9. Write the expressions for the input impedance of dissipationless line.

The input impedance of a dissipationless line is given by:

10. Write the expressions for the input impedance of open and short circuited dissipationless
line.
For short-circuited line,

## For open-circuited line,

where

11. Draw the variation of the input impedance of open and short circuited dissipationless line
for
line.

PART B:
1. Explain the method of power and impedance measurement on the line. (8) ***
2. Explain the following: ***
a. Standing waves
(3)
b. Standing wave ratio
(3)
c. Relation between SWR and reflection coefficient.
(3)
d. Nodes and antinodes
(3)
e. A method to measure SWR
(4)

QUESTION BANK

## EC6503 - TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

3. Derive the expressions for the input impedance of the dissipationless line and deduce the
expressions for the input impedance of open and short circuited dissipation less line. (8) ***
4. Explain in detail voltages and currents on the dissipationless line. (8) ***
5. Define standing wave ratio and obtain the expressions for VSWR interms of reflection
coefficient. (8)
6. Explain in detail reflection losses on the unmatched line and derive the expression for reflection
losses as a function of standing wave ratio. (8)
UNIT 3: IMPEDANCE MATCHING IN HIGH FREQUENCY LINES
Impedance matching: Quarter wave transformer - Impedance matching by stubs - Single stub and
double stub matching - Smith chart - Solutions of problems using Smith chart - Single and double
stub matching using Smith chart
PART A:
1. What is meant by electrical length of a line?
The length of the transmission line is expressed in terms of wavelength is called an electrical
length of a line. Example
line.
2. Why is the Quarter wave line called as copper insulator?
As quarter wave line is shorted at ground, its input impedance is very high. So the signal on line
passes to the receiving end, without any loss due to this mechanical support. Thus the line acts
as an insulator at this point. Hence such line is referred as copper insulator.
3. Mention the application of quarter wave line.
It can transformer a low impendance into a high impendance and vice versa, thus it can be
consider as an impendance inverter.
It may be used as a transformer for impedance matching of load.
It may be used to provide mechanical support to the open wire line or center conductor of a
coaxial cable.
4. Distinguish between single stub matching and double stub matching.
S.No
Single stub matching
Double stub matching
1.
In a single stub matching method only one In a double stub matching, two short
stub either open or short circuit is used for circuit stubs are used for impedance
impedance matching. Such a stub is located matching. The location of stubs is not
at a definite point so as to achieve definite but it is arbitrary. The
impedance matching.
fulfilled with length of the stubs.
2.
The single stub matching is useful for one The double stub matching can be used for
frequency only, for different frequencies, different frequencies by adjusting stub
location of stub must have to be changed. lengths because stub positions are
Also it is most suitable for open wire line arbitrary. Also it is most useful and easy
and found to be troublesome in case of co- method of impedance matching for the
axial line.
co-axial line.

QUESTION BANK

## 5. Write the disadvantages of single stub matching.

Single stub impedance matching requires that the stub be located at a definite point on the
line. So, it is useful for one frequency only, for different frequencies, location of stub must
have to be changed.
For a coaxial line, it is not possible to determine the location of a voltage minimum without a
slotted line section, so that placement of a stub at the exact required point is difficult.
6. Why are short circuited stub preferred over open circuited stub?
A short- circuited stub is mainly preferred to an open-circuited stub because of its simpler
construction and the inability to maintain high enough insulation resistance at the open
circuit point to ensure that the stub is really open-circuited.
A shorted stub has a lower loss of energy due to radiation, since the short circuit can be
easily established with a large metal plate compared to open-circuited stub.
7. What is Smith chart?
A modified form of circle diagram for the dissipationless line has been developed by P.H. Smith.
Smith chart is a special polar diagram containing constant resistance circles, constant
reactance circles, circles of constant standing wave ratio and radius lines representing lineangle loci: used in solving transmission line and waveguide problems.
PART B:
1. What is quarter wave transformer? Discuss the application of quarter wave line in impedance
matching. (8) ***
2. Obtain the expression for the length and location of a short circuited stub for impedance
matching on a transmission line. (8) ***
3. Draw and explain the principle of double stub matching. (8) ***
4. Explain the applications of smith chart.
UNIT 4: PASSIVE FILTERS
Characteristic impedance of symmetrical networks - filter fundamentals, Design of filters:
Constant K - Low Pass, High Pass, Band Pass, Band Elimination, m- derived sections - low pass,
high pass composite filters.
PART A:
1. What is symmetrical and asymmetrical network? Write its properties.
When the electrical properties of the network are unaffected even after interchanging input and
output terminals, the network is called symmetrical network. When the electrical properties of
the network are affected even after interchanging input and output terminals, the network is
called asymmetrical network.

