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Johanna Heinonen

Marketing is the success factor in a company


Marketing can be seen in everything that is
done in a company
Every function in a company has its effect to
and in marketing
Even customers and stakeholders has affect
marketing results
Marketing is much more than advertising

Marketing is the social process by which individuals and groups


obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging
products and value with others (Kotler)
Marketing consists of the strategies and tactics used to identify,
create and maintain satisfying relationships with customers that
result in value for both the customer and the marketer.
Marketing is the management process that identifies, anticipates
and satisfies customer requirements profitably
The activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating,
communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have
value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large
(American Marketing Association AMA)

Marketing is an on-going process without a clear


end or a beginning
Everyone is a marketeer in a company
Marketing has many goals

Creating knowledge or image


Getting new customers
Increasing sales
Motivating the personnel
Informing stakeholders and investors
Etc

Some sort of marketing is needed in every branch


and every business

A good marketer can easily form the big


picture of the situation
A good marketeer knows something about
almost everything
A good marketeer is curios and hardworkin
A good marketeer gathers enough information
and then thinks what are the best solutions to
the problem
A good marketeer is creative

Introduction and idea


2.
Analyses
2.1 Organizational analysis
2.2. Competitor analysis
2.3. Demand analysis
2.4. PEST analysis
2.5. SWOT
3. Strategical decisions
3.1. Target group
3.2. Strategical values
3.3. Goals and objectives for marketing plan
4. Implementation
4.1. Product
4.2. Price
4.3. Place
4.4. Personnel
4.5. Promotion
5. Budget, timetable and responsibilities
6. Follow-up
1.

WHERE ARE WE NOW?


Facts
Information from different sources to be
analyzed
Research if needed
WHERE ARE WE GOING TO?
Your own definitions about the most
reasonable target group, the values /
adjectives this target group respects and
the goals for this marketing plan
HOW TO GET THERE?
Your own ideas/suggestions of the
implementation based on the facts you
have gathered earlier and put under the
topics of 5P
Strategical values should be seen in each
of 5ps and this should be written in the
report, too
In the report ther must also be the ways
how the defined implementation (5ps)
helps in reaching the goals

Knowledge of marketing and its different elements


as such
Knowledge of the phenomenons that affect targets
of marketing
Knowledge of the phenomenons that affect
marketing itself
Knowledge of phenomenons that affect the
environment where marketing happens
In a time of turbulence and change, it is more true
than ever that knowledge is power John
Fitzgerald Kennedy quotes (American 35th US
President (1961-63), 1917-1963)

External opportunities and threats are


circumstances that cant be affected by the
company byt which has a great impact on
companys functions

Competitors
Demand
Laws and regulations
Trends and culture
Technological development

First of all, Weve got to know A LOT of our customers and the
potential customers (demand) and how they are going to evolve in
the future

Who they are? Where they come from? What are their
characteristics (socioeconomical and demograpfical background)?

What they buy? Where they buy? How they buy? How much they
buy? Why they buy?

Purchase habits? Purchase reasons? Needs, values, opinions


FEELINGS?

How are they going to change in the future?


=> CUSTOMER AND DEMAND ANALYSIS

ALL THIS AFFECTS THEN COMPANYS FUTURE DECISIONS!,


because we should develop our company and our marketing mix so
that customers find our company as the best alternative in the market!

Then weve got to know our competitors and how they are going
to evolve in the future

Who they are? What they sell? How they sell?

Why people buy from them?

What are their values and their image?

How are they going to change in the future?


=> COMPETITOR ANALYSIS

We can divide our competitors to core competitors, need


competitors, marginal competitors and potential competitors

ALL THIS AFFECTS THEN COMPANYS FUTURE DECISIONS,


because we should differ from our competitors so, that our customers
think that we are the best alternative!

We should also know about the rules that companies and


people should follow when the live here on Planet Earth
This means

Laws, Regulations
Culture
Politics
Sociological issues (communication etc.)
Technological issues
Environmental issues

=> PEST Analysis

ALL THIS AFFECTS COMPANYS FUTURE DECISIONS, too,


because we must in certain amount follow the newest trends
and we must fuNction accordIng to the laws . We must also
take the culture ant the politics in a country into consideration
if we want to be successful.

