a a erred eee Ta
M. TYRA
es
aeNow on stall
care pe teunches
! QUANTITATIVE APTITUD
CAT
(Common Admission Test)
PEE
Eig
Pies: Ro 380
"Rasa an the Previous Papers
\Conins each and evry chapter fm which guests aré asked
Pilly soe att ay to eamprcent
‘Uses sadentiendl language
Proves concep gush techniques ee
cai or every CAP esprant
K Kunlan & P Pandey
Contents
Chapters
aw to Prepare for Maths
Additiongo~
Mutiny,
Deg
Sausing
Cube”
Tichrena Lean
Tratons >
Decimal Fractions 7
Elementny Algebme
Sunde
Nob Syteme
Binary Siem “
Pormataion gt Combisaiouf vo
Poabiity &
Ratio atl Pepoton
Partrerehion
Penentge
aren
Frotlons seed on Agi
Profitand Lees
Site intesty,
Compornd inetd
alligion«
Thine ent Wor,
Work and Wages
Pipes and ister
‘Timeand Disa
Tain
Steams
on
PageNo.
v
3
9
3
a
3
%
9%
Bs
141
182
1
209
2s
245
23
309
319
327
31
aor
aL
453
489
301
529
5533
2
3.
35
36.
Blementary Mensuration “1
Blementexy Monsuration «IT
Series
Data Sufficiency
Data Analysis
‘Trigonometry
wm
363
593
617
6st
1
Foreword
‘Whee did vouserp this momning? AUE.35, id yontoach your
dtostinetion in time? Ves, [anived 10 minutes eater even though  got
up five minutes late. T wily walk but tacay I took a bas. Why note
‘ai! lant stor? Raster, yes. But in my case ae speed of the bus was,
sufficien: Besides, ¥edhzpated tae tates ofthe bye nieans of trumnport
and concluded that sakiig a xt would mean incurring usnezessary
expenditure
‘Wow! what a clever guy! Saves money, saves time, Dogs he
Jno some magic? Tse a student of occult siences? Na, doer Hein
ordinary mortal ike any of ys. tke exades fs inconsvon confidence,
thanks to his ability compute at magical pace.
Incter words, Quicker Maths is an asso:st every step of one's
lie By Quicker Ma, the book means speed and socurzey at bath
‘smmple mimerial operations and complex probiems. And itisheertening
that fhe Book takes iate account afl kinds of problems that one may
‘encounter in the ordinary nun oie
‘There are several hooks one comes actoss which tuke care of
problems asked in ceaminations. Bat they are emwentional and prove
selutions with the help of éatail mod, This book provides yeu bots
the Geta as well che quicker methods: Aud itis i che lator chat the
‘book is inesissble. That the book provides yo hotk dhe methods is &
‘pointer fo te fit that you see bein Ted its faith whore you have
‘o blindly fellow what the guru sys. The conclusions have been rlien
ally drawn, The book iherafoce serves 8 a guice the true function af a
‘ger  and onoe you get wellversed with the book, you will feel
ferspowered enough to evolve formulas of your own, I think the sal
magic Les therot
Atthe same time, scare study ofthe book endows you with
‘the magical ability 1 ane at an answer with seconds. There may be
some semiedocaled persons who smear al this value ef the book. Can
you beat a computer? a vontampivous question ie esked. Abserd
‘question, For one, tae globe is yet to get sullicieatly cqmipzed with
‘computers. Two, even when we ents: fulledgad htech age, let us
hope itianot atthe cost of our mines. Lat nol computers and calculaors
become the proverbial Frankenstein's monster. The mind isa healtiy
woonganandcomputing health ston, Comps answer
EeTipeetate resid nt ocosanelh
7 Maton ait othe ain be isis cacnoers
every intial. Inwotofte examina even celebs en
Seren sc rompates And tanto a hail eck ves
weer an Yoo rea randero his bok, you cat defini
(Rove fone mex aes the.
ona dt secs has hos = feof taka vcived
ith bo oval hos stat who are Barn op Seve tt
Mathematics Marutis at an amazing 200 kesph, the book definitely
ane reute amc Ata seve tod
re lh pope cation asssty acs, ete = oo
Tee ip sumone gldeans enon rude enioy ie ide.
eae her ape ig nical pers, ce
nus ofthe bok vi acre ae rowel eel AP seme times
en esmaige makes emly scare ast the lings
Fe eer aes ct at yoa vss eth Quis Method kes
ing very es
eee ihe Cok proves ou speed ota ie cont off.
ot mores etna Cvis bat Rt sa orgie cat, One 0a
Shan ft gi
Chetananané Singh
[Bditor, Bathing Services Chronicle
Author's Preface
We a1 Banking Services Chromicte (BSC) analyse suudcats’
problems, IFaatudont isnt ubleto periomn wellatan exem, cur researcit
froup members try 19 penetrate rhe student's payche end get athe raots
‘of the problems. hn the course of our discussions we found that the
‘mathemati section often roves tats the Achilles” heel for cost ofthe
students, Letters om ony students cleanly indicated that thei problera
‘was nat that they could sot salve the questions. No, the questions asced
ngeneral competitions aroin fit ao easy that most ofthestucdents would
secure a cent por cent scor if it were aot for the time barrier. The
‘problem: then i: INABILITY TO SOLVE the question INTIME.
‘Unfortunately, chore was hardly aay ack available (0 the
student which could take care of the sime aspect, And this prompted the
[BSC menibers to scton, We desided 9 offer a comprehorcive book with
‘our atention tawmeied a the twin alvantagé Gicton: speed and aecwracy.
Sources were hunted fot: Vedic Math=mstizs to compater progres
‘mings. Our ara waste gol everything beneficial from wherevecpossible.
‘The moateacourtoted questions were categorised. And Quicker Meh
‘ods were inol.pontly atived at and &idgently verified.
Flaw dees the book lelp save yous time? Probably all yo
lvarat by hear the muliplicationtabies as children, And you have also
been told cht muliplication isthe quicker method fora specific typooF
‘udition. Simialy, there exits = quicker method for lanost every type
ff problems provides you ara wellversed with sonte key determinaats
and foeranas,
Tor the benefit bl yrerstanding we have also given the detail
method and how we ariveat te Quicker Method. However, for practival
purposes you toed not delve too mucin the theory. Concenteate on
{ye seorking formula instead.
For the benefitef nonmattermatie students, the book takes
core to explain the aleuged terms in an ordinary language. So that
even i€ you are vaguely familie with numbers, the book will prove
[boneticial for itis selGexplanatary.
“Tie mathealiessardent are celatively in eornfbrabeposi
tion, They da ii bavota maks ae effertto understand the concepts. But
ever i their caso, there are certain aspeeis of questions sed in the
oicoonptive cams shih havebecaletby Cham untonshet sine shoot
Shyu So arevatoain cot
‘eine ca of every stn, Soween te wigu seing propo
siete bon ssn aby o mcrae snes prblemsoling
ae ie con Sas bean Obsoval proceed mcbodialy. Agra
ies he wae for snp comes crap. Te ee
Rom anv expe lowed by Oars. Assent chap
emer uy wil efaly akin 2 eked mpowenen of be
TERLey este spond Toe stent ate sgt son ther
Cathet al oggeon eit innovemen
‘Rad Hate os extn tank ol Tose wo ave
payedestcn neg dbo va oto tieseadr. speily tha
Pestana Py for having played 2 Key wel ia roctiog tie
Stour Cheanand Sigh fre setcaloon cng of ebook
See A Nijan Bhar fox aving sey verded the ral, Mc
Sif Sagh's aloud ecitans cannot be orgoen, Fenda key
aoe mn ove gap, The angen caved Fors Mi
lait, acy Bhar Sr Napendrs Xeon Sake, Me Sandecp
SE A oan Kae, ay Kame Rij ana, Me Act
Fee NSM Singh somneae, hasbeen walublo, And ans
to Air ridecy Qupl for pening
Preface to the Second Edition
It is.a grea pleasure to aot that Magical Book om Qvicker
“Mache continues 3 be poptior mong the students who are looking fer
Detter sults inthis ctethroat World of competition. This ook has
‘rough thenew cénceptaf time saving quiekermethad in mathematics,
‘Sa mimy other publications have ced to publish similar books but sone
‘auld reach even close to it, The vason is very simple. tise fst sod
the origina! book of 1 kind. Others can only be duplicate end not the
driginal. Some people cau even print the duplicate ofthe samo book. It
‘wl prove dangerous to our publication as well as io our reader. So,
tmnggost our readers to confirm thecriginaliy ofthis boo before buying,
‘The contimesion is very simple. You can. ind a tuecdimvensional
HOLOGRAM on the cover page ofthis book.
‘This edition has boon extensively revised. Mistakes jut fst
dition, have been corrected. Some sur chapters like Feamutation
Covthinatipn, Probability, Binary System, Quadratic Expression st.
‘ave been troduced. Somme old chapters ave beerstewrittan, Hope you
‘ll os find this book more eonipeehensive and roe usefol
. oo
Preface to the Third Edition
‘The patter of question paper as wel a5 tae standacd of quos
‘ions have changed over the past couple of years. Besides Penmuation
‘Combination an Prcbabilty, quosions from izonomtry = in the fora
cof Height and Distancehave also deeuinrodoced Ip chapters Hee Data
Anas Daa Sinan Sas, ew ype of wena ng
 With te abowe contest in tind, a ee mew chapters eve been
jntodacad anda few old ones eskrpes, Important Previous Exam
‘questions have boon added to almost al the chapters. But they have been
added in larger nambess in the chapters spevilly mentioned above.
‘An introductory chaptec has boon added on "How te Prepare
Joe Maths",  suggest going through this chopter before siting eny
sarge.
A revision in the cover price was fong due. The fist edition
£1995), whieh costs 200, nad only 612 poges. ‘The price remained the
Same even in the second edition (1999) in spite ofthe rumber of pages
bing ineresred to 748, Buc tho third edition (2000) has gone into $07
votumins pags ence bmg inrasa oe 25, Kindy bet
oaHow to Prepare for MATHS
(Using this book for Competitive Exams)
1. Importance of Maths paper (PO)
Quanicive Aptnude is a compulsery paps. You can't ne
lect. So make sure yor are ready fo improve your mathematical skills
Each question valuis 12 mares wherews gach question of Ressoning
values only 1068 marks in PO cxart, So, you devote relatively move
‘ume on this paper you get more oaths. Alb, the answers of Maths
questions are more confiomed than answers of Reasoring questions,
‘which ae often confising. Most of you fel tis a mors tice consuring
‘paper, bat ifyou low our emidenes, you cam save your valuable time
In examination hall
Other exams: There acc vory few competitive exams without
maths pager, SSC exams havedhiTavent types of Maths paper. The iat
‘exam of S$C contains Snbjective Question pape, Keeping thin and,
Thave als given the detail method of cach shorcut ot Quicker Method
sive inthis book, ach thenrem, which gives you a iret formula sso
contains peoor of the thcorer, which is nothing but a general fmm
{Gevoting numerical values by letters sy X, Vet) of dt othe,
2. Preparation for this paper
(A) How to start your preparation '
‘Mae sa very interesting subject. Ifyou dens find tiarest
i simply means you hava’ (tied o Undecetand it Lene assure yOu
‘ery sips and 100% logical. There x nothing i be assumed and
noting obo confused abou. So ratiag to ery yeu came forward
(ws firmndesennination to len tbs.
Ths most basic hinge Maths ar:
3) Adin  Sizacton 1) Mahipicaion Division
‘All ess four things ae most uch, Asleest one ots four
things cercinly need in aay ype of meematical question. So, Crs
4 cur basi ercultons fer we save ous valuable Ge in each
auestion, To caleulte Faster, suggest the fllowing lips:
{i) Remember the TABLE upto 20 {at leas:
‘Yow should now thar tables have bean prepared ta make
Addition
Jn the problem of addition wehave bwo enain factors (speed
‘and accuracy) ide considerstion. We will discuss a method of ad
tion which is faster thin tho method used by masa people and als as &
‘higher Gepree of accacacy. Inthe leer par of tais chapter we will 3iso
discuss a method of checking and doublechooking the results:
{in using conventional meibod of adeifion; the average mE
cammot always aud a fidy long colunnn of figures without rokaing a
mistake, We shall eam how to check he work by indwideskcolarans,
‘wihout repeating the addition, This has sever adveniages:
1) We gave the labour ef repeating all the wore,
2} We latte ear, if any, inte column where tees ad
43) We ae certain to find er, which isnot necessary inthe eoaven”
tions! method.
"This lst point is something that most people do not realise,
Each oge of us has his own weaknesses and. own kind of proneecss.10
{5 56. f you alehim dicey he wil si
‘ealculation twill Sip out x8 "56". 1 23s his Zaveurte eos, he would
‘be likely to sepeat it whea he checks by repaiin,
‘Totalting in columns
"Re in theconventione! method sf éaltion, we weit te figures
tobe added in edluam, and under tho bottom figure we draw atime, so
that te tora wall be under the coluam, When writing tiem we remember
that the matheraetical mule for placing the numbers is to align the
ightchendsde dipits (when there are whole numbers) aed the decimal
points (when hore sce decimals), For example:
Righthandsidedigits Decimal
alignment alignment
4234 13.05
8235 251
5a6. 539.652.
3324 2431,0003
3500 49.28
9989
“The eemventional methed is 19 adé tho figures down the
righthand onluran, 4 plus plus 6, ond soon. You can do ths if you wisia QUICKER WATHS
inthe now method, but tis mot compulsery: ou can begin working 00
any colar. But for the rake of convenience, we will srt on the
‘igh hand column.
‘We add az we go down, but we “eover cout higher than 10",
“Thats wen to muning tla bocomes grater than 10, ve reduce ity
10and go ahead wits the reduced figure. As we dos, we make a small
tickorcheckmatk beside the mumber that mede oor total higher than 10
For example:
" ~
4 pli 812: this is more than 10, so we surat 10 om 12. Mar:
2 lick and start adding again
6 Gy 2.8
1 tplas,9 ‘
© Opie d,9
9 9 plas 9 18: mack atick and seduce 18 by 10, ey 8
“The final figue, 8, wi) be writen unde the column as the
‘sunning foal”.
