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a a erred eee Ta M. TYRA es ae Now on stall care pe teunches ! QUANTITATIVE APTITUD CAT (Common Admission Test) PEE Eig Pies: Ro 380 "Rasa an the Previous Papers \Conins each and evry chapter fm which guests aré asked Pilly soe att ay to eamprcent ‘Uses sadentiendl language Proves concep gush techniques ee cai or every CAP esprant K Kunlan & P Pandey Contents Chapters aw to Prepare for Maths Additiongo~ Mutiny, Deg Sausing Cube” Tichrena Lean Tratons > Decimal Fractions 7 Elementny Algebme Sunde Nob Syteme Binary Siem “ Pormataion gt Combisaiouf vo Poabiity & Ratio atl Pepoton Partrerehion Penentge aren Frotlons seed on Agi Profitand Lees Site intesty, Compornd inetd alligion« Thine ent Wor, Work and Wages Pipes and ister ‘Timeand Disa Tain Steams on PageNo. v 3 9 3 a 3 % 9% Bs 141 182 1 209 2s 245 23 309 319 327 31 aor aL 453 489 301 529 553 3 2 3. 35 36. Blementary Mensuration “1 Blementexy Monsuration «IT Series Data Sufficiency Data Analysis ‘Trigonometry wm 363 593 617 6st 1 Foreword ‘Whee did vouserp this momning? AUE.35, id yontoach your dtostinetion in time? Ves, [anived 10 minutes eater even though | got up five minutes late. T wily walk but tacay I took a bas. Why note ‘ai! lant stor? Raster, yes. But in my case ae speed of the bus was, sufficien: Besides, ¥edhzpated tae tates ofthe bye nieans of trumnport and concluded that sakiig a xt would mean incurring usnezessary expenditure ‘Wow! what a clever guy! Saves money, saves time, Dogs he Jno some magic? Tse a student of occult siences? Na, doer Hein ordinary mortal ike any of ys. tke exades fs inconsvon confidence, thanks to his ability compute at magical pace. Incter words, Quicker Maths is an asso:st every step of one's lie By Quicker Ma, the book means speed and socurzey at bath ‘smmple mimerial operations and complex probiems. And itisheertening that fhe Book takes iate account afl kinds of problems that one may ‘encounter in the ordinary nun oie ‘There are several hooks one comes actoss which tuke care of problems asked in ceaminations. Bat they are emwentional and prove selutions with the help of éatail mod, This book provides yeu bots the Geta as well che quicker methods: Aud itis i che lator chat the ‘book is inesissble. That the book provides yo hotk dhe methods is & ‘pointer fo te fit that you see bein Ted its faith whore you have ‘o blindly fellow what the guru sys. The conclusions have been rlien- ally drawn, The book iherafoce serves 8 a guice -the true function af a ‘ger - and onoe you get well-versed with the book, you will feel ferspowered enough to evolve formulas of your own, I think the sal magic Les therot Atthe same time, scare study ofthe book endows you with ‘the magical ability 1 ane at an answer with seconds. There may be some semi-edocaled persons who smear al this value ef the book. Can you beat a computer? -a vontampivous question ie esked. Abserd ‘question, For one, tae globe is yet to get sullicieatly cqmipzed with ‘computers. Two, even when we ents: fulledgad htech age, let us hope itianot atthe cost of our mines. Lat nol computers and calculaors become the proverbial Frankenstein's monster. The mind isa healtiy wo onganandcomputing health ston, Comps answer EeTipeetate resid nt ocosanelh 7 Maton ait othe ain be isis cacnoers every intial. Inwotofte examina even celebs en Seren sc rompates And tanto a hail eck ves weer an Yoo rea randero his bok, you cat defini (Rove fone mex aes the. ona dt secs has hos = feof taka vcived ith bo oval hos stat who are Barn op Seve tt Mathematics Marutis at an amazing 200 kesph, the book definitely ane reute amc Ata seve tod re lh pope cation asssty acs, ete = oo Tee ip sumone gldeans enon rude enioy ie ide. eae her ape ig nical pers, ce nus ofthe bok vi acre ae rowel eel AP seme times en esmaige makes emly scare ast the lings Fe eer aes ct at yoa vss eth Quis Method kes ing very es eee ihe Cok proves ou speed ota ie cont off. ot mores etna Cvis bat Rt sa orgie cat, One 0a Shan ft gi Chetananané Singh [Bditor, Bathing Services Chronicle Author's Preface We a1 Banking Services Chromicte (BSC) analyse suudcats’ problems, IFaatudont isnt ubleto periomn wellatan exem, cur researcit froup members try 19 penetrate rhe student's payche end get athe raots ‘of the problems. hn the course of our discussions we found that the ‘mathemati section often roves tats the Achilles” heel for cost ofthe students, Letters om ony students cleanly indicated that thei problera ‘was nat that they could sot salve the questions. No, the questions asced ngeneral competitions aroin fit ao easy that most ofthestucdents would secure a cent por cent scor if it were aot for the time barrier. The ‘problem: then i: INABILITY TO SOLVE the question INTIME. ‘Unfortunately, chore was hardly aay ack available (0 the student which could take care of the sime aspect, And this prompted the [BSC menibers to scton, We desided 9 offer a comprehorcive book with ‘our atention tawmeied a the twin alvantagé Gicton: speed and aecwracy. Sources were hunted fot: Vedic Math=mstizs to compater progres ‘mings. Our ara waste gol everything beneficial from wherevecpossible. ‘The moateacourtoted questions were categorised. And Quicker Meh ‘ods were inol.pontly atived at and &idgently verified. Flaw dees the book lelp save yous time? Probably all yo lvarat by hear the muliplication-tabies as children, And you have also been told cht muliplication isthe quicker method fora specific typooF ‘udition. Simialy, there exits = quicker method for lanost every type ff problems provides you ara well-versed with sonte key determinaats and foeranas, Tor the benefit bl yrerstanding we have also given the detail method and how we ariveat te Quicker Method. However, for practival purposes you toed not delve too mucin the theory. Concenteate on {ye seorking formula instead. For the benefitef non-mattermatie students, the book takes core to explain the aleuged terms in an ordinary language. So that even i€ you are vaguely familie with numbers, the book will prove [boneticial for itis selGexplanatary. “Tie mathealiessardent are celatively in eornfbrabeposi- tion, They da ii bavota maks ae effertto understand the concepts. But ever i their caso, there are certain aspeeis of questions sed in the oi coonptive cams shih havebecaletby Cham untonshet sine shoot Shyu So arevatoain cot ‘eine ca of every stn, Soween te wigu seing propo siete bon ssn aby o mcrae snes prblemsoling ae ie con Sas bean Obsoval proceed mcbodialy. Agra ies he wae for snp comes crap. Te ee Rom anv expe lowed by Oars. Assent chap emer uy wil efaly akin 2 eked mpowenen of be TERLey este spond Toe stent ate sgt son ther Cathet al oggeon eit innovemen ‘Rad Hate os extn tank ol Tose wo ave payedestcn neg dbo va oto tieseadr. speily tha Pestana Py for having played 2 Key wel ia roctiog tie Stour Cheanand Sigh fre setcaloon cng of ebook See A Nijan Bhar fox aving sey verded the ral, Mc Sif Sagh's aloud ecitans cannot be orgoen, Fenda key aoe mn ove gap, The angen caved Fors Mi lait, acy Bhar Sr Napendrs Xeon Sake, Me Sandecp SE A oan Kae, ay Kame Rij ana, Me Act Fee NSM Singh somneae, hasbeen walublo, And ans to Air ridecy Qupl for pening Preface to the Second Edition It is.a grea pleasure to aot that Magical Book om Qvicker “Mache continues 3 be poptior mong the students who are looking fer Detter sults inthis ctethroat World of competition. This ook has ‘rough thenew cénceptaf time saving quiekermethad in mathematics, ‘Sa mimy other publications have ced to publish similar books but sone ‘auld reach even close to it, The vason is very simple. tise fst sod the origina! book of 1 kind. Others can only be duplicate end not the driginal. Some people cau even print the duplicate ofthe samo book. It ‘wl prove dangerous to our publication as well as io our reader. So, tmnggost our readers to confirm thecriginaliy ofthis boo before buying, ‘The contimesion is very simple. You can. ind a tuec-dimvensional HOLOGRAM on the cover page ofthis book. ‘This edition has boon extensively revised. Mistakes jut fst dition, have been corrected. Some sur chapters like Feamutation- Covthinatipn, Probability, Binary System, Quadratic Expression st. ‘ave been troduced. Somme old chapters ave beerstewrittan, Hope you ‘ll os find this book more eonipeehensive and roe usefol . oo Preface to the Third Edition ‘The patter of question paper as wel a5 tae standacd of quos- ‘ions have changed over the past couple of years. Besides Penmuation- ‘Combination an Prcbabilty, quosions from izonomtry = in the fora cof Height and Distance-have also deeuinrodoced Ip chapters Hee Data Anas Daa Sinan Sas, ew ype of wena ng || With te abowe contest in tind, a ee mew chapters eve been jntodacad anda few old ones eskrpes, Important Previous Exam ‘questions have boon added to almost al the chapters. But they have been added in larger nambess in the chapters spevilly mentioned above. ‘An introductory chaptec has boon added on "How te Prepare Joe Maths", | suggest going through this chopter before siting eny sarge. A revision in the cover price was fong due. The fist edition £1995), whieh costs 200, nad only 612 poges. ‘The price remained the Same even in the second edition (1999) in spite ofthe rumber of pages bing ineresred to 748, Buc tho third edition (2000) has gone into $07 votumins pags ence bmg inrasa oe 25, Kindy bet oa How to Prepare for MATHS (Using this book for Competitive Exams) 1. Importance of Maths paper (PO) Quanicive Aptnude is a compulsery paps. You can't ne- lect. So make sure yor are ready fo improve your mathematical skills Each question valuis 12 mares wherews gach question of Ressoning values only 1068 marks in PO cxart, So, you devote relatively move ‘ume on this paper you get more oaths. Alb, the answers of Maths questions are more confiomed than answers of Reasoring questions, ‘which ae often confising. Most of you fel tis a mors tice consuring ‘paper, bat ifyou low our emidenes, you cam save your valuable time In examination hall Other exams: There acc vory few competitive exams without maths pager, SSC exams havedhiTavent types of Maths paper. The iat ‘exam of S$C contains Snbjective Question pape, Keeping thin and, Thave als given the detail method of cach shorcut ot Quicker Method sive inthis book, ach thenrem, which gives you a iret formula sso contains peoor of the thcorer, which is nothing but a general fmm {Gevoting numerical values by letters sy X, Vet) of dt othe, 2. Preparation for this paper (A) How to start your preparation ' ‘Mae sa very interesting subject. Ifyou dens find tiarest- i simply means you hava’ (tied o Undecetand it Lene assure yOu ‘ery sips and 100% logical. There x nothing i be assumed and noting obo confused abou. So ratiag to ery yeu came forward (ws firmndesennination to len tbs. Ths most basic hinge Maths ar: 3) Adin - Sizacton 1) Mahipicaion Division ‘All ess four things ae most uch, Asleest one ots four things cercinly need in aay ype of meematical question. So, Crs 4 cur basi ercultons fer we save ous valuable Ge in each auestion, To caleulte Faster, suggest the fllowing lips: {i) Remember the TABLE upto 20 {at leas: ‘Yow should now thar tables have bean prepared ta make Addition Jn the problem of addition we-have bwo enain factors (speed ‘and accuracy) ide considerstion. We will discuss a method of ad- tion which is faster thin tho method used by masa people and als as & ‘higher Gepree of accacacy. Inthe leer par of tais chapter we will 3iso discuss a method of checking and double-chooking the results: {in using conventional meibod of adeifion; the average mE cammot always aud a fidy long colunnn of figures without rokaing a mistake, We shall eam how to check he work by indwideskcolarans, ‘wihout repeating the addition, This has sever adveniages: 1) We gave the labour ef repeating all the wore, 2} We latte ear, if any, inte column where tees ad 43) We ae certain to find er, which isnot necessary inthe eoaven” tions! method. "This lst point is something that most people do not realise, Each oge of us has his own weaknesses and. own kind of proneecss.10 {5 56. f you alehim dicey he wil si ‘ealculation twill Sip out x8 "56". 1 23s his Zaveurte eos, he would ‘be likely to sepeat it whea he checks by repaiin, ‘Totalting in columns "Re in theconventione! method sf éaltion, we weit te figures tobe added in edluam, and under tho bottom figure we draw atime, so that te tora wall be under the coluam, When writing tiem we remember that the matheraetical mule for placing the numbers is to align the ightchend-sde dipits (when there are whole numbers) aed the decimal points (when hore sce decimals), For example: Right-hand-side-digits Decimal alignment alignment 4234 13.05 8235 251 5a6. 539.652. 3324 2431,0003 3500 49.28 9989 “The eemventional methed is 19 adé tho figures down the righthand onluran, 4 plus plus 6, ond soon. You can do ths if you wisi a QUICKER WATHS inthe now method, but tis mot compulsery: ou can begin working 00 any colar. But for the rake of convenience, we will srt on the ‘igh hand column. ‘We add az we go down, but we “eover cout higher than 10", “Thats wen to muning tla bocomes grater than 10, ve reduce ity 10and go ahead wits the reduced figure. As we dos, we make a small tickorcheck-matk beside the mumber that mede oor total higher than 10 For example: " ~ 4 pli 812: this is more than 10, so we surat 10 om 12. Mar: 2 lick and start adding again 6 Gy 2.8 1 tplas,9 ‘ © Opie d,9 9 9 plas 9 18: mack atick and seduce 18 by 10, ey 8 “The final figue, 8, wi) be writen unde the column as the ‘sunning foal”. "Next we count she tos that we have ust made as we dropped. 10's. Asweave? ticks, we write under the column as he "tick figure’ “The example wow looks like this $234 ae 646 sia 350, 98h runingiotil: 8 teks 2 rveepetthe sme pces onc of theca were theres a os smi 350 5S 655 mm runing tonal + ticks? ‘eon 8 “Now ve arive atthe final resultby adding togethecthe wing fetal and the ticks inthe way ehown inthe following diagram. ‘enning total BR ticks orrrro Total: 28778 ‘Save more times Weo'serve tha the ruenng taal is ae othe teks ‘eclow in she immediate right column. This addition ofthe teks with ‘mediate left cofuma can bedone:in single te. Thetis, the number of tio inthe first coluran from ight is added to the second eoluran row right, the mares of ies in the Pc column isadded to he thd column, anid 30 on, The whole method ean be undoriaod inthe following steps. 4234 2236 645 5321 350, 98s Tout: 5 ‘Step. [A plus’ is 12, ark a tisk and ode 2 0 6, whieh Gs 8: plus 1 29,9 plus 089; 9 plus is 18, marka tck and write down $intho frst column of tota-tow.] 4234 ase 666 . 5321 350 9985 Stop I. Tow 78 [3plus 2 (umber of tik in fiat column) is 5; $ plus 3s & 8 plus 4s 12, entk a tick aed carry 2; 2 plus 2 is 4; 4 plus 1s 9, 9 plus B 18.17, mark tick and write dovin 7 in 2nd column of wte-row Ina similar way we proceed for ed and 4h coluras. 0 “quioxer avis] 4234 a23¢ 646 5321 350 $985 28778 ‘Tosa: ‘Note : We see that In the leftmost cofuan we are left with 2 ick \Write dovn the mumber of ticks in a column left to the leftmost column, Thus we get the answer a litte earlier chan she previous} method. One more itustation (Q: 707.235 + 1923.62 ~ 56.009 + 564.949 + 65.6—7 Solution : orgs 1925582, Sku séasies 6 Toul: 3319609 “You may nice a cueton is itnece ryt write the numer in columa-onm? Ue ars er ito You ny ge the are ASO dng ve. Quon aban row fne onto aprodien of aliens. ious ee ning hee a a a pings, be suggest you's sched which would by f Signin pebiem. 