Internal strengths and weaknesses can be

Business idea: basic for whole entrepreneurship


Products, prices, distribution, co-operation: what are
they, why, what needs do they fullfil etc
Personnel: is there enough, what kind of skills it has, is it
motivated etc.
Management: what is it, why
Resources: money, machines, know-how
Marketing: how is it done now, why
Customers: who are they know, why
etc

Then weve got to know A LOT about our own company and what are
our future goals

Who are we? Why do we exist? What are our values and our image?

What are our resources and finance?

What do we sell (products and services)? What are our selling


arguments?

With what price do we sell? Why?

Where do we sell our product/service? Who are our distributors? Why?

What is the strategy here (massdistribution or direct selling to the


customer)?

How do we communicate of ourselves? What kind of adds do we have?


Why? Where? What is the central message? Why?

What kind of people is there working with us? What is their meaning to
the company? What is their competence? Is there enough of them?

How have we differentiated our product from our competitors?


=> ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS

AFTER THIS WE SHOULD COMPARE OUR PRESENT STATE TO OTHER


ANALYSIS AND FIGURE OUT, how we should develop and market our
company in order to differ from our competitors so that customers think we
are the best alternative and still keep our own values and function according
to the rules of society.

SWOT is a tool that helps you to gather information


of many different things affecting the company and
its success
SWOT is based on facts that are gathered from
different objective sources, not just something that
you think or like
SWOT divides
information into companys
STRENGTHS
WEAKNESSES
internal strengths and weaknesses
and external opportunities and
threats that affect company from
OPPORTUNITIES
THREATS
outside

SWOT is not a list of things, it is an analysis


This means that SWOT should be written with
whole sentences and everything written in it
should be analyzed
Easist way to analyze is to think, whether
something is good or bad and should it be changed
or improved somehow
The normal / usual way to use SWOT is to think

how to take advantage of strengths and opportunities


how to improve weaknessed
And how to foresee and prevent threats

Gather information of the company

Analyze customers

What laws and regulations affect the company and its business?
How do these laws affect? What kind of demands or restrictions they set to the company?

Analyze trends and culture

Present competitors vs. future competitors


Their products, services, marketing, strengths, values
How should the company differentiate itself from the competitors so, that that customer would choose it
instead of competitors? What this means in practice changes in personnel, products etc? WHY?

Analyze laws and regulations

Present vs. future


Needs, values, wishes
How do the customers affect business and marketing? What kind of changes / improvements they cause?
WHY?

Analyze the competitors (NOTE! Competitors are those, who fight for customers attention and money)

Facts about location, ownership, marketing, products, services, resources, decoration, values, personnel,
goals

Are there some trends that affect demand or our business? Does culture has some impact on demand,
marketing or our business?
How do these effect? Do they cause some improvements / changes? Why?

Analyze economical and technological environment and trends

Are there some trends that affect demand or our business amd its marketing?
How do these effect? Do they cause some improvements / changes? Why?

Be critical!
Dont just take the entrepreneurs word as the
only truth it is usually biased and subjective

Gather other information from objective sources

Your decisions and suggestions should be


based on facts so gather enough information
of everything and many different sources and
point of views
Analysis is usually 80 % of marketing plan

Now you have finished your analysis tool and


know a lot more about your markets,
competitors and customers than in the
beginning
You also have a clue what is needed from your
organization
Now it is time to consider companys strategies
and target groups
It is also time to set goals that are based on the
analysis, so that they are realistic and still
demanding

YES
!

NO!
Competitors

Our company

CUSTOMER

In order to make marketing more effective and to


concentrate on the most profitable target group a
company must divide its potential customers into
target groups
Customers can be divided into groups based on

Demografic and social-economic basis

Psychografic basis
According to situation

Nowadays the most usual way is to find groups with


similar interests and values!

It is also important to think, how the company


shall keep the customers as its customers in the
future
This is called as customer program and it aims to
keep customers satisfied
Customer satisfaction is always customers own
decisions and evaluation
Customer satisfaction is effected by:

The quality of product / service


The whole personnels skills and attitude towards customers
Managers attitude towards customers and personnel
A long-term planning and implementing process
Keeping of the service promise

A marketing strategy is a process that can


allow an organization to concentrate its limited
resources on the greatest opportunities to
increase sales and achieve a sustainable
competitive advantage.
A marketing strategy should be centered
around the key concept where customer
satisfaction is the main goal.