"Next we count she tos that we have ust made as we dropped.
10's. Asweave? ticks, we write under the column as he "tick figure’
“The example wow looks like this
$234
ae
646
sia
350,
98h
runingiotil: 8
teks 2
rveepetthe sme pces onc of theca were theres
a
os
smi
350
5S
655
mm
runing tonal +
ticks?
‘eon 8
“Now ve arive atthe final resultby adding togethecthe wing
fetal and the ticks inthe way ehown inthe following diagram.
‘enning total BR
ticks orrrro
Total: 28778
‘Save more times Weo'serve tha the ruenng taal is ae othe teks
‘eclow in she immediate right column. This addition ofthe teks with
‘mediate left cofuma can bedone:in single te. Thetis, the number of
tio inthe first coluran from ight is added to the second eoluran row
right, the mares of ies in the Pc column isadded to he thd column,
anid 30 on, The whole method ean be undoriaod inthe following steps.
4234
2236
645
5321
350,
98s
Tout: 5
‘Step.
[A plus’ is 12, ark a tisk and ode 2 0 6, whieh Gs 8: plus 1
29,9 plus 089; 9 plus is 18, marka tck and write down $intho frst
column of totatow.]
4234
ase
666 .
5321
350
9985
Stop I.
Tow 78
[3plus 2 (umber of tik in fiat column) is 5; $ plus 3s & 8
plus 4s 12, entk a tick aed carry 2; 2 plus 2 is 4; 4 plus 1s 9, 9 plus B
18.17, mark tick and write dovin 7 in 2nd column of wterow
Ina similar way we proceed for ed and 4h coluras.0 “quioxer avis]
4234
a23¢
646
5321
350
$985
28778
‘Tosa:
‘Note : We see that In the leftmost cofuan we are left with 2 ick
\Write dovn the mumber of ticks in a column left to the leftmost
column, Thus we get the answer a litte earlier chan she previous}
method.
One more itustation
(Q: 707.235 + 1923.62 ~ 56.009 + 564.949 + 65.6—7
Solution :
orgs
1925582,
Sku
séasies
6
Toul: 3319609
“You may nice a cueton is itnece ryt write the numer
in columaonm? Ue ars er ito You ny ge the are ASO
dng ve. Quon aban row fne onto aprodien of aliens.
ious ee ning hee a a a
pings, be suggest you's sched which would by f
Signin pebiem. 3 vou ous of fhe
Stop "Pu srr tothe ight ofthe hs etal ctl took he
tel isa decal equal nea suber
Fer exitape, te abore qn say beri x
Sgr a28 + 925820 F800 © Sea 1 65.600
Step St ang he st gt om gin, Se Se gi wie
hustbece dealt wily Ifyou dont ext, duplication may ose, Doig
unig tl don't gard 10, Tha wen wo ence 0, oma
tice auywiete rear sbeut ou calculaicn, Now, go aed lt
mneberexsoeing 10.
Sona7s N1OD3896 + S800) sc4.n4f + 6560p=_ 7
saselion  "
pus OS Splus9i9 Haiti nog sen and cary
overs abe ey pan 087 sown con 7D hs we ee
ST incae white ust tsayes us tom Sntho and duo
ra
A Ad the tbefleks owt iin alse,
Sad case tat ek Fogel
Or aES + SSPEARS = S8.01) + 565.968 + 65.004.
‘our tel pus 23,3 pis 2 5 5 plasO
sSope dao wee de i plan,
Sept. "
“ron Ab + 1903.636 + 58.)6) +504. fh e05.6bb
5 pushes mata oughana cary otf psp
js 10, mark another tick in rough and carry aver zern; 0 plus 6 is 6, 90
pets cise
Bev. “
ESR Siep Zooming Ne sameyemy ga Denes
SRN a See » feasts 88) = 19.87
‘Adon of sure (ntiou decal) watcha ro Tora.
ison osigrsne mas 113
Sins stepsssr¥ reapers Mas 18
Step I: $3021 + 6308 + 86+ 7028 + 1113
‘Step HE $392] + 6908 #864 7025 + 11132, 472
872
Step IV: 52021 + 6308+ 86+ 7025 +1119
Shop V: 53921 + 6308 + 85 47005 + 11132 = 78472
Note : One should get good command aver this metiod because i is
very mel useful etd fascalevlating, If you don't understand it Wy
agai and eyain.
‘Addition and subtraction in a single row
Bx. £2412 83+70=7
Stop I: For units digit of our enswer add and subuact ihe digits at units
‘pages according to the sign atached with fhe espeetive nome
For example, in the above eaae the walt plate of our temporesy
resulsis
23+0~2
auickeR mares
Sowritgaxs *
M28 70=__(1)
Sindarly, the temporary value at rong place is
18 +756. So, write a:
41283 +70="_@ (1)
‘Smilarly, se cemaporary value athaandreds place ie. So, were
41283 + 70=(4€0)(1)
Now, the shove temporary tres have © the changed into real
‘value, To replace (LJbya+ve digit weborrow from digits tens
or buncted,
Asthed:gitatensls 72:0, we willhave to borrow stom hundreds
‘We borrow 1 frum 4 (at hundreds) whick becomes 10 st tes
Jeaving 3 at bundreds, Again we borrow 1 from tone which
Dbeoures 10 at unite pce, lawving 9 at ons, Tus, at units place
1019. Thus our final result= 399,
‘The above explanation can be repented as
age — a
® @) Ch
9
i above explanation i easy to undeestand, And the method is
more easy io perform. if you practise wall, dhe two steps (Lf)
‘cane performed simulkanenvsly.
‘The second step can be perfonned in another way lke
VO) CD = 4001 =399
124 829+ 781438
‘Solm: According to sop [the traporary Sigur is:
‘Step Il: Borrow I ftom 5. Thousands place becomes $
(5) C4) (0) 9)
Voorrowed
fio thousands Becomes 10 at hundreds, Now, 10  4 = 6 at
hhundveds place, but 1 is borrowed for tens. So digi at hundreds
becomes § 1=5,  boowed ftom hundreds becomes 1.
‘Again we borrow 1 fot tens forunis place after which the digit
at tens plas is 9. Now, 3 borrowed from tens becomes 10 atunits
place. Thus the result at units place is 10 =
Our requiced newer 4591
Note: Aiter step I we com peor Hiker
54) (0) (9) = $000  09.
591
‘ton 8
‘But this method can'the combine! with step 1 to pstform sia
taneously. So, we should tryto understand steps I Il wel! so
‘that in ature We can perionm ther siraanecusy,
Bx, 3: 3216  $396 + 35109997
‘ols Step 1 gives the result as
(1) (2) 5) (18) 9)
Step H: Ui digt= 1691 [1 barowes fom (16) reals 161=17]
“Tens dig = 2017=3 [2 borowed ftom 5) results $2=7)
HlundzedeAigit= 107 =3 [1 borrowed Som 2 results 21=3]
“Thousands digit= 1037 [1 towowed fom 7 results? 1=8}
So, the require vale is 67321.
‘The above exteulations cs alan besarte’ from lemost digit as
doce inst 0 examples. We have sated foun righimast git
inthis case, The resol i de saree in both cases, Dut forthe
combined apesiion of two ope you Will have te ert foe
ighteos digit Gc nis digi). See Bx.
‘Note: Orer mths forstepHl 29S) INDE = LH)
= Ass = 70000 » (2669) = 67331
Bx. 4 AU975 1234536218 =?
Soln: Step: (4) (2944) (2)<5)
Stepld 141 5
‘Single step solution:
"Now, you mast learn to perform the to steps simultncousy
‘This the siruplost example understand th cowlined mete.
‘ACunlls plage: 85 8 (}, To make it positive wo have to
‘borrow from ts, Yeu should semeribes that we can't borew
‘rom sve value fg 12345. We wil havo to borrow from
postive value from 89978, 80, we bermwed 1 from 7 (tens
igi of 89978)
oh,
8997812345 36218—____5
Now digit at tons (71 =yb4 11
Digitat hndeeds: 93 2=8
Digitat thousands: 925
Digit ton thousands: §43—4
‘he roqused value= 41415,
5 28360 + 38062  9873 7
Single sep solution:
Tens digh=6+67
Unita digit = 9423 =
HHendreds dig 3498“ QUICKER MATHS
“Thousands digit=8+ 89=7
‘Ten thousands digit=2+3=5
Bx. 6: Solve Ex. 2 by stgie step method.
[24 +829 +731 435—
‘Units digits 494 15 (9). Bowow I from wens digit of the
postive valu. Suypose we borrved fr 3 0f 731, Ths
‘equited value = 57458
4
512492973 1438
Tens digit: 2242 3
+ye value, Suppaio we bored from 70781: Then
512442947 3 1435=_ 91
Hundreds digit: 18+ 64~ 5), Bonow 1 from thousnad
[igh of tve saluc, We have only ane such digit, iv. 5 of 5124
Then
“1 La
S124si947 34435 =4597
(Thesonds digit remains a $1 = 4)
‘Now you can perform the whole calculation im a single at
‘without wring anything ex,
1 Solve Bx. 3 ina single step wichout writing anything other than
tlteanswer. Teyityourset, Don'tasove tonost example und yo
«ean contideatlysaive such questions within seconds,
ERB: 10789 + 3945  2310 1203=7
‘Sainz Whenever we get a value more thin 10 afr addition ofall the mis
‘pits, ow wil pt thesis digit ofthe result and eary ove the te
dig We aa the tes digit to +ve valu, not to theve tale,
Similar meted should beadopted for el digits:
en
107 € 94 390623101223= 11202
[Notes 1, We put + aver fhe digts of ave value 19789. teean also be pt
‘vr the igs oF 3046, But i can't putover 2310 and 1223.
‘uinthe exam when you are Eve to uce yur pe on question pa
you eat aber te digit with your pen isend of wring +1, 2, 1)
2 ovecthe digis. Hence, inszad of wating 8, you should
‘Sever 8 with your pen, Similxty, write 8 in place of 7.
x. 9: 765819  59,003 + 12.088 86.59 =?
‘Soin: First, equate he manber of dyits alter decimals by potting 2
‘kth cna. So, ? = 765 819  85.003 + 12.038  86.850
Ex.
ation 6
‘Now, apply the sere mathod as done it Px. 4,5, 6,7 8 8.
Aaqad
7 3.8 1.980.003+ 12.028  $6.90 = 001.964
Method of checking the calculation : Digitsum Method
"Ths method taso called the ninercerasinder method. The
concept of digit. sun consists a i:
Tie getihe digtoun ot a macber by ding acres" the umber. For
Vrsanes ths gitsem of 9022 is 1 pus 3 ples O ps2 pus? 88
1. Wealwaye roduce tne dgieepr oa wngle Gye snot abeady
Youle fre. For insane, he digitsum of 5264s 5 hus 2 pis 8
pia § (7, oF ps 788)
Tar intercross a ier, wesnay drop ox These haps
te nse two dips tht adapt 9, such as 2a 7, we ignore ath of
itor, sothe digtsumot 990195 Late gance, (wean 95 we
pte smmerenit)
1v. Bevaise"aices don't cout in this process as we sav ia
igteaum o°9 ithe sue aa dite of oem The digits oF,
forename sz,
‘Quick Aadition of Dgitsua: Weave are “shdingacrass”anumbes
shoot a8 our running total reaches wo digits Weald these two together,
and go abead witha sgl digit sour new rig ot
Toreyample: To gettho eigitsim of $86542932851 wo do
Fis Iga two igor number We educethix 1610 singl ig 1 plat
Bet, Wego ahead wih this 757 plas 6 64 (13,07 1734) 4 plus is
8 fnget it ps 25s & Pocge $. Provanding this way We wet toe
aig auto 7.
er decines we woiccry hose way Bure dan py ay
neni otnececzal por. the digits. 06256, fr esampe
is por novestey in prctoal sease 10 anderson why the
suetiod works, bu you wal se how iteresting this is“ baie
Thott arte redvead gitar fs be sane as the raider
«ven he numbers divide oy %
or Ceample: Digitsary £523 And alee whes 523i ivides by
ye gt he emer 1
Checking of Caleutation
Baxie rule : Whatever we do to the numbers, we also da to thelr
dligiesum; then the result that we get froma the digits of the
fpumbers must be equal tothe digitsumu of the answer.16 QUICKER MATHS
For example :
The number: 234+49+ 15430 117
The digitsum:5+ 4+6+ 30
Which reduces to : o=06
This mile is also applicable w subtraction, multiplication and
upto some extent to division also. These will be discussed in the coming
chapters. We should take another example of addition.
145+ 32.54 23.9= 579
digitsum: 6 +1 + 5 =3
or, 3 °=3
Thus, if we get LHS = RHS we may conclude that our calculation is
correct.
Sample Question : Check for all the calcutions done in this chapter.
Note : Suppose two students are given to solve the following
question: 1.5+ 32.5 + 23.9 =?
‘One of hem gets the solutionas 57.9. Another student gets the
answer 48.9. Ifthey check their calculation by this method, both of them
get it to be correct. Thus this method is not always fruitful. If our luck is’
against us, we niay appreve our wrong answer also.
Addition of mixed numbers
1, 44; ghey
Q3 a7 4 3 9 7
Solution : A couventional method for solving this question is by con
verting each Of the numbers.into pure fractional numbers first and then.
taking the LCM of denominators. Te save time, we shouldadd the whale
numbers and the fractional values separately. Like here, _
at + at + syecenne[s + $ + 3]
=i6 BtBiU =156+12
=0s+p+2
,
Soln ; (54421)+ pecan]
=2 (Ao BantingMultiplication
Special Cases
We suggest you to remember the tables up to 30 because it
saves some valuable time during calculation. Multiplication should be
well commanded, because it is needed in almost every question of our
concern, .