3 vou ous of fhe Stop "Pu srr tothe ight ofthe hs etal ctl took he tel isa decal equal nea suber Fer exitape, te abore qn say beri x Sgr a28 + 925820 F800 © Sea 1 65.600 Step St ang he st gt om gin, Se Se gi wie hustbece dealt wily Ifyou dont ext, duplication may ose, Doig unig tl don't gard 10, Tha wen wo ence 0, oma tice auywiete rear sbeut ou calculaicn, Now, go aed lt mneberexsoeing 10. Sona7s N1OD3896 + S800) sc4.n4f + 6560p=_ 7 saselion - " pus OS Splus9i9 Haiti nog sen and cary overs abe ey pan 087 sown con 7D hs we ee ST incae white ust tsayes us tom Sntho and duo ra A Ad the tbefleks owt iin alse, Sad case tat ek Fogel Or aES + SSPEARS = S8.01) + 565.968 + 65.004. ‘our tel pus 23,3 pis 2 5 5 plasO sSope dao wee de i plan, Sept. " “ron Ab + 1903.636 + 58.)6) +504. fh e05.6bb 5 pushes mata oughana cary otf psp js 10, mark another tick in rough and carry aver zern; 0 plus 6 is 6, 90 pets cise Bev. “ ESR Siep Zooming Ne sameyemy ga Denes SRN a See » feasts 88) = 19.87 ‘Adon of sure (ntiou decal) watcha ro Tora. ison osigrsne mas 113 Sins stepsssr¥ reapers Mas 18 Step I: $3021 + 6308 + 86+ 7028 + 1113 ‘Step HE $392] + 6908 #864 7025 + 11132, 472 872 Step IV: 52021 + 6308-+ 86+ 7025 +1119 Shop V: 53921 + 6308 + 85 47005 + 11132 = 78472 Note : One should get good command aver this metiod because i is very mel useful etd fas-calevlating, If you don't understand it Wy agai and eyain. ‘Addition and subtraction in a single row Bx. £2412 -83+70=7 Stop I: For units digit of our enswer add and subuact ihe digits at units ‘pages according to the sign atached with fhe espeetive nome For example, in the above eaae the walt plate of our temporesy resulsis 2-3+0~ 2 auickeR mares Sowritgaxs * M28 70=__(1) Sindarly, the temporary value at rong place is 1-8 +756. So, write a: 412-83 +70="_@ (1) ‘Smilarly, se cemaporary value athaandreds place ie. So, were 412-83 + 70=(4€0)(1) Now, the shove temporary tres have © the changed into real ‘value, To replace (-LJbya-+ve digit weborrow from digits tens or buncted, Asthed:gitatensls 72:0, we willhave to borrow stom hundreds ‘We borrow 1 frum 4 (at hundreds) whick becomes 10 st tes Jeaving 3 at bundreds, Again we borrow 1 from tone which Dbeoures 10 at unite pce, lawving 9 at ons, Tus, at units place 10-19. Thus our final result= 399, ‘The above explanation can be repented as age — a ® @) Ch 9 i above explanation i easy to undeestand, And the method is more easy io perform. if you practise wall, dhe two steps (Lf) ‘cane performed simulkanenvsly. ‘The second step can be perfonned in another way lke VO) CD = 400-1 =399 124 829+ 781-438 ‘Solm: According to sop [the traporary Sigur is: ‘Step Il: Borrow I ftom 5. Thousands place becomes $- (5) C4) (0) 9) Voorrowed fio thousands Becomes 10 at hundreds, Now, 10 - 4 = 6 at hhundveds place, but 1 is borrowed for tens. So digi at hundreds becomes §- 1=5, | boowed ftom hundreds becomes 1. ‘Again we borrow 1 fot tens forunis place after which the digit at tens plas is 9. Now, 3 borrowed from tens becomes 10 atunits place. Thus the result at units place is 10 = Our requiced newer 4591 Note: Aiter step I we com peor Hiker 54) (0) (9) = $000 - 09. 591 ‘ton 8 ‘But this method can'the combine! with step 1 to pstform sia taneously. So, we should try-to understand steps I Il wel! so ‘that in ature We can perionm ther siraanecusy, Bx, 3: 3216 - $396 + 3510-9997 ‘ols Step 1 gives the result as (1) (2) 5) (18) 9) Step H: Ui digt= 16-91 [1 barowes fom (16) reals 16-1=-17] “Tens dig = 20-17=3 [2 borowed ftom 5) results $-2=-7) HlundzedeAigit= 10-7 =3 [1 borrowed Som 2 results 2-1=-3] “Thousands digit= 10-37 [1 towowed fom 7 results? -1=8} So, the require vale is 67321. ‘The above exteulations cs alan besarte’ from lemost digit as doce inst 0 examples. We have sated foun righimast git inthis case, The resol i de saree in both cases, Dut forthe combined apesiion of two ope you Will have te ert foe ighteos digit Gc nis digi). See Bx. ‘Note: Orer mths forstepHl 29S) INDE = LH) = Ass = 70000 » (2669) = 67331 Bx. 4 AU975- 12345-36218 =? Soln: Step: (4) (2944) (2)<-5) Stepld 141 5 ‘Single step solution: "Now, you mast learn to perform the to steps simultncousy ‘This the siruplost example understand th cowlined mete. ‘ACunlls plage: 8-5 8 (}, To make it positive wo have to ‘borrow from ts, Yeu should semeribes that we can't borew ‘rom sve value fg 12345. We wil havo to borrow from postive value from 89978, 80, we bermwed 1 from 7 (tens igi of 89978) oh, 89978-12345 -36218—____5 Now digit at tons (7-1 =yb-4- 11 Digitat hndeeds: 9-3 -2=8 Digitat thousands: 9-2-5 Digit ton thousands: §-4-3—4 ‘he roqused value= 41415, 5 28360 + 38062 - 9873 7 Single sep solution: Tens digh=6-+6-7 Unita digit = 942-3 = HHendreds dig 349-8 “ QUICKER MATHS “Thousands digit=8+ 8-9=7 ‘Ten thousands digit=2+3=5 Bx. 6: Solve Ex. 2 by stgie- step method. [24 +829 +731 -435— ‘Units digits 4-9-4 1-5 (9). Bowow I from wens digit of the postive valu. Suypose we borrved fr 3 0f 731, Ths ‘equited value = 57458 4 5124-92973 1-438 Tens digit: 2-242 -3 -+ye value, Suppaio we bored from 70781: Then 5124-42947 3 1-435=_ 91 Hundreds digit: 18+ 6-4~ 5), Bonow 1 from thousnad [igh of tve saluc, We have only ane such digit, iv. 5 of 5124 Then “1 La S124-si947 34-435 =4597 (Thesonds digit remains a $1 = 4) ‘Now you can perform the whole calculation im a single at ‘without wring anything ex, 1 Solve Bx. 3 ina single step wichout writing anything other than tlteanswer. Teyityourset, Don'tasove tonost example und yo «ean contideatlysaive such questions within seconds, ERB: 10789 + 3945 - 2310 1203=7 ‘Sainz Whenever we get a value more thin 10 afr addition ofall the mis ‘pits, ow wil pt thesis digit ofthe result and eary ove the te dig We aa the tes digit to +ve valu, not to the-ve tale, Similar meted should beadopted for el digits: en 10-7 € 94 3906-2310-1223= 11202 [Notes 1, We put + aver fhe digts of ave value 19789. teean also be pt ‘vr the igs oF 3046, But i can't putover 2310 and 1223. ‘uinthe exam when you are Eve to uce yur pe on question pa you eat aber te digit with your pen isend of wring +1, 2, 1) 2 ovecthe digis. Hence, inszad of wating 8, you should ‘Sever 8 with your pen, Similxty, write 8 in place of 7. x. 9: 765819 - 59,003 + 12.088 -86.59 =? ‘Soin: First, equate he manber of dyits alter decimals by potting 2 ‘kth cna. So, ? = 765 819 - 85.003 + 12.038 - 86.850 Ex. ation 6 ‘Now, apply the sere mathod as done it Px. 4,5, 6,7 8 8. Aaqad 7 3.8 1.9-80.003+ 12.028 - $6.90 = 001.964 Method of checking the calculation : Digit-sum Method "Ths method taso called the ninercerasinder method. The concept of digit. sun consists a i: Tie getihe digt-oun ot a macber by ding acres" the umber. For Vrsanes ths gitsem of 9022 is 1 pus 3 ples O ps2 pus? 88 1. Wealwaye roduce tne dgieepr oa wngle Gye snot abeady Youle fre. For insane, he digit-sum of 5264s 5 hus 2 pis 8 pia § (7, oF ps 788) Tar intercross a ier, wesnay drop ox These haps te nse two dips tht adapt 9, such as 2a 7, we ignore ath of itor, sothe digt-sumot 990195 Late gance, (wean 95 we pte smmerenit) 1v. Bevaise"aices don't cout in this process as we sav ia igteaum o°9 ithe sue aa dite of oem The digits oF, forename sz, ‘Quick Aadition of Dgit-sua: Weave are “shdingacrass”anumbes shoot a8 our running total reaches wo digits Weald these two together, and go abead witha sgl digit sour new rig ot Toreyample: To gettho eigit-sim of $86542932851 wo do Fis Iga two igor number We educethix 1610 singl ig 1 plat Bet, Wego ahead wih this 757 plas 6 64 (13,07 1734) 4 plus is 8 fnget it ps 25s & Pocge $. Provanding this way We wet toe aig auto 7. er decines we woiccry hose way Bure dan py ay neni otnececzal por. the digits. 06256, fr esampe is por novestey in prctoal sease 10 anderson why the suetiod works, bu you wal se how iteresting this is“ baie Thott arte redvead gitar fs be sane as the raider «ven he numbers divide oy % or Ceample: Digitsary £523 And alee whes 523i ivides by ye gt he emer 1 Checking of Caleutation Baxie rule : Whatever we do to the numbers, we also da to thelr dligie-sum; then the result that we get froma the digits of the fpumbers must be equal tothe digit-sumu of the answer. 16 QUICKER MATHS For example : The number: 234+49+ 15430 -117 The digitsum:5+ 4+6+ 3-0 Which reduces to : o=06 This mile is also applicable w subtraction, multiplication and upto some extent to division also. These will be discussed in the coming chapters. We should take another example of addition. 145+ 32.54 23.9= 579 digit-sum: 6 +1 +- 5 =3 or, 3 °=3 Thus, if we get LHS = RHS we may conclude that our calculation is correct. Sample Question : Check for all the calcutions done in this chapter. Note : Suppose two students are given to solve the following question: 1.5+ 32.5 + 23.9 =? ‘One of hem gets the solutionas 57.9. Another student gets the answer 48.9. Ifthey check their calculation by this method, both of them get it to be correct. Thus this method is not always fruitful. If our luck is’ against us, we niay appreve our wrong answer also. Addition of mixed numbers 1, 44; ghey Q3 a7 4 3 9 7 Solution : A couventional method for solving this question is by con- verting each Of the numbers.into pure fractional numbers first and then. taking the LCM of denominators. Te save time, we shouldadd the whale numbers and the fractional values separately. Like here, _ at + at + syecenne[s + $ + 3] =i6 BtBiU =156+12 =0s+p+2 , Soln ; (5-442-1)+ pecan] =2 (Ao Banting Multiplication Special Cases We suggest you to remember the tables up to 30 because it saves some valuable time during calculation. Multiplication should be well commanded, because it is needed in almost every question of our concern, . Let us look at the case of multiplication by a mumber more than . 10. MULTIPLICATION BY 11 - Step I: The last digit of the multiplicand (number moultipiied} is pat down as the right-hand figure of the answer, Step I: Each successive digit of the multiplicand is added to its neighbour at the right, Ex,1, Solve 3892 x 11=? Soln: Step I; Put down the last figure of $892 as the tight hand figure of the answer: ‘ 3392 x 11 2 Step Ur Each successive figure of S892 is added to its right-hand neighbour, 9 plus 2 is 11, put | below the line and carry over 1.8 plus.9° plus | is 18, put 8 below the line and carry over 1. 5 plus 8 plus 1 is 14, put 4 below the line atd carry over 1, . 3892 x 11 , 12. (9+2 = 11, put 1 below the line and carry over i} 5892 x 11 . 812 (8+9+1 =18, put 8 below the line and carry over 1) 5892 x 11 4812 (S+8+L = 14, put 4 below the line and carry over 1) Step IIT; The first figure of 5892, 5 plus 1, becomes the left-hand figure of the answer; : - . 5892 x 11 64812 The answer is 64812, u ‘quicker MATHS [Ab you see, sash Hguto-of tho lang mantis used twice, Ieis fist sed ss "number", and then, 2 the nest ate, itis used a6 a ~ naighbour, Looking carofily, we cam nee just one rae fatend of tree hile, And this only tule can be called as “add the right nelghbout™ nile ‘We innst ft writes zion nit of che given number, or at Tena imagine a zero there ’ “Thon we apply the idea of ding the neighbour wlevery figure ofthe given twmber in tur: 05892 1 FAs there is no neighbour om the right, s0 we ads nothing, 08802 IE 4512 “As wo did earlier sa 1 oasiz, ‘oro ps5 ples cxsied-over Lis 6 "This exaraple shows why 0 naod the zero in dont of the mubtipioand: is to tem us not sinp 700 soon. Without The zero fo Frost, we migathavenoglecte thelast6,endwe tight then havethought that the answer was only 4812. The answer than the given srumber by ono digit and the zero infront kes caro of that ‘Sample Problems Solve the following : WVTIMLAL x U2) 231454 11 3) 89087 11-4) 5776800% 11 591122332608 x 11 ‘Ang: 1) 122222) 5) 12543658688 2254395. 39979737 4) 63544800 MULTIPLICATION BY 12 ‘Torulply any number by 12, we “Double each digit in turn and add its ueighbour”. "This isthe satne-as mulipiying by 11 except that now we double the ._ Teuibes" before we add its "neighbour" : For example : Ex: Solve: 5324012 = Soln : Step 1. 05324 12 oi T(@ouble che right hand flgureand add 200, ‘as thar fs no-neighbout) Mltipteation 8 Step tt,” 95324 x 32 35" Glouble de 2 aad a4) Step II, 05324 x12 $55, (Gouble the. and wl 2) Step IV. 09824 12 “FEB ouble the $ und add 3 (12), put 3 ‘below the fine and earry over 1) ‘Last Step, 05324 x. ‘3886 (ero doubled is ero, plus $ plus ‘rid over |} “The answer is 63,888, Ifyou gp through it yourself you wil find that the ealoulation goes very fist and is very ey. Practice Question Solve the following 135609 x 12 21123008 + 12 aysora9 x 12 4922200007 12_——_5)444890781 x 12 ‘Ans: 1) 4273082) 133476108. 3) 5481468 4) 266400084 5) 5338688532 MULTIPLICATION BY 13 ‘To mutiply any number by 13, we “Treble each digit in turn and add {ts right neighbour”. ‘This isthe same a5 mitiying by 12 except that ow wo "tebie" the "murah" bofore we acd its "neighbour", sve went to multiply 9482 by 13, ve proceed like this i Step OIF ‘9 (rable the right hand figure and write it down an there 1an9 neighbour on te right) ppt 13 7 (xB13=27, wre down 7 aiid carry over 2} Step TIT, 09483 + 13 29 Btep1V, 00483 4 13 329) [Last Step. 09482 x 13 i TRI (GOH 12, waiteit down) ‘The answer is 23.279. Step H. (434812222, write down 2 and cxery over 2) (9x344+2=33, write down 3 and catry over 3) + define figure of 8576 py one, axe 7 is the-leA-nand figure oft QUICKER Ma Ima similar way, we ean define les for mutptcaion b ‘Bu, during those sulGplicatons we will have to get four of five Uses of gt, which ie soeetines nt oo easy to cay oves. We Ihave an easier metiod of enlipicaton for those large values. ‘Gea you Get salar tathods for motipbeation by 21 and 31 eis mot vary tvgh fo define the rules. Try it Multiplication be Step Us Sabet heighten igre ofthe ong number Som 10 Thi ive the righthand gute ofthe answer, Step I Taking the ex digit Bom righ, subtcact from 9 wed ad acighbour ons ht ‘Step TIE AL the at sts, hen you are wider the zoo eon of th on ‘umber, surat one from the neighbour and use shat asthe lef Figure of he answer. Bets $576 927 Soln + 08576 9 aly Step I. Surat the 6 of 8576 fom 10, and bave dof the ewer. Step Il. Sublect she 7 fon 9 (ve have 2) and add the neighbour 6; reaultis 8. : ‘Step LL (9-5)+7 = 11; pur unggr theline and cary over 1, Step IV. (9-6)+5+1 (cased ave = 7, put down, Step V (Last sep), We are under the f-hand zo, 0 we sce Matipication a MULTIPLICATION BY 23, Suppose you are ven a large number like 125690258. And tomneone asks you to multiply that number by 25. What will you da? Probably you wil do oothing but go ior simple multpicatioa, Now, we suggest you to rautply that numer by 100 and then divide by 4. Todo sees See He Pat wo zeroesat the right of turner (as ithas tobe tipi Bp ih (osithastobermltiplied Btep TE: Divide iz by 4. Bo, your answer is 12569025800-+4= 3142256450, fsiteasier than your o,zour 0. siteasier than yo [General Rule for Multiplication ‘Having dealin aly sulin! detail wit the ppticaion ici cases omultpiation, we now proced to deal wit the" Geel orcnta” applicable to all cases of multiplication. It it sometnces go! very conveaient io keep al the above care and their steps in rind 50 at of us should be very much finan with *Gonaral Forme” of rtipicaion . 2) 1718 =7 (3) 6392 ansier . ‘Thus anawer is 77184, Hers era fowr questions for you. Fight-buod digits of multiplicaud_ and muhiplior igh of mplonnd ih nteph ot eemtigicy 1) 34 x O=2 2) 569% 97 3) 1928» 9= 74) 5049S x 97 wl? 97213288 « I . ‘anwers | fy300 2) 5321 sy riase 4).sees7 5) e03sHa02 ve doa suggest you topic much sopbass on iis =, os “Because it Ye not very much easy to use. Som times it proves ee A “Step 1s Puta zeto at she right end of the number; ie, waite 85760 for I, 2 aoe ~ sp Seal rt ie 18 x 54 Guit2x1) Py 2 QUICKER MAT Mulioncanon ‘Step FEL. In the last step we sultiply the left-hand fy of be ANSWERS pr i a a ‘hoes a aae sya 49315051639 oyzz7 7)2t0Ls) 4402 12 9629-10) $633 * Ex.2, Solve (1) 325» 17=7 (2)4359 4 I Soln (I): Step. 32 5 : vos | 156 Gel a2 2 Q)17 x 18=7 “ Wa) 5 (5 7=35, putdown 5 and carry over 3 Step Ie Stop IL. 2 y memes » Stop 1. we . : 2S (xTeSn143 =P, putcosen and camry over 2} (HxB4 Poel +5 = 20, write down 0 Step IML 3 2 5 aed cary over) Step 1. "7 N Tae eta 9, vin dona) 525 (3x7420182=25,putdown Sand @srxs=? Now's cary over) erent + Repeat the eros-niultplicition wot all he consecutive By os Dalrs of dighs exhaust. In step I, we cross-nuil6plied 25 and 17 : india step IIL, we erose-multiplied 32 and 17. 4 (7x2= 14, write down 4 and carry over 1) StepIV. 3 2 5 Sept, 87 92 = 17 04 (sx2+9< 74180, it down Gand cary 0 =r - Sip. 67 25 Gxt42=$, putt down}. o2 . (Q)Stepl 43-59 Practice questions . W5Tx 43 2)51% 42 3)28%43 4ps6x 92 SPRTx 19 ze ve SUITS 37 10)97 89 — Te : - 7 (3=27, pur down 7,cany ove). DBxM IO Bex 7 QUICKER MATHS: 43 ‘Step IL 3 37 Sip. 4.4.5 9 (5x3 #9422 = 35, pat down 5 dnd catty over 3) Stop tv. ale 5 $9 24 2D 2,5, 7 WoH3K2e2 =20, put down 0, cary over 2) Step Ye ‘350 3 : 100257 x22 10,putitdown) ‘We can write all the steps together: 4359 23 . Badd DG HHT HID HS ! = 0 2 3 = 100257 (0%, we can write the anewer dircity without waiting the intermediate steps The oly thing we should hoop in mind isthe Yearying numbers Gxaes243 22, purdovn 3, capy over2) Muitsleaton 26 4359 4350 230 oy, 23 10 20223827 100257 Note : You shoud try for his direct calculation. Ie saves alot of tte It Ina very systernat¢ caleulation and ia very cary tozemember, Wate the above steps egain and again emf you get Gat systematic pattem of exoss-muitilication, Multiplication by a 3-digit number Bx: 1. Solve (1) 321 x 132 =? 