A marketing strategy is often the starting


point to a marketing plan, which contains a set
of specific actions required to successfully
implement a marketing strategy.
A marketing strategy often binds an
organization's marketing goals, policies, and
action sequences (tactics) together.
Marketing strategies are dynamic and
interactive. They are partially planned and
partially unplanned.
Companys values are important!

the state of affairs that a plan is intended to


achieve
A goal or objective consists of a projected state
of affairs which a person or a system plans or
intends to achieve or bring about
A personal or organizational desired end-point
in some sort of assumed development.
Many people endeavor to reach goals within a
finite time by setting deadlines.

Marketing plans built with clear, stated goals backed


up with appropriate metrics and measurements will
be approved a lot more readily than those that aren't.
Marketing must develop its plans based on the realities
of the business environment while remaining in
alignment with corporate goals.
If a marketing plan's primary goal is not expressed in
these terms, it will be difficult for the plan to gain
approval from company executi
Concrete goals are a key component of all marketing
plans.
Goals help to steer the development of all marketing
activities, including promotions, advertising
campaigns, and press related activities

Goals should be specific and measurable (quantity


goals), e.g.

Less specific goals are often qualitative, e.g.

increasing market share by two percentage points over a 12month period


doubling sales of a particular product in six months
increasing customer retention by 25 percent from one holiday
season to the next
increasing a company's visibility within a marketplace
differentiating a company from its rivals

If you state your goals clearly and with good grounds,


its easy to follow-up whether the implementation
goes right and the right and sufficient results are
achieved

~ The activities and functions ~

PRICE

PEOPLE

PRODUCT
PLACE

PROMOTION

PRICE
PLACE

PEOPLE
PRODUC
T
PROMOTI
ON

Does the organization create what its intended customers want? Define
the characteristics of your product or service that meets the needs of your
customers.
Why would our target group buy our product?
How can we make our target group interested in our product?
How can we differ from our competitors?
IMAGE

Differentation
Branding

SUPPORTING PARTS
CORE
PRODU
CT

A product can be defined as a collection of


physical, service and symbolic attributes which
yield satisfaction or benefits to a user or buyer.
A product is a combination of physical attributes
say, size and shape; and subjective attributes say
image or "quality
COMMODITY is a common name for everything,
that a company produces to the sales. It can be a
product or a service
SERVICE is an immaterial commodity.
PRODUCT is something real and touchable

The production of the product or service should be well


planned and coordinated
The main elements to consider are

the production process itself


specifications
culture
the physical product
packaging
labelling
branding
warranty
service

Product marketing in a business addresses four important


Strategic questions:

What products will be offered?


Who will be the target customers?
How will the products reach those customers?
Why will customers prefer our products to those of competitors?

distinguishing the differences of a product or


offering from others
to make a product more attractive to a
particular target market

Source of a competitive advantage


The objective is to develop a position that
potential customers see as unique

The brand differences

difference in packaging
difference in an advertising theme

Differences in quality
Differences in price
Differences in functional features
Differences in design
Sales promotion activities of sellers
Differences in availability

Differentiation is due to buyers perceiving a


difference,
Differentiation is the possibility of charging
more money from customers
However, if customers value the firm's offer,
they will be less sensitive to aspects of
competing offers and price may not be one of
these aspects

A brand is a collection of images and ideas


representing a product or a company

FOR
BRANDING

COMPANY

Company name >< Individual branding


Colours
Sounds
Forms and designs
Packages
Prices
Logos
Slogans
Advertisements
Names
Attitudes

PRICE

PEOPLE
PRODUCT

PLACE

PROMOTIO
N

How much are the intended customers willing to pay?


Here we decide on a pricing strategy - do not let it just happen!
The consumer is often sensitive for price discounts and special offers.
Price builds also the company image: something that is expensive must be good
How should we price our product so that our customers buy it? Is price
important to our customers?
How should we price our product so that it differs from our competitors?
How should we price our product so that we make some profit?
Discounts
Terms of payment
Price creating image

Price is the result of an exchange; a numerical


monetary value to a good, service or asset
In marketing the price is the amount a
customer pays for the product. It is determined
by a number of factors including market share,
competition, material costs, product identity
and the customer's perceived value of the
product.
The business may increase or decrease the price
of product if other stores have the same
product.