Let us look at the case of multiplication by a mumber more than .
10.
MULTIPLICATION BY 11 
Step I: The last digit of the multiplicand (number moultipiied} is
pat down as the righthand figure of the answer,
Step I: Each successive digit of the multiplicand is added to its
neighbour at the right,
Ex,1, Solve 3892 x 11=?
Soln: Step I; Put down the last figure of $892 as the tight hand figure
of the answer: ‘
3392 x 11
2
Step Ur Each successive figure of S892 is added to its righthand
neighbour, 9 plus 2 is 11, put  below the line and carry over 1.8 plus.9°
plus  is 18, put 8 below the line and carry over 1. 5 plus 8 plus 1 is 14,
put 4 below the line atd carry over 1, .
3892 x 11 ,
12. (9+2 = 11, put 1 below the line and carry over i}
5892 x 11 .
812 (8+9+1 =18, put 8 below the line and carry over 1)
5892 x 11
4812 (S+8+L = 14, put 4 below the line and carry over 1)
Step IIT; The first figure of 5892, 5 plus 1, becomes the lefthand figure
of the answer; :  .
5892 x 11
64812
The answer is 64812,
u‘quicker MATHS
[Ab you see, sash Hgutoof tho lang mantis used twice, Ieis
fist sed ss "number", and then, 2 the nest ate, itis used a6 a
~ naighbour, Looking carofily, we cam nee just one rae fatend of tree
hile, And this only tule can be called as “add the right nelghbout™
nile
‘We innst ft writes zion nit of che given number, or at
Tena imagine a zero there ’
“Thon we apply the idea of ding the neighbour wlevery figure
ofthe given twmber in tur:
05892 1
FAs there is no neighbour om the right, s0 we ads
nothing,
08802 IE
4512 “As wo did earlier
sa 1
oasiz, ‘oro ps5 ples cxsiedover Lis 6
"This exaraple shows why 0 naod the zero in dont of the
mubtipioand: is to tem us not sinp 700 soon. Without The zero fo
Frost, we migathavenoglecte thelast6,endwe tight then havethought
that the answer was only 4812. The answer than the given
srumber by ono digit and the zero infront kes caro of that
‘Sample Problems Solve the following :
WVTIMLAL x U2) 231454 11 3) 89087 114) 5776800% 11
591122332608 x 11
‘Ang: 1) 122222)
5) 12543658688
2254395. 39979737 4) 63544800
MULTIPLICATION BY 12
‘Torulply any number by 12, we
“Double each digit in turn and add its ueighbour”.
"This isthe satneas mulipiying by 11 except that now we double the
._ Teuibes" before we add its "neighbour" :
For example :
Ex: Solve: 5324012
= Soln : Step 1. 05324 12 oi
T(@ouble che right hand flgureand add 200,
‘as thar fs noneighbout)
Mltipteation 8
Step tt,” 95324 x 32
35" Glouble de 2 aad a4)
Step II, 05324 x12
$55, (Gouble the. and wl 2)
Step IV. 09824 12
“FEB ouble the $ und add 3 (12), put 3
‘below the fine and earry over 1)
‘Last Step, 05324 x.
‘3886
(ero doubled is ero, plus $ plus
‘rid over }
“The answer is 63,888, Ifyou gp through it yourself you wil
find that the ealoulation goes very fist and is very ey.
Practice Question
Solve the following
135609 x 12 21123008 + 12 aysora9 x 12
4922200007 12_——_5)444890781 x 12
‘Ans: 1) 4273082) 133476108. 3) 5481468 4) 266400084
5) 5338688532
MULTIPLICATION BY 13
‘To mutiply any number by 13, we
“Treble each digit in turn and add {ts right neighbour”.
‘This isthe same a5 mitiying by 12 except that ow wo "tebie" the
"murah" bofore we acd its "neighbour",
sve went to multiply 9482 by 13, ve proceed like this i
Step OIF
‘9 (rable the right hand figure and write it down an
there 1an9 neighbour on te right)
ppt 13
7 (xB13=27, wre down 7 aiid carry over 2}
Step TIT, 09483 + 13
29
Btep1V, 00483 4 13
329)
[Last Step. 09482 x 13
i TRI (GOH 12, waiteit down)
‘The answer is 23.279.
Step H.
(434812222, write down 2 and cxery over 2)
(9x344+2=33, write down 3 and catry over 3)+ define figure of 8576 py one, axe 7 is theleAnand figure oft
QUICKER Ma
Ima similar way, we ean define les for mutptcaion b
‘Bu, during those sulGplicatons we will have to get four of
five Uses of gt, which ie soeetines nt oo easy to cay oves. We
Ihave an easier metiod of enlipicaton for those large values.
‘Gea you Get salar tathods for motipbeation by 21 and 31
eis mot vary tvgh fo define the rules. Try it
Multiplication be
Step Us Sabet heighten igre ofthe ong number Som 10 Thi
ive the righthand gute ofthe answer,
Step I Taking the ex digit Bom righ, subtcact from 9 wed ad
acighbour ons ht
‘Step TIE AL the at sts, hen you are wider the zoo eon of th on
‘umber, surat one from the neighbour and use shat asthe lef
Figure of he answer.
Bets $576 927
Soln + 08576 9
aly
Step I. Surat the 6 of 8576 fom 10, and bave dof the ewer.
Step Il. Sublect she 7 fon 9 (ve have 2) and add the neighbour 6;
reaultis 8. :
‘Step LL (95)+7 = 11; pur unggr theline and cary over 1,
Step IV. (96)+5+1 (cased ave = 7, put down,
Step V (Last sep), We are under the fhand zo, 0 we sce
Matipication a
MULTIPLICATION BY 23,
Suppose you are ven a large number like 125690258. And
tomneone asks you to multiply that number by 25. What will you da?
Probably you wil do oothing but go ior simple multpicatioa, Now, we
suggest you to rautply that numer by 100 and then divide by 4.
Todo sees See
He Pat wo zeroesat the right of turner (as ithas tobe tipi
Bp ih (osithastobermltiplied
Btep TE: Divide iz by 4.
Bo, your answer is 12569025800+4= 3142256450, fsiteasier than your
o,zour 0. siteasier than yo
[General Rule for Multiplication
‘Having dealin aly sulin! detail wit the ppticaion
ici cases omultpiation, we now proced to deal wit the" Geel
orcnta” applicable to all cases of multiplication. It it sometnces go!
very conveaient io keep al the above care and their steps in rind 50
at of us should be very much finan with *Gonaral Forme” of
rtipicaion .
2) 1718 =7 (3) 6392
ansier .
‘Thus anawer is 77184,
Hers era fowr questions for you.
Fightbuod digits of multiplicaud_ and muhiplior
igh of mplonnd ih nteph ot eemtigicy
1) 34 x O=2 2) 569% 97 3) 1928» 9= 74) 5049S x 97 wl?
97213288 « I .
‘anwers 
fy300 2) 5321 sy riase 4).sees7 5) e03sHa02
ve doa suggest you topic much sopbass on iis =, os
“Because it Ye not very much easy to use. Som times it proves
ee A
“Step 1s Puta zeto at she right end of the number; ie, waite 85760 for I, 2
aoe
~ sp Seal rt ie 18 x
54 Guit2x1)Py
2 QUICKER MAT Mulioncanon
‘Step FEL. In the last step we sultiply the lefthand fy of be ANSWERS
pr i a a ‘hoes a aae sya 49315051639 oyzz7 7)2t0Ls) 4402
12 962910) $633 *
Ex.2, Solve (1) 325» 17=7 (2)4359 4
I Soln (I): Step. 32 5 :
vos 
156 Gel a2 2
Q)17 x 18=7 “
Wa) 5 (5 7=35, putdown 5 and carry over 3
Step Ie Stop IL. 2 y memes »
Stop 1. we .
: 2S (xTeSn143 =P, putcosen and camry over 2}
(HxB4 Poel +5 = 20, write down 0 Step IML 3 2 5
aed cary over)
Step 1. "7 N
Tae eta 9, vin dona) 525 (3x7420182=25,putdown Sand
@srxs=? Now's cary over)
erent + Repeat the erosniultplicition wot all he consecutive
By os Dalrs of dighs exhaust. In step I, we crossnuil6plied 25 and 17
: india step IIL, we erosemultiplied 32 and 17.
4 (7x2= 14, write down 4 and carry over 1) StepIV. 3 2 5
Sept, 87
92
= 17
04 (sx2+9< 74180, it down Gand cary 0 =r 
Sip. 67 25 Gxt42=$, putt down}.
o2 . (Q)Stepl 4359
Practice questions .
W5Tx 43 2)51% 42 3)28%43 4ps6x 92 SPRTx 19 ze ve
SUITS 37 10)97 89 — Te : 
7 (3=27, pur down 7,cany ove).
DBxM IO Bex 7QUICKER MATHS:
43
‘Step IL
3
37
Sip. 4.4.5 9
(5x3 #9422 = 35, pat down 5 dnd
catty over 3)
Stop tv.
ale
5
$9
24
2D 2,5, 7 WoH3K2e2 =20, put down 0, cary over 2)
Step Ye
‘350
3
: 100257 x22 10,putitdown)
‘We can write all the steps together:
4359
23
. Badd DG HHT HID HS
! = 0 2 3
= 100257
(0%, we can write the anewer dircity without waiting the intermediate
steps The oly thing we should hoop in mind isthe Yearying numbers
Gxaes243 22, purdovn 3, capy over2)
Muitsleaton 26
4359 4350
230 oy, 23
10 20223827 100257
Note : You shoud try for his direct calculation. Ie saves alot of tte It
Ina very systernat¢ caleulation and ia very cary tozemember, Wate the
above steps egain and again emf you get Gat systematic pattem of
exossmuitilication,
Multiplication by a 3digit number
Bx: 1. Solve (1) 321 x 132 =? 2)4562 x 345=7 (3) 69712 641 =?
Boln:(1)StepL 324
132
2 (x2=2)
Sept 321
12 Qedas1=7),
Step 324
ish ‘
372 (Qudtadttxt = 13, write down 3
‘and cary over 1)
Seeplv. 921
2

2372 GxSHx2+h= 12, write down 2
and carry aver 1)2
eB Bx D) BHD AL DABIIKY Ts
= a 72
@ 4562
345
GeBAN yl St S41 SGT SAO Da
25 7 3 8 » 10
= 1573890
@ 69712
oat
(66 etx! 1x684N94 KI! HLT Ph Db 1
=a 36 cs ° Bo 2
= 44085992
‘Note: Did you get the cleer concept of crassultiplicaion and
‘ngecressmlipication? Did your bow the digis i cross wuttip
ttuon inetease, remain constant, ard then decreas? Take a sharp lo
fr question (3) In he Best ow othe answer, sf you move from right
Tef, you will se that “here is. only exe utilisation (1x2) in. the
pat Ta the second part hero are to (Vo and 42), in he 3rd pat
((o27, Ax ad 6x2), the oh pat thee (1x9, 7 and et) in the 5
sport aguinthice (146, 40 ane 67), in the Gh part too (4x6 and 6x
tnd in te last partly one (6x6) mulsipication. The paricipation
‘digits in cromsuliplication.can be shown bythe lowing Giagrams
Lod
64 ay
Muttooation Fa
vigg 712, wLg9712
oil ‘sat
Foreach of the groups of figures, you ave to rossmultply
‘Multiplication by a 4digit number
Example: Solve 1)4325 x 3216
Sola : 1) £325 » 3216 =?
Step L432,
2) 686329 » 124
3216
(0. (Sx6= 30, write down O and camry over?)
‘Step 14325
3216
D6 (xGHxS+3 = 20, write down O and cauy over, 2}
Fo fest da145:242~32, weitedown 2 endcarty over 3)
Step IV. 432,
. &
HN
9200. AxGedel:2e2+5x343 = 60, write down
nd carry over 4)
Step 1H
Step ¥. 4325
Pe
6
09200 Caeirsezidnte4 ~20, dite down 0
and cary over2)Ea QUICKER MATHS
Step VI. 4325
$216
909200 (4x2+3432=19, write down and exrry over i)
‘Step VILL 43.25
3216
13909200 (34
‘Ans 13909200
2.646325 « 81247
“Try this question yourself and match your steps withthe given
sligraramatic presentation of participating digits.
Seep 645329 sethoneny
Bind . 812
‘Step Mm. ned Step IV. ye
sits wits
Step V. gy Step VI. 649329
.
Step VIL 446329 Step VIL. ve
ais Bis
Step IX. ve
Bia
Practice Problems: Solve the folowing
12342456 BIO GT —YTZAD1—&) 2945.67
5) 345672 «ASE 6}S65> 952 7) 458 008 B)S4I« 342
9) 666 444 10) 81035 45D 1156321 « 672.32) T27Rx 569
13) 5745 502 14) 4455 x 887 1598862241
3, write it down)
Mutiotcation Fay
ANSWERS:
1) 106704 2)22780R 3)375832 4) 1571159) 1378642
6)541688 7) 413864 8)185022 _9}295704° 10) 3646350
My 37847712. 12) 727182. 13) 3228600 14) 3960485 15) 30Z1942
(CHECKING OF MULTIPLICATION
Exi: 3S x = 195
digitum: 6 x 4 = 6
om = 6
or, "6 = 6, Thus,curotioulation i caret.
Bed: 9712 x oal = 44085392
5 Therefore, our enlelaton is camect
ann
digitsum: 6x 6~9
61,365 0
o%,0= 9 Thus, our calculation is corect
‘But if someone gets the answer 43227, and tri to cheskehis
caleulation vith the help of cigitstin cule, see What happens :
aBL x 132= 43727
Aigitsam 6» 60
36= 0
on 0m 0 .
“This shows that our aneworis correct: Bar ti not tue, Thys
we see that ‘Four uckis very bad, we cam aprove aur wroug ener,Divisibility
We now take up the interesting question as to how one can
determine whether 4 certain given number, however large it may be, is
divisible by a certain given divisor. There is no defined general rule for
checking the divisibility. For different divisors, the rules differ at large.