## The electrical properties of symmetrical network are given as:

i. Characteristic impedance
ii. Propagation constant
The electrical properties of asymmetrical network are given as:
i. Iterative impedance
ii. Image impedance
iii. Image transfer constant
QUESTION BANK

## 2. For a symmetrical network, define propagation constant and characteristic impedance.

The characteristic impedance of a symmetrical network is the impedance measured at the
input terminals of the first network in the chain of infinite networks in cascade and it is
represented as .
Under the assumption of equal input and output impedances for a symmetrical T network
terminated by its characteristic impedance
, the ratio of the input current (sending end)
to output current (receiving end) was defined as an exponential function, referred by the
name propagation constant ( ).
3. What is the significance of propagation constant in symmetrical network?
The ratio of the input current (sending end) to output current (receiving end) was defined
as an exponential function, referred by the name propagation constant ( ).

| |

where

## is a complex number and it is given by,

| |
The term
is called as the attenuation constant, since it determines the magnitude ratio
between input and output quantities, or the attenuation produced in passing through the
network. The units of are nepers.
The exponent
is the phase constant as it determines the phase angle between input and
output quantities, or the shift in phase introduced by the network. The units of are
4. Define pass band, stop band and cut off frequency in relation with a filter?
The range of frequencies over which attenuation by filter is zero is called pass band.
The range of frequencies over which attenuation is infinite is called stop band.
The frequencies at which the network changes from a pass network to a stop network, or
vice versa, are called cut-off frequencies.
5. What are called constant-K filters and what are the demerits.
A T or section in which series and shunt arm impedances and
satisfy the relationship
where is a real constant is called as constant-k section.
Drawbacks in prototype filter section:
Ideally the attenuation should change sharply in the stop band. But in all prototype filter
section, the attenuation changes gradually in the stop band. Hence frequencies near cut-off
frequency are passed through the filter.
In the pass band, output of the filter should remain constant. This indicates that the
remain constant. But the
varies with frequency from value
, i.e., design impedance
value, throughout the passband. Hence, filter cannot be terminated properly.
6. Why constant-K filters are called prototype filters?
The constant-k sections either T or , of any type of filter are known as prototype sections,
because other complex network can be derived from it.

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## 7. What is m-derived filter?

A m-derived filter is a new filter section derived from a prototype constant K-section. It has cutoff frequency same as that of a prototype section. The attenuation characteristics of such filter
are much improved in the stop band.
8. What are the advantages of m-derived filters?
A sharper cut-off characteristics with steeper rise at
, the slope of the rise being
adjustable by fixing the distance between and .

of the filter will be more uniform within the passband when m- derived half section
having
are connected at the ends.
m- derived filters make it possible to construct composite filters to have any desired
attenuation/frequency characteristics.
9. What is the drawback of m-derived filter? How can it be overcome?
It is observed that in the stop band attenuation drastically reduces after
in low pass
section and before
in high pass section.
This drawback of m- derived filter can be overcome by connecting number of sections
including prototype sections and m- derived sections with terminating half sections. Such a
combination of different sections is called composite filters.
10. Why m-derived filter of L-sections are used as terminations of composite filters?
To have proper impedance matching and constant characteristic impedance throughout the pass
band, we must connect the terminating sections with
. So m-derived filter of L-sections
are used as terminations of composite filters.
11. Draw the general block diagram of composite filter.

PART B:
1. Derive the equations for the characteristic impedance of symmetrical T and networks. (8) ***
2. With suitable filter sections, design constant K low pass and high pass filters. (16) ***
3. Draw a constant K T-section band elimination filter and explain the operation with necessary
design equations. (8) ***
4. Construct a band pass constant K filter. (8) ***
5. Derive the relevant equations of m derived low pass filter and high pass filter. (8)
UNIT 5: WAVE GUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS
General Wave behaviors along uniform Guiding structures, Transverse Electromagnetic waves,
Transverse Magnetic waves, Transverse Electric waves, TM and TE waves between parallel plates,
TM and TE waves in Rectangular wave guides, Bessels differential equation and Bessel function,
TM and TE waves in Circular wave guides, Rectangular and circular cavity Resonators.
QUESTION BANK

## EC6503 - TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

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PART A:
Guided Waves Between Parallel Planes:
1. What is principal wave? Write its characteristics.
The
wave is a special case of guided wave propagation. It is called principal wave.
Some of the properties for
as follows.
1.