How much to charge for a product or service? How much do


customers value the products and services?
What are the pricing objectives?
How to set the price? (cost-plus pricing, demand based or
valuebased pricing, rate of return pricing, or competitor indexing)
Should there be a single price or multiple pricing?
Should prices change in various geographical areas, referred to as
zone pricing?
Should there be quantity discounts?
Do you use a price skimming strategy or a penetration pricing
strategy?
What image do you want the price to convey?
Do you use psychological pricing?
How visible should the price be? Should the price be neutral?
What sort of payments should be accepted?

PRICE

PEOPLE
PRODUCT

PLACE

~ Available at the right place, at the right time, in the right quantities ~
What is the best place to sell our product so that it is available to our
customers?
How widely should the product be sold?
Should we use distributors? Who are our distributors? Why?
How should our shop (premises) look like?
Signs
Decoration
Distributors
Storage
Availability

PROMOTIO
N

Place strategy tells how the product or service will


be distributed to the end user. The product must
be at the right place at the right time.
Two types of distribution methods:

Indirect distribution use of an retailer or an


intermediary
Direct distribution - selling directly from a manufacturer
to the consumer

Three type of distribution strategies


1.
2.
3.

Intensive distribution - the product is sold in as many places


as possible.
Exclusive distribution - a single outlet
Selective Distribution: - A small number of retail outlets

PRICE

PEOPLE
PRODUCT

PLACE

~ People are the most important element of any service or experience. ~


What is the meaning of people in our company and in our success?
What kind of people do we need?
How many people do we need?
Appearance of our people?
Skills and knowledge of our people?
How to motivate our staff?

PROMOTIO
N

People buy from people that they like

Personnels attitude, skills and appearance are


important
Personnel is a companys first market they must
believe in the company and know its products,
strategies and values

INTERNAL MARKETING

An ongoing process which aims for that personnel is


satisfied and gives its best for the company and its
customers.

1. Hire right kind of people to the company


2. Keep the good, old workers
3. Motivate personnel for doing their jobs better
4. Create employee job satisfaction
5. Internal communication

Better job performance


Responsibility for employees
Common understanding of the company and its
strategies
Better service to clients
Improved employee development
Integrates business culture, structure, human
resources management, vision and strategy with
the employees' professional and social needs
Better coordination and cooperation among
departments of the business.

PRICE

PEOPLE

PRODUCT
PROMOTI
PLACE
ON

PROMOTION = All communication that happens inside or outside the


company
1. Youve got to have something to tell the central message / the
service promise

Companys point of view

Customers point of view!!!


2. The package

Youve got to express the central message in such a way that


customers pay attention to it, notice your message and adapt it as
their own
3. Media choices

Youve got to find the medias that your customers follow and
use them as your marketing channels

The package? / The budget? / The effect?


4. Timetable
5. Responsibilities (The role of advertising agency?)

Information about a product, product line, brand, or


company one of the five key aspects of the marketing mix
Definition of Promotion

Above the line promotion:

Promotion keeps the product in the minds of the customer and


helps stimulate demand for the product.
Promotion involves ongoing advertising and publicity
promotion in the media
advertiser pays for it
targeted directly to the customers

Below the line promotion:

All other promotion


Promotion targeted to other groups than customers affects
indirectly customers
For example sponsorship, product placement, sales promotion,
public relations, trade shows

Promotional mix or communication mix:

Advertising: Any paid presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an


identified sponsor
Personal selling: A process of helping and persuading one or more prospects to purchase
a good or service or to act on any idea through the use of an oral presentation.
Sales promotion: Incentives designed to stimulate the purchase or sale of a product,
usually in the short term
Public relations: Non-paid non-personal stimulation of demand for a product, service, or
business unit by planting significant news about it or a favorable presentation of it in the
media.

Two strategies: "push" and "pull".

Push
Uses salesmen and trade promotion to create consumer demand for a product.
The producer promotes the product to wholesalers, the wholesalers promote it to
retailers, and the retailers promote it to consumers.
Pull
Uses advertising and consumer promotion to build up consumer demand for a
product.
If the strategy is successful, consumers will ask their retailers for the product, the
retailers will ask the wholesalers, and the wholesalers will ask the producers.

NOTE! With promotion you build images and give information. Whether your
promotion campaign has emphasis on information or images depends firstly on
customers wishes and values and secondly on your product and company.

Decisions
in
marketing communication

Interactive marketing

Customer
service

Support for sales

Personal
selling

Advertising

Sales
Promotion

Communication in the print media


Outdoor advertising

Direct marketing

Electric media
(radio, TV, internet etc.)

Public
Relatuins

Advertising

A message that is sent and paid by a recognisable sender usually in massmedia.