2)-4562 x 345=7 (3) 69712 641 =? Boln:(1)StepL 324 132 2 (x2=2) Sept 321 12 Qedas1=7), Step 324 ish ‘ 37-2 (Qudtadttxt = 13, write down 3 ‘and cary over 1) Seeplv. 921 2 | 2372 GxSHx2+h= 12, write down 2 and carry aver 1) 2 eB Bx D) BHD AL DABIIKY Ts = a 72 @ 4562 345 GeBAN yl St S41 SGT SAO Da 25 7 3 8 » 10 = 1573890 @ 69712 oat (66 etx! 1x684N94 KI! HLT Ph Db 1 =a 36 cs ° Bo 2 = 44085992 ‘Note: Did you get the cleer concept of crass-ultiplicaion and ‘ngecress-mlipication? Did your bow the digis i cross wuttip ttuon inetease, remain constant, ard then decreas? Take a sharp lo fr question (3) In he Best ow othe answer, sf you move from right Tef, you will se that “here is. only exe utilisation (1x2) in. the pat Ta the second part hero are to (Vo and 42), in he 3rd pat ((o27, Ax ad 6x2), the oh pat thee (1x9, 7 and et) in the 5 sport aguinthice (146, 40 ane 67), in the Gh part too (4x6 and 6x tnd in te last partly one (6x6) mulsipication. The paricipation ‘digits in croms-uliplication.can be shown bythe lowing Giagrams Lod 64 ay Muttooation Fa vigg 712, wLg9712 oil ‘sat Foreach of the groups of figures, you ave to ross-multply ‘Multiplication by a 4-digit number Example: Solve 1)4325 x 3216 Sola : 1) £325 » 3216 =? Step L432, 2) 686329 » 124 3216 (0. (Sx6= 30, write down O and camry over?) ‘Step 14325 3216 D6 (xGHxS+3 = 20, write down O and cauy over, 2} Fo fest da145:242~32, weitedown 2 endcarty over 3) Step IV. 432, . & HN 9200. AxGedel:2e2+5x343 = 60, write down nd carry over 4) Step 1H Step ¥. 4325 Pe 6 09200 Caeirsezidnte4 ~20, dite down 0 and cary over2) Ea QUICKER MATHS Step VI. 4325 $216 909200 (4x2+3432=19, write down and exrry over i) ‘Step VILL 43.25 3216 13909200 (34 ‘Ans 13909200 2.646325 « 8124-7 “Try this question yourself and match your steps withthe given sligraramatic presentation of participating digits. Seep 645329 sethoneny Bind . 812 ‘Step Mm. ned Step IV. ye sits wits Step V. gy Step VI. 649329 . Step VIL 446329 Step VIL. ve ais Bis Step IX. ve Bia Practice Problems: Solve the folowing 12342456 BIO GT —-YTZAD1—&) 2945.67 5) 345672 «ASE 6}S65> 952 7) 458 008 B)S4I« 342 9) 666 444 10) 81035 45D 1156321 « 672.32) T27Rx 569 13) 5745 502 14) 4455 x 887 1598862241 3, write it down) Mutiotcation| Fay ANSWERS: 1) 106704 -2)22780R 3)375832 4) 1571159) 1378642 6)541688 7) 413864 8)185022 _9}295704° 10) 3646350 My 37847712. 12) 727182. 13) 3228600 14) 3960485 15) 30Z1942 (CHECKING OF MULTIPLICATION Exi: 3S x = 195 digitum: 6 x 4 = 6 om = 6 or, "6 = 6, Thus,curotioulation i caret. Bed: 9712 x oal = 44085392 5 Therefore, our enlelaton is camect ann digitsum: 6x 6~9 61,365 0 o%,0= 9 Thus, our calculation is corect ‘But if someone gets the answer 43227, and tri to cheskehis caleulation vith the help of cigitstin cule, see What happens : aBL x 132= 43727 Aigitsam 6» 6-0 36= 0 on 0m 0 . “This shows that our aneworis correct: Bar ti not tue, Thys we see that ‘Four uckis very bad, we cam aprove aur wroug ener, Divisibility We now take up the interesting question as to how one can determine whether 4 certain given number, however large it may be, is divisible by a certain given divisor. There is no defined general rule for checking the divisibility. For different divisors, the rules differ at large. We will discuss the rule for divisors from 2 to 19. Divisibility by 2 Rule: day number, the last digit of which is etter even or 0, is divisible by 2. For example: 12,86,130,568926 and 5983450 are divisible by 2 but. 13,133 and 596351 are not divisible by 2. Divisibility by 3 Rule: Jf the sum of the digits af a member is divisible by 3, the number is also divisible by 3. For example: 1) 123; 14243 =6 is divisible by 3; hence 123 is also divisible by 3. 2) 5673: 5464743 = 21; therefore divisible by 3. 3) 89612 : 849464142 = 26 =2+6 = 8 is not divisible by 3, therefore, the number is not divisible by 3. Divisibility by 4 Rule: if te last two divits of a number is divisthle by 4, the number is divisible by 4. The number having two or more zeros at the end is alse divisible by 4. ; For example : 1} 526428 : 28 is divisible hy 4, therefore, the number is divisible by 4. 2) 5300 : There are two acibs at the end, so it is divisible by 4. 3) 134000 >-As there are more than two zeros, the number is divisible by4. 4} 134522 : As the last two-digit number (22); is not divisible by 4, the number is not divisible by 4. Note: The same rule is applicable te check the divisibility by 25. That is, 4 nuraber is divisible by 25 if its last two digits are either zeros. ot divisible by 25, 4 Rule mambo ends in 5 r 0, he number is disse by 3. Forexample 1) B45 1a an Sih 8 iis debe Wy 5. 2) 1340: Anit last digit i 0, itis vise by 5. 3) 1843 Asis lat ig is either 5 noe tan visible by 5. Divisiiity by 6 Rules fa numberisdvtste by bots 3und 3 she munber fats divs 1y6. So, fora mumber 1o be divisible by 6, 1) The mumber shouid end with an even digit or Band 2) The sum of ts digits should be divsibie by 3. For exarple: 1) 63924: The Gnst condition is lsd asthe last digit (4) isam_eve ‘ube and slso 6#3+0+244=)24 is divisible by 3; therfe the number ia divisible by 6. 2) 154 : The frst condition is fulfilled but not the second, therefore, umber is zo divisible by 6 39261 ; The Set condition i ot Buled, therefore, we don't noe check for the 2nd condition, Spectal Cases “The rules for divishty by 7,13, 17,19». swe very mu nique and me found very rely. Befor oingon Sethe rule west. ‘ow some teams lke Vonesnore” oseulatar and negative oseulato *One-mos” ooculstor means the amber weeds one more 0 a multiple of 10. For oxample: oscar far 19 needs 1 to bocome: (2x10), hus eseulaor for 193 2 (akon fro 2x 10= 20), Sil oxculetr for is 5 (ken fom 5» 19= 50). Negative aculsine means the umber auld be reduced one tobe aaliple of 10. Fer example: "Negative asclator for 21 is 2 (akon from 2 x 10 = Silly, negative osculator for $1 (taken Som 5 x 10= 50). Note: (1) Wharis the osultar fer 7? ‘Now we look fortkatmnleple ef 7 whichis oitherlessor by 1 thas a mulipic of 1, For example 7» 3= 21, a8 21 sono m: ‘than 2 16, cur negative osculatori2 for? ‘ed 7 x 7 49.0149 ig one less han 5 « 1, our fone ovsulatorin5f7 Cohisloy 2 ‘Sinsilarly osculstor for 13, 12and 191s: For 13:13 x3= 29, “one mare osculator is 4 (from $x 10) For 17: 17x3= 5, negative oselator i 5 from 510) For 19: 19 4. "ouesmore" oscar x2 (Fem 2 10) {2)Can you detine oaenlator: Rr 29,39, 28, 31,27 and 23. (@) Gan you get any osculator for an ever numer ora number eniog ‘wis °5° (No, But why 2) Divisibility by 7 ‘ist af elLwo reall the cosulator for 7. Once agein, for your ‘convenience, 387 3=21 (one more tan 2 10), ournegativeasculsior 482, Tais gcuator'2" isu key-digt This acd only tis digits used to check the divieibility of any number by 7, See how il works: Ex ts [a 112 divisible by 77 Solu: StepT. 112 11-2x2=7 'A8 7s divisible by 7, the mane 112 is also civsibe by 7. EX 2:15 2061 divisible by 7? Sobre Stop I 296.1: 296 x2 = 294 Step Ik 294:29-42=21 ‘As 21 is divisible by 7, the mumber is aso divisible by 7. x3 SS2PTRR B 5527783 - 82 = 9527757 SSQTIGT: 992776 7x 2= 550762 ‘55226 2: $5276-2 x2 5572: 5507-202 2315523 2= 546 Sg: 54-02-42 ‘A3 42 is divisible by 7, tho number is abso divisible by 7. Note: I. Inallthe examples exchef herumbers obtained afer Co equal ‘sign (-)isalso divisible hy 7. Whenever you find nomsber which Tacks divisibie by 7, you may stop there en euuclule the rest ‘without any hesitation. 2-The above eins cn helen oetine eee aay Tey mdose. Divisoaty by 8 Rolle: {the fast ree digits of a muiber is dvisibs ay & the munter salva divisible by B Asn, i te last three digits af a mumber are zeros, the number evistbte by &. ey ‘QUICKER MATHS Excl. 1256: As 256s divisible by 8, the mumaber is also divisible by 8 [Ex.2, 135923120 As 120 i dvisble by 8, the mumber i also divisible bya 1Ex,2. 139287000: As the susberhas thyee zeros at the en the number “eaivisible by 8 (Note: The samo nae is applicable to cack the dvisibiity by 125, Divisfoliy by 9 ile: fthe sum ofa the digits ofa umber is divisible by 9, she mune seaton dive by 9. Excl, 39681 :31946+8+1=27 iedivalbleby 9, hee th marie inalvo ‘visible by 9 ERD 456138 HS+OHHSH8E 27 is divisible ky 9, hence the mumber 1s also divisible by 9. Divistbaty by 10 le: Any mamber which ends with zero is divisible by 10, Mere ive eed fo dlscuss thls rl, Divisiinty by 11 . alec he sues of gta ode ad even places are equator ifr Bf ctwsmber date by Hi, tent rer tara dvb iy 1 Bhi 3209682 5) SHG DBS and Sh 26545" 15 ‘Aa 5. ~ 5, foe mmberis divitbley 1. a 24S TID 523+ Fd d= 4742 17 Aa Sy and Sain iy 1 visible by 11, the mumbai alo avsible By, x3 8927291658 5) = 8190 Sy AT and So ae De DLISH 14 ‘AstSs ~ Si) 30 isdivsle by 11 th umber ls vse by] Divisthitigy wy’? Rule: Any manter whichis divisible by bath ant 3, ts also cvsible yi, "To check the divisibiity by 12, we 1) fiat ave the lst tendigit number by . 17s isnt divisible by 6, the nuraberis mot divisiale by 12, [Fis divisible by 4 then 2) check whetherhe number is divisible by 3 or no. Ex.1, 135792: 92 is divisible by 4 and also (1434579420127 sdivisble by 7; hens ho nomber is divisible by 12. Divtoty 36 ‘Remark : Recall the method for calculetion of igt-sum, What did you Adocarlicr (én Istchupter)? Forgetnine" Do the same here, For exam: Aigit-sum of 135792 _1 plus 3 plos 5159, fngetit 7 pls 2 in 9, forget its And fivally we ged wotbing, Thal means al the “orget nine” eounss a nuraber whieh ia cultiple of 8, Thus, the mamber is divisibfe by 9 Divinity by 13 ‘Osculetor for 13 is 4 (See note) But tie time wr oseutor is ot negative fs in case}. Wis ‘one riore’ esalater. So, the working, ‘vil be cifferent row. Tis can be seen inthe following exar=pes. Ex tris 18 aivisble by 139 Sein: 143: 14+ 3% 4=26 ‘Since 26s Alvisible by 13, the suber 143i alsa divisible by 13. “This working muy friner be sanplifi a Step: 143 16 [443 (Rom 143 +4 (Gom 149) Step 1 4 3 "26/16 [4 6 iam 1.6) + (ftom 16) +1 (fom 143 ‘As 26's divisible by 13, the number is also divisible by 13. ‘Note : The working of secoad method is also very systematic. At the serve tne itis more accaplebie because it has fess vrting work. Ex 2: Check the divisblity f 24167 by 12. De l6T 2os6/20034 26) (er (om 24162) 46 (fora 267% 24] fad fom 8943 (fram 34) H (oes 24167) = 20] [0 (rom 203 +2 (oom 20) 4 (fon 24167) ~ 6] [6 (rm #2 (kom 24167) = 25) Since 26 civil hy 13 the saber is aleo divisible by 13. Remarc: Have you txleriond the working? If your atswer if 80, WE suggest you to go through each stzp earfilly, This is very simple at systema cafcultion, Bx 3: Check the divisiility of 6044808 by 13. Som 694 485 8 s9ugDAUI9E2 4x10 = 32 2138-19 OHH = AL aiid 12 38 (QUICKER MATH ay ” at9= 18 44116" 39 Since 39 s divisible by 13, the glvon number is divisible by 13. Note : (1) This axethod is applicable for “one-mare” oeculatar only. ‘ie can’t use this mettiod in dhe eae oF 7. (@) Thisisa one-line method end you don’t need to write the calcula during ckams, These ere given mecely to make you understand well 8925: w92-555= 307 857: 86-5x7=51 Since 51 ia divisible by 19, the given number i also divisible by 17. Distlity by 18 ales Any umber which sds by Sand hast ast di (neti) sven or zero) ts disibe by 28, Tx. 1.926568: Digit is maltipl oF nine Ge, ivisibie by 9 and unit ligt (8 even, hance to mumberis divisible by 18. By, 2.273690 : Digitsum ia wolfe of rine and he number exes ero 30 the muroberadivibe by 18 Note: Dosing the caleuation of digt-sum, Rll the method of "orget ane", If you get zeo at the ond of your ceculation, it means the Gigitsem i divisibioby 9. Divisibility by 14 Any number vhich ts divisible by hoth 2 and 7, nals vst ‘by £4. Thats, the number fat dit should be even and at the 2 ‘me the mumiver should be divisible by 7. Divtstblity by 15, Any nuraher which is divisible By both 3 and Sis also diy by iS Divisibtity by 16 2 thatequred R= 198 Mothod H1-The worko finding FCF may sematosesimpied Dy th folowing devise @ Any obvious factoe which {s common to both numbers may be ‘snot etre hele apd. Cae shuld hoover be he to smltiply this factor into the ECE ofthe quotients. © (ii fore ofthe numbers has a prime factor not contained in the eter, ‘tray bo rajctad : (Gi) Atany stage of the work, any fstor ofthe divisor not entained in the dividend mey be rected. Thit s beomuse any factor which divides ely one ofthe two cannot bea portion ofthe required LICR. Ex, Find he ECF of 42237 and 75582, Sola: 42237=9 x 4603 T5582 = 2x9 x 4199 "We may reject 2 which is ot a cornmon fetor toy rue). But 9 isa comution factor. We, therefore, et it aside (by rate i) exd find the HCP of 4199 and 4693, : 4199) 4693(2, i #198. 494, 2 QUICKER Mari 454 ia divisible by 2 but 41.99 snot. We, therefore, divide 4 bby 2 and proceed with 267 and $199 (by seit) 247 }4199(17 ir. origina murs 247 «9 = 2223, Note: Irthe HCE of wo numbers be uniy, the musibes mast be Uo each ose To find the HCF of two or more conerete quantities Fis the quuttos should he ceded othe ent unt xc Fad the genes weight hick canbe comiained excl ink 238 gmand3 kg 805m Bain: 1g 235 ge = 1235 ym 3g 430 gm 3430 am, . “The greta! weight zequites isthe HCP of 1235 and 430, whi be found tobe 5 am. HCF of decimals Rule: First ne (necessary) she same member of decimal places tn ail te given nana; the find their HOP ax if they are igre and snark theresa ax ay secimal places a there arin each ofthe nunders Ex. I: Find the HCP of 16.5, 048 and 15, Solo ‘The giver mabe are svat 16 80, 0.45 and 18.00 Step Fit ve Find the ECF of {650,45 and 1500. Which somesty 15, ‘Step H: The required HCP = 0.15 Ex, 2: Find the HCF of 1.7, 0.51 and 0.153, ‘Sola: Step I Firat we find the HCF of 1700, 519 and 183. Whieh comes * to, Step I The requind HCP ~ 0.017 HF of vulgar fractions Def: Tie HICF of sho or more fractions is the highest fretion which x exacily divisidle by each ofthe fraction. : Rule First express the given fractions in thet Towést terms HCE of wumerais Then CT oMy of derominatrs HOF end Lom 5 Note: The HCF ofa number of factions is always « ction (bat dis ‘8 no rae ith LCM). tetraunoncret® 6 42 B Sota: Here Fo fH 7 fons are. ® ang 12. “Tins tie factions are ® 7 and 33 HOF of 660.12, 6 Len of 127,177 17 . 6 Note : We se that ach ofthe mnie perfect evil by 5 {85.2 Find ho rene! engtthatis contained ancractmumboroftines Lin ana seth and tm ACE 3B 2 4 Te ene gh wet Heo a Hor of Tend 87 _ Tow of Zand." 7 na 93 Sola: Zana 83 «te rye « be Miscellaucous Examptes on HCE researc pent a yl ie 210 38106 ave nna Goa rope? som: Se ee recs wee ied es Tuva he ack sty Sey oe io Sa bee, nee ts pene al Sue eee stead ibe eae ta 2 Wh ste pat numba ine ie 3 4F and 2 oe hdr and reso? ‘Sola : The required greatest number will be the HCF of (38 - 2}, (45-2) meh arie weal on x. 3: Tht gs ser tio wi ie 1,751 0 rlene ema Fach sath nel Pl wees HEP (410-051 7d oe . fare / F ane Lem 2 QUICKER tA fo find the LCM of two or more given numbers fethod I: Method of Pete Factors Rule: Resobie the given numbers into their prime factors end then find the prodtct of de highest power of i he facors that occur in the given ‘Bx, 4: Find the greatest nzanber which ie such that when 76, 15] and: are divided by it, the cemainders are all alike, Find also ‘common renainder ‘Solu : Let be the remainder, then the numbers (#6 k), (151 «X) anillumbera. The product will be the LCM. (225 =k) are exactly divisibte by the required number. Now, “MP Ex 1: Find the LCM of 8,12, 15, and 21. Iknow that if two numbers are divisible bya certain number, Bole: 8=2%22=2° their difeience is also civiiale by that ruraber. Hence, ‘umbers (151 -B) (76 -}), 226 ~B) - (151 -E) and @26 (96-4) 0175, 75 and 150 ae divisible by the veered nuniver. ‘Therefore, the repired nurabor= HGF of 75, 75 and 150 ~7 And the rerainder willbe found ater dividing 76 by 75.8 Ex.S: Themumbers £1284 and 7655, when divided by a cers ofthree digits leave these remainder Findthet ember of Sait. A Sola : Tag requitedrurmber must be a factor of (11284 - 7655} 0¢ 2 Now, 3620% 19 x 191 ~ 191s the required number. Ex 6: The product of to uumbessis 7168 and their ICR is 16; Sa rumbers. Soln: The numbers must be multiples of hair BCE. So, lot he ra ‘be 16a and 16> Here a and aretwo number pre cach $68 x 165 = 7168 oF, ab= 28 ‘Now, the pats of nambers whose productis 28 arc 28,15 14, ia 14 end 2 which are not prime to each oer should be rejected. Hence, the required numbers are 28 16, 1316; 7 x 16,4 1 0,448, 16; 112, 64 12=2x2x322x3 Here, the pit factors tha occur inte given numbers are 2, 4,5 and 7 and their kighest powers are respectively 2, 5,5 and 7. Hence, the regued LOM = 2 3354 7= 840 Bx 2: Find Uo LCM of 18,24, 60 aad 150. Soln 18=2x3x3-243" 24a 222x392 23 Om 2x2x3x SmI SKS 15002 35x $-2x 9S ere the pie factors that pun the ven numbers ce, ‘Sand 5, and their highest powers we2*, and 3 reopeatively Hence, he required LOM = 25x 38x 3 = 1800, Note: The LCM of to munbers wish are prin to each oke i he prodect. “Phas, the LCM of 15 and 178 15 x 17 255, ‘Method I: The LCM of soveal small mbes canbe easly found by Be fellowing rule: ‘Wate dowa the givon umber in a Ine separating theme by conunas. Divide by anyone of ie prime numbers 2.3.5.7 wid ill exactly divi at leas ay two of the given mombers. Set dvi the ‘goters andthe undivided numbers inane below the st. Repeat the proces until yu: getline of eumbess which ae prime to one aot. ‘Te pret ofall divisors an che musts i the last Ine willbe the required LOM, ‘Note: To simplify the work, we may cance! aay sage of te proces, ‘any one of the numbers which i flo of iy oer number in the same ine, ‘Common uldiple: A common multiple of two ot more numbers is nursber which s exactly divisible by each of them, Ths, 30 isc mulpte of2, 3, 5,6, 10 and 15, ‘Loast common multiple (LOM)-"The LCM af two or more ‘aumnbers tho least aambor which is exactly divisble by cach oft ‘Tins, 15 isa common mulapie of 3 ads. 30 is 2 cormmon meltiple of 3 and 5. 