We will discuss the rule for divisors from 2 to 19.
Divisibility by 2
Rule: day number, the last digit of which is etter even or 0, is divisible
by 2.
For example: 12,86,130,568926 and 5983450 are divisible by 2 but.
13,133 and 596351 are not divisible by 2.
Divisibility by 3
Rule: Jf the sum of the digits af a member is divisible by 3, the number
is also divisible by 3.
For example:
1) 123; 14243 =6 is divisible by 3; hence 123 is also divisible by 3.
2) 5673: 5464743 = 21; therefore divisible by 3.
3) 89612 : 849464142 = 26 =2+6 = 8 is not divisible by 3, therefore,
the number is not divisible by 3.
Divisibility by 4
Rule: if te last two divits of a number is divisthle by 4, the number is
divisible by 4. The number having two or more zeros at the end is alse
divisible by 4. ;
For example :
1} 526428 : 28 is divisible hy 4, therefore, the number is divisible by 4.
2) 5300 : There are two acibs at the end, so it is divisible by 4.
3) 134000 >As there are more than two zeros, the number is divisible
by4.
4} 134522 : As the last twodigit number (22); is not divisible by 4, the
number is not divisible by 4.
Note: The same rule is applicable te check the divisibility by 25. That
is, 4 nuraber is divisible by 25 if its last two digits are either zeros.
ot divisible by 25,
4Rule mambo ends in 5 r 0, he number is disse by 3.
Forexample
1) B45 1a an Sih 8 iis debe Wy 5.
2) 1340: Anit last digit i 0, itis vise by 5.
3) 1843 Asis lat ig is either 5 noe tan visible by 5.
Divisiiity by 6
Rules fa numberisdvtste by bots 3und 3 she munber fats divs
1y6. So, fora mumber 1o be divisible by 6,
1) The mumber shouid end with an even digit or Band
2) The sum of ts digits should be divsibie by 3.
For exarple:
1) 63924: The Gnst condition is lsd asthe last digit (4) isam_eve
‘ube and slso 6#3+0+244=)24 is divisible by 3; therfe
the number ia divisible by 6.
2) 154 : The frst condition is fulfilled but not the second, therefore,
umber is zo divisible by 6
39261 ; The Set condition i ot Buled, therefore, we don't noe
check for the 2nd condition,
Spectal Cases
“The rules for divishty by 7,13, 17,19». swe very mu
nique and me found very rely. Befor oingon Sethe rule west.
‘ow some teams lke Vonesnore” oseulatar and negative oseulato
*Onemos” ooculstor means the amber weeds one more 0
a multiple of 10. For oxample: oscar far 19 needs 1 to bocome:
(2x10), hus eseulaor for 193 2 (akon fro 2x 10= 20), Sil
oxculetr for is 5 (ken fom 5» 19= 50).
Negative aculsine means the umber auld be reduced
one tobe aaliple of 10. Fer example:
"Negative asclator for 21 is 2 (akon from 2 x 10 =
Silly, negative osculator for $1 (taken Som 5 x 10= 50).
Note: (1) Wharis the osultar fer 7?
‘Now we look fortkatmnleple ef 7 whichis oitherlessor
by 1 thas a mulipic of 1, For example 7» 3= 21, a8 21 sono m:
‘than 2 16, cur negative osculatori2 for?
‘ed 7 x 7 49.0149 ig one less han 5 « 1, our fone
ovsulatorin5f7
Cohisloy 2
‘Sinsilarly osculstor for 13, 12and 191s:
For 13:13 x3= 29, “one mare osculator is 4 (from $x 10)
For 17: 17x3= 5, negative oselator i 5 from 510)
For 19: 19 4. "ouesmore" oscar x2 (Fem 2 10)
{2)Can you detine oaenlator: Rr 29,39, 28, 31,27 and 23.
(@) Gan you get any osculator for an ever numer ora number eniog
‘wis °5° (No, But why 2)
Divisibility by 7
‘ist af elLwo reall the cosulator for 7. Once agein, for your
‘convenience, 387 3=21 (one more tan 2 10), ournegativeasculsior
482, Tais gcuator'2" isu keydigt This acd only tis digits used to
check the divieibility of any number by 7, See how il works:
Ex ts [a 112 divisible by 77
Solu: StepT. 112 112x2=7
'A8 7s divisible by 7, the mane 112 is also civsibe by 7.
EX 2:15 2061 divisible by 7?
Sobre Stop I 296.1: 296 x2 = 294
Step Ik 294:2942=21
‘As 21 is divisible by 7, the mumber is aso divisible by 7.
x3 SS2PTRR B 5527783  82 = 9527757
SSQTIGT: 992776 7x 2= 550762
‘55226 2: $52762 x2
5572: 5507202
2315523 2= 546
Sg: 540242
‘A3 42 is divisible by 7, tho number is abso divisible by 7.
Note: I. Inallthe examples exchef herumbers obtained afer Co equal
‘sign ()isalso divisible hy 7. Whenever you find nomsber which
Tacks divisibie by 7, you may stop there en euuclule the rest
‘without any hesitation.
2The above eins cn helen oetine eee aay
Tey mdose.
Divisoaty by 8
Rolle: {the fast ree digits of a muiber is dvisibs ay & the munter
salva divisible by B Asn, i te last three digits af a mumber are zeros,
the number evistbte by &.ey ‘QUICKER MATHS
Excl. 1256: As 256s divisible by 8, the mumaber is also divisible by 8
[Ex.2, 135923120 As 120 i dvisble by 8, the mumber i also divisible
bya
1Ex,2. 139287000: As the susberhas thyee zeros at the en the number
“eaivisible by 8
(Note: The samo nae is applicable to cack the dvisibiity by 125,
Divisfoliy by 9
ile: fthe sum ofa the digits ofa umber is divisible by 9, she mune
seaton dive by 9.
Excl, 39681 :31946+8+1=27 iedivalbleby 9, hee th marie inalvo
‘visible by 9
ERD 456138 HS+OHHSH8E 27 is divisible ky 9, hence the mumber
1s also divisible by 9.
Divistbaty by 10
le: Any mamber which ends with zero is divisible by 10, Mere ive
eed fo dlscuss thls rl,
Divisiinty by 11 .
alec he sues of gta ode ad even places are equator ifr Bf
ctwsmber date by Hi, tent rer tara dvb iy 1
Bhi 3209682 5) SHG DBS and Sh 26545" 15
‘Aa 5. ~ 5, foe mmberis divitbley 1.
a 24S TID 523+ Fd d= 4742 17 Aa Sy and Sain
iy 1 visible by 11, the mumbai alo avsible By,
x3 8927291658 5) = 8190 Sy AT and So ae De DLISH 14
‘AstSs ~ Si) 30 isdivsle by 11 th umber ls vse by]
Divisthitigy wy’?
Rule: Any manter whichis divisible by bath ant 3, ts also cvsible
yi,
"To check the divisibiity by 12, we
1) fiat ave the lst tendigit number by . 17s isnt divisible by 6,
the nuraberis mot divisiale by 12, [Fis divisible by 4 then
2) check whetherhe number is divisible by 3 or no.
Ex.1, 135792: 92 is divisible by 4 and also (1434579420127
sdivisble by 7; hens ho nomber is divisible by 12.
Divtoty 36
‘Remark : Recall the method for calculetion of igtsum, What did you
Adocarlicr (én Istchupter)? Forgetnine" Do the same here, For exam:
Aigitsum of 135792 _1 plus 3 plos 5159, fngetit 7 pls 2 in 9, forget
its And fivally we ged wotbing, Thal means al the “orget nine” eounss a
nuraber whieh ia cultiple of 8, Thus, the mamber is divisibfe by 9
Divinity by 13
‘Osculetor for 13 is 4 (See note) But tie time wr oseutor is
ot negative fs in case}. Wis ‘one riore’ esalater. So, the working,
‘vil be cifferent row. Tis can be seen inthe following exar=pes.
Ex tris 18 aivisble by 139
Sein: 143: 14+ 3% 4=26
‘Since 26s Alvisible by 13, the suber 143i alsa divisible by 13.
“This working muy friner be sanplifi a
Step: 143
16 [443 (Rom 143 +4 (Gom 149)
Step 1 4 3
"26/16 [4 6 iam 1.6) + (ftom 16) +1 (fom 143
‘As 26's divisible by 13, the number is also divisible by 13.
‘Note : The working of secoad method is also very systematic. At the
serve tne itis more accaplebie because it has fess vrting work.
Ex 2: Check the divisblity f 24167 by 12.
De l6T
2os6/20034
26)
(er (om 24162) 46 (fora 267% 24]
fad fom 8943 (fram 34) H (oes 24167) = 20]
[0 (rom 203 +2 (oom 20) 4 (fon 24167) ~ 6]
[6 (rm #2 (kom 24167) = 25)
Since 26 civil hy 13 the saber is aleo divisible by 13.
Remarc: Have you txleriond the working? If your atswer if 80, WE
suggest you to go through each stzp earfilly, This is very simple at
systema cafcultion,
Bx 3: Check the divisiility of 6044808 by 13.
Som 694 485 8
s9ugDAUI9E2
4x10 = 32
213819
OHH = AL
aiid 1238 (QUICKER MATH ay ”
at9= 18
44116" 39
Since 39 s divisible by 13, the glvon number is divisible by 13.
Note : (1) This axethod is applicable for “onemare” oeculatar only.
‘ie can’t use this mettiod in dhe eae oF 7.
(@) Thisisa oneline method end you don’t need to write the calcula
during ckams, These ere given mecely to make you understand well
8925: w92555= 307
857: 865x7=51
Since 51 ia divisible by 19, the given number i also divisible by 17.
Distlity by 18
ales Any umber which sds by Sand hast ast di (neti)
sven or zero) ts disibe by 28,
Tx. 1.926568: Digit is maltipl oF nine Ge, ivisibie by 9 and
unit ligt (8 even, hance to mumberis divisible by 18.
By, 2.273690 : Digitsum ia wolfe of rine and he number exes
ero 30 the muroberadivibe by 18
Note: Dosing the caleuation of digtsum, Rll the method of "orget
ane", If you get zeo at the ond of your ceculation, it means the
Gigitsem i divisibioby 9.
Divisibility by 14
Any number vhich ts divisible by hoth 2 and 7, nals vst
‘by £4. Thats, the number fat dit should be even and at the 2
‘me the mumiver should be divisible by 7.
Divtstblity by 15,
Any nuraher which is divisible By both 3 and Sis also diy
by iS
Divisibtity by 16
2 thatequred R= 198
Mothod H1The worko finding FCF may sematosesimpied
Dy th folowing devise
@ Any obvious factoe which {s common to both numbers may be
‘snot etre hele apd. Cae shuld hoover be he to
smltiply this factor into the ECE ofthe quotients. ©
(ii fore ofthe numbers has a prime factor not contained in the eter,
‘tray bo rajctad :
(Gi) Atany stage of the work, any fstor ofthe divisor not entained in
the dividend mey be rected. Thit s beomuse any factor which divides
ely one ofthe two cannot bea portion ofthe required LICR.
Ex, Find he ECF of 42237 and 75582,
Sola: 42237=9 x 4603
T5582 = 2x9 x 4199
"We may reject 2 which is ot a cornmon fetor toy rue). But
9 isa comution factor. We, therefore, et it aside (by rate i) exd find the
HCP of 4199 and 4693, :
4199) 4693(2, i
#198.
494,2 QUICKER Mari
454 ia divisible by 2 but 41.99 snot. We, therefore, divide 4
bby 2 and proceed with 267 and $199 (by seit)
247 }4199(17
ir.
origina murs 247 «9 = 2223,
Note: Irthe HCE of wo numbers be uniy, the musibes mast be
Uo each ose
To find the HCF of two or more conerete quantities
Fis the quuttos should he ceded othe ent unt
xc Fad the genes weight hick canbe comiained excl ink 238
gmand3 kg 805m
Bain: 1g 235 ge = 1235 ym
3g 430 gm 3430 am, .
“The greta! weight zequites isthe HCP of 1235 and 430, whi
be found tobe 5 am.
HCF of decimals
Rule: First ne (necessary) she same member of decimal places tn
ail te given nana; the find their HOP ax if they are igre and
snark theresa ax ay secimal places a there arin each ofthe
nunders
Ex. I: Find the HCP of 16.5, 048 and 15,
Solo ‘The giver mabe are svat
16 80, 0.45 and 18.00
Step Fit ve Find the ECF of {650,45 and 1500. Which somesty 15,
‘Step H: The required HCP = 0.15
Ex, 2: Find the HCF of 1.7, 0.51 and 0.153,
‘Sola: Step I Firat we find the HCF of 1700, 519 and 183. Whieh comes
* to,
Step I The requind HCP ~ 0.017
HF of vulgar fractions
Def: Tie HICF of sho or more fractions is the highest fretion which x
exacily divisidle by each ofthe fraction. :
Rule First express the given fractions in thet Towést terms
HCE of wumerais
Then CT oMy of derominatrs
HOF end Lom 5
Note: The HCF ofa number of factions is always « ction (bat dis
‘8 no rae ith LCM).
tetraunoncret®
6 42 B
Sota: Here Fo fH 7
fons are. ® ang 12.
“Tins tie factions are ® 7 and 33
HOF of 660.12, 6
Len of 127,177 17
. 6
Note : We se that ach ofthe mnie perfect evil by 5
{85.2 Find ho rene! engtthatis contained ancractmumboroftines
Lin ana
seth and tm
ACE
3B
2 4
Te ene gh wet Heo a
Hor of Tend 87 _
Tow of Zand."
7 na 93
Sola: Zana 83
«te rye « be
Miscellaucous Examptes on HCE
researc pent a yl ie 210 38106
ave nna Goa rope?
som: Se ee recs wee ied es
Tuva he ack sty Sey oe
io Sa bee, nee ts pene al
Sue eee stead ibe eae
ta 2 Wh ste pat numba ine ie 3 4F and 2
oe hdr and reso?