The message tells aboyt the services, products and the company and its goal ist tu
create/increase selling and/or the knowledge of the product/service/company or
create/improve the image of the prod

Why advertising needs?


1.
2.
3.

It informs customers of the product/service/company and its contents and


elements, the price, the selling places
It affects peoples attitudes and feelings and it aims for creating a good productand company image; a brand.
It wants to create a will for purchase by telling the good sides and the
advantages in buying the product

Johanna Heinonen-Salakka
12.2.2002

The positive elements in advertising


Reaches masses
Quick
Cheap, if you consider the number of persons you
reach
Cheap for the customer

The negative elements in advertising


Expensive
Demands skills to be done right
Impersonal

Johanna Heinonen-Salakka
12.2.2002

How to make a good advertisement?


BASIC:
Keep it simple
Dont change it
in order to make people remember your advertisement, you
must use the same elements over and over again during the
years. E.g. The color blue in Fazer blue chocklate, color Red in
Viking Line, three stripes in Adidas, Have a Coce and a smile
Advertisements can be
Visually same (same color, logo etc)
Verbally same (same slogan)
Orally same (same sound)

Johanna Heinonen-Salakka
12.2.2002

How to make a good advertisement?


Go public regularyly and often enough
Dont use too many elements in your advertisement rather use empty
space
Use picture as often as its possible
Further information about the topic can be found e.g. the following
netsites:
http://www.bly.com/Pages/documents/HTWAGA.html
http://www.marketingtoday.com/marcom/writeads.htm

Johanna Heinonen-Salakka
12.2.2002

CONTENTS IN ADVERTISING
main promise / central message
the parts that support the main promise

Useful tool is AIDA (e.g. an exaggerated version is TV Shop)


A
get your customers attention
I
create interest
D
make them desire your product / companu
A
make them act (buy)
S
guarantee satisfaction

Johanna Heinonen-Salakka
12.2.2002

Advertising campaing
Lasts a certain period during which the advertiser sends a
message to the target group in the chosen medias
The same message can be told with different communication
tools
Levels in advertising campaing
1.
2.
3.

National
Regional
In one shop or residence

Johanna Heinonen-Salakka
12.2.2002

PLANNING AND ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN

Gathering background
information
Goals and target groups
for advertising campaign
Publishing time
Budget
Choosing media/s

Number of repeats

Deciding the central


Message and contents
Implementantion:
Pretesting
Production
Publishing
Measuring the effectiveness
and gathering feed back

Timing alternatives for an advertising campaing


Even
Centered

Continuous

Breaking

Rising

Sinking

Changing

Advertising medias

Print media (newspapers, magazines etc) (further information e.g.


http://contentmanagementsoftwares.net/Benefits_of_advertising_through_print_m
edia.htm)

Radio (further information e.g. http://www.rab.com/ and http://www.rab.fi/en_GB/)

TV (further information e.g. http://www.nelonen.fi/inenglish/ and


http://spotti.mtv3.fi/site/mtv3/en/)

Internet

Outdoor advertising adn advertising on vehicles

Advertising in the shop

Why to choose a certain advertising media?


1.

Target group

2.

The elements in product or service

3.

Competitors actions

4.

Economic point of views


Johanna Heinonen-Salakka
12.2.2002

GOALS IN ADVERTISING
informational goals
goals that aim for change the attitudes among target
group
goals that aim for action in target group

MEASUREMENTS
In general: Read this
http://www.wan-press.org/IMG/pdf/Adfvertising_Measure_14074F.pdf

OTS Opportunity to see


How many times people who are reached by the media has an oppotunity
to see the asvertisement
Cover numbers
How many percent of the target group will be reached
Contact numbers
How much does it cost to reach one people

Johanna Heinonen-Salakka
12.2.2002

Now make a list of everything, that you have


thought to do in your marketing plan (in
product, price, place, people, promotion etc) like
this e.g
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Task nro 1: Design a new package


Task nro 2: Give a novelty discount
Task nro 3: Decorate the shop
Task nro 4: Buy new furniture
Task nro 5: Have a TV commercial
Task nro 6: Have a newspaper ad
Task nro 7: Have a direct marketing letter
Task nro 8: Hire 2 new people
Etc..

Next: Figure out what each one of your tasks


would cost and then count them together

1.
2.
3.
4.