45is2 common multpleof$and 5. But 15 isthe least common maultiple (LOM) of 3 and 5. o QUICKER MATHS #6, 34, 135, 75 1% 45, 25 6 15, 25 BRS c-tho required LOM 2.x 3 x3 526% 5=2700 Taline(1, Hand I5.re the factorwoF 10K and 90 respectively, therefve, 12 ord 15 are stwsk of, te ine £2), 45 ia taetr of 135, therefore 49 Js stuck. off Im line (3s a fastor of 6, therefore 3 is struck off Ute product of to wumisers is equel tote riluct of their HCT For example: TheLCM and HC of and 15 re 6band 3 respectively. Multinfeatian of to mumboes = 12 « 15 = [80 HCP x 1.CM = 3 60= 180 “Thus, see Mas the produet oF two murabers is equal 1 the producto tele LCM ané HCE. LOM of decionals Rules Fest maake (if vecesnory) the same number of decimal places it ail the sven nections; then find their LCM asf they were integers, and snark: in she rest as many devia places as there are in each of the bers. Ex. Find the LOM of 0.6, 96and 0.36, Sola: The given menibers ace equivalent to 0.60, 9.60 and 0.36. "Now, ind the LCM of 69, 960 and 36. Whick is equal t 2480, fhe toquired CCM = 28.80 LCM of fractions The ECM ef roo or more fractions is the feast fraction or integer witch i exact divisible by Bach of hem. [Rute Fest express the fractions in their lowest terms, them ayy = LEM afnumereor HOM ch of denominator HOF ana Lot ss ix. 1: Fing the LCM oF 1S yy 108 Moe Danse 1) The coquired Lom = LOM Son 3 HC sf and 108 we ny 8 at a2 ans "15° "35 = 35 a Thus the factonsare 2, $2 ane LM of 36,42 ar TICE of 135,38 ,38 o glen rn 2 34 2t rus. he fatins sve Thus. ihe ations eZ 3 ma 2 dhe rated Lem = LOM of 9,3 and 21 63, F of Z,1, 7 ‘he required LCM = L fo NNole: in Ex 1 (we see that the LOM ofnetions isan integer. Thus, ‘wemay conclude thal LOM of estan iy bea ttn oe ieseger, Miscellaneous Examples on LCM Ha The ZCM of uo numbers is 2078 and their HCF is 27. onc of the oumbers is 188, fd the other Lea x 2079 First number” 189 Soles The required name: =297 2s Find the feast nummer whic, whon divided by 18, 24, 29 and 42, ‘vill leave in each eas tie satne rennander 1 Solo: Cleary, the roqsized member must be preter than the LOM of 13, 24,20 and 42 bp 1. Now te= 2 3? Daa? «3 30=2e 3x5 4222347 Lom=3? «2x 5x 7-250 © the required nuniber = 2520412521 6 . QUIGKER MATHS 1EX3, What isthe lust aomber which, when divided by 52, leaves 33 a5, tie zemainder, aad whom divided by 78 leaves $9, and when divided by {17 Teaves 96 as he respective remainders? Solu: Since $2 -38= 19,78 -39= 19, 117-98 = 19 “We see that the remainder in cach oases ess than the divisor bay 19. Honee, if 191s added t Ue soquired'mumber,isbocomes exactly divisible by 32,78 and 117. Therefore, he required nantber is 19 Yess es LOM of 52, 78 and 117. 1 LOM of 52,78 and 117 ~ 468 the reer numer = 468 -19 = 44 “Exc: Find the greatest moraber of six digits which, on being dived by 5,7,8, Dang 10,leave5-4,5,6, Jan 8 as remainders respectively, Soln: The TEM Of6,?, 8,9 and 10=2520 “The greveet tahoe of 6 digits = 999909 ‘Dividing 996999 by 2520, weet 2079 as yemainder Hence; the Gigi carsher divisible by 2520 is (059909 - 2070}, or 997920. Since 6-4=2,7-5—2, 8-G=2, 9-772,10-8~2, tho ‘remainder in each oases Jess than the divisor by 2, the cequived cumivet = 997020 -2 997918 ox: Fld tho pretest nuusber lass than 900, whic icivisible by 8, 2) and 28, Solw: Tho least umber evisible by 8.12 ond 24 is 168. Clearly, any} multiple of 168 wil be exactly divisible by each ofthe anne E12 and 28, But since the requires number isnot to exceed 9, Wis 368» S= 840, [Ex 6: Fie thy knot ruzaber which, upon being divided by 2,3. 4, leaves im each ces ¢remaindsro 1, bot when divided by 7 eave re reminder. Solu: Ths LCM of 3, 3,45, 6= 60 the eqied amber must he 60K +1, wires apotivessteger, = 1x8 HEH Okt GEL iow, tis muruber i tbe divisiile by 7. Whatever may the value of, the portion (7 Sk) ssalways divisible by 7.1 tee must choose that Teest value of K which i) make 4& + Sivisble by 7 Piling k= 1, 2, 3.4, Sete. n succession we fi that k shoul be S ‘the romped number = 6Uk + 168% $41 = 301 Notes ‘the abave exaraple could al be worded ax follows. A pers ‘kada number ofloys idisteltuteamong cites. Ait ho gov HOF and Lon o 2 toys to eae hil, then 3, thea 4 shen 5, sn 6 but was aways {ef with one. On trying 7 be al none Tet, What is the satel fume of ty that he could have bal? ‘What least ruuroer must be eublracte’ fiom 1936 so thot the ‘eamzinder aiken vided by 9, 10, 15 val leave tn each cas the ‘same remainder 7? Sola: The LCM aT, 10 and 15= 99 (On dividing 936 by 90, the cemainder ut 7 tsaleo spac of is remainder the reine umber =46.-7 = 38 ‘Ex. 8: What gestesl number can be subtracted frm 10,000 90 that he remainder may be diviible by 32, 36, 68 and 547 Solu; LCM of 32, 36, 48, 54 S64 ihe reguited reset umber = 10,000 - 864 = 9,136 ‘ex. 9 What is the leact multiple 37, which wen divided by 2534 5 ued 6, feaves the remands 4,2, 3,4, 5 respectively? 45,660 nce divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 are 60, where K isa kx. Since 2-1=1,3-2= 14-351, 5-4= Sand 6-3= Le cemaindet in each case io leas than the divistr by 1 be requinad mambo 00k T= 889 | ED) [Now this number iso be divisible by 7, Whatever may be the value of k the partion 7 Sk is always divisible by 7. Hence, we must “Shouse the least vale fe which will make (3) divisible 7-Patins feoqui ia 12,3, ee, in anocassion, we find that k sul be 2 the required narnber = Uk A= 60> 2-1 = 119 EXERCISIS {What the gresiest number tar il dvide 2920 ond 3250 and wil Lae ‘seavairaes 7 ond 1 respectively” ‘zwinat isthe feat nuraber by which $23 matt be milled in ardor to ‘produce a mltipe of 715.2 43, he LCM of two sumbers i 2310 and fheic HC & 20. Tone ofthe numbers ia 7% M0 find the oer nur. 4.Tinve belle commence tolling togeer an they tll alee 025, 0.1 and ‘0125 seconds After what terval wil hey agen tl togetner ? '5, Wout i ic smallest sum of momey Which eonamns Rs 2.50, Rs 2, Rs 4.20 and Rs 7.30 ? 2 ‘Quickes waTHS: {6 What is the greatest number whish will divide 410, 751 ad 1980 soa ‘leave the remainder 7 in each cane? vat he HC ana LCM of, $ awe ‘8. Three men str! together to travel the sume way around a circular tack Of kr, Theirspeedsare , 55 und Slonper hour respectively, When. will they meet a the string pint? 9. Find the smallst wile namiber which is exactly divisible by Voy gh glee al Tye ps 2p 35 ane sb 10. Howe many ties isthe HCP of 6, 36,72 snd 24 contained in their 10M? 1, Find she eat equare number which s exactly divisible by 5, 6,15 auc 18, 12, Finn tho least sumer which, when divided by 8,12 and 16, eves 3 es ‘he reanainderin cach case bat when divided hy leaves no remainder 13, Find the greatest nae iat wil divide 55, 127 end 17590 98 leave ihe see remainder jn each ese 14. Find ha leastruitipl of 1 which, whendividedby8, and 16 lemver 3 ae remainder. 1S. What Feast eueber should be ade lo 3800 tothe it exec dvisibe ‘by 42, 49, $6 and 63 ? 16.Find te Iastmumberwhict, when divided by 72, 80nd 8, leaves the rermaaders 52, 60 and 68 respectively. 117.Piod th pretest mimber of 4 digits which, when divided by 23,4, Gand , should leave remainder in each case, 18, Find te greats possible length which ean de sed o messure exactly ‘he gt Fe, 3m 8Sex, 2m 955m. 19, Find the least name of agrees required to pave she eating of tal Sin om long. end San 2 er broed 120, Whats the anges nse which divides 72, 147 and 2520 leave the sao remainder im each ease 7 The traffic Highs tne differentrosdcsssings change afer every 48 se, 72 see, and TOR se. respectively. If thoy all change simultane ‘ously at 20:0 hes, hen at what time wil hey again ekango mans weouoly ? 22. The CF and LCM attwoncbecs ae 44 rd 264 respocivey the st sumer is dvded by 2, he quotients, Whats the oer amber? Hor aatcm % 2 Theos 0 mts 12160 lh HCP 2 Fd he pouvoir UsFodlbepetstambere?agisande namie 5 tat al Hc 28 Fete et br fo wi 12, 19,20 4a be shar, ccna eet unk te 24 Fee ont nr tat esd 8s ey 3,36 oan 27. The sof wo sumer nd ei HOF. ype Foshan ome 2h Ina hal 01 bean sve on died Ge get pombe clsea tt hc oye ne eas Ghee ofits Wars ticronerocees? 2 ep tie Tn wept a a her MCE ye ee Sa 12205 7a rim enh fe Bia csrumberm tebe fr toner, ‘odd yi Palewe'n exh eso some e 12. Fid eso 0a 0 ach we iy seatelty oan (a) it Jeaves no remainders and Site ronete geese Solutions (Hints) 1 The greatest aucia number will be the HCE. es Risatesroen ms-seines ‘ty aul Scan eof rd. 5085 de ‘Sree te too ge three eae“ $.Mereaed nmber 22072039 4. Thy wil laser te fing he LOM oF Basa laces Oa LeMoro25 0 ania 25 = C0250 10 ay 125) x 0001 ‘i001 03 9m Le oF25 20184 75}x 00 ten ve (2930-7) and 250-11), 8. LCM of 25,20, 12.and 7: 80 QUICKER Mat 6 The tequred umber wl be the HCE of (410-73 251-7), (1080 teat, “qevtcy = MCE of Mumemtos 1, % LCM of Deneminators 30 LCM ef Numessors —_ 140 TOM=fcR af Denorsinaters ~~ 140 8m ke y emia aire ration dint 2 ha reapenivety 23s 2 gg Me, LOM of 112,11 2 LM org amg" create 1 72 they will met afer 2 hs, 9. The tequired smallest number ~ LCM ofthe given auribers 10, HOF of 48,36, 72,24=12; LCM of 4%, 36,72, 24= 144 LCM~ 12x HCE TI. LOM of, 5, 6,15, 18~ 180, which is exactly divisible bythe gh sober. q ‘he roquted tumor = 9, | Note: This sa hit-and-rial method. Try solve by the detailed method, 15, LOM of 42,49, 56,63 ~ 3828; therefor, the required leas: umber = 3528-3500= 28 16, 72 -$2=20, 80-6020, 88-68 20: We see that in cach one, the remainder i ess than the divisor by 20. The LEM of 72, 80 and 8 7920, therefore, the requited number = 7920 -20= 7900 7. Tho greatest nuiber of 4 digits =9999 LOM of2, 3.4, 5,6,7= 420 ‘On diving 999 by 420, we get 399 as reminder. the greatest aneber of digits which is divisible by 2,3, 4, 5,6 and 7= 9999 -339 = 9660 4 the requited namber= 9660-* 1= 9661, 38, The required length = HCE of 7m, 3.85m and 12.95, "(ICE 0f 70, 385, 1285) x.01m =33 x 01m=0.35m=35 om 19, Side ofeach te= HER of 1817 and 902~41 ex, ‘Avea ofeach ile—A1 <4 ex? ee nerober of tikes SITs 902, 41x41 Solveasin Ex. 13. “The required urher = FICE of (147-77), (282-147) end (252-77) HOF of 70,105, 175 ~ 38, M1, LCM of 48, 72,168 = 432 ‘Tee te gs wl tage stanly fe 82 ond ofa. Wse03. ‘hoy wil age simtancously a 6:27-12 22. The fast namber= 2% 44= 88 s Thesevond: HCE LCM _ 45 264 a co 23, HCE Wo=22x3x5x5—28 Hx 5 Thereficef LED it maiplod by $ (160 «5 ~ 90) then ‘er wil bea paet square a well x dvb y 4,5, 6,15 and 1, 12, Th least utr Wich, when divide by 8, 12 and To, leaves 3 vemsinder “ECM of, 12, 16)4+3 = 484 3=51 ‘Otter such ounvess are 48 243 = 99, 482-49 = 147, the required number which is divisible by 7is 47 "Note: This is hitand-ial method. Can you ge he answer by defined method? (5 Ex. 6). 13. Letx be the remainder, then the niobers (553), (127) an (15.3 > a onacty vise by De gure ner, ‘Now weknow tt iftwo ners are vin y acartain um (hen hei dtferene ists iviaboby the number, Hence (G2F-x)- (55x), (115) (127) and (1753) «(55 0, 72,48 120 are dvs bythe requed ruber. HCF of, 72 and 1202 therefore the equed numer = 24 ‘Note: Find the HCH of tho positive differences of mnabs. tw yoor purpose quickly. 14.1.CM of 6 12 end 16 ~ 48, Such numbers or 68% 1-3) =51, (08 243) 99, whichis dvabe by 4 2. “Then let he mumbai be 12s and [2y. P Now 12x x 12y=2160 . = xy= 1S, Possible values of x and y ave (145); Ch 35,3): (15, 1) possible pita ofmumbers. (12, 180) and (26, 60) ‘Taofeuired mubece should azlples of LH, Weave the gretest anes igs 9998.0 Ovid 5999 by 14, we ge CS ase remainder. the required greatest umber of digits = 9999 - 63 = 9936 ‘Again, we have the leas numberof digs ~ 10000 62 QUICKER MATH: ‘On dividing 10,000 by 144, we get 64 as the remainder, “, the required least number of 5 digits = 10,000 + (144-64) = 10,08 25. The required number = LCM of i2, 18, 32, 40 = 1440 26. LCM of 32, 36 and 40 = 1440, therefore, the required number = 1440-8 = 1432 27, Let the numbers be 33a and 33b. Now, 33a + 33b = 528 or, 33 (atb) = 528 oatb=16. The possible values ofa and b are (1, 15}; (2, 14); (3, 13; 4, 12); (S, 11); (6, 19); (7, 9); and {8, 8). Of these-the pairs of numbers that are prime to each other are (1, 15}: 3, 13) 6, 11}.and-(7, 9). -’. the possible pairs of numbers aré (33, 495); 9, 429); (165, 363); (231, 297) 28. Number of classes = HCF of 391 and 323 =17 29. if two numbers are divisthie by a certain aurnber, then their sum. ig aiso divisible by that number. According to this tule: if 15-is the HCF of two parts of L000, then, 1000 must be divisible by 15. Buritis tot so, Therefore, itis notpossible to divide 1000 inte two parts such that theit HCF may be 15. 30. Ifthe numbers are prime to each other, then their HCF should be unity. Conversely, if their HCF is unity, the numbers are prime to each other, In this ease, the HCF is 1, so they are prime to each other. 31.LCM of 9, 11 and 13 = 1287 ‘Therefore, the number which, after being divided ‘by 9, 11 and 13, leaves in cach case the same remainder 6 = 1287 + 6 = 1293 +, the required least number = 1294 - 1293 = 1, 32. The LCM ef 6, 9 and 12 = 36 (a) Multiples of 36 which lie between 300 ahd 400 are 324, 360 and 396. -. the required sum = 324 + 360+ 396 = 1080 ()) Here the remainder is 4 in cach case So, the nutnbers are (324 + 4) =) 328 and (360 + 4 =) 364. (The no. 396 + 4 = 400 does not lie between 300 and 400 go it is not acceptable.) * the required sum = 328 +364 = 692. Fractions Tf any unit be divided into any number of equal parts, one or more of these parts is called a fraction of the unit. The fractions one-fifth, 2.43 two-fifths, three-fourths are written ad's, 2 and 4 respectively. The lower number, which indicates the number of equal parts into which the unit is divided, is called denominator. The upper number, which indicates the number of parts taken to form the fraction, is called the numerator. The numerator arid the denominator of a fraction are called its ierms. Note: 1. A fraction is unity when its numerator and denominator are equal. 2. A fraction is equal to zero when its numerator alone is zero. The denominator of a fraction is always assured to be non-zero, 3. A fraction is alsa called a rational number. 4, The value of fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing the numerator and the denominator by the same number. Pere = 225 284 MS Ens 7 344 5, When the numerator and the denominater of a fraction have no commen factor, the fraction is said te be in its lowest terms. Ext 15 _ ax 5 20 4x5 The numerator and the denominator have a.common facter 5, & is not in its lowest terms. If we cancel out 5 by dividing both the mmerator and the denominator by 3, we get >, which has no common tor. Hence 4 3 is the fraction = in its lowest terms. - When a fraction is reduced in tts lowest terms, its numerator denominator are prime to each other Le. they have no common fOr. 6. Ifthe numerator and the denominatorare large numbers, orif their on factors catmot be guessed easily, we may find their HCF. After dividing the terms by their HCF, the fraction is reduced lo its lowest term. cy (QUICKER MATIN Fractons me 8 0 se 2S «no otass6s an 75104 $508 oB BB km hed . 5 Now, 385055, _ 385056 + $8008 _ 7 ‘Fractigas in which the donominators are differcat ate cai “T5104 ~ 715104'+ 55008 13 se, niniloneton bea tematic conon 7 Aniniger canbe expressed faction with any denomina ‘wo wont For compe it'we wtf oxpres 23 84 foetion uonsnator ie 17 she proces wl bea follows: Sota samp: am fs 08 aad ‘Bx. As Find the som of) we Se ey Sali: «) AU the fractions are in their lowest terms, nH, BL Se os aye + U2s3)x2 4 (22% rope faction: A proper fnion one whoseimosrivteshl Yon, Ye Fs Rallt=DaL (OSH the denominator. 