‘Sola : The required greatest number will be the HCF of (38  2}, (452)
meh arie weal
on
x. 3: Tht gs ser tio wi ie 1,751 0
rlene ema Fach
sath nel Pl wees HEP (410051 7d
oe .
fare /F ane Lem
2 QUICKER tA
fo find the LCM of two or more given numbers
fethod I: Method of Pete Factors
Rule: Resobie the given numbers into their prime factors end then find
the prodtct of de highest power of i he facors that occur in the given
‘Bx, 4: Find the greatest nzanber which ie such that when 76, 15] and:
are divided by it, the cemainders are all alike, Find also
‘common renainder
‘Solu : Let be the remainder, then the numbers (#6 k), (151 «X) anillumbera. The product will be the LCM.
(225 =k) are exactly divisibte by the required number. Now, “MP Ex 1: Find the LCM of 8,12, 15, and 21.
Iknow that if two numbers are divisible bya certain number, Bole: 8=2%22=2°
their difeience is also civiiale by that ruraber. Hence,
‘umbers (151 B) (76 }), 226 ~B)  (151 E) and @26
(964) 0175, 75 and 150 ae divisible by the veered nuniver.
‘Therefore, the repired nurabor= HGF of 75, 75 and 150 ~7
And the rerainder willbe found ater dividing 76 by 75.8
Ex.S: Themumbers £1284 and 7655, when divided by a cers
ofthree digits leave these remainder Findthet ember of
Sait. A
Sola : Tag requitedrurmber must be a factor of (11284  7655} 0¢ 2
Now, 3620% 19 x 191
~ 191s the required number.
Ex 6: The product of to uumbessis 7168 and their ICR is 16; Sa
rumbers.
Soln: The numbers must be multiples of hair BCE. So, lot he ra
‘be 16a and 16> Here a and aretwo number pre cach
$68 x 165 = 7168 oF, ab= 28
‘Now, the pats of nambers whose productis 28 arc 28,15 14,
ia
14 end 2 which are not prime to each oer should be rejected.
Hence, the required numbers are 28 16, 1316; 7 x 16,4 1
0,448, 16; 112, 64
12=2x2x322x3
Here, the pit factors tha occur inte given numbers are 2,
4,5 and 7 and their kighest powers are respectively 2, 5,5 and 7.
Hence, the regued LOM = 2 3354 7= 840
Bx 2: Find Uo LCM of 18,24, 60 aad 150.
Soln 18=2x3x3243"
24a 222x392 23
Om 2x2x3x SmI SKS
15002 35x $2x 9S
ere the pie factors that pun the ven numbers ce,
‘Sand 5, and their highest powers we2*, and 3 reopeatively
Hence, he required LOM = 25x 38x 3 = 1800,
Note: The LCM of to munbers wish are prin to each oke i he
prodect.
“Phas, the LCM of 15 and 178 15 x 17 255,
‘Method I: The LCM of soveal small mbes canbe easly found by
Be fellowing rule:
‘Wate dowa the givon umber in a Ine separating theme by
conunas. Divide by anyone of ie prime numbers 2.3.5.7 wid
ill exactly divi at leas ay two of the given mombers. Set dvi the
‘goters andthe undivided numbers inane below the st. Repeat the
proces until yu: getline of eumbess which ae prime to one aot.
‘Te pret ofall divisors an che musts i the last Ine willbe the
required LOM,
‘Note: To simplify the work, we may cance! aay sage of te proces,
‘any one of the numbers which i flo of iy oer number in
the same ine,
‘Common uldiple: A common multiple of two ot more numbers is
nursber which s exactly divisible by each of them, Ths, 30 isc
mulpte of2, 3, 5,6, 10 and 15,
‘Loast common multiple (LOM)"The LCM af two or more
‘aumnbers tho least aambor which is exactly divisble by cach oft
‘Tins, 15 isa common mulapie of 3 ads.
30 is 2 cormmon meltiple of 3 and 5.
45is2 common multpleof$and 5.
But 15 isthe least common maultiple (LOM) of 3 and 5.o QUICKER MATHS
#6, 34, 135, 75
1% 45, 25
6 15, 25
BRS
ctho required LOM 2.x 3 x3 526% 5=2700
Taline(1, Hand I5.re the factorwoF 10K and 90 respectively,
therefve, 12 ord 15 are stwsk of,
te ine £2), 45 ia taetr of 135, therefore 49 Js stuck. off
Im line (3s a fastor of 6, therefore 3 is struck off
Ute product of to wumisers is equel tote riluct of their HCT
For example: TheLCM and HC of and 15 re 6band 3 respectively.
Multinfeatian of to mumboes = 12 « 15 = [80
HCP x 1.CM = 3 60= 180
“Thus, see Mas the produet oF two murabers is equal 1 the
producto tele LCM ané HCE.
LOM of decionals
Rules Fest maake (if vecesnory) the same number of decimal places it
ail the sven nections; then find their LCM asf they were integers, and
snark: in she rest as many devia places as there are in each of the
bers.
Ex. Find the LOM of 0.6, 96and 0.36,
Sola: The given menibers ace equivalent to 0.60, 9.60 and 0.36.
"Now, ind the LCM of 69, 960 and 36. Whick is equal t 2480,
fhe toquired CCM = 28.80
LCM of fractions
The ECM ef roo or more fractions is the feast fraction or
integer witch i exact divisible by Bach of hem.
[Rute Fest express the fractions in their lowest terms, them
ayy = LEM afnumereor
HOM ch of denominator
HOF ana Lot ss
ix. 1: Fing the LCM oF
1S yy 108
Moe Danse
1) The coquired Lom = LOM
Son 3
HC sf and
108 we
ny 8 at a2
ans "15° "35 = 35
a
Thus the factonsare 2, $2 ane
LM of 36,42 ar
TICE of 135,38 ,38
o glen
rn
2 34 2t
rus. he fatins sve
Thus. ihe ations eZ 3 ma 2
dhe rated Lem = LOM of 9,3 and 21 63,
F of Z,1, 7
‘he required LCM =
L
fo
NNole: in Ex 1 (we see that the LOM ofnetions isan integer. Thus,
‘wemay conclude thal LOM of estan iy bea ttn oe ieseger,
Miscellaneous Examples on LCM
Ha The ZCM of uo numbers is 2078 and their HCF is 27. onc of
the oumbers is 188, fd the other
Lea x 2079
First number” 189
Soles The required name: =297
2s
Find the feast nummer whic, whon divided by 18, 24, 29 and 42,
‘vill leave in each eas tie satne rennander 1
Solo: Cleary, the roqsized member must be preter than the LOM of 13,
24,20 and 42 bp 1.
Now te= 2 3?
Daa? «3
30=2e 3x5
4222347
Lom=3? «2x 5x 7250
© the required nuniber = 25204125216 . QUIGKER MATHS
1EX3, What isthe lust aomber which, when divided by 52, leaves 33 a5,
tie zemainder, aad whom divided by 78 leaves $9, and when
divided by {17 Teaves 96 as he respective remainders?
Solu: Since $2 38= 19,78 39= 19, 11798 = 19
“We see that the remainder in cach oases ess than the divisor
bay 19. Honee, if 191s added t Ue soquired'mumber,isbocomes exactly
divisible by 32,78 and 117. Therefore, he required nantber is 19 Yess
es LOM of 52, 78 and 117.
1 LOM of 52,78 and 117 ~ 468
the reer numer = 468 19 = 44
“Exc: Find the greatest moraber of six digits which, on being dived by
5,7,8, Dang 10,leave54,5,6, Jan 8 as remainders respectively,
Soln: The TEM Of6,?, 8,9 and 10=2520
“The greveet tahoe of 6 digits = 999909
‘Dividing 996999 by 2520, weet 2079 as yemainder Hence;
the Gigi carsher divisible by 2520 is (059909  2070}, or 997920.
Since 64=2,75—2, 8G=2, 9772,108~2, tho
‘remainder in each oases Jess than the divisor by 2,
the cequived cumivet = 997020 2 997918
ox: Fld tho pretest nuusber lass than 900, whic icivisible by 8, 2)
and 28,
Solw: Tho least umber evisible by 8.12 ond 24 is 168. Clearly, any}
multiple of 168 wil be exactly divisible by each ofthe anne
E12 and 28, But since the requires number isnot to exceed 9,
Wis 368» S= 840,
[Ex 6: Fie thy knot ruzaber which, upon being divided by 2,3. 4,
leaves im each ces ¢remaindsro 1, bot when divided by 7 eave
re reminder.
Solu: Ths LCM of 3, 3,45, 6= 60
the eqied amber must he 60K +1, wires apotivessteger,
= 1x8 HEH Okt GEL
iow, tis muruber i tbe divisiile by 7. Whatever may
the value of, the portion (7 Sk) ssalways divisible by 7.1
tee must choose that Teest value of K which i) make 4& +
Sivisble by 7 Piling k= 1, 2, 3.4, Sete. n succession we fi
that k shoul be S
‘the romped number = 6Uk + 168% $41 = 301
Notes ‘the abave exaraple could al be worded ax follows. A pers
‘kada number ofloys idisteltuteamong cites. Ait ho gov
HOF and Lon o
2 toys to eae hil, then 3, thea 4 shen 5, sn 6 but was aways
{ef with one. On trying 7 be al none Tet, What is the satel
fume of ty that he could have bal?
‘What least ruuroer must be eublracte’ fiom 1936 so thot the
‘eamzinder aiken vided by 9, 10, 15 val leave tn each cas the
‘same remainder 7?
Sola: The LCM aT, 10 and 15= 99
(On dividing 936 by 90, the cemainder
ut 7 tsaleo spac of is remainder
the reine umber =46.7 = 38
‘Ex. 8: What gestesl number can be subtracted frm 10,000 90 that he
remainder may be diviible by 32, 36, 68 and 547
Solu; LCM of 32, 36, 48, 54 S64
ihe reguited reset umber = 10,000  864 = 9,136
‘ex. 9 What is the leact multiple 37, which wen divided by 2534 5
ued 6, feaves the remands 4,2, 3,4, 5 respectively?
45,660
nce divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 are 60, where K isa
kx.
Since 21=1,32= 14351, 54= Sand 63= Le
cemaindet in each case io leas than the divistr by 1 be requinad mambo
00k T= 889  ED)
[Now this number iso be divisible by 7, Whatever may be the
value of k the partion 7 Sk is always divisible by 7. Hence, we must
“Shouse the least vale fe which will make (3) divisible 7Patins
feoqui ia 12,3, ee, in anocassion, we find that k sul be 2
the required narnber = Uk A= 60> 21 = 119
EXERCISIS
{What the gresiest number tar il dvide 2920 ond 3250 and wil Lae
‘seavairaes 7 ond 1 respectively”
‘zwinat isthe feat nuraber by which $23 matt be milled in ardor to
‘produce a mltipe of 715.2
43, he LCM of two sumbers i 2310 and fheic HC & 20. Tone ofthe
numbers ia 7% M0 find the oer nur.
4.Tinve belle commence tolling togeer an they tll alee 025, 0.1 and
‘0125 seconds After what terval wil hey agen tl togetner ?
'5, Wout i ic smallest sum of momey Which eonamns Rs 2.50, Rs 2,
Rs 4.20 and Rs 7.30 ?2 ‘Quickes waTHS:
{6 What is the greatest number whish will divide 410, 751 ad 1980 soa
‘leave the remainder 7 in each cane?
vat he HC ana LCM of, $ awe
‘8. Three men str! together to travel the sume way around a circular tack
Of kr, Theirspeedsare , 55 und Slonper hour respectively, When.
will they meet a the string pint?
9. Find the smallst wile namiber which is exactly divisible by
Voy gh glee al
Tye ps 2p 35 ane sb
10. Howe many ties isthe HCP of 6, 36,72 snd 24 contained in their
10M?
1, Find she eat equare number which s exactly divisible by 5, 6,15
auc 18,
12, Finn tho least sumer which, when divided by 8,12 and 16, eves 3 es
‘he reanainderin cach case bat when divided hy leaves no remainder
13, Find the greatest nae iat wil divide 55, 127 end 17590 98 leave
ihe see remainder jn each ese
14. Find ha leastruitipl of 1 which, whendividedby8, and 16 lemver
3 ae remainder.
1S. What Feast eueber should be ade lo 3800 tothe it exec dvisibe
‘by 42, 49, $6 and 63 ?
16.Find te Iastmumberwhict, when divided by 72, 80nd 8, leaves the
rermaaders 52, 60 and 68 respectively.
117.Piod th pretest mimber of 4 digits which, when divided by 23,4,
Gand , should leave remainder in each case,
18, Find te greats possible length which ean de sed o messure exactly
‘he gt Fe, 3m 8Sex, 2m 955m.
19, Find the least name of agrees required to pave she eating of
tal Sin om long. end San 2 er broed
120, Whats the anges nse which divides 72, 147 and 2520 leave the
sao remainder im each ease 7
The traffic Highs tne differentrosdcsssings change afer every 48
se, 72 see, and TOR se. respectively. If thoy all change simultane
‘ously at 20:0 hes, hen at what time wil hey again ekango mans
weouoly ?
22. The CF and LCM attwoncbecs ae 44 rd 264 respocivey the st
sumer is dvded by 2, he quotients, Whats the oer amber?
Hor aatcm %
2 Theos 0 mts 12160 lh HCP 2 Fd he
pouvoir
UsFodlbepetstambere?agisande namie 5
tat al Hc
28 Fete et br fo wi 12, 19,20 4a be shar,
ccna eet unk te
24 Fee ont nr tat esd 8s ey 3,36
oan
27. The sof wo sumer nd ei HOF. ype
Foshan ome
2h Ina hal 01 bean sve on died Ge get
pombe clsea tt hc oye ne eas
Ghee ofits Wars ticronerocees?