Task 1:xxx
Task 2:zzz
Task 3:yyy
etc

Next step is to define the timetable for different


actions (= tasks). Like this for example

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Task 1:The 1st of May


Task 2:Week 38
Task 3:On July at the latest
Task 4:During March
Etc.

The last step in this phase is to decide who is


resposible for different tasks. Here is an
example again:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Task 1:Marketing Manager


Task 2:Mister X
Task 3:Advertising agency
Task 4:Financial department
etc.

In order to know whether your marketing plan has been succesful and if it has
reached
the gols you have ste before, it is essential to measure up the results and the
process itself
The results from measurement will be used in planning the next marketing
round
Measurement and follow-up are in that sense a part of analysis tool
Measurement and the pre-set goals go always hand in han

STEPS how to do it

Decide what to follow

Decide how to follow different topics

at least the goals and objectives you have set, but are there other important things
There can be different ways of following different items in one marketing plan. Each one of
them must be defined

Decide when the follow up should be made


Decide who is responsible for each follow-up action
Decide what to do if the marketing hasnt been succesful or the goals havent
been reached
Think corrective measures
=> And actually here you start a new circle of planning
marketing actions

It is essential to plan in advance how to follow


up the results and how to gather feedback
Follow-up is usually based on the goals you
have set earlier
Targets can be almost anything

Customers, Sales, Image, Profit, Turnover, Costs,


Quality of products, Development of prices,
Efficiency of the distributor etc.

How to follow-up

Desk survey, questionnaires, interviews


(quantitative vs. qualitative)

Johanna Heinonen

MARKETING RESEARCH

Problem Identification
Research

Market Potential Research


Market Share Research
Image Research
Market Characteristics Research
Sales Analysis Research
Forecasting Research
Business Trends Research

Problem-Solving Research

Segmentation Research
Product Research
Pricing Research
Promotion Research
Distribtion Research

Exploratory research

formulates problems more precisely,


clarifies concepts, gathers explanations,
gains insight, eliminates impractical ideas,
and formis hypotheses
literature search or case studies

Descriptive research

describes users of a product, determines the


proportion of the population that uses a
product, or predicts future demand for a
product
who, what, where, when, why, and how
aspects of the research should be defined

Causal research

cause and effect relationships between


variables
laboratory and field experiments

A marketing research can be done by the desk or on the field


A desk study concentrates on the literature, statistics, studies etc. that
already exist and draws conclusions based on them
This is usually secondary research = you dont get the answer directly from
the target group
PROS AND CONS:

A field study goes outside the firm and asks customers, competitors,
stakeholders etc. some special questions => primary research

PROS AND CONS:

s usually less time consuming


is usually less costly
may not be updated
is usually not customised to suit your needs
may be sufficient if you require just general information such as industry profile,
trends and demographics

time consuming
Costly
tailored to suit your specific needs
valuable especially if you need to know something specific

The best way to do marketing research is to combine these two ways

Marketing research can be


done once or repeatedly
A study that is done once is
called ad hoc. It usually
concentrates on a special
problem or a question
Omnibus study repeats
itself in a certain time
intervals (eg. annually).
The goal for an omnibus
study is to gather material
in order to see how
something has developed

There are two ways of doing research: qualitative


and quantitative
Qualitative
generally used for exploratory purposes
small number of respondents
not generalizable to the whole population
statistical significance and confidence not calculated
examples include focus groups, depth interviews, and
projective techniques
Usually studies emotions, opinions and perspectives
Quantitative
generally used to draw conclusions
can test a specific hypothesis
uses random sampling techniques so as to infer from the
sample to the population
involves a large number of respondents
examples include surveys and questionnaires
Provides numbers and percentage (hard data) for a
certain item

Experiments and testing


Observations
Interviews
Questionnaires
Use of existing data
(desk study)

Gather background information and theory


Define the problem
Determine research design (method)
Identify data types and sources
Design data collection forms and questionnaires
Determine sample plan and size
Do the timetable and budget for your research
Agree of the responsibilities
Survey the risks in your research
Collect the data
Analyze and interpret the data
Prepare the research report

THANK
YOU!

List the goals you have set in your marketing plan


earlier
Think at least one way (there can be several ways)
to measure each goal you have set
Then read through your marketing plan and think,
what other things are to be measured and figure
out the way to do that
Finally write down a way to measure the
marketing plan process
NOTE! Its not enough to write down the ways to
measure you should also think, how the
information should be used