2.
3.

## The propagation constant for

transmission is given
by:
Cut-off frequency for
transmission is given by:

4.

## The velocity of propagation

is given by:

1. Compare
and
mode.
S.No
mode
1.
The Transverse Electric ( ) wave has
the magnetic field in the direction of
propagation, but no component of the
electric field in the same direction.
2.
The
waves are also called - waves.
3.
In this mode, the wave impedance is
given as:
(

mode
) wave has
The Transverse Magnetic (
the electric field in the direction of
propagation, but no component of the
electric field in the same direction.
The
waves are also called - waves.
In this mode, the wave impedance is given
as:

## 2. Define the cut off frequency for the guided waves.

Cut-off frequency is the operating frequency below which attenuation occurs and above which
propagation takes place.
3. Define the term phase and group velocity.
Phase velocity: It is defined as the rate at which wave changes its phase as the wave propagates
inside the region between two parallel planes.
Group velocity: It is defined as the actual velocity with which the wave propagates inside the
region between two parallel planes.
4. Write down the relationship between group velocity, phase velocity and free space
velocity.
The product of group velocity and phase velocity is the square of free space velocity.

where

## 5. Define wave impedance.

The characteristic impedance or wave impedance is defined as the ratio of the amplitudes of
and between the parallel planes.

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## 6. Define guide wavelength.

The wavelength is defined as the distance travelled for the phase shift through
given by:

This is the wavelength in the direction of propagation of a guide. Hence it is also called as guide
wavelength.

7. Plot the frequency Vs wave impedance curve for the waves between parallel conducting
planes.

8. What is meant by dominant mode? What is the dominant mode for parallel plate wave
guides?
The dominant mode is the mode with lowest cut-off frequency (or longest cut-off wavelength).
For parallel plate wave guide the dominant modes are
mode and
mode.
Waveguides:
9. What is the need for guide termination?
A wave guide is a form of transmission line and must be properly terminated at the receiving
end to avoid reflections. The termination should provide a wave impedance equal to the
impedance of the transmitted mode in the guide.
10. Discuss the impossibility of
waves in hollow wave guide.
The TEM wave cannot propagate through the wave guide, because, it needs either axial current
or an axial displacement current to support transverse magnetic field. Both these conditions are
not possible in wave guide. Hence it can not exist in rectangular waveguide.
11. Write the expression for phase velocity and group velocity for a rectangular wave guide?
Phase velocity

Group velocity

(
(

where

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## 12. Which is the dominant mode of rectangular wave guide? Why?

The dominant mode is the mode with lowest cut-off frequency (or longest cut-off wavelength).

wave:
wave:

is :

is : 2a

## From the above , it is clearly noted that

. Hence out of these two dominant modes, the
most dominant mode is
mode in rectangular wave guide.
13. A hollow wave guide behaves like a high pass filter. Why?
The propagation constant for /
transmission is given by:
(

At lower frequencies, (

( )

. Thus

( )

. Thus

## becomes imaginary with value

to attenuation constant .

At higher frequencies, (

## equal to phase constant .

Thus the lower frequencies are attenuated completely, with no propagation; while the
higher frequencies are allowed to propagate with appropriate phase shift only, so the
system acts as High Pass Filter.

mode in circular wave guide has the lowest attenuation per unit length of wave
guide, hence suitable for long distance wave guide transmission.
In circular wave guide,
and
modes are rotationally symmetrical and hence
rotation of polarization could be overcome.
The circular wave guides are easier to manufacture and join than rectangular wave
guides.
Propagation in rectangular wave guide is easier compared to circular wave guide.
Circular wave guide occupies more space compared to rectangular wave guide system.
Due to infinite number of modes existing in a circular wave guide, it becomes very
difficult to separate these modes.
Angle of polarization of wave changes because of discontinuities and even small
irregularities, as a result of which coupling energy out of wave guide at receiving end
becomes difficult.
Fabrication of certain type of components is more difficult for circular wave guide.
15. Write the applications of circular wave guide?
Short and medium distance broadband communication.

## mode is suitable for long distance wave guide transmission above

.
Rotating joints in radars to connect the horn antenna feeding a paraboloid reflector.