2 ep tie Tn wept a a her MCE ye
ee
Sa 12205 7a rim enh fe
Bia csrumberm tebe fr toner,
‘odd yi Palewe'n exh eso some
e
12. Fid eso 0a 0 ach we iy
seatelty oan
(a) it Jeaves no remainders and
Site ronete geese
Solutions (Hints)
1 The greatest aucia number will be the HCE.
es
Risatesroen msseines
‘ty aul Scan eof rd. 5085 de
‘Sree te too ge
three eae“
$.Mereaed nmber 22072039
4. Thy wil laser te fing he LOM oF
Basa laces Oa
LeMoro25 0 ania 25 = C0250 10 ay 125) x 0001
‘i001 03 9m
Le oF25 20184 75}x 00
ten ve
(29307) and 25011),
8. LCM of 25,20, 12.and 7:80 QUICKER Mat
6 The tequred umber wl be the HCE of (41073 2517), (1080
teat,
“qevtcy = MCE of Mumemtos 1,
% LCM of Deneminators 30
LCM ef Numessors —_ 140
TOM=fcR af Denorsinaters ~~ 140
8m ke y emia aire ration
dint 2 ha reapenivety
23s
2 gg Me, LOM of 112,11 2
LM org amg" create 1 72
they will met afer 2 hs,
9. The tequired smallest number ~ LCM ofthe given auribers
10, HOF of 48,36, 72,24=12; LCM of 4%, 36,72, 24= 144
LCM~ 12x HCE
TI. LOM of, 5, 6,15, 18~ 180, which is exactly divisible bythe gh
sober. q
‘he roquted tumor = 9,
 Note: This sa hitandrial method. Try solve by the detailed method,
15, LOM of 42,49, 56,63 ~ 3828; therefor, the required leas: umber =
35283500= 28
16, 72 $2=20, 806020, 8868 20: We see that in cach one, the
remainder i ess than the divisor by 20. The LEM of 72, 80 and 8
7920, therefore, the requited number = 7920 20= 7900
7. Tho greatest nuiber of 4 digits =9999
LOM of2, 3.4, 5,6,7= 420
‘On diving 999 by 420, we get 399 as reminder.
the greatest aneber of digits which is divisible by 2,3, 4, 5,6
and 7= 9999 339 = 9660
4 the requited namber= 9660* 1= 9661,
38, The required length = HCE of 7m, 3.85m and 12.95,
"(ICE 0f 70, 385, 1285) x.01m =33 x 01m=0.35m=35 om
19, Side ofeach te= HER of 1817 and 902~41 ex,
‘Avea ofeach ile—A1 <4 ex?
ee nerober of tikes SITs 902,
41x41
Solveasin Ex. 13.
“The required urher = FICE of (14777), (282147) end (25277)
HOF of 70,105, 175 ~ 38,
M1, LCM of 48, 72,168 = 432
‘Tee te gs wl tage stanly fe 82 ond ofa.
Wse03.
‘hoy wil age simtancously a 6:2712
22. The fast namber= 2% 44= 88
s Thesevond: HCE LCM _ 45 264
a co
23, HCE
Wo=22x3x5x5—28 Hx 5
Thereficef LED it maiplod by $ (160 «5 ~ 90) then
‘er wil bea paet square a well x dvb y 4,5, 6,15 and 1,
12, Th least utr Wich, when divide by 8, 12 and To, leaves 3
vemsinder
“ECM of, 12, 16)4+3 = 484 3=51
‘Otter such ounvess are 48 243 = 99, 48249 = 147,
the required number which is divisible by 7is 47
"Note: This is hitandial method. Can you ge he answer by
defined method? (5 Ex. 6).
13. Letx be the remainder, then the niobers (553), (127) an (15.3
> a onacty vise by De gure ner,
‘Now weknow tt iftwo ners are vin y acartain um
(hen hei dtferene ists iviaboby the number, Hence
(G2Fx) (55x), (115) (127) and (1753) «(55 0, 72,48
120 are dvs bythe requed ruber. HCF of, 72 and 1202
therefore the equed numer = 24
‘Note: Find the HCH of tho positive differences of mnabs. tw
yoor purpose quickly.
14.1.CM of 6 12 end 16 ~ 48, Such numbers or 68% 13) =51, (08
243) 99, whichis dvabe by
4
2. “Then let he mumbai be 12s and [2y. P
Now 12x x 12y=2160 . = xy= 1S,
Possible values of x and y ave (145); Ch 35,3): (15, 1)
possible pita ofmumbers. (12, 180) and (26, 60)
‘Taofeuired mubece should azlples of LH, Weave the gretest
anes igs 9998.0 Ovid 5999 by 14, we ge CS ase
remainder.
the required greatest umber of digits = 9999  63 = 9936
‘Again, we have the leas numberof digs ~ 1000062 QUICKER MATH:
‘On dividing 10,000 by 144, we get 64 as the remainder,
“, the required least number of 5 digits = 10,000 + (14464) = 10,08
25. The required number = LCM of i2, 18, 32, 40 = 1440
26. LCM of 32, 36 and 40 = 1440, therefore, the required number
= 14408 = 1432
27, Let the numbers be 33a and 33b.
Now, 33a + 33b = 528
or, 33 (atb) = 528 oatb=16.
The possible values ofa and b are (1, 15}; (2, 14); (3, 13; 4, 12);
(S, 11); (6, 19); (7, 9); and {8, 8).
Of thesethe pairs of numbers that are prime to each other are (1, 15}:
3, 13) 6, 11}.and(7, 9).
’. the possible pairs of numbers aré (33, 495); 9, 429); (165, 363);
(231, 297)
28. Number of classes = HCF of 391 and 323 =17
29. if two numbers are divisthie by a certain aurnber, then their sum. ig
aiso divisible by that number.
According to this tule: if 15is the HCF of two parts of L000, then,
1000 must be divisible by 15. Buritis tot so, Therefore, itis notpossible
to divide 1000 inte two parts such that theit HCF may be 15.
30. Ifthe numbers are prime to each other, then their HCF should be
unity. Conversely, if their HCF is unity, the numbers are prime to
each other, In this ease, the HCF is 1, so they are prime to each other.
31.LCM of 9, 11 and 13 = 1287
‘Therefore, the number which, after being divided ‘by 9, 11 and 13,
leaves in cach case the same remainder 6 = 1287 + 6 = 1293
+, the required least number = 1294  1293 = 1,
32. The LCM ef 6, 9 and 12 = 36
(a) Multiples of 36 which lie between 300 ahd 400 are 324, 360 and 396.
. the required sum = 324 + 360+ 396 = 1080
()) Here the remainder is 4 in cach case
So, the nutnbers are (324 + 4) =) 328 and (360 + 4 =) 364. (The
no. 396 + 4 = 400 does not lie between 300 and 400 go it is not
acceptable.)
* the required sum = 328 +364 = 692.Fractions
Tf any unit be divided into any number of equal parts, one or
more of these parts is called a fraction of the unit. The fractions onefifth,
2.43
twofifths, threefourths are written ad's, 2 and 4 respectively.
The lower number, which indicates the number of equal parts
into which the unit is divided, is called denominator.
The upper number, which indicates the number of parts taken
to form the fraction, is called the numerator.
The numerator arid the denominator of a fraction are called its
ierms.
Note: 1. A fraction is unity when its numerator and denominator are equal.
2. A fraction is equal to zero when its numerator alone is zero. The
denominator of a fraction is always assured to be nonzero,
3. A fraction is alsa called a rational number.
4, The value of fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing
the numerator and the denominator by the same number.
Pere = 225 284
MS Ens 7 344
5, When the numerator and the denominater of a fraction have no
commen factor, the fraction is said te be in its lowest terms.
Ext 15 _ ax 5
20 4x5
The numerator and the denominator have a.common facter 5,
& is not in its lowest terms. If we cancel out 5 by dividing both the
mmerator and the denominator by 3, we get >, which has no common
tor. Hence 4 3 is the fraction = in its lowest terms. 
When a fraction is reduced in tts lowest terms, its numerator
denominator are prime to each other Le. they have no common
fOr.
6. Ifthe numerator and the denominatorare large numbers, orif their
on factors catmot be guessed easily, we may find their HCF. After
dividing the terms by their HCF, the fraction is reduced lo its lowest term.cy (QUICKER MATIN Fractons
me 8 0
se 2S «no otass6s an 75104 $508 oB BB km hed .
5 Now, 385055, _ 385056 + $8008 _ 7 ‘Fractigas in which the donominators are differcat ate cai
“T5104 ~ 715104'+ 55008 13
se, niniloneton bea tematic conon
7 Aniniger canbe expressed faction with any denomina
‘wo wont For compe it'we wtf oxpres 23 84 foetion
uonsnator ie 17 she proces wl bea follows:
Sota samp:
am fs 08 aad
‘Bx. As Find the som of) we Se ey
Sali: «) AU the fractions are in their lowest terms,
nH, BL Se os
aye + U2s3)x2 4 (22%
rope faction: A proper fnion one whoseimosrivteshl Yon, Ye Fs Rallt=DaL (OSH
the denominator. 2
am Osea Bgl
Focexample:, 17, 21 are proper actions The also foe
Note :Studentashouldnstwzitettestep
P2s2x1+ G2 DI + (Bead
@
fon spat ha.
Ingres acon! whore mere ep oc:
than the denominator is calfed an improper fraction.
Forename 12,2, 1 mpopeactn
‘hoa ofan inoperative i 00
Tusa te dove monly.
yt teduce the piven actions eto shir owes tens
Was 3, 25 38 SS
Joo." 4 te 1 a5 ~ 18
‘Now, sige the ction ino mined nabs
52h Bib, Bead
a7 late > “ie * 1s 1s
5 ya
“Tog the giver expresso bgcomen AE 1g yg
‘Now, a al ie whole numbers together andl he actions oe
1
+,
consist oF a whole number and a proper faction, iti called
om stove cxamples 12, 12 and 32 ae mi
ber In th above cramples 12, 12 and 3? armed eee —
Fractions inwhich ihe denominators are powensof KO areccall Bye rhy rh scesne(te beige 1
a7 3 9 at he ths 2 70 ila ag tis 52
decimal fractionseg 2,73 9
Ms 8 0° 1010F Tor wg SES ED
Fractions in which the dagominators are the same arv cal v0
ike fractions.  ih
i oe i
re wie PIT IF
Inthe the to ving hee etn was
preatnt.6
oueKER Man
aad bie 5
Day * 8x og 108 «91
a saa
08 su Asay 4
oe Sm aes
6 6
ases whe4
LOM oF 912,16, 8=144
Z_M BOT ee? ete ano ig 
aR Bag
i _ 29 isn 79
Ta” ad
22+ MA 18H = 195" 297
0
22 1 1
wee ayd
ao 7 2 45" 75
ote 2
j35 x a Z
Change the mined action into an mpropet Satin. ‘The the
expression Becomes
By gs, He
2 ax Zas05
5 6 SB 1s
aicksor= S45 8, 1
D105 6° 6% Or a
3 ae 205 49
sets rz  28,
887+ 1 = TO =a,
On ftheintogralpartoftbentiesnuruber beg cater than thedivier,
‘we proceed a3 follows: * °
‘4 i 1
SRF + 2S]a 1g eae BS,
dou (x6 4) wart
B34 ,
ma" 5 = 3 :
Fractions oa
1 $e eminnteriptety sey desiree
mae ea.
ietoinctngng es sie rion Aan od
nfea
iran ne ioe eh Hee
ni !s 2 yl
geist pete uy ;
Soln "Te divide ration by a fection, eutiply the fection by the
revinudat ofthe dvison”
1) Bist change the mixed numbet into an improper faction, Then
snokply the Faction bythe reciprocal ofthe iso,
90, 108 98, BN SS _ AT
Bin 72" Tos Ge
w 3S
potent Baka E
Compound Fractions +A faction of ration i called o coisa
factor :
3 bed add 3
‘hn of Sisacomomnttacuon ant bof Ba be $5
Combined Operations _ te
“th semsyng etonsivelting virus igs and otk
the folowing pons souls remembored.
The operat of ater and evo shold we perro
elec ttoc of aon and sable.
(aemckotthe signs or ssid be pple nly the umber
whe inmadity bows.
4 2,B
« s*i2 3
4 4,0,5.2
m2 nya 7
a 4, Wht _ 1s
Beas rc)
(4) The operations within brackets are fo be cared oui rst.
ge
{G4) The file of 'BODMAS" is applied for sombined operatfs avers
cst pitt
ommeiteee cen
So 8 12
Za 8 245
B0 FFs gry Me omer facton,
7 9 4°73
1,2
I (ip 23
! Or
275
7
i
% Ea
‘or, mulipty the numerator and denominator by the LCM of
denominators 2,3, 4, 9 namely 36,
V2 sy. 3
! thu BRT 244
gd DEM Bay
2 Le 2s 789
375 tg
Note: Th second met work vicky 0 we suggest hat you aoe
this met.
Sola:
witha
(Continued Fractions: Fretions that coatain an addtional faction in
‘he (ammerator or the) denominator are called continued fraction,
Fractions ofthe form (}4 + —1—~ or
se called eontinued facts
Rule: Zo simply a continued fraction, begin at the bottom and work
pears
Bx. 1: Simplify
2+7 QUICKER MAT
= 8
2+5
ix 2 Simplify: § + —
+
T
Sip
Sola 54
be
1
ase
BE
a
[Note No shortout method has been derived for solving these question
‘But you can solve ttese questions more quickly by
() more mental esloutations; ane (i) skipping the steps.