2 am Osea Bgl Focexample:, 17, 21 are proper actions The also foe Note :Studentashouldnstwzitettestep P2s2x1+ G2 DI + (Bead @ fon spat ha. Ingres acon! whore mere ep oc: than the denominator is calfed an improper fraction. Forename 12,2, 1 mpopeactn ‘hoa ofan inoperative i 00 Tusa te dove monly. yt teduce the piven actions eto shir owes tens Was 3, 25 38 SS Joo." 4 te 1 a5 ~ 18 ‘Now, sige the ction ino mined nabs 52h Bib, Bead a7 late > “ie * 1s 1s 5 ya “Tog the giver expresso bgcomen AE 1g yg ‘Now, a al ie whole numbers together andl he actions oe 1 +, consist oF a whole number and a proper faction, iti called om stove cxamples 12, 12 and 32 ae mi ber In th above cramples 12, 12 and 3? armed eee — Fractions inwhich ihe denominators are powensof KO areccall Bye rhy rh scesne(te beige 1 a7 3 9 at he ths 2 70 ila ag tis 52 decimal fractionseg 2,73 9 Ms 8 0° 1010F Tor wg SES ED Fractions in which the dagominators are the same arv cal v0 ike fractions. - ih i oe i re wie PIT IF Inthe the to ving hee etn was preatnt. 6 oueKER Man aad bie 5 Day * 8x og 108 «91 a saa 08 su Asay 4 oe Sm aes 6 6 ases whe4 LOM oF 912,16, 8=144 Z_M BOT ee? ete ano ig | aR Bag i _ 29 isn 79 Ta” ad 22+ MA 18H = 195" 297 0 22 1 1 wee ayd ao 7 2 45" 75 ote 2 j35 x a Z Change the mined action into an mpropet Satin. ‘The the expression Becomes By gs, He 2 ax Zas05 5 6 SB 1s aicksor= S45 8, 1 D105 6° 6% Or a 3 ae 205 49 sets rz - 28, 887+ 1 = TO =a, On ftheintogralpartoftbentiesnuruber beg cater than thedivier, ‘we proceed a3 follows: * ° ‘4 i 1 SRF + 2S]a 1g eae BS, dou (x6 4) wart B34 , ma" 5 = 3 : Fractions oa 1 $e eminnteriptety sey desiree mae ea. ietoinctngng es sie rion Aan od nfea iran ne ioe eh Hee ni !s 2 yl geist pete uy ; Soln "Te divide ration by a fection, eutiply the fection by the revinudat ofthe dvison” 1) Bist change the mixed numbet into an improper faction, Then snokply the Faction bythe reciprocal ofthe iso, 90, 108 98, BN SS _ AT Bin 72" Tos Ge w 3S potent Baka E Compound Fractions +A faction of ration i called o coisa factor : 3 bed add 3 ‘hn of Sisacomomnttacuon ant bof Ba be $5 Combined Operations _ te “th semsyng etonsivelting virus igs and otk the folowing pons souls remembored. The operat of ater and evo shold we perro elec ttoc of aon and sable. (aemckotthe signs or ssid be pple nly the umber whe inmadity bows. 4 2,B « s*i2 3 4 4,0,5.2 m2 nya 7 a 4, Wht _ 1s Beas rc) (4) The operations within brackets are fo be cared oui rst. ge {G4) The file of 'BODMAS" is applied for sombined operat fs avers cst pitt ommeiteee cen So 8 12 Za 8 245 B0 FFs gry Me omer facton, 7 9 4°73 1,2 I (ip 23 ! Or 275 7 i % Ea ‘or, mulipty the numerator and denominator by the LCM of denominators 2,3, 4, 9 namely 36, V2 sy. 3 ! thu BRT 244 gd DEM Bay 2 Le 2s 789 375 tg Note: Th second met work vicky 0 we suggest hat you aoe this met. Sola: witha (Continued Fractions: Fretions that coatain an addtional faction in ‘he (ammerator or the) denominator are called continued fraction, Fractions ofthe form (}4 + —1—~ or se called eontinued facts Rule: Zo simply a continued fraction, begin at the bottom and work pears Bx. 1: Simplify 2+ 7 QUICKER MAT = 8 2+5 ix 2 Simplify: § + — + T Sip Sola 54 be 1 ase BE a [Note No shortout method has been derived for solving these question ‘But you can solve ttese questions more quickly by () more mental esloutations; ane (i) skipping the steps. Miscellaneous Solved Examples on Fractions fbx.i: One-quatr of one-sevent ofa ln is a0 he Rs 20,000, Wh isthe value of an eight hiy-fifths of fend? i ‘Soin : One-giarter of ane severth: TR Now, des nde =R62060 1 Softee witcan 2222 Saearsoeee | tec olingcatota pase} ocx isu eK 740, Wan i hep cosa Bt 7 shins Ar king or Lott cx pe ome wit coats. Now of nye « was, Nowy ot $780 e pena740 4 LRA tt es sum of maney increase by its soventh part amounts to Re 40, Find the sum, s soass + 1.409 Songios sR Fractions n Bx. 4: A tain stars full of pussengers. At the ft station, it drops ‘onc-ehil ofthese and takes in 96. more. AL the ex, it draps one-half ‘ofthe new tts] and takes in 12 more, On reaching the asx tation, ticze fre foute fo be 243 left, With how many passengers di thestain start? Salm: La the tai start with “after dropping one third and taking in 96 passengers, the un bas X45 = a gat 288 E496 = +96 pasengers= 73 pom desman atten trae pans 2 ow, HABE pa ce “ments a ‘Ex. 5; Determine the missing figures (donoted by sta) in Gx following. Selman asin connor oer a ee oepend Gigs pT Nee sein (Sc eto) oni (+ tan isin Het eats tc ye agp of Be a ‘Sovauniermites Thea en daw : ox3 0 ad oo Fe BH FG Hence the mits digits are 7 and 4. a 452 TA Nee ‘The denowinstor inthe frat maxed umber ard denominator in Ge third iced umber are insxtcs, which must be amsliple of 17, "That, the equation becomes wheat a The LA) yy tt «oleae vie a since A < &, dy wilborw 1 fom 4 n ‘QUICKER MATH 4 ad oad. fh Te EXE! 1 Which ne oft tsa tt acon? 6 3 1S 9S Wris' awe 2. What smallest fraction shoul be ade to Seok tos 4 74 tomberte uma wbolemunber? A. Wat mest he sisted fom ean of 192 4, oho ‘smn ante nec A Pil beoatestasonwishwtensisho2 Be a a a hole number 5. Find oucthe missing aures (denoted by ean the Fllowing eutions, ‘he facauns being given indir loos rms: Dade gt aby eet Ore = ag 6 Ate: oe ong sina Siren ine 90 ‘ 5 ‘ saya, while afar ovehavlng,teequies$heur service ime every 129 ‘days, What action ofthe pre-overhuuling service time is saved in the later eae” Fractions n Solution (Hints) 1. Out ofthe frst two frations, we see that eis smaller value 5 5 nz ads = a a QuicKeR Ma 2, 0 + Ue roquized fnction Bote al 5 pst DS; x My = Meg Decimal Fractions Decimal Fraction : Fraction in which die denominators we powers of 10 ace called devisalseactions 3 21a one tZ a as eam: 35> 76 ens cing x desta : in eadnga decimal, th diss ate namaed inorder rent Pies 4s ig ead a8 2270 point (or decimal) four five, ven, Ss Decimal places: Tae murberof ences which low te deci point 6.LOM of 90 and 120 = 360 Pied the number of decimal places. Tua, L432 has tee decimal Soin 260 days, tes proven eve time =. 200 = 10 jy fm PEE SHEE Owe eal ples, Inbrervioe ime= 6 "59 5 Converting a decimal into a vulgar fraction and after overhang the service sae Sirs Rule: rte cn the given number tou tie decal poi, forthe ; * Fa Thana, on for he anomanstor write fold By 68 may ros ‘Time saved = 10 5S tay ‘as many ate there figures after the decimia! potnt. 326 Ta 1: Rotuce the following éecial value ito the vulgae Factions 2063 .0}0.0032 «3.013 ) Solm: Step I: 9x 12= 108 ‘Step: As tote is one decimal place in maliplioand, the product| should also have oly ono decimal place. So, ans = 10,8, Has (i) 000 1267 Soin: Step: 9x 12= 108 Step LAs there are three decimal places in the mutiphicand, the ‘product should also have thee docimst places, So, ans = 0.108 Ex. (i).00000 « 12=7 Sole ecimel Frectons 7 Step 1: As dere at five docnul places it the muhiplican, the duct shou als have five decimal places, So, we pein two zeros to Bele anger = Ans =000108 ‘UT: To multiply @ decimal by a decimal ale: Matty aie nogor, and ia the product markas many decimal plas ar aren ceo ce pi the aiid togcther, drasag zero, necessary. Ex (61x 07-7 Soin Sep: 61 «7 =427 Stop lt As hire re (242°) 4 dosial places nthe mtpier and the multipicané topsibey,theprodctsholdalso have 4 esimal locas. But there aro any three digit tho product; ao we prelix ane Ze ‘the product before placing the decimal. So, the answer = 0.0427 bass x 024=7 Soin: Sep 1: 2325 24 = Son80 ‘Step I: Thete should be (442)6 decimal places inthe product, Thus, ansver= 0.056220 ~ 0.05628 Division of Decimals 1s When the visors 1,100, 100, ee, ale To idea dsinal by 1, 200, 000 et, move te decimal point 1 dete places tte lef respectively. Tus (a638- 10=4638 (4309 = 200008300 {iano 098+ 19906 =2.0000008 (fiv)234.789 + 1900000 = 9.000224789 (7) 5.08 + 10900000 9000000308 2s Whig thedivtior tsa decimal fraction . Rule: Afove re decal poo as manyplaces to the right in both ie divisor and dividend as wll mak the dviora whole mamber, ame terart the ddend f ecestary. Divide sipledson an when poutakea figure from the decimal part (any) of the dividend so altered, Set down the decimal pani he uot : Basso veg 225; = SH sora as oss 3230 _ OO peor7 = “Tr . ns QUICKER MATH ‘Recurring Decimals ‘A decimal in which figure or set’ of figures is rep contiually is called a recurring or perfodic or clrenlating declin "The repeated figures or eet of Squres is alla the perlod ofthe deeSal For example: (1), 5= 0.333 oy Neoguasnuntsrisnsr Questions Which of he lowing vga fatons wil produc ecu ting deta aetions? ve pe D2 py 92 oS ot o2 gh- Ys O95 ie Oe Oe OG Dae Sot: ete ofan owe oe 0 we 50" 25” oF Syme hese lg Sein it prasad og ecating is expressed by puting aber (or dot) onthe st sepeating numbers. So, inthe above examples (0383... 05 (6r,03) (0) 0.342857. 142857 = 0 TEREST (or, 0.142857) 0.2057 (or, 02938) Pare Recurring Decal: A decimal action n which ll the igure ater the decimal point are repeated is called a pure revrting dosinal Foresarple, 07257 isa pucrecuring devia ‘ised Recurring Decimal: decimal aston in which ome do nor recur, Sclled a mixed recuniog dcenmal. For exemple: 0259 1s amined recoing docimal Ip example (2) the period i 3, in 2) tie 142857 and in (3) iti 54. 4 fot BF -. Syma hesbove ug Seton wil no price eu ec Noe tifbedgoonimio of aval fooion ni uve rms til 3. 2 1 Meijmadstpostmesor ond ctiesncormiipledtgshorgl 918“ 6 3a The tacton econ ie temnting nul By mo mil ean ina wil bo ode ru @Z= Bava we x gona oea4 : By note 2, a pure reciir will be wo 8 165d eos 2° 2. peeing dei wil be protec fa a Tg” axe 2. pore recurcing decimal is produced by a vulgar freotion in its to -tenms, whose denominator is neither divisible by 2 nor by 5. Pyne Pra mised ecuring desta willbe produce Es? = 08 Wy = 077 es > ons ‘By noc 3, a mixed recurving dina wil bo podned. Tyo eat é 8 Oa and GpZeos Gg - 05 3. A mixed recurting decimal is produced by & vulgar faction in its ‘owest ters, whose denominator egatans powers of 2.0 5 in addisiv] other actor, ons Dy sole 1, no reeuring decimal will be prof. (Case: Pure Recurring Decimals IRale: 4 pure recurring decimal is equal ro a vulgar faction which fe or its umerator the period ofthe decimal, and for ts denorinatot ‘nuniber which has for its digits ax many nines cs there are digit period. [Ex Express the following recutsing decimals into vulgar decimals. a3 WOds 0ST 3) We have 5=.555.., (1) ‘Mattplying both vias by 10, weyet 10x 08=5.55..—. ‘Subtracting (2) fom (2), we got Sein: Directly som the mule, wealsogetthe same result. 3 hasits pot 5,0 the numorstor ia 5. And us there ia only ove digit in the peo, is09teas tee wetvedgisitbepeid. =. An 3 anes psog=52 Dawei tay ae hema of gis in edo «is = BB ‘Try to solve Eixs (b) & (c) by detailed method. Choc aed Repay Decl fae neal raring deca sop gr ration i Inf te meron era teen apie ome the digits to the end of first period, and that formed by the diglts whic do not recur; and for its denominator ike mumber formed by as nines as there are recurring digits, followed by ax many zeras as the ronan rcuray dts Ex.: Express the following as-vulgar fractions. Rrra i [Soln : a) 0.18 = 0,18888 41) 10x O.1B= L.38#8 ——42) an 100 O18 tH =) Sttaacing 2} fom Gh wae 90% 01 Be 38-1 oe Z Also by els mmantor= 181 (lL dgomnbet none ‘ouig-by eon encin New ore Tat Cloud by oe vat an ne bona recs it) 29 ~ Vga atin = BL = O45, Numer = 2019-3 48170 Dnainttr = vine (tere ae te ring iss) falowel ty ete we ne eur ig) 99909 , fon = £8100 4817 2 Vee atin = 5 9g 95.003 5 OO8S= 00 _ 5 9B 90900 ‘9005 Solve Ex, (b} and (e) hy the detailed mth, Addition and Subtraction of Recurring Decimals “Addition and subtraction of recurring decioals ean be under- stand well with the help of given exsmpics. Example: Add and subtract 3.76 and 1.4576. 3.7) 676767 | 67 14 | 576876 | s? 5.2 2ss34a] 24 5.225558 O23 Explanation: Step: We sepavate the expansion of recurring dcimals into throe pert Ta the lef-ride part dere is integral value with non-recumng clocitmal digit. Inthe above ease, 14576 ina 1 a integral partand ‘Fisas aoa-recuiring decizal digit, So, | hasbeen separates stom 14576876576. - ‘Although the fist value does not have any wer-recuring decimal digit Ge. 3.78, both te digits 7 snd 6 ae recurring), ‘we put as many digs in the le-side pert as thers are wom recur- weoint | $0= 23000097 _ Step IIL: In the right side part ake two digs. Now add or 2 ‘QuioxeR wan ring digs in the second ve. Tha, we have po 3.7 tele pct Tes veto 37 Step: the dle pa, te mmo isis equa 9 the LO te urbe of recuig eigen ven les, tis the Se vale tan 2 vere ipt aL second vale sce pis so mom pata gs CF? ude with aos aton and eatin Sep No eve te a se uo pt aaron he ile of he tentan The lesile part wl ramen ‘eal You cass te came nt ao ch Verification: roe 97649255 Sand A516 —4 A572 S59 73 gp aml LATO IS = Fg i 76, 4 S872_ 4, 16x 9990 4457 x RIB, + BBL ane ARE eae PpecRS TIE Te 119550 109890 Tose0 wee * 5609990 apn 2816297 | 2870 =5*Fooa59 = 33 ~ 5 Ta8309 ~~ From (1) and (2) iis verified tha our addition is coro. ‘Now, fbr subsretion: 169800 — 4872 99 99 x 90 306 19590 _, 3100188 5900850 She mnts_ 5, 30068 Bi 1x 9090? * a1 x 5559 ros) and (2):tis verified that our exbarction is correct T6111 — 4572 «11 Ux 9950 3100191 —3 39599900 1 ross3= 10 524.785 + 10.193 234+ Bx, 2: Find 324.786 ~ 10.193, Soin: 324.18) O78 10.194 333 [33 siaso| 345 ‘Tus, ans= 314.5955 ‘Veriftention: 224.786 — 10.19 786 «900 16 989% Ses Bx, 3: Find 17S + 0007 Sola: 8 327.8661 38 “Ths, ans = 327.86638 99900 7 Isa 4 BE i799 300 3100207 3 n 2 7 m4 od 559 1 -[e-si 6x 100-274 1D 88 786 900 + 174 5999 999 = 0 . 78600 = 1TH yy , 2788 0 42801298 _ gag oR TE ‘99800 ne 58900 $9285, _ 544295 —99 514 50545 Oa m eal Freeone = x4: Find 17.2058 —7 9340 202194 9 Sela: AZNB | 68) 68 20 ao 7.986 | 99 | 99 +g, +0659 863 9.123 f 6s | 69 Another way of caletilation is ‘Thus, ans = 9.12555 waB+ + SS= 240.658 Muttiplication of Recurring Decimals (Cave Aa While ukipiyicg a suring decimal bya nosiplé of 10, sof eepeating di i nt aleed. For example, Becond Method: 1.4.3 « 10 4.030303... 10 = 4020308... = 40305 2317266.. (8653, 2 124.97 x 1000 = 124427427. 1800 = 126897-227 as 3. 0.008799 x 10000 = 6.006379379... x 16000 = 63.79379... B 6.055 ae ‘Case B: While multiplying a recutring decimal by a mumber which 06 not muhiplo of 10, fast ofl, the resin decal schon into the vulgar fraction and then the calculation is done. 06 couple “has, ans = 865 hn. 2536345 7 36403. 7 T2633. (519 a 905 = By iB 117008301, 5 _ 120 | 120006) a BS ts BH ag a 200+ 0.1888..= 2000 18T= 200185 aad 3.29 LBZ © 95980 x LB 27 x 1222 g2R 9 6: ‘The process of division repeals co our quoticut becomes 5.1919... 30° omg *5 ies 5 sam _ S471 2 S21 18 1 x 5S ey 155599 718% 9 ag = proximation and Contraction 4 2 naLsT7 = 2157 Rae: nose tReayfgwrety ly erucceedggure be Sorter Divislon of Recurring Decimals Far'Stanple: (9 The apovimat valve of 3689 up ove dil Case A: When the divisor isa multiple of 10. 15 + 1000.= 6.060006... + 1000 = 0.000060606.. 0000u3 aes 0509. " 1 appoint vale af 3684 upto thee devimal places is 0.368, (ae roninsic vac of0 2085 po thre daha poe 300 {he THe apprenimate value af0.3680 up to two decimal paces is 0 ((v) The approximate value of 0.3468 up to ono decimal place is ©.3. Note: Decimals while are covet ao, 60, Tre places ae sid ebe sonata tie nearest en, nde, thousand especialy. 23645373 10 = 1.645375 (Case Br When the divisor nota mlliple of 10. Bx: (728 52=17% ay boyd sae iipep suited 88 Quicker mar Stgnean ngures ‘Tho flowing expe ce goes t exp the mean e tertn significant figures. “ (3) Tha poptiateno n ceti pls 189000 cores othe neseat Mn ete the sumed toe ed and populate issued whe 18 euch is ears ete peat The fare 169, whi gives enum af is, eg oe areas we Sete rer which these again ofthe nis ae sido be sensplse (b) Tue alstance Detywin wo places is 1400 km sonst othe aeare usa em. ha ue ee sitet anc ths vo soos hoe Henican “The slate between paces is L400 im core the nee Tan Teese 140 espn bt ee er ent (2) The length oF a sing is 0.07 cra correct othe 2ed decimal piace, ‘This means 7 she significant figure butte zen a the beginming sf non-significn:. Note: Zeros 2 the beginning of a decimal ate olways non-significant Th, sion Asus ae those witch nan appr asinal ren expres team fica ite nears ae | Contracted addition Rule Sef down the decimals under one another. Ther addin the ui ‘way, taking care tht the last fgure retained be increased by 1 5 uccecding figure be 3 ar greater than 5 [Bx Find the sum of 220.4524, 29,042034, 0085279 and 3412 come (03 decir places. Soin : 520.4301 29,0293 0852. at 1 Hig a2075 Anse 49.825 Remark = 1f you ate assed to get the axiqer cotret to theee decimal hse, then we Hot mece Cs 3 (vo moe) decimal pices Caring Doda Fractions ‘Contracted Subtraction Rule : Write down the subirahend under the minced én the tal way, retaining two places of decimals more than what i required. $x Find 160, 342195 ~ 22. 