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## EC6503 - TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

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16. Which mode is called as dominant mode in the circular wave guide?

wave:
wave:

## From the above , it is clearly noted that

. Hence out of these two dominant modes, the
dominant mode is
mode in cylindrical wave guide.
17. What is Bessel function? Write Bessels function of first kind of order zero.
The analysis of field components within the hollow, perfectly conducting cylinder with uniform
cross section is carried out using the cylindrical coordinate system. The resulting differential
equation is called Bessels equation. The solution of such equation is called Bessel function.
Bessels function of first kind of order zero:
(

( )

## 18. Compare transmission line and wave guide.

S.No
Transmission line
Wave guide
1.
It
supports
the
transverse It supports many possible configurations.
electromagnetic wave (TEM) wave.
2.
Due to the skin effect and higher Wave guides can be used efficiently at this
dielectric losses, especially in frequency range. Also, these give a lower signal
frequency range 3-300 GHz, the attenuation and a larger bandwidth in this
transmission
line
becomes frequency range.
inefficient
3.
Transmission lines operate from Dc Wave guides can operate only above a specific
to a very high frequency.
frequency. This frequency is called the cut-off
frequency. Thus, a wave guide is a kind of high
pass filter. A wave guide cannot be used in DC
applications. Below microwave frequencies, a
wave guide becomes too large.
Cavity resonator:
19. What is meant by cavity resonator?
A metallic structure with all of its boundaries forming an enclosed set of conducting walls, inside
which electromagnetic waves are confined forming standing wave pattern, is called cavity
resonator or resonant cavity.
20. Define the term Quality factor of a resonator?
The quality factor of a resonant circuit is the measure of efficiency with which the energy
storing elements can store maximum energy. In other words, it is the measure of frequency
selectivity of a resonant circuit.

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## 21. Give the applications of cavity resonators.

The cavity resonators are most widely used in the microwave generation and amplification
field. The cavity resonators are used in Klystron amplifier for amplifying microwave signal.
The microwave signal is generated with cavity resonator used in Reflex Klystron Oscillator.
The cavity resonators are extensively used in the light house tube. It is a special tube used for
VHF range of frequencies.
The cavity resonator plays important role in microwave signal generation when used in
cavity magnetron.
The cavity resonators can be used in duplexers in the RADAR system as resonant cavity in
The cavity resonators are most widely used for the measurement of the microwave signals
with the help of cavity wavemeters.
22. Distinguish between wave guide and resonator.
S.No
Wave guide
1.
A wave guide is a hollow metallic tube of
any arbitrary but uniform cross section,
through which
waves can be
transmitted.
2.
The wave guide is used for transmitting an
waves through it at microwave
frequencies.

Resonator
A cavity resonator is a metallic enclosure
with all the sides are closed and
conducting.
Typically cavity resonator is used for
storing energy.

## 23. List out the parameters describing the performance of a resonator.

1. Quality factor
2. Dimensions of the resonator cavity
3. Skin depth of the conducting walls of resonator.
PART B:
Guided Waves Between Parallel Planes:
1. Explain the transmission of
waves between parallel perfectly conducting planes with
necessary expressions and diagrams for the field components. Sketch the field lines of
mode in a parallel plate waveguide. (8) ***
2. Discuss the transmission of
waves between parallel planes. Sketch the field lines of
mode in a parallel plate waveguide. (8) ***
3. Derive the relation among group velocity, phase velocity and free space velocity. (8) ***
4. Explain the concept of transmission of
waves and
waves between parallel plates.
(8) ***
Waveguides:
5. Derive the field expression for
wave propagation in rectangular waveguide with relavant
expressions and diagrams for the field components. (8) ***
6. Derive the field expression for
wave propagation in rectangular waveguide with relavant
expressions and diagrams for the field components. (8) ***
7. Explain the propagation of electromagnetic waves in cylindrical waveguide with suitable
expressions. Deduce the expressions for
and
waves in cylindrical waveguide. (16) ***
8. Discuss the characteristics of
and
waves in circular wave guides. (8)
9. Discuss the characteristics of
and
waves in rectangular waveguide wave guides. (8)
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## EC6503 - TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

10.

16

wave cannot exist in hollow wave guide. Justify the statement using Maxwells
equations. (6)

Cavity resonators:
11. Discuss the principle of rectangular cavity resonator. Derive the expression for the resonant
frequency of the rectangular cavity resonator. (8) ***
12. Derive the Q factor of a rectangular cavity resonator for
mode.
(16) ***
13. Determine the dominant modes and their frequencies in an air filled rectangular cavity
resonator for
,
and
where , and are the dimensions in the ,
and respectively.
(8)
14. Give brief notes on resonant cavities and its applications. (8)

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