Miscellaneous Solved Examples on Fractions
fbx.i: Onequatr of onesevent ofa ln is a0 he Rs 20,000, Wh
isthe value of an eight hiyfifths of fend?
i
‘Soin : Onegiarter of ane severth:
TR
Now, des nde =R62060
1 Softee witcan 2222 Saearsoeee 
tec olingcatota pase} ocx
isu eK 740, Wan i hep cosa Bt 7
shins Ar king or Lott cx pe ome wit
coats. Now of nye «
was, Nowy ot $780 e pena740 4 LRA tt
es
sum of maney increase by its soventh part amounts to Re 40,
Find the sum,
s
soass +
1.409 Songios sR
Fractions n
Bx. 4: A tain stars full of pussengers. At the ft station, it drops
‘oncehil ofthese and takes in 96. more. AL the ex, it draps onehalf
‘ofthe new tts] and takes in 12 more, On reaching the asx tation, ticze
fre foute fo be 243 left, With how many passengers di thestain start?
Salm: La the tai start with
“after dropping one third and taking in 96 passengers, the un bas
X45 = a gat 288
E496 = +96 pasengers= 73
pom
desman atten trae pans 2
ow, HABE pa
ce “ments
a
‘Ex. 5; Determine the missing figures (donoted by sta) in Gx following.
Selman asin connor oer
a ee
oepend Gigs pT Nee
sein (Sc eto) oni (+ tan isin
Het eats tc ye agp of Be a
‘Sovauniermites Thea
en daw :
ox3 0 ad
oo Fe BH FG
Hence the mits digits are 7 and 4.
a
452 TA Nee
‘The denowinstor inthe frat maxed umber ard denominator
in Ge third iced umber are insxtcs, which must be amsliple of 17,
"That, the equation becomes
wheat
a The
LA) yy tt
«oleae
vie a
since A < &, dy wilborw 1 fom 4n ‘QUICKER MATH
4
ad oad. fh
Te
EXE!
1 Which ne oft tsa tt acon?
6 3 1S 9S
Wris' awe
2. What smallest fraction shoul be ade to
Seok tos 4 74 tomberte uma wbolemunber?
A. Wat mest he sisted fom ean of 192 4, oho
‘smn ante nec
A Pil beoatestasonwishwtensisho2 Be
a a
a hole number
5. Find oucthe missing aures (denoted by ean the Fllowing eutions,
‘he facauns being given indir loos rms:
Dade gt
aby eet
Ore = ag
6 Ate: oe ong sina Siren ine 90
‘ 5 ‘
saya, while afar ovehavlng,teequies$heur service ime every 129
‘days, What action ofthe preoverhuuling service time is saved in the
later eae”
Fractions n
Solution (Hints)
1. Out ofthe frst two frations, we see that
eis smaller value
5
5
nz ads = aa
QuicKeR Ma
2,
0
+ Ue roquized fnction
Bote al
5 pst
DS; x My = Meg
Decimal Fractions
Decimal Fraction : Fraction in which die denominators we powers of
10 ace called devisalseactions
3
21a
one tZ a as eam: 35> 76
ens cing x desta : in eadnga decimal, th diss ate namaed inorder
rent Pies 4s ig ead a8 2270 point (or decimal) four five, ven,
Ss Decimal places: Tae murberof ences which low te deci point
6.LOM of 90 and 120 = 360 Pied the number of decimal places. Tua, L432 has tee decimal
Soin 260 days, tes proven eve time =. 200 = 10 jy fm PEE SHEE Owe eal ples,
Inbrervioe ime= 6 "59 5 Converting a decimal into a vulgar fraction
and after overhang the service sae Sirs Rule: rte cn the given number tou tie decal poi, forthe
; * Fa Thana, on for he anomanstor write fold By 68 may ros
‘Time saved = 10 5S tay ‘as many ate there figures after the decimia! potnt.
326 Ta 1: Rotuce the following éecial value ito the vulgae Factions
2063 .0}0.0032 «3.013
)
Solm: Step I: 9x 12= 108
‘Step: As tote is one decimal place in maliplioand, the product
should also have oly ono decimal place. So, ans = 10,8,
Has (i) 000 1267
Soin: Step: 9x 12= 108
Step LAs there are three decimal places in the mutiphicand, the
‘product should also have thee docimst places, So, ans = 0.108
Ex. (i).00000 « 12=7
Sole
ecimel Frectons 7
Step 1: As dere at five docnul places it the muhiplican, the
duct shou als have five decimal places, So, we pein two zeros to
Bele anger
= Ans =000108
‘UT: To multiply @ decimal by a decimal
ale: Matty aie nogor, and ia the product markas many decimal
plas ar aren ceo ce pi the aiid
togcther, drasag zero, necessary.
Ex (61x 077
Soin Sep: 61 «7 =427
Stop lt As hire re (242°) 4 dosial places nthe mtpier and
the multipicané topsibey,theprodctsholdalso have 4 esimal locas.
But there aro any three digit tho product; ao we prelix ane Ze
‘the product before placing the decimal. So, the answer = 0.0427
bass x 024=7
Soin: Sep 1: 2325 24 = Son80
‘Step I: Thete should be (442)6 decimal places inthe product,
Thus, ansver= 0.056220 ~ 0.05628
Division of Decimals
1s When the visors 1,100, 100, ee,
ale To idea dsinal by 1, 200, 000 et, move te decimal point
1 dete places tte lef respectively. Tus
(a638 10=4638
(4309 = 200008300
{iano 098+ 19906 =2.0000008
(fiv)234.789 + 1900000 = 9.000224789
(7) 5.08 + 10900000 9000000308
2s Whig thedivtior tsa decimal fraction .
Rule: Afove re decal poo as manyplaces to the right in both ie
divisor and dividend as wll mak the dviora whole mamber, ame
terart the ddend f ecestary. Divide sipledson an when
poutakea figure from the decimal part (any) of the dividend so altered,
Set down the decimal pani he uot :
Basso
veg 225; = SH sora as
oss 3230 _
OO peor7 = “Tr .ns QUICKER MATH
‘Recurring Decimals
‘A decimal in which figure or set’ of figures is rep
contiually is called a recurring or perfodic or clrenlating declin
"The repeated figures or eet of Squres is alla the perlod ofthe deeSal
For example: (1), 5= 0.333
oy Neoguasnuntsrisnsr
Questions Which of he lowing vga fatons wil produc ecu
ting deta aetions? ve pe
D2 py 92 oS ot o2 gh
Ys O95 ie Oe Oe OG Dae
Sot: ete ofan owe oe 0
we
50" 25” oF
Syme hese lg Sein it prasad
og
ecating is expressed by puting aber (or dot) onthe st
sepeating numbers. So, inthe above examples
(0383... 05 (6r,03)
(0) 0.342857. 142857 = 0 TEREST (or, 0.142857)
0.2057 (or, 02938)
Pare Recurring Decal: A decimal action n which ll the igure
ater the decimal point are repeated is called a pure revrting dosinal
Foresarple, 07257 isa pucrecuring devia
‘ised Recurring Decimal: decimal aston in which ome
do nor recur, Sclled a mixed recuniog dcenmal. For exemple: 0259
1s amined recoing docimal
Ip example (2) the period i 3, in 2) tie 142857 and in (3) iti 54.
4
fot
BF .
Syma hesbove ug Seton wil no price eu ec
Noe tifbedgoonimio of aval fooion ni uve rms til 3. 2 1
Meijmadstpostmesor ond ctiesncormiipledtgshorgl 918“ 6 3a
The tacton econ ie temnting nul By mo mil ean ina wil bo ode
ru @Z= Bava we x gona oea4 :
By note 2, a pure reciir will be
wo 8 165d eos 2° 2. peeing dei wil be protec
fa a Tg” axe
2. pore recurcing decimal is produced by a vulgar freotion in its to
tenms, whose denominator is neither divisible by 2 nor by 5. Pyne Pra mised ecuring desta willbe produce
Es? = 08 Wy = 077 es > ons
‘By noc 3, a mixed recurving dina wil bo podned.
Tyo eat é 8
Oa
and
GpZeos Gg  05
3. A mixed recurting decimal is produced by & vulgar faction in its
‘owest ters, whose denominator egatans powers of 2.0 5 in addisiv]
other actor,
ons
Dy sole 1, no reeuring decimal will be prof.(Case: Pure Recurring Decimals
IRale: 4 pure recurring decimal is equal ro a vulgar faction which fe
or its umerator the period ofthe decimal, and for ts denorinatot
‘nuniber which has for its digits ax many nines cs there are digit
period.
[Ex Express the following recutsing decimals into vulgar decimals.
a3 WOds 0ST
3) We have 5=.555.., (1)
‘Mattplying both vias by 10, weyet 10x 08=5.55..—.
‘Subtracting (2) fom (2), we got
Sein:
Directly som the mule, wealsogetthe same result. 3 hasits pot
5,0 the numorstor ia 5. And us there ia only ove digit in the peo,
is09teas tee wetvedgisitbepeid. =. An
3
anes psog=52
Dawei tay ae hema of gis in edo
«is = BB
‘Try to solve Eixs (b) & (c) by detailed method.
Choc aed Repay Decl
fae neal raring deca sop gr ration i
Inf te meron era teen apie ome
the digits to the end of first period, and that formed by the diglts whic
do not recur; and for its denominator ike mumber formed by as
nines as there are recurring digits, followed by ax many zeras as the
ronan rcuray dts
Ex.: Express the following asvulgar fractions.
Rrra
i
[Soln : a) 0.18 = 0,18888 41)
10x O.1B= L.38#8 ——42)
an 100 O18 tH =)
Sttaacing 2} fom Gh wae 90% 01 Be 381
oe Z
Also by els mmantor= 181 (lL dgomnbet none
‘ouigby eon encin New ore
Tat Cloud by oe vat an ne bona recs it) 29
~ Vga atin = BL =
O45, Numer = 20193 48170
Dnainttr = vine (tere ae te ring iss)
falowel ty ete we ne eur ig) 99909
, fon = £8100 4817
2 Vee atin = 5 9g
95.003 5 OO8S= 00 _ 5 9B
90900 ‘9005
Solve Ex, (b} and (e) hy the detailed mth,
Addition and Subtraction of Recurring Decimals
“Addition and subtraction of recurring decioals ean be under
stand well with the help of given exsmpics.
Example: Add and subtract 3.76 and 1.4576.
3.7) 676767  67
14  576876  s?
5.2 2ss34a] 24 5.225558
O23
Explanation:
Step: We sepavate the expansion of recurring dcimals into throe pert
Ta the lefride part dere is integral value with nonrecumng
clocitmal digit. Inthe above ease, 14576 ina 1 a integral partand
‘Fisas aoarecuiring decizal digit, So,  hasbeen separates stom
14576876576. 
‘Although the fist value does not have any werrecuring
decimal digit Ge. 3.78, both te digits 7 snd 6 ae recurring),
‘we put as many digs in the leside pert as thers are wom recur
weoint  $0= 23000097_ Step IIL: In the right side part ake two digs. Now add or
2 ‘QuioxeR wan
ring digs in the second ve. Tha, we have po 3.7
tele pct Tes veto 37
Step: the dle pa, te mmo isis equa 9 the LO
te urbe of recuig eigen ven les, tis
the Se vale tan 2 vere ipt aL second vale
sce pis so mom pata gs CF?
ude with aos aton and eatin
Sep No eve te a se uo pt aaron he ile
of he tentan The lesile part wl ramen
‘eal You cass te came nt ao ch
Verification: roe
97649255 Sand A516 —4 A572
S59 73 gp aml LATO IS = Fg
i 76, 4 S872_ 4, 16x 9990 4457 x
RIB, + BBL
ane ARE eae
PpecRS TIE Te
119550 109890 Tose0
wee
* 5609990
apn 2816297  2870
=5*Fooa59 = 33 ~ 5 Ta8309 ~~
From (1) and (2) iis verified tha our addition is coro.
‘Now, fbr subsretion:
169800 — 4872 99
99 x 90
306
19590
_, 3100188
5900850
She mnts_ 5, 30068
Bi 1x 9090? * a1 x 5559
ros) and (2):tis verified that our exbarction is correct
T6111 — 4572 «11
Ux 9950
3100191 —3
39599900
1
ross3= 10
524.785 + 10.193
234+
Bx, 2: Find 324.786 ~ 10.193,
Soin: 324.18) O78
10.194 333 [33
siaso 345
‘Tus, ans= 314.5955
‘Veriftention: 224.786 — 10.19
786 «900
16 989%
Ses
Bx, 3: Find 17S + 0007
Sola: 8
327.8661 38
“Ths, ans = 327.86638
99900
7
Isa
4 BE
i799
300
3100207
3
n
2
7
m4
od
559
1
[esi
6x 100274 1D
88
786 900 + 174 5999
999 = 0 .
78600 = 1TH yy , 2788
0
42801298 _ gag oR TE
‘99800
ne
58900
$9285, _ 544295 —99 514 50545
Oam eal Freeone =
x4: Find 17.2058 —7 9340 202194 9
Sela: AZNB  68) 68 20 ao
7.986  99  99 +g, +0659 863
9.123 f 6s  69 Another way of caletilation is
‘Thus, ans = 9.12555 waB+ + SS= 240.658
Muttiplication of Recurring Decimals
(Cave Aa While ukipiyicg a suring decimal bya nosiplé of 10,
sof eepeating di i nt aleed. For example, Becond Method:
1.4.3 « 10 4.030303... 10 = 4020308... = 40305 2317266.. (8653,
2 124.97 x 1000 = 124427427. 1800 = 126897227 as
3. 0.008799 x 10000 = 6.006379379... x 16000 = 63.79379... B
6.055 ae
‘Case B: While multiplying a recutring decimal by a mumber which 06
not muhiplo of 10, fast ofl, the resin decal schon
into the vulgar fraction and then the calculation is done. 06
couple “has, ans = 865
hn. 2536345 7 36403. 7
T2633. (519
a
905 = By iB
117008301, 5 _ 120  120006) a
BS ts BH ag a
200+ 0.1888..= 2000 18T= 200185 aad
3.29 LBZ © 95980 x LB 27 x 1222 g2R 9 6: ‘The process of division repeals co our quoticut becomes 5.1919...
30° omg *5 ies 5
sam _ S471
2 S21
18 1 x 5S ey
155599 718% 9 ag =
proximation and Contraction
4
2 naLsT7 = 2157 Rae: nose tReayfgwrety ly erucceedggure be Sorter
Divislon of Recurring Decimals Far'Stanple: (9 The apovimat valve of 3689 up ove dil
Case A: When the divisor isa multiple of 10.