0048326 corect to four decimal pinoes. Soln: Aa ie ane asked to gal the solution cereetto for doaimal places, ‘we will ute not more tha 6 decimal places ducing our calculation. 160,342195 32000832, 128397368 Anewer= 128.3374 EXERCISES 1. Express the floning decimals a factions in their lowest terms = a)00375 0.00625) 1.008125 2. Simplify: 2) 9.25 +0036-+00075—_b) 34.07 + 0.007 + 0.07 ©)309 +209 + 0.309 +0039 dh 35-7892 + 0.005- wats 9) 0.6 + 0.56 + 1066 -6 606+ 66.16 3. (Remove decimals) . 038% 10 —)0275<10"7 6034 x 19.000 0.132500 53024513 Divide 3) 28.9 by 17 _b) 457263 by 136} 68 by 800 hobby 0008 6) 2.378 by HOOKS — 9.1 by AOD05 390.1 5000 ind the quotiout to ue placos of decimals + 054091 b)a321+077 c)5.002+ 0.00078 6. Siraphfy the followings: 00s 14 di-oorefeax2 wi 95 x 0085 3 D017 x 0.19 Oar of 7S "7. What should come in place of question mark (7) 7 a} 3 DB x D4 f.008 # 300~ 7 by0.25 - 0.9025 0.025 of 2S ©) 0.00053 +0.17 0f30 x 100 =? 908x7= 0.00005 a ‘QUICKER maf woo 2 OG a0"? 1138 gg, pT 02-400 VLEET T5625 « 0.0289 «72.9 x 64 248x005 oe 16 mor loR=324 DLT RIL43794974 3.79 03207 4) 921 & 11-54-2032 1154-105 x 11.54=2 YG.278 + 30.237? x 1.27 # 30.277 «125 + (1.23) =9 ma) 23) ~ 4x 237% 09) + 30-3) O.09)- 0.3) =? 8, Stats inetch case whether the equivalent decimals terminating ar ran smenating: Fy Bg lt gies a6 eas oe OTT 6s 9. xpress he flowing ecurring decimals in hei vulgar factions B03 HOT JUD )2a% estos 1 1 ots 5 = 00276 ten wats hewiwoofsapdig 7 11113324 + 145=91 9, then what the vahngof 3328 5 919 42.1545 = 2.24, nan wha isthe vale of 2S 9 224, at nib vo of Po 13.1813 = 2.48, theo what isthe value of VE 14 EV = 54, then what othe vale of 529.16 + Yo.2916 + vBo02a16 + \ODOONIITE 7 15, Wht decimal of sm hour isa second ? 16.16 1.5x=0.05y, then what ie the value of 2= 7 yax 17.{05407+ 0.5403) » 900 18, 03487 + (045 x 03) = Lt og Decal Fractions 30 od Loval2s ~ 1s * Uy 2apO295 — WYM.147 —) 34.398. d) 16.768 0) 60.78 B.ap25x 108 b)279% 10% 34 d).66 «) 2719926 x 10° Aadi7 000254035 ©)0.08 —_ d) 8000 24750) 200 ‘¥)0.00002 $a)0.704 = — 6) 5.6120) 641.803 Ga)88888 602. ¢) 2500 8) 0.008 7.a)0.0243—b) 6.25 3) 0.01 4) 0.00005 0257 #).0.0024 pV _0os 2 aa T5625 x O1RRY = 72.9 x G8 [saan 61 462107 15625 « 289 729 x 64 x 10 1x9 68 ~atxatee 0% 38.725 300 4) Given exprossion = 3.79 (31+ 37 + 32)=3,79 (100) =379 iene 11241221209. foy ISB ena 1 Given expression = (1.27 +123)* = (2.5) = 15.625 a) Given expression (2.3-03)' = 2 = 8 th cou fa alg ison atous ems say ‘oncpt pw aon Sls tae oantakel erie tac cose tata coal ator te = 1) insomnia se is emia fr) eer a Seas w Js terminating since its denominator i made up of 0 QUICKERIATHS HE pocinal Fractions 1 powers of § only. 7 7 i 91 Bp? aay oeag Mma enatng since its denominator bas Tors over than 2 and 5 ios ioe a) ME. consent. 1. 18018 =, thr th roqited omen a " Byer eet ae ©) qos 7 5 siting 15g hagn ne Gene) 3.1 37 x s.gor wom=2 16.1550 ° E005 oom = 3 ene: Dy ae cule of componendo-diviendo, we hav, evt00se = 53 - 1038 = rot, yer 15-008 pyee yee ‘OMmOIGIT ” Seip egy? 3618 "This gueston should not be zolved by dated method IC) beerve the following points you wil be able to answer within seco H i Toes saggy Hom hg he decimal econo i S postions eft Soto go he answer from 0.0276 the desinal shoul be moved 5 picersgh. [Note Woot going into details, we can gt the mower, You should a, Bs low hat aaae sae re the equi 93642 {hat oops atBet tg rg “Therefore ie, answer shoeld ala be argor than 0.0276. So, the reqeired ‘Value should be obtained by moving the decimal tothe tight. 11 We have, 13324 = 145 =91.9 or, 13324 + 91.9= 145. ‘Then we have io find 133,24 + 9.19 =? wer divide the whole numberof dividend by or and observe the mumbec of digit iu the whe ‘number of quotient. In this case when 133 is divided by 9 the quot (Gvhole number ) will have 6x0 digits. So, our aaswer shovld have 2digit whole mumber. £. required answer =14 5 1 Elementary Algebra : . 4 y Algebraic Expressions: A number, including literal numbers, along with the signs of fundamental operations is called an alg¢braic expres- sion. They may be movomials, having otily one term a8, +6x, -3y eto. They could also be binonials, ic having two terms as p? +21, - x.2x ete. They may even be polynomials, i.e. having more than two terms. Addition ‘and Subtraction of Polynomials: Thé sum or difference of coefficients of like tenns is performed. For cxampje, let the two polynomiats be 3a712e-3, Stax, The sum of these two expressions is 5x> +(3x2. ayant) -35 a3 +x°43x-3, The difference between these Iwo is the subtraction of smaller expression from the greater expression ie. Sx'-2x"tx-Gx"}2x-3) = SUK? + x-3K-DK +3 = SOD DH Dx) +3 = Se Se 13, Ex, 1: Find the sum of —15a? + Sab — 667, a? — Sab + 11b?. —Ja2— Iaab— 13h? and 26a" - 16ab — 70" Soln: ; (15s? » aap 6b") + (a? — sab + 116?) +(~7a? — 1Bab ~ 1367) sl + (26a — 16ab — 7b? = {1587 +a? 792 4 26a") + (ab - Sab - 18a - 16ab) ~6b? + 1b? ~ 136? — 767) = 5a? — 36ab — 15b* : ' Ex. 2:1fP=a4 +a? ta? 9, =a? 903-5 + 3aand + ~3a-2a7 +03 Find the value of P+Q+R Sola: P+ O+R= ar ' (tae? tata) a? 2a? 2430 +(8-3a- 207 +03 mala (32a? > a + (a? +a? ~ 28 + Ga - 3a) +C6-2 +8) =a'+G+0+0405a" \ / Remainder Theorem: This theorem represents the velationship be- tween the divisor of the first degree in the fonn (x-a) and the remainder r (x). ' m QUICKER MATHS 1 ax itor ancion of He vided by + a wl tae remand des nots x hen te wezinde ete same a ie orilol exrese witht la ox Inher wos, 10) divided by x~a, the remainder is Ras eg. wet x) =x! 2x7 + 3x - Seeley 2, to verahileris 42) =2) — 20/8 +3(0)-492 , ‘Notes (1) If 0c is divided by x + 4, the remainder is & ayo wate by +6 eeu! (3) 9) eee by x= th remainders (4) The method of finding the reminder is a ll [Punt divisor equal to zero, Like, ifthe divisor is wx +b then b ate-0> x the evita anette 3) ‘Similerly, you can find the othes remainders, 1 en erent en x4 42 4 6x -2 is divided by (x +9). saw dit eaten ete tee re sie as cite B42: Find th semaindr when 27 ~ 92+ 3x Bib dvd by a2 som Septitns 2-0 3-2 Step : Reminder is 3) Gg ne aa $-8-4-2- 82-2, Ex. 3: Ifthe expression Px? + 5x2 —3 and 2x? — 5x + P when divided by Xd leave tho same remainder, find the value of P. Ext Let 0) Elementary Algebra 35 Sola: The remainder ae Ry = fi) = PE? +3? - 364 445 (4) 34) + P= P+ 108 Ex.4:Findheyalsésofpandg whenpa + i2-24-e2potyaoniil anda bearet number. Then ‘he following two resis holt: (UFR) ~ 0 then ea) is etn of. GNF) ia Toto of FG) then fa) =O. Pax din mat Find ot whether (2) and G3) ate fctrs of (0). Sola : (a) To check whether (62) is a facto off) we And F(@) Le, 1.1 benno te (2) a ee fash thio topr Gauteng, £Q)=23- 19x27 4 dd 2 dB tenes, bythe for there 2 ia tc 2) O)Tockecayete (walheortt (0, werepeat he sbove process with £(3), EQ)=3"- 126 34443-4823 Ml) = 43) 40. Te) onata ero, 6 ‘QUICKER mar x-2 Findon x= ieafaroF 2) — Se? . sbove rule. Soln: We have, 3x Sua a! inexact divisible by x -a (sheen io or ev) 4.39 — 2? and xa!” are exactly divisible by x-a. ‘Alle above statements ean be proved. We aro going 1 prove only staterants (1)and {5}, You shouldty te prove the remaiting three yourself. (x? +a" is exacly divisible by xb, Putxt4=0 = x= Teen ft) =a) +2" =O “Thinis possible only when mi odd, )x"—a" is exactly divisible yx -a Purg-2n0 = =a ‘Then ita) =e" — 3 ‘This ia tue ins sen, 3: The expression 3° ~ 2 has. factor 13 2)7 3)10 417 3)Noneof hese Boin: 528-25" = a =(25)"- 7" “As we dan'tknow abou, bythe condition (),(25-8)i9a fio, isa factor of 5" — 2", i. 4 The lst digit in the expansion of (1° = 1 when wis any #2 inoger is 12 21 DO 4-1 SpNoacof those Soln: The fst digirin the (4177 for amy value of ia 1.‘Thus the est Aigiin "1 60. o> 3 1Pee= 1 tr othe sen te QQ) 41-2 (3x - L) is a factor of the above expression. Note: (1) We can sce how the factor theorem has bec derived from ie en then x ais factor of i) ipa ctor of @3) G4) 70, when x a.nd xb then Nx) is exactly divisibl bay (xa) (X- B} ies (Xa) and (xb) otha the Factors of (G) tan integral function of two or more variables is equal ‘whou two of these variables are supposed to be equa, then function is exactly divisible by the difference of thes vatib) es. (B= 9, (¢=8) and (@-b) are the factors of ab— op + (6a)? + ofa ~b)° Proof: Put.b= in the given expcesson, ao r0f0~ a4 oo}! =0+ (0-4)? ee-9)°=0 2 ()-€) ina factor ofthe givon expression. Silay, it can shown tate - and ab a the flor ofthe given expres Conditions of Divsibility Lat ais exactly dvb by Ga) only wher ns xk 26.08 +05 isexsetlydvisblebya th 2.x a isnot ena dive by (kta) whenn newen, eg. 0° + iso: exmalycvble by ab. 3. ae never dvb by (=). eg-a’ +47 oral? +b! isnotaiviiblebya-b, 4.3 a is exactly divisible by x +8 when mis evs, 5 5 of isexcilycivistlebyx ta GL- isa factor ot oxaet divisor af 41)" — ("for say “ve integer of 2, Now, when dl - 140 is 2 factor, th last cgi in ‘he expansion ehouis be 0 Find the last nwo digits of the expansion of 2!" ~ 6 when nis ‘any positive itoger. Soin: 25) - (64 = (on — 36" ‘Since 2n isan even integer, the above expression sust be diiee ‘ley (64+ 36) {By condition (4)}. Gonce, 64-+36= 1008 the {actor of the above expression. Hence, the last two digits aF ts expession mast be C0. : i 8 Elementary Algebra ey ‘The procuct of ouiptication of two Tinear polynomials also vena quadratic polynozsial. Lat theta linea polynomials be (bl) and Gx +), wherel > 0, p+ 6. Then the prodact ofthese polynomials is the quadratic polynomial, Ipa? + Og + mp) + mq, This is written in the standard form atax? + bx + ¢, Thon a=Ip, b= C+ mp)and = ma, Factorization of Quadratic Equations : The qualraie polynomiat ax? + bx +e can be factorized only if Garo exist two sumnbera r ~ Ex. 61 Foral integral vslues ofp the expression 7 pR 2|2 io ait Soin 7-3 = PP_ a = oan [By the condition (5), 49 - 27 = 22 is a fuetor of the exprosi eye x. 7: What shoul be subicacted irom 274° = 9x2 6 = 5 t0 ekatly divisible by Gx ~ 1)? ‘Soln: We will find the rervainder by the rule of remainder. OF ee atm 3e-1 =o 5= Cee ee atctncota=lge mp (i) s= 20% pag © covefician of x? x constant Solved Example : Factorize 92 + Thx 5 Solution «@) Here a=2, b= Ll snd c= 5S Gi) Fine two muntecs ands such tbat r+ s=b= 11 and ry s=axgn2x S10 So the members are 1D and 1 (Gi) Now, breale up the middle term 11x ofthe given polynesaial a f0x + ix te? + Ms +5222 + On + 1A t5 (5) + HS) = (ZRH) (eS) Conattions for Factorization of a Quadratic Equation: At) quadratic expressions cannot be factor’zod. To teat whether ean be factoized or not follow the points given below : (itt? - 40> 0, then fe quadratic equation ean be factorized, (@) fb? 4ac <0, then the qusétatic equatis conaot be fectorized, ‘Some important fomaulae that ave used in basi operations ad In finding the factors ofan expressiw. are surnmerized below: 1a? b= (arnyecby Bas by = aP + 2ab +? 3.43)? = a? 200 + bP 1) aft) of) ft ‘Thus, the rerminder is (3) x) - 3) - & te Le2e5—7 : I We reise the given expression ty the reminder (2 ‘ccpossion vil be exactly divisible by tho given divisor. H cur required valve is -7. “Thonrem for Zero of a Polynornial LA) Bay xl pan"? +. + an be a polynor with integral eo-effclonts. Ian integar ke # zoo polyno then Kis factor of ‘Solved Example: Fir all integeal zeros ofthe polynonial, ayes’ 22 eyed, 4 Solution : Suppose (i an integral aco of he polynomial fy). ‘by the above ton, Kiss fir af enh, 4 Hance, poss values of are Il, 2-2 4 and 4 ‘Now. est cack of them 0 a0 whather itis 210 of th polyno er n0t (A= -24 17 4144-4 Siew) ¥ 0,501 ismekaOat’ GED = CAP © 2) G1? + G1) + 4 = 0; Since 1) = 0, the athe 2320 oF 1) Gi) Sandy, 2.2 ad ae not te sof). Ths he 4a = Gry with ‘plea er of i) isl. tae a otis ato of A) S.-W = (o-8) ( aabed, nothings Gab eb! = @4t)' 0b eb) tah —88 = b+ Bubfa-b) Blas b = (ab + ab ‘Quadratic Equations: As equation In which the highest power variuble'ie 2 ie called a quadratic equation, For example, _eauation of the type sx? He + e~ 0 denotes a quacratic equa bo quicker war 5.0 bF = sty? Laat e oe Sebo = (orb 4y Qtr ab bee) W@rbre Pe OrNerI EHD V2.2? +b? = (a Hb)? ab BaP steobe vb HA Mfatb+e = Othen the yulue ofa? +b? 46° is Jobe. 1S.x2 x(a + b)+ab = Ge tabtx +b) 18. ab ~ 0) bP ea) +o fa -b)=- (a -W-e)(e-a) B.Gosbag? obs 24 bbe) “Theory of dees: The exresion ofa mean the prov of fo cat oqo‘. Whanen a pstv impor milled te expr fr indox othe power ofa Any quantity raised he power seve always equa tL. Forexangia, a= 1 (wherea £0) We? = (3) = 1.7" =, 000)? 1,e. Whenever any ind ofthe power taken from tho {o denominatar of from the denuminator to numerator, the sign oft changer, vor toe Lavy of lndices: While solving the peoblemsof exponents the fllewi - laws aze nso: (pat xtag eey aa aes A) Kay” = x9" (8 ait nme 16.22(b +6) 4 be +0)+ 6? wt b)+ Sabe=Q@ tb + abt be tea) V7 aba) b6(6 18) Seale a) dade tat Oe +), Bemsrtary aigenra 01 Note: The difference bemicen (2) & (3) can be seen i the fellowing. examples: er) -3 2-79 ey 3P 2 a369 = 3% 39 729227 = 19683 TnallBieabove laws, mand nae positive integers. algebra, the root problems are solved by laws oF indices, for example fa means 0%, 4G masa, a! means FBLC: The highest common factor of two oF more algebraic expres sions be delerined bythe ftlowing methods: 1. By the factor method 2.By the dviton method In-caseof the factor method, et fst the factors ofthe given expressions are Sound seportcly. Then the maxitmurn numer of ene ‘mon factors are taken out and multiplied, the product of which becomes he HCE. “For exaople, we ote asked a fnd the HCE. of 8 (2- 5n+.0) and 12629), we alfa finde asks of ie sven expressions separately. Thus, BO — 5x46) = 42 (6-3) x2 and 12 @2-9)=4 36-3443) “Then the maximum nur of common elemento he two wl ive {ho HCF ofthe expressions. Therefne, HCE —4 (4-3) ~ 4-12 1.G.M The mininnura tiliptied quantities ut of wo ox more ales ‘raic expressions is callod LCM. If only two expressions are given, en at Fist we find ther HICF by the factor method oF by the division method and apply the following formate to find hair 1M, Jon + Pell of the two. expressions LEM of ore expressions Cite to ‘Tims, LCM of 8 62 -Sn-+ 6) and 12 (c>-9) wil be equal to BGC ~ $x 6) x 12 G29) Foon 4G) Gye Forms) we ‘QUICKER MAI =m Gh set0) +3) 24 (x! —Sx? + x + 3x” — Lo + 18) 224 (2498-418) Solving Quadratic Equations: A quadratic ceuation wan solved always give two values of the varuble, These values of ‘avable se called the roots ofthe equation, "Any quaatio equation ca ether be solved bythe factor meth ory formula (By dhe Factor Methd: Whes we suive a cuadetisequstion by fholor method, we fst find the fators of the even eat ‘making the righ-aand sie equal to zero and then by equating factors to er, wo get the values ofthe variable, For example, solving the quadratic equation x? ~Sx-+6=0, We fa ind te factors of 5x +6 which ah 5) ad Then we sy that (e-3)-2) 9 ‘Ae hat, we ake eg brackel puting it equ to 20 nara find the vehies of ie. wheax-3= Opives x= 3 saad wien x-2=0 given =2 ‘Theetre, elton x3 orx=2, (@ By Formulas When we want solvea quadatic equation axl be +¢=6, we apply te folowing ommila bE WP dao 2 “Taking + and sigs spomtly, wget two values of 1 ‘quantity ac is called the discriminant, ‘The two v2lues of fom a quadketie equation aie called the roots of the equation. roots are denoted hy @.and Bs It is seen thar the sum of the roots o auideteeqton ax? ote ve=0i ens 2 hese eB and procuct of te rot is equal to Se, « B Fora quale equation ax? +bx +60, () The roots wile equal i>? = 43, (The roots willbe equal and cea C9? > dus, (i) The coos will be unequal and. untesd ib? < 4, jemontary Algabea 198 rousing qesdatc equation trom even Reots: Whneve we te given the rots of a quadratic equation x? - x {sura of the roots) + fect fhe oo, er exmnole ty ros ae pve a 2 and 9, he Be dno quien Wess PoGtNat3x 260 Pb 46-0 ne {) Aquat guniona?