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Annotated Bibliography

Mitchell Walters

Gloria Creed-Dikeogu

Works Cited
"D-I athletes already nicely compensated." USA Today n.d.: Academic Search Premier. Web. 16
June 2015.
This article was written by a college softball coach and her ideas are in conflict with another
authors article about how college student athletes don't get enough. She writes that students
have plenty of perks including tuition scholarships, books, room and board, medical attention
and much more. She compares different sports and clubs to football saying they would deserve
the same things even though football students makes more money. Students need to realize how
good they have it and realize that the scholarship money is tax free for them.
While this article is not peer reviewed, I still find it as credible because it is written by a sports
columnist that is writing for a well-known paper, USA Today. This article I would say is very
original because the writer is of the opinion that this is a hot topic in the college sports world. I
feel like this is relevant to my paper not only because of the topic that I am talking about, but
also because it argues from the other side saying that college athletes have it good now and do
not need to be paid a salary.
"At Issue: Should Student-Athletes Be Paid?." CQ Researcher 24.25 (2014): 593. Academic
Search Premier. Web. 16 June 2015.
This article presents a debate between two established individuals at their respective institutions
about whether student athletes should be paid or not. Emmett Gill is an assistant professor at the
University of Texas at San Antonio who argues that athletes would be able to use their name to
gain a profit because they do not receive a check directly from the university. Horace Mitchell is
the president of California State University-Bakersfield where the athletic programs are nonprofit and therefore cannot pay athletes.
While this article has two established debaters it is not peer-reviewed and there is not a full
article option on the database for me to read. I believe that the intended audience is more on the
scholarly side with the debaters reputation and the language that was used in the abstract of the
article. With the absence of the full text article from the database it also makes me question the
credibility of the source and after seeing what is all wrong with this source I do not know if I will
be using it for my paper.
COOPER, KENNETH J. "Should College Athletes Be Paid To Play?." Diverse: Issues In Higher
Education 28.10 (2011): 12-13. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 June 2015.
Robert and Amy McCormick are Michigan State law professors and after the research they have
done, they concluded that according to U.S. labor law, college athletes are qualified as
employees. They are entitled to negotiate wages, hours, and working conditions especially at
public universities. There are court decisions and tax laws that contradict this stance in the

Again looking at this article I believe that it was intended for more scholarly readers because of
the journal that the article is coming from and the contributors background. The article is
acceptable and can be used in my paper because it provides the opinions of two respected and
well-educated professors. This article is relevant to my paper because it will help me establish
the argument for allowing college athletes to be paid.
Mitchell, Horace, and Marc Edelman. "Should College Student-Athletes Be Paid?." U.S. News
Digital Weekly 5.52 (2013): 17. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 June 2015.
This is another debate that involves Horace Mitchell. This time he is arguing that paying college
athletes are not considered professional athletes and therefore cannot be paid. Marc Edelman is
an associate professor of law from Zicklin School of Business, Baruch College who explains
information about the annual revenue that was gained and how the student athletes are a part of
that, and so should be paid.
This article does not seem to be peer reviewed but because of the website it originates from and
the contributors to the article but the writer believes that it is still a creditable article because of
the opinion base it has from scholarly contributors. This is relevant to my paper because it argues
both sides of the question I am looking at and will give me more different opinions about what
people are thinking.
"Paying College Athletes.(Cover Story)." CQ Researcher 24.25 (2014): 577. Academic Search
Premier. Web. 16 June 2015.
This article that discusses another debate that followed the court ruling of the
Northwestern football players stating that college athletes are allowed to create a union.
Supporters of keeping the system the way it is believe that training the athletes and giving them
an education should be enough compensation. Critics say that the system is being exploited by
athletes just coming to play a sport rather than getting an education.
The article was a part of a series done by the magazine CQ Researcher, but it did not have a full
text option in the database. Because of that I cannot really check its credibility and the second
article was also for the same magazine. I still believe that it is relevant to what I want to write in
my paper because it talks about one of the lawsuits regarding this matter, but I probably cannot
use it because of the lack of the full text option.
Harker, Patrick T. "Student Athletes Shouldnt Unionize." New York Times 02 Apr. 2014:
A27. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 June 2015.
The article focuses on the ruling made with Northwestern University saying that college athletes
are employees and are allowed to unionize. The author along with the President of the University
of Delaware and a Board of Directors member of the NCAA writes that it would be bad to
unionize. They claim it would not be good for the sports and the fans of the sports.

The article originates the newspaper, The New York Times so I would have to say it is credible
plus the contributors are prestigious themselves. The intended audience of this article would be
regular people. It is relevant for my paper because it explains why it would be bad for the college
athletes to unionize.
"To the coaches go the spoils." USA Today n.d.: Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 June 2015.
This article is part of a newspaper that has three or four different columnists giving their opinions
on paying college athletes. It also points out how much coaches are getting paid especially those
at the top football and basketball teams. Some say schools use the term student athlete as an
escape to claim them as employees and then there are the different views discussing whether or
not they should be paid.
I find this article to again be credible because it comes from a well-known newspaper, USA
Today. I believe it is relevant because it shows where the majority of the money is going and I
will be able to use the different opinions to argue both sides of my question. For the most part
this article seems original because it is using statistics and opinions.
"Players: 0 Colleges: $10,000,000,000." Economist 412.8900 (2014): 21-22. Academic Search
Premier. Web. 16 June 2015.
A U.S. federal court ruling claimed that the NCAA violated antitrust laws by using images and
likenesses of the student athletes without any compensation. This is another topic that is also
included is Ed O'Bannon lawsuit against the NCAA about having money set aside for students
for when they graduate.
I believe that the intended audience for this article waswrittenfor more educated people because
of the journal it was published in. The article is stating what already happened when the NCAA
violated antitrust laws and there was the Ed O'Bannon lawsuit. I think this article has relevance
for my paper because it shows the faults of the NCAA.
Groves, Roger. "College Athletes Win Landmark Lawsuit But NCAA Keeps Power To Cap
Sharing." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 08 Aug. 2014. Web. 17 June 2015.
The website article goes into detail about the Ed O'Bannon case and how it helped schools
immensely. It makes it fair for all students so that all of them receive the same amount no matter
who they are and how much they play.
This article is credible because of the website it was published on and the author is a professor in
a couple of different programs and is from the Florida Coastal School of Law. The article was
intended for anyone that has a computer and can do a Google search about the subject. It is
relevant to my paper because it describes a lawsuit against the NCAA with an outcome that
helped student athletes.

Hanna, Jason. "Northwestern Football Team Holds Union Vote, but Result Is Cliffhanger" CNN. Cable News Network, 25 Apr. 2014. Web. 18 June 2015.
This article discusses the first actions the Northwestern football players are trying to make after
being granted the right to unionize as college athletes. There was a vote on this and a decision
was made as to whether there should actually be a union and members that should be in charge.
It was ruled in court that college athletes were deemed as employees and could form a union for
all athletes.
The article was published on CNN's website so the writer finds it to be very credible. For that
very reason I believe that the intended audience is anyone who has access to CNN whether on
TV or on the Internet. It is relevant to my paper because it discusses the lawsuit of the
Northwestern football players had against the NCAA where it was found that they had the right
to unionize as college athletes.