-+be# =O wiltave loca er. {When aquatic equation 2 + ix Das ane oo eg Sere ton 6 (i) When ie oso the ganda equations” +a“ re nove recipeocats of exch ae, en C= (Go) When both oe roots ar gaa 0 2, b= O and (0) Wan one ont nite, tan 0 ae wha oth he oot {Shite bane —Oand =D. {) Whine oosre 9a negra bt peste sig en b= 0. {i} If rwo quadratic equations ax? + bx + c= 0 and arx” + bix Fe) = Gand have a cormmen toot (i.0., ane rect common}, then (be! - bre) Ai A hey have bt the rons even han = B= S Ga) The pte otf ay nepal mrt ity mares Gog E EAS, Hapa, YTID, ESF, NT, er) to nt a have to deal wih the problems reganting imaginary narers, So 2 siraple introduotion is sufficient, 90,127 So, 4 = AC Ip Sa G8 x ~2i, which san imaginary umber Solved examples Ex. ind the discriminant of the following quadratic exutions. Tel ‘onglue ofthe oot of te equations. Vesiy thom. Ox 443-0 G3 pax -3=0 Giy-o¢+ Tea Gvj2e 6+ 7=9 104 ‘QUICKER wat Sots Gi) nx? -4x +3=0,2" I, b=-4,0=3 4x 1x3=16-12<4>Oandalsoaparfect quar. So, the will be distinct rational nomena. “ Bal ‘These axe itn rational ater) (Din 4-3 40,0-3,bH4.024 Dew dacag 243 4(3)= 18+ 36" 53>0 and is wa peed mare ‘thereof il be dine atonal nomnbets. mba tt guava " 7a asd Now, the roots are ANI 20 V2, 3 a infare,a=-5,b=7, e<0, D=b) 4zcbecomes'=7?—49 > 0 andalspa perfec squ So, the oo wile dsne canal mambo 4 Sign schene for the quadrate expression Rakes The sign thle forthe quadtsti expression if aways meant fis ths seal sys of. We cannot ornate any eo aginay rane. Soto ny that > ion 4 avy incorrect Tora ape the oo ofthe coeapending cuacapc equitontie wt Mocee=0) ofthe quieren ax Se ees tpposa Ther we hive fl the el vaso sett fa eng Baroeal nd oil obo imaginary se,D <0 enya,’ +c wil hve fhe sees as hat ba be coettonntof 2. Thain TD Onda s+, yi be stay vs 00s yl balay in the right con 80, 108 QUICKER Mar ifD> 01 wi seam are ane Sin ocho yan cine ‘Opposite te that samescta otra Beamcssiinrgta the sign scheme forthe quadkatic expression x? - 4x7, Thecoremoningeqmaon ie te oes AF ~ 4x 1x7. IG - 28 = 12 <0 i.e. roots are ima, =1250, Three, frail heel alos of ea expen tu says noe Note: 1. For all the real valbes of x (x may be 0.2, 37.01.23, 4.220 2.98 e0)3? tn +720, You can pat x ‘any ral number and verify that x2 - 4x 47> Letwy appote =A Wend ae v7 C43 aah inst tes 708 7 hen x= 5$7~(0O0)- 400747 =00n007 + 7007899) 77-02 75120 When x =2 5 then x? - 4x + 2-5) 42- WE) +7 2 So, if we put x= 2+ YFior 2 - V5i, tho riven expression wil become ze, The expresiion canotbe nee ne " When x= 2+ V5 af da ey + Gi 424 iy +0618 4010 7 +361)-847 (weave =-1) 23170 Sinialy when x= 2,324 4. The sn scheme not valid fr maginaty value of x. Ite 2IMx=4 7 the piven ene Pla T =U 16x €1) 16147 Etomontary Algebra 109 16 - 16i + 7=-8 - 16 which ig imaginary and it canaot be ‘cornpared with any ral or imaginary number. So the porpase of the sign scheme booomes mezuingless exeept for the roots (2 + ¥8i whieh are rman) Ex. 2: For what values offs, 9x’ + 42x +490 Solu: The corresponding equatinn is x? + 42x44) =9 = (42y' 4x 9% 49= 1764 - 1764-0 Here, the coefficient oFx > So, for oll real values uf x, 9x? + 4x + 49> 0 ie. the given exgroion is alvays posit. Ba. 3: ind the sign scheme for-t° 35-428, ‘Sola: The comesponding equation i -x2 + 3x +28=0 D=GP-4x (1) x 28-94 112= 12150 341i, 2eeD 47 ‘Here, the evefticient of x7 is -1 <0. . So, the sign scheme forthe given expression -x2-+ 34 +28 is as follows: ‘The roots ofthe equition ate Ge) et (v4 7 (ve) ‘That is, Case (iif A 0 Cave (i: fs <0 > Fx? +H FIR SO Case (ii) if +A IB Note: ¥on-caa verify the above Cases (i) and (i) by putting such values ‘of as may be easie for calculation, Ifpeputx~0, 40% 7 wesee, it It R= H+ BB 28 0, Mweputx $< -4,-n? +34 +28. If we put x = 10>7, 0° + 34428 100-4 30-+28 = 12 <0 Bx, 4: For what range of the values of x is 2x" 4x -7 non-positive? Sola: The comespunding equation is 2x? —4x-7=0 D=(4)-4 x2 CD = 16456 = 7270 Hora, the coefficient of x2 is 2>0 25-1542 az<0 he nools ne DENTE 42607 2305 Tierwoae Dp ana 2 So, the sign schzwe forthe given expression 2x2 — 4x +7 is a8 fallows: 10 QUICKER Mary (9) 2eNE 2498 ? 2 oe) (ve) 22358 agin pai ie > < 2225 te given expression wil forx aod or BE cy neg or og vel expression bebe Tous for 2=2 x 222 tn gen expression is ive i he express is eter 2x0 or negaive over you ant to dhe the sig stheney yo py tke apptoriaate vahoe of 1 and Gea proceed, For snaapl, we P= 14 (epproxioately) Now, the rots are 23 14 43407 = 1221281,“ ‘As Bw tots have been found by approximation, $0 while che in for the sign scheme, you should sot ike Such values ‘which are nearer to the roots. 220 2 25-20-7~23>0 Pulling x=-2, 2 dy-7= 2448-7 =920 ‘Thus, me find that the sign scheme is correc, Bx. 5: The inequality fb? + 82 9h + 14 is correct for b25bo-5 b> bet ipa sb--6 Gr}b24bs4 (p26 b=4 ‘Soln: The given squality is b+ Sb2 9b + 14 1a. b?+ib-Ob- 1420 of, b?-b- 120. For the equation bb - 14= Owe have De (leds x Clay 36=5750 Hae, the coefficient of b= 2 >0 and Elementary Algebee am ep Dal ‘he toats are 130d 38 So, the sign scheme forthe expression == 14 sas fllows: (oe) 3343 (se ‘Thaefor <-33 of b243,0-b- 1420 ‘To dec the comes option, we deww the points of the option on the real number ne of he sige sobeme i) Ge) eye) TG SABI 443 5 6 To ‘Now, we tally wk ofthe options one by one Ceetly, option (is corect. Option (ii also correct Between these two options, wo slserve that opion (i is more suitable than option (i). Though opti (i is eores, sot a5 lose as opi (i. ‘Options (iv) ant (¥) are ieorceet, Heros (ithe ans: 6 fy ont proves xy enum hon ay sutnsay (22) — [SF =7.6 (ppeexioately)) ZT)? ‘Webaow fa be sare ofany ea. 2 0 ss 52) xom(t52) 20 ‘Asx+ yis constant 29 i the maximum when! oy Shove x-ya0 one: Gh storx-yo0 onnay Ex, 7: Which ofthe following values ofP satisfy the inequality =PQ-3MorPIS:P Othen (P= 4) <0... (9) ap ne Quicker arts of, when (= 3)<0 then (P 4). fc) Froo()P>2and Pet 3 Je Poa orn Gs} P23 and PA ‘Which is notin chaices. Hence from (ave answer is (4). Directions (Ex. 8-12) In each question ene or inore ey wation(s) ehese ou have to find out the retation isvare provided. On the ass Detwreen p and q. Give answer (ify =a Give answer Q)itp> q. wwe answer ita >p, Give answer (9) itp 4, and Give answer (5) iq p. M tha-$=t Mg? + 36= 12q wb—5-9 Mg? 2q-1 Hbptt3~ 12, ILaq-5=1ig AW -aetiso | at Solm: 5 BR bo 2p-po3-S5 hoo ap-po 3-5 te gat Fas menting 4B Bepake = Sp bo BBaraBer apne UL gf 12g#30=05 y-9)=0 476 Therefore p=9 ‘ 7 Wes 294120 >(q-IF Therefore p> a USL ps9 2 peat He 39-q21 +5 2 g-3 Thorefore q=p SNe 816 2 4 Mp wow p2 Wah BoB 0.2 Ba Foy p a 1 2t+p Etemortary Aigebra 113 + Bo! oa=t, a+ ar) asp Wx. 142 Tie inequality 3u2- 18n-+ 24> 0 gots satistied for which ofthe Following values of? Yae2eerd 20d yar? apnea 8) None of these Solo: Tg equation for te given inequality i 3a? [in 24-0 = 3ia-2¢0- 4) aah ‘The rea! number line of the sign scheme is 2. te ive 2 we de ‘The two values of give the wo cud poines of tha imeeelity, On theabuveaxia we havethreecamgcsin which valueefn can enove, @ne2 Gad fiynet Puta value wich ip lees than 2, Suppose n=O ‘Then 3a” - 180+ 24— 0-0 + 24 = 24 > 0 which satisfies the inequaliy. Hence n <2 4 valud value ‘Again puta value whigh is between 2 and 4 Suppose =, The Sn - 180+ 2427 ~ 54°F 24 ~-2 < Om does not sttisies the inequality. Hence 2= n-<4 isnot a val value. Agnin peta volus which a greater than 4. Suppase n= 3. The Sat = 18 +24 = 75 = 90 424 — 49 > 0 which satisies the inequality. Hence a> 4s valid value. 1 nequality (3a 6) (h-4)>0 : cn, Sem = 2) (a 4) > 0 is true when (9-2) and (1-4) hot ae tithes tve ue, When both ice tv, we have a-2>Gandn-420 gene 2andnad ond Wien toth ae e (a 2) 2nd x <—%) ae eet peisibleatatine 80, front ese {only ce anaser ie (1). 1 you have no idea about quale equatia, you can verity st incuely By pattie the stable vate of Bom each che ‘Whichover stistcs the inequality shoald be our ase Directions (Ex. 16-203: IMeach question one o! more equation) 4s (are) provided, On the basis ofthese you havete find out relation between pand q : Sire answer (itp q Give anewer Q) Epo Give answee (3) iF p Give answer (fp gan Give answer (129 2 p ater eee Oem a 1.Wp sou 18. ape to 1.10 gp? sp Ba e+ 30-0 ip 2g? ogre | | Eerrontayy Algebra 15 Solutions: on ct Spo q Answer -(2) Notee howe that p13 thon ie IM p-7=9 Gil) 3q?- 199+ Wp Ai) By 39- 7g +7930 G-D-Mg-=0 = G4-Mq-Y-0> a= Fort fn Wesgethaamp 19.3.0)49-Sp-+t-0 diyq?-2q4 1-0 na asa 20.356) qe tts SED We see that p= ov a> p Conditions for the Maxjanum and the Minimum. Values of the ‘Quoidrade Expression ax’ + bx +e(= , suppose) Forthsitvirwum value ey, he contition is Nae By hus io exininnum Value). Theninae vale ot » Be Pristine | | na For the maximum value oy, the condi ‘tas no maximum value). The maxitmum value of » possibis when x= ‘Ex. Lr fx dered), find the maxirnim velue of 2x? +x +3 and also fi tho coresponting valve oF Sas Thy sorespntng cations 224 + 3~6 D=()-4 (2) 3= 1424 25 1. Tye soqulzod maxiouma value ofthe given expression _=28_ 38 128 and the comresposding value of = OF 470-9 18 Q-ynti2d-5s Given tha xis eal, so 2 Wor, 25 ~8y 240,25 2 By 25 2 ys 8 ce. themeximurn value ofy is 2 sutsinnsey=2 ing. wegn a exe cx eg ax 24 = Sie eit or, x= 1)? 1 Ibe sel Gnd minimus vale of 2° = Sx~3 and also tie cenesponding ali of ‘Soin: The corcesponding: equation is 3? «Sx -3 Sy 4k 2x (R25 + = Ad “Te rquzed mins val ofthe given expression rey 4 seer aa 8 £2. a2 25 125 and the comeésponding value of lomentary Algebra uw Paplanation; 22 $x -3=y on.) 08 24 $x-(9 4 3)20 DoCS} 4x2» (439) = 25+ Hy +3) 49> BY Given tha cereal D2U 01,49 +8920 of, 492 C8)y » onys 2% = 6325 3 vestemoimun ye ofy 612 an abun y= 22a (Wy weget axl sua 5 or, 16x? 40x -24+49=0 (r, 16x? - 40x + 28 #0 on, (tx SP=0 oan 3=0 8 x Ex. 3: A certain nuraber of tennis balla were purchased for Rs 450. Five ‘moreba!ls could have been purchased far the sameamioxrtifeach ‘all was cheaper by Rs 15. Find the numberof alls purchased. is _2)29 3}10 425.5) NoneoF hese Solu: Suppose he purchased x alls. “Then comparing the prices in two conditions, we get en equation eo 6, 306 +5) or, 30x +150 35x +47 onyx + 5e- 150=6 on x? + 154 — 10x ~ 150 on, x(x + 15)» 10x + 15)=0 oF (= 10) (C4 15) =0 2x2 10,15 Neglecting the -ve value we find tbe no, of bails = 10. Notes (3) In equation (5) Costpsot ata 2 18 (QUICKER MATH ‘When we get balls more for tie same amount the cost price a ste We i in i oft i ecm by 1595205 (Quicker Approach: Equation %} i our frs-tep af the soation, Fi this very firet step we see thet we ary going to be traped in Sy The amen thas for Nae tes eee han Rays four yee apn, forms ecoereqution ie, f(x A) = y 4 Converted gor form ofa by v2 0) looks ice fany-20=0 (ii) The wo samtanoas equator: Gyix-ys0=0 @)6x-y-20-0 eat» = iv) Tost for common solution 5 * 2 ie. * “Tesco, ther exss anced pac whichoan satiny both the exuations (Solin or by eliotn, betting (2) am (2), 8 at 2k + 200 (by tensposition), 25> 16; puting the ie af A= axyt0=0 40, ‘The present ges of Ravi and his ther axe 10 and 40 years respectively omc) Misectiancous Examples Bho value ore? 4 betinesd 120 ‘QUICKER MAI Bx dilfat y= aye find the veiue of x — y? Som x? 97 = Gy) OF +9? + ny) Now, ny Very = day ITE =) ayl ery = (otyPoxy #90257 5237118 8 gitar ona tS HON. yee yee ths given expression hocoraes 2 yond a [ans i09e (0) Ex 6 1PR= 12,9745 find the valu ot (+9) Sota: (c+ 9" = 16)? =4096, Bx T:lft +b +6~6, Sind he value ofe + bP +e3, SP ybhee = Grbrey 3040) e+ a+b) Eementar Aged, a Soro ergarI=-3VO9 ou? bP 3 abe, (Remember) pe sittae Eth y 4 Babine teas oft 9 wv Ber wey, (SoA ae Wet) Boi oh 4-8 Nove epee pet stay Ft Ee. Site FA =e een TS 2 ey 2-H? + ait =2 [eo + ]-14 [ase —v? + ean? = 26? +64] 1. 9s My vaties as xand y=7 when x= 2, find y when x= 5. Soin: x? + y? Solas fy varies as then = consent Lod aye SZ 3 AID Bx, 10; fx + 2 exactly. Soba I+ 2 dive th ‘muse eqal ozo when equal eo + 6C2F IG) Stun rokn0 5 6k=6 3 ert. x11 What must be added to to ako it? igus’ + 6x2 + 11x + 6k; fin the value of ‘expression, then the given expression jo, -2)=0 2 Sulu: The equi vate = — text wy (Bx. 12: What i the square root of 2 +e = 4) (02 + 6x +997 Solns (24 4x + 4)(02 + 6x +9) = G42)? OH he square roots (+2) G03) 1377 =27 and 7263, find the valve ots a Soln: 3? sox-ye3 gam ty lomentay Algebea . 18 Ex. Thesum ofthervotsofthe equation + 1 xia tubo e ind the product of te ots. Sols Multiplying both sides ef the equation by (x= a) (x +b} we abinin: cD Fete talm te tay (e tb) (On rearrangement, we obiain sexta +b-20)+ab-be~ ‘Now, the sum of rants = (a-+ b=2 3) Adding (1) and (2), we get Ss ety ocsns sd Six=boxad B14: 1fx=9, 9177 tho vase of — 92) i equa Soin? -y5) = @1-y = d OTS OOS Re ETT x15: Find he vloe oF fot pees esp Solu: Weteve :x 2-8 CHM-9 (Erb are) E28 ah eee tte Fx 16 Theroots of 2kx? + 5kx+ 2 =Oare equal if kis equal to ‘Sola: Tie outs will bo oqual ifin ax” + bx +, Hever, he eo at ago (w-4on2=o Sisk 16 SkASK-10=0 (2+), on splint. Bx. 19: Bind the roots ofthe cquation, Vy eT = WE Soln: We have, on squaring ay+i-y- lay But y=-1 nteans y= {Ey ica iene muniher, Hence, no ral root exits, are the rots ofthe mation x24 Jax+e = Dandifo? +p? = 5, find the vatus ofa Soln : Sines a, B satisfy the given oqanton, we most have: a? +Rove Pa eps cn (On adding, we get Ge + B+ Bae +f) +20=0 > bit + B= sum of rools~. 5545 (-3+20=0 Ex. 20: ‘What isthe conltion that ono of the pots of the equation is double theotherin ax?-+hx +¢=07 Let one root be equal lo. “Then ether rot willbe 2a ‘Now, we kewow the the eatihepinstetions=£ (vate soatest2e sae Bx. 21: Ifa, Bae te root ofthe equation x7 43ax 42a? = 0 and if a? + 6*=5, tind the value of a. Solu: In the previous example, we oblainod: P= S420 ‘Now, pul, ¢= 23? 2 ence ron (1) and (2) ve contin tz = © 974? — 946 oa oy ‘QUICKER Mat We get, 9s? = $4 4a? aha =$ >e?=1 a> 41 Bx. 22: The area of a rectangle is the sare as that ofa crcl of Fm. Ethe Jeng of the rectangle exceed its breath ‘em; find the dimensions ofthe rectangle. Sola: Aree of theeiele ‘Then the Teigth is x + 3. Arcaofrectangle = Arca of circle Sxaty wae Wea 2 3 52. Bor breads caunot be negative, Hence, we dicard x= 5 sect =2. ‘Breadth = 2 om, Lenglh~ 5 om. “Thewufice area of pipe, open abot end, i enon 0 628 ‘qm. The diffrence between is rains and its Ioogth i 13 the ength beng te lange. hope was coset one ed, mouet of water can it hold? (Use 2 =3.1). Soto: Let radios Week ase 2b Bek 7 ab tan 5 i Bothtietars ic thesane orb he tes, Th vo frond wien the surest ofthe sud Mas ig and ‘Wien he mmecrr of ad haya hn oy on Foes Nhs, Toe 7 Gee _pes 2st Ws tas pag SS ‘Note: You are suggested to reatiember the Gtrect result (*}. It will save’ you seve psions cons injour eshte Ex. 6 Find the vale ofthe Slowing exposes cocci 4 decimal The ebove formula Bas the fist tex &3 8d the seco 2a Pieces ott We BaF i oe re 1 bea "Note:The above example gives on raporta esi soul be renee Sp Ma ga typ ght bere Bat gree Me, ae Oe May Ove OVS Sotuto: og = Lease LG, ag = Boose t +1 M41 SGT rar pos 2 ot Batts soe 2 ory. ap sts Number System Quantitative Aptitude deals mainly with the different topics in Azithmetic, which is the science which deals with the relations of numbers to one another. It includes all the methods that are applicable- to numbers. . oe . Numbers‘até expressed by means of figures - 1,2,3,4.5,6,7,8,9 and 0 —called digits. Out of these, D ts called msignificant digit whereas the others are calied significant digits. . ‘Numerals: A group of figures, representing a number, is calleda umeral. Numbers are divided into the following types: Natural Number: Nunibers which we use for counting the objects are ‘known as natural numbers. They are denoted by “N’. - ; N={1,.2,3.4,5, Whole Number: When we include ‘zero” in the natural murtibers, it is fmown.as whole numbers. They are denoted by “W’. W= (0, 1,2,3,4, 5, Prime Number: A number other than 1 is called a prime oumiber if it is divisible only by-Land itself. ‘Lo test whether a given, number is prime number or not TE you want to test. whether any number is a prime mumber or not take an integer larger than the approximate square root af that number. Let it be ‘x’. Test the divisibility of the given number by every'a prime number less than ‘x’. [fit is not divisible by any of them, therit is prime namber; otherwise it is a composite number { other-than prime}. Ex. 1: Is349 a prime number ? ‘Soln. “The square riot of 349 is approximately 19. The prime numbers Jess than.19 are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17.- . Clearly, 349 is not divisible by any of them. Therefore, 349 is a prime wumber. Ex. 2: Js 881 a prime number? Seln: The approximate sq, root of 881 is 30. Prime nutabers legs than 30 are 2, 3,5, 7,11, 13, 17, 19,23, 29, 881 is not divisible by any of the above numbers, so it is a prime number. . Ex. 3: Is 979 a prime number? Soln: The approximate sq. root of 979 is 32. 142 (QUIGKER War Number System “a Rule of Simplification 4) Ie siapifying an expression, frst ofall vinevtun or bar must be emtovad. Por exanple: we tow thet 8-10 =-18 tut, -F=W= -(2)=2 {iy After removing the bat, the brackets mast be removed, sail in the order(s (seal) (li) Aor removing the rackola, we mast ue dhe following operations strotly inte order given below. (a) of) division () ligicaion () adtion and (subtraction ‘otez The nul i also known 2s the rule of ‘VBODMAS' wiste V, 3, ©, D,M, A and § sand for Vinculum, Bracket, Of, Division, Multipl cation, Addition and Subtraction rexpactvely 2 8 fal] Exs Simplify + Sof 648x773) + 5 + sets 2arerann fied Prime mimnbors test than 32 are 2,3, 5.7, 11, 13, 17,19, 23,29, 31 ‘We observe that 979 is divisibie by 1, soit snot a peino number Bx.d: Arc897, 508,757, 1003, 1009, 919, 913, 647,649, 57, 659pm urabers? Solve it) ‘Composite Numbers: 8 number, ofber than 1, which snot a prime timber is called a composive member 4,68, 9, 12, 13, yeu Number: ‘The number which is divisible by 28 known oy suber, 8, 7.4,8, 12,24, 28,.. leis also of tie fort 2n {were n= whole rumber} (Odd Nuoiber: The number which is not divisible by 24s known as ner. €03,9, 117,19, ‘Comseentive Nunsbers: A sore of numbers in hick eas i ereater ‘than tha which precedes it by I isclled consecutive numbers 28, 6,7, Ber, 13, 14,15 fer, 11,103,103, 104 Tntegers: The et of aumbs whl contin oF eho tbe nogative mura known a nega. ss dents by 1 e800 (4.8. 2-f,0,1,2, 34,5, 0) Rational Numibers: Wien thc ber ate wits intone, they ate ‘known as stionaazmbars. They are detoted by Q. 138 8 aos (the numbers whch can he ween inthe fos # (te x a ae integers and» #0) are called rational mares Jtvational Numbers: Ths numbers which cannot be writen inthe foc: ‘of gare know as rational numbers where panéq ere iniowers, andq 40), Por gxampla: V3 = 1.732... VE ‘But recurring decimals bike 3727 2 13 21 2orovosfh ei] retold srs ee, are tatfonal numbers, tie g tocm, so they are rational numbers, Real Numbers: Real cumbers inelide both rational as wo ag iestional rursbers. Daewe = Pease a4 (QUICKER MATHS: Somb+b! Sastb abe eb) = ab 4 30h (a+b) de-vF Hero yaw = a toe bho - =P 3b OY apt oft i nath Fw oreo) = (ory GP abs Poe oy Fee ona BF = aby Gah b6% * Ph? 40° —3abe. Pee ab — be oe Oat = ty 1) ewe ey 12) 9% Wt itor 1s =o other 14) a" = 1 thenx is 0 forall values ofa (excent 0). (atbte) Ascending or Descending Orders in Rational Nembers ft See eam cpa sews id whe te mumertr an ee dexnmintr fh adn aaa rpeer tat delun trot te bigest HOTU STARCH be telione pee vi a 6 Set: ese te mera a ele demas core Ince telco. ie gee tn Rea: Wikhone oie! ovigtastosstegenest | 2a as amy ‘Number Systern 145 san; Wee tare ec he es fe ove tases as, the fo es faction, EX. 3: Whish one of the following factions isthe gremtes!? 1a a 3190 Sela; We s00 thatthe, umerstar increas by 3 (a constant value) and fhe denerainator also increases by a constant value (1), 0 the last stn inte ees actin “ha ead eon beens Inthe group of factions KoSaa xe? gs3e 0 x tme yl yah Lye yeas yen STB fas the highest value yenk ie ‘where ba ward [But what bsppens when a < b? See in the following examples Ex. 4; Which one ofthe following isthe greatest? 23 4 Pie" 0 Soln; Inthe above example, we se thet the numevatorsand the denon ators of the Faotions interease by constant values (Ge numerator by 1 ‘and cenominaters by 4) 1f we change the above fractions into decimal ‘values, wosee thatthe factions ae in an ineressing order and hee, the Jaw fasion 2 i te tes Ex.S: Which one ofthe fllowing factions isthe gretest? 2 bay & 7% Solm: In she shove example also, Wwe see thal the numerators and ‘Nenowinators increase by 2 and Brespectively But she last action, ie. 4 isneteast Ine Note: IES $5 Socreasc in Den. 140 ‘QUICKER MATH ursor System 17 ncreae in Num, Tas 5 perenne in Den 8 Inmuch a ease wien # iss Sip Alte ge cet Nome aed th 57975 5 Method IT ‘Change the factions into ecizals Tike 2 7 i he » de06 Ts * Bronte Clearly, ea: wes pees 1 or 22 Meio . ‘ on tgs sean 7 Rate of CM (erase nutpleaton) Solu: StepT: 13.423 < 1520 ‘Step 1: Take the first two fractions. Find the greater onc by the nuleot sett 2 i peat oe ‘You ean see how quickly this meitad works, After good! x? Puctice,you won tee vasa before snoneng negate wT ee 23 3° 7 1g QUICKER tan Numer Systom ma ‘Step I+ Take the third fraction. Apply CM with th third fiction st un of squares of stn natural numbers = 0+ UG" + 1) the Farge vas cusnd it Ste TV. Suu of squares of fest n natural numbers t ri 3x Foccrample F224 3%. eto? M02 D194 4x95 507 Py SLL as x75 YV. Summ of cubes of fest n natural mumbers = ry brow oaeat EMEP aa Zan ie ner? 4 ane 3, ‘Now we se that Foun ic afer 3 or Bewoen $ and 2 3 end 7 sud see that 2 > 3 ce, we apply OM with 3 end 3 end see that 3 > 7 4.03 Fy 7 Notes 1. he fst cong aries, eee Bol and en unis poids of bes, eve ee mer ot mmibas, od, tin ee (+3) mand 2) sven ue For example, from 1 to 50, theve ace 28 2 25 odd mambors 2 eat 32 25 son nmin Ak on thea Sh Stop Tk he ot ato. Apply EM with Sal and ee ‘ 3 om vwith 2 and + ena soe dae? > Een we apply OM with Zand Lend see tat? > Therefore ATs 2l ts sy o> 2> 7 Step IV: With sizilar applications, we pot the Final rosult os: Ada ds ach Boda smumbers and 242! — 25 even nuribers. 3 ‘ete Ts loncome hvntp sl iyo sei so cscs runes frre Seti wehcstomstomsseet te | Ti lem tre hss faa ome better method for you Some Rules on Counting Numbers ra mabe =D Ex. 1s (Gard 25 are sqisuys of 2nd 5 respectively (nee consecutive ‘mutobets}, 25 - 16=9 aero number. Ex. 2: Differonce between 26)? and (25)"= $1 (an odd muraber) Reasoning: Derived from ths above rue 3. The difference between the squates of two consecutive nuribyrs is he 1. Sum of all he est Forexample; 424341105 12 SUB AD S565 11 Suan ot the two corsecive numbers. AL. Sum of first odd aucubers =n? Tu tiod?-s 49 for exemple: 1434547 4-16 (a there ate four ocd mumbrs). Pau 06? -@9) =26+ 25251 Fer example: 13454, nt20Mh odd umber (ie, 2042-1 20 = 400 : ITT. Sum af frst even numbers 1 (21) a For example: 244468... 100 for SOih even mumbes) 1} | I | Reasoning «? 6 Solved Examples () What is tie total of alt the even ruenburs from 1 to 400? ‘Solm: From 1 vo 400, shere are 400 numbers ab) (at) = etd) 30 x (S041) =2550 i 180 QUICKER MATHS! So, there are “2 = 207 even mumbirs Hove, wm =200400'1) 40209 let @ whic ie taba nceen mers 163) So From to) en 36 mec he ae PAS | 2890 09 pn 258 @) What is the wets oC al the odd mienbers om [10 1807 Sein hee eon aldrumims ten he gen ag $e sem = 90)8 - 8160, (4) What in tho ton] oF al the oat numisers ons 1 0 $1? Solu: There axe S11 26 odd mambers between the given range, So, 26)?-675 63) Finan sum ofa te od nutes foes 2019 101 Sito: The eee sum = Sum of al the odd nambers fogs J 19% ~ sam ofall hoo aumbers fr, (10 20 Suon pf fis 5) BL nuraber smn of fist LD odd moms GLP ae 260110 501 Power and Tndex a umber ‘pis mliplied by itself m times, the prnduct is called mh power ofp cud is written asp, In pis called the base nd called te index of he power Soune solve examples (0) What is te nuror fa the nit place in (729)°° 2 Solu: When 729 is maltiplied twice, the number i the unit loos is 1a ther words i 729s multibeam even tiraber of tints, te metaber the uni place wll be 1. Thus, the eursbor ia de unt lace (728) i (7299? = (12998 (729) = (2.1) (720) =4 Fn the un pace (2) ind the number inthe wnt place e020 6 and (ona, Numbor System 1 Soln: Winen 623 is anlipled 1wice, ths moraber inthe wait place is 9 ; Whes. 8 moliplicd 4 biaes, che aumber it tv unit place % 1. Thus, | seesay chet 1695 is muldiied Gn sumber of times, the auras in the iu place wil be 1. $4, 628) ~ G2!" =1 athe un place Goa & Cenayt*? (623)P= (0) (..8)=9 nthe unt place E629) x GBP 1% (00.9) ‘nthe ait place you solve this type of questions (loved sumer) ry ‘to get the last digit 1, as has been done in the ahve two examples, (2) Find dhe neraber in ths‘ wnit place ic (122) , (122)? and (22279, Sol Gondindd nd CBr eG = 8 Bh Bel BIC We know that 6}6¢ 8} C8) Tus, when (122) is mots An ties, he ts digit is 6, Tevet, 1227? «(228° = 6.6} Hn the uieplace 122) = gray Se G2! (6 shud) = & inthe unit poo. (22) = (122985 5 (22) =8)o4. 8} -8 Hn ae ut place, (4 Find the umber inthe unit place in (98), 05y* and (98)? Sone y=.) e987" =(..0) This, 98)" = 24)” =(..6)~4 inte eit place 8 = (5° 4 68)? 8x6.) =4 athe uri plece 8 = Cy!" 5 69) (..5)x(.2)=2 he uit lace ‘Note: Wien there is am sven curbs inthe unit place of base try {0 eC 6 in the unit place, ay tas been done in dhe above two questions. “his chepor should be cogcluget with some geaeral gles dived fortis Cre of ess, Yule For ued numbers en there an digit ia the unl place fexcept 9), melipiy oe mussel wal you got a the em place bo on 152 QuicKeR mas C= C1) where 123, Role 2: For even mumbers When there an even digit inthe wat place, wail 0 saber by self uni yon ges in te wl place 26) GB = (6) (.6F=(.8) (8) (06) heron, 3,35 Note: fthereis 1, Sori the it place o ths yiven amber, then ‘any times ofits maulilieaton wil have the same digit in wait place, Gold GoD) CPS) C0966) (6) What the muerte vi place when 78,325,457 ond 248 mild ogee?” Sola: Mullply all the nscabrsin the wet place, is, S35 the ees isa munoherin wich $ is the uni place. Miscellaneous Examples Fra Givision sum, we have four quate —| ‘Quote sud Reminder. Thessare connected by the elation Dividond = (Diviser » Quotient) + Remainder ‘When the division is exaed, he remainder is aeco In hws vase, the above relation beconscs Dividend = Divisor x Quotiont Bx, 1: Tho quotient arising from the division of M46 by a cert snatnber is 79 and the rerisnder is 35; what i the dvix? ‘Soln: Divisor» Quotient = Dividend - Remainder 79 Divisor ~ 24446 - 35 = 24411 Divisor ~ 24411 + 79= 309. Ex, 2: What least number anist be adder 19 8961 10 make it excl disisile by 36? Soln: On dividing 8861 by 84, we get 57 asthe remainder. He auatber to be udéed ~ 84 -57=27 iden, Divis Furnbor Syston 13 Ex, 3: What least sumbor aust be aubuacted fiom 8961 t0 amske it sactly divisible by 842 Solu: On divicing 8964 by 84, we get 572s Gue remeindor. Therefore, the martber to he subtracted i $7 Nate: la Ex 3, we soe thatthe given number mecls 2740 make it exactly divisbte by 24. But in Fx 3, the giver number exceeds by $7. xed: Find the lease muesber of 5 digits which i exactly diviibe by 89. Sole: The least number of 5 digits is 10,000. (On dividing 1D.600 by 89 we get 32 a8 femaindes, {Fe aid (@D-2) 037 to 10,000, he ce vl edtvsibley 82, the roared umber = 10,000 + 57 = 19,087, ‘6x. Find the grees numberof Sd which s cxetiy divisible by 197 ‘Soin: The preaiest miber of five xi is 99,099, On dividing 99.999 bby 137, we get 126 as minds. ‘he reviced mumibt ~'99,90 - 126 = 99873 Note : Do you find the diffrence Rerweer Ex. 4 and Ex. 52 Ex. 6& Find he nearest integer to 1834 which is exactly divisible by 12 Sola: On dividing 1834 by 12, we set 10 a3 thy remader ‘Sine the cerssindor 10 is oeve than the alot the divisor 12, the ‘nearest integer will bo fous by aking (12-10) =2 “Ths, the requved number = 1824 (12-10) 1838 xs Te Find the nearest ateger 9 1829 which is execly divisible by 12 Solu On dividing 1829 by 12, we get S as the eemainder. Since the remainder 5 i loss than hale Use divisor 12, the nearest inteper ‘be Fouad by subtracting 5 from 1829, ‘the rguited number = 1829 $= 1824. [Note 2 Do you realize the difference between Bx. 6 and Bx. 7% Ex. f: A number when divided by 899 gives 9 comsinder 63. What enuindet wil be obtained by dividing the same number by 29? Soln; Numbe: — 699 x Quotes 63 = 2031 x Quotient-+ 25295 "Therefie, the remainder cbtaned by dividing the wumibec by 29) is cleat 5. x. 9, A uamnbsr wien divided by 89D pives a remainder 62. What reminder will be obtained by dividing the same auraber by 31? SSoln: Number = 899 = Quariens + 62 ~21%29 » Quotiont © 31-2'8 “Therafore, the reniainder obiained by dividing the number by 31 is cleady 9. Note: From Ex. (8) and (0) its clear thatthe diet divisor must i & ‘mulipie of the ncccnd divisor, But what kappens when the fist 154 QUICKER MATHS sivisor is nota multipte of second divisor? Sec in the folowing camps. Ex. 10: A number wen divided by 12 Kavos a remainder 7. What ‘reminder will be abtained by dividing the same number by 7? Solm: We sce that im the above example, the fst disor 12 ie not a multiple ofthe second divisor 7 Now, we take tie te sunbets 135und 15, which wien civided by 12, lave 7 as the rezindes, Bui witen we divide the above two mumbsers by 7. we get tho ‘espective remainders as @ sna 4, Thus, we conclalo that the {question i wrong EX. UL. A boy wis sel co muliply 422051 by 56827, but reading one of ‘the Figures inthe question ertoncously, he obtained 21959856177 8s is answer, Which igure eid he mistake? On dividing we find thet $6827 dows not exactly eivide 21939856177. Hence the ercor wes m reading S6827, But on siviging the number hy 4820S, ve get 50827, Hence the hoy Teed the figure 6 of tho mrulipie as 0 Ex. 12; A boy moltiplcd 423 by a cernin nurnber and obiaincd 65580 ss hisonswer, IF Leth che fives are wang, but the ether figures ‘ze right, find th correct answer. Solm: Step I: Inthe prouct, the figures 9,8 ane 6 ate cone. "Tos gat 9 ‘in the unit place, we must zmulipiy by 3 units, So, 423 wep Sal 1269 oes © Bet 8 in the t's place, we must have 2 under 6 in he fst line. Fence, we must amply by 4 tei So, 423 a3 1269 1682, cerns Number System 1 ‘Step I: To get 6 in the product we must have 4 under 1 inthe second Tine, Hence, we ust mltply by I hundred. So, 423 14a 1269 1692 423 soaes ‘Thus, the eomect answer i 64RD, ‘Ex. 13: How many prime munbers exis in 6? x 357 x 11%) Soln: 6? x 35% < 18! = cay’ a Gx x 111? nw hx Pa le ‘Thus, there we 7+72413410~30 prime mares. Ex. 14: On dividing a number by 5,7 and 8 saceasively the remainders ate respoctively 2, 7 and 4. What willbe the remainders ifthe order of Uivisen is reversed? Som: 5| t= kad ate T Weave * 8x) 44 =12 teers De3=97 P98 SBT HD AIT ‘Ths, the eumber may be 437 ‘Now, wisn order a division is reverse, 8) 437 isa |. 71s Tt Hence, the rived eemaindees willbe 5, 5 and 2 ‘Note: Weave used the wots "may be" hecaute this imber is one of| those many cumbers which satis the conditions. We have ural 7 as ‘our nal quotient und hence, got the nsraber ax 437. But forthe other Values, like 2,3, .. the numbers will be diferent, And surptisiagly all ‘of dhem wive the sume iesule. You may vert for yourself ia ye QUICKER MAT Bx, 18: A watch ticks 90 simes in 95 seeonds and another watch ti 2315 mes in 32 seconde: bh te watabes ace sated loge, hi ‘many tines will taey ik together ia the Bet hour? Som Th Bath zoey ns an esc ak 323 ticks every 323 secon 333, $235 seconds, 19x5se17 ey wie opr alte LM at nd LCM of 95,323 “yor 8S ana 222 Now, LOM of gpand e = Hey Se 32 ‘Tae numberof times they will tic in the rst 2690 sezonds Wx S617 3609 = AS 360045 gy 100. Wx Sat7 325 Oneeteyhavealresy eked nthe Beginning; 6 in 1 Nout wal Be 100+ [= 191 times 1s. 16: By what momber fess sn [000 must 3259 bo mused he Lae thre figures to te right ofthe product may be 437? Soln: [tis clear thst the required aumber is of three dts, Let tha imamber be abe. Thon we bare, 43259 abe 437 Is clear hat 42259 ans Number System “7 Now, Wwe see that he second dipit (tam right of produ is 2 ‘Taisis possible only when 7 is added to 6 And forthis °b* mustbe equal tod Thos, 43289 a4 437 ‘Now for she thind digit vo seo thatthe thied columm has 1 (canied) +7 + 3~ 11 and it needs 3 more. This is possible only seen “at iseqal 7. Thus, we finally see 33259 a3 437 Hence, tae required marsbor is 743, Nate: The above question is given in detail so that you can greap exe step, bot once you understand the method, you ean salve itn a single sep, The ony thigg whigh should be Koptin mind is that when the last three digits ofthe produc arg given, you should net ealeulaie beyond the ¢hizd coluea for any ro: x17: Find the least number by which 19404 must te multiplied or divided aa aa to make i perfect square? Soln: 19404 = 242.33. tr tell =F x3 Fx ti ‘Tau, ithe number is multiplied or divided by 1, theresultext number will be a pereet square. Therefore, the required auunber is 11. Bx. 18: Fill in she blank incieated bya sar the mumber &* $6 s0 as 0 make stdivisible by 33 Solu: The momber should be divisible by 3 and 1, To mse the nuraber