15 + 1000.= 6.060006... + 1000 = 0.000060606..
0000u3
aes 0509. "
1 appoint vale af 3684 upto thee devimal places is 0.368,
(ae roninsic vac of0 2085 po thre daha poe 300
{he THe apprenimate value af0.3680 up to two decimal paces is 0
((v) The approximate value of 0.3468 up to ono decimal place is ©.3.
Note: Decimals while are covet ao, 60, Tre places ae sid
ebe sonata tie nearest en, nde, thousand especialy.
23645373 10 = 1.645375
(Case Br When the divisor nota mlliple of 10.
Bx: (728 52=17%
ay boyd
sae iipep suited88 Quicker mar
Stgnean ngures
‘Tho flowing expe ce goes t exp the mean
e tertn significant figures. “
(3) Tha poptiateno n ceti pls 189000 cores othe neseat
Mn ete the sumed toe ed and populate
issued whe 18 euch is ears ete peat The fare
169, whi gives enum af is, eg oe areas we
Sete rer which these again ofthe nis ae sido be
sensplse
(b) Tue alstance Detywin wo places is 1400 km sonst othe aeare
usa em. ha ue ee sitet anc ths vo soos hoe
Henican
“The slate between paces is L400 im core the nee
Tan Teese 140 espn bt ee er ent
(2) The length oF a sing is 0.07 cra correct othe 2ed decimal piace,
‘This means 7 she significant figure butte zen a the beginming sf
nonsignificn:.
Note: Zeros 2 the beginning of a decimal ate olways nonsignificant
Th, sion Asus ae those witch nan appr asinal
ren expres team fica ite nears ae 
Contracted addition
Rule Sef down the decimals under one another. Ther addin the ui
‘way, taking care tht the last fgure retained be increased by 1 5
uccecding figure be 3 ar greater than 5
[Bx Find the sum of 220.4524, 29,042034, 0085279 and 3412 come
(03 decir places.
Soin : 520.4301
29,0293
0852.
at 1
Hig a2075
Anse 49.825
Remark = 1f you ate assed to get the axiqer cotret to theee decimal
hse, then we Hot mece Cs 3 (vo moe) decimal pices Caring
Doda Fractions
‘Contracted Subtraction
Rule : Write down the subirahend under the minced én the tal way,
retaining two places of decimals more than what i required.
$x Find 160, 342195 ~ 22. 0048326 corect to four decimal pinoes.
Soln: Aa ie ane asked to gal the solution cereetto for doaimal places,
‘we will ute not more tha 6 decimal places ducing our calculation.
160,342195
32000832,
128397368
Anewer= 128.3374
EXERCISES
1. Express the floning decimals a factions in their lowest terms =
a)00375 0.00625) 1.008125
2. Simplify: 2) 9.25 +0036+00075—_b) 34.07 + 0.007 + 0.07
©)309 +209 + 0.309 +0039 dh 357892 + 0.005
wats
9) 0.6 + 0.56 + 1066 6 606+ 66.16
3. (Remove decimals) .
038% 10 —)0275<10"7 6034 x 19.000
0.132500 53024513
Divide 3) 28.9 by 17 _b) 457263 by 136} 68 by 800
hobby 0008 6) 2.378 by HOOKS — 9.1 by AOD05
390.1 5000
ind the quotiout to ue placos of decimals +
054091 b)a321+077 c)5.002+ 0.00078
6. Siraphfy the followings:
00s 14
dioorefeax2 wi
95 x 0085 3
D017 x 0.19 Oar of 7S
"7. What should come in place of question mark (7) 7
a} 3 DB x D4 f.008 # 300~ 7
by0.25  0.9025 0.025 of 2S
©) 0.00053 +0.17 0f30 x 100 =?
908x7= 0.00005a ‘QUICKER maf
woo 2
OG a0"?
1138 gg,
pT 02400
VLEET
T5625 « 0.0289 «72.9 x 64
248x005
oe 16
mor loR=324
DLT RIL43794974 3.79 03207
4) 921 & 11542032 1154105 x 11.54=2
YG.278 + 30.237? x 1.27 # 30.277 «125 + (1.23) =9
ma) 23) ~ 4x 237% 09) + 303) O.09) 0.3) =?
8, Stats inetch case whether the equivalent decimals terminating ar ran
smenating:
Fy Bg lt gies
a6 eas oe OTT 6s
9. xpress he flowing ecurring decimals in hei vulgar factions
B03 HOT JUD )2a% estos
1 1
ots 5 = 00276 ten wats hewiwoofsapdig 7
11113324 + 145=91 9, then what the vahngof 3328 5 919
42.1545 = 2.24, nan wha isthe vale of 2S 9
224, at nib vo of Po
13.1813 = 2.48, theo what isthe value of VE
14 EV = 54, then what othe vale of
529.16 + Yo.2916 + vBo02a16 + \ODOONIITE 7
15, Wht decimal of sm hour isa second ?
16.16 1.5x=0.05y, then what ie the value of 2= 7
yax
17.{05407+ 0.5403) » 900
18, 03487 + (045 x 03) = Lt
og
Decal Fractions 30
od Loval2s ~ 1s * Uy
2apO295 — WYM.147 —) 34.398. d) 16.768 0) 60.78
B.ap25x 108 b)279% 10% 34 d).66 «) 2719926 x 10°
Aadi7 000254035 ©)0.08 —_ d) 8000
24750) 200 ‘¥)0.00002
$a)0.704 = — 6) 5.6120) 641.803
Ga)88888 602. ¢) 2500 8) 0.008
7.a)0.0243—b) 6.25 3) 0.01 4) 0.00005
0257 #).0.0024
pV _0os 2 aa
T5625 x O1RRY = 72.9 x G8
[saan 61 462107
15625 « 289 729 x 64 x 10
1x9 68
~atxatee 0%
38.725 300
4) Given exprossion = 3.79 (31+ 37 + 32)=3,79 (100) =379
iene 11241221209. foy ISB ena
1 Given expression = (1.27 +123)* = (2.5) = 15.625
a) Given expression (2.303)' = 2 = 8
th cou fa alg ison atous ems say
‘oncpt pw aon Sls tae oantakel erie
tac cose tata coal ator te
=
1) insomnia se is emia fr) eer a
Seas
w Js terminating since its denominator i made up of0 QUICKERIATHS HE pocinal Fractions 1
powers of § only.
7 7 i
91 Bp? aay oeag Mma enatng since its denominator bas
Tors over than 2 and 5
ios ioe
a) ME. consent. 1. 18018 =, thr th roqited omen
a " Byer eet ae
©) qos 7 5 siting 15g hagn ne Gene)
3.1 37 x
s.gor wom=2 16.1550
° E005
oom = 3
ene: Dy ae cule of componendodiviendo, we hav,
evt00se = 53  1038 = rot, yer 15008 pyee
yee
‘OMmOIGIT ” Seip egy? 3618
"This gueston should not be zolved by dated method IC)
beerve the following points you wil be able to answer within seco
H i
Toes saggy Hom hg he decimal econo i
S postions eft
Soto go he answer from 0.0276 the desinal shoul be moved 5
picersgh.
[Note Woot going into details, we can gt the mower, You should a, Bs
low hat aaae sae re the equi 93642
{hat oops atBet tg rg “Therefore ie,
answer shoeld ala be argor than 0.0276. So, the reqeired
‘Value should be obtained by moving the decimal tothe tight.
11 We have, 13324 = 145 =91.9 or, 13324 + 91.9= 145.
‘Then we have io find 133,24 + 9.19 =?
wer divide the whole numberof dividend by
or and observe the mumbec of digit iu the whe
‘number of quotient. In this case when 133 is divided by 9 the quot
(Gvhole number ) will have 6x0 digits. So, our aaswer shovld have
2digit whole mumber.
£. required answer =14 51
Elementary Algebra
: . 4 y
Algebraic Expressions: A number, including literal numbers, along
with the signs of fundamental operations is called an alg¢braic expres
sion. They may be movomials, having otily one term a8, +6x, 3y eto.
They could also be binonials, ic having two terms as p? +21,  x.2x
ete. They may even be polynomials, i.e. having more than two terms.
Addition ‘and Subtraction of Polynomials: Thé sum or difference of
coefficients of like tenns is performed.
For cxampje, let the two polynomiats be 3a712e3, Stax,
The sum of these two expressions is 5x> +(3x2. ayant) 35 a3
+x°43x3, The difference between these Iwo is the subtraction of smaller
expression from the greater expression ie. Sx'2x"txGx"}2x3) =
SUK? + x3KDK +3 = SOD DH Dx) +3 = Se Se 13,
Ex, 1: Find the sum of
—15a? + Sab — 667, a? — Sab + 11b?. —Ja2— Iaab— 13h? and
26a"  16ab — 70"
Soln: ;
(15s? » aap 6b") + (a? — sab + 116?) +(~7a? — 1Bab ~ 1367)
sl + (26a — 16ab — 7b?
= {1587 +a? 792 4 26a") + (ab  Sab  18a  16ab)
~6b? + 1b? ~ 136? — 767)
= 5a? — 36ab — 15b* : '
Ex. 2:1fP=a4 +a? ta? 9,
=a? 9035 + 3aand
+
~3a2a7 +03
Find the value of P+Q+R
Sola: P+ O+R= ar '
(tae? tata) a? 2a? 2430 +(83a 207 +03
mala (32a? > a + (a? +a? ~ 28 + Ga  3a) +C62 +8)
=a'+G+0+0405a" \ /
Remainder Theorem: This theorem represents the velationship be
tween the divisor of the first degree in the fonn (xa) and the
remainder r (x). 'm QUICKER MATHS
1 ax itor ancion of He vided by + a wl tae
remand des nots x hen te wezinde ete same a ie
orilol exrese witht la ox Inher wos, 10)
divided by x~a, the remainder is Ras eg. wet x) =x! 2x7 + 3x 
Seeley 2, to verahileris
42) =2) — 20/8 +3(0)492 ,
‘Notes (1) If 0c is divided by x + 4, the remainder is &
ayo wate by +6 eeu!
(3) 9) eee by x= th remainders
(4) The method of finding the reminder is a ll
[Punt divisor equal to zero, Like, ifthe divisor is wx +b then
b
ate0> x
the evita anette 3)
‘Similerly, you can find the othes remainders,
1 en erent en
x4 42 4 6x 2 is divided by (x +9).
saw dit eaten ete tee
re
sie as cite
B42: Find th semaindr when 27 ~ 92+ 3x Bib dvd by a2
som Septitns 20 32
Step : Reminder is 3)
Gg ne aa
$842 822,
Ex. 3: Ifthe expression Px? + 5x2 —3 and 2x? — 5x + P when divided by
Xd leave tho same remainder, find the value of P.
Ext Let 0)
Elementary Algebra 35
Sola: The remainder ae
Ry = fi) = PE? +3?  364 445
(4) 34) + P= P+ 108
Ex.4:Findheyalsésofpandg whenpa + i224e2potyaoniil anda bearet number. Then
‘he following two resis holt:
(UFR) ~ 0 then ea) is etn of.
GNF) ia Toto of FG) then fa) =O.
Pax din mat
Find ot whether (2) and G3) ate fctrs of (0).
Sola : (a) To check whether (62) is a facto off) we And F(@) Le,
1.1 benno te (2) a ee fash
thio topr Gauteng,
£Q)=23 19x27 4 dd 2 dB
tenes, bythe for there 2 ia tc 2)
O)Tockecayete (walheortt (0, werepeat he sbove
process with £(3),
EQ)=3" 126 344434823
Ml) = 43) 40. Te) onata ero,6 ‘QUICKER mar
x2 Findon x= ieafaroF 2) — Se? .
sbove rule.
Soln: We have, 3x
Sua a! inexact divisible by x a (sheen io or ev)
4.39 — 2? and xa!” are exactly divisible by xa.
‘Alle above statements ean be proved. We aro going 1 prove
only staterants (1)and {5}, You shouldty te prove the remaiting
three yourself.
(x? +a" is exacly divisible by xb,
Putxt4=0 = x=
Teen ft) =a) +2" =O
“Thinis possible only when mi odd,
)x"—a" is exactly divisible yx a
Purg2n0 = =a
‘Then ita) =e" — 3
‘This ia tue ins sen,
3: The expression 3° ~ 2 has. factor
13 2)7 3)10 417 3)Noneof hese
Boin: 52825" = a =(25)" 7"
“As we dan'tknow abou, bythe condition (),(258)i9a fio,
isa factor of 5" — 2",
i. 4 The lst digit in the expansion of (1° = 1 when wis any #2
inoger is
12 21 DO 41 SpNoacof those
Soln: The fst digirin the (4177 for amy value of ia 1.‘Thus the est
Aigiin "1 60.
o>
3
1Pee= 1 tr othe sen
te
QQ) 412
(3x  L) is a factor of the above expression.
Note: (1) We can sce how the factor theorem has bec derived from
ie en
then x ais factor of i)
ipa ctor of @3)
G4) 70, when x a.nd xb then Nx) is exactly divisibl
bay (xa) (X B} ies (Xa) and (xb) otha the Factors of
(G) tan integral function of two or more variables is equal
‘whou two of these variables are supposed to be equa, then
function is exactly divisible by the difference of thes vatib)
es.
(B= 9, (¢=8) and (@b) are the factors of
ab— op + (6a)? + ofa ~b)°
Proof: Put.b= in the given expcesson,
ao r0f0~ a4 oo}! =0+ (04)? ee9)°=0
2 ()€) ina factor ofthe givon expression. Silay, it can
shown tate  and ab a the flor ofthe given expres
Conditions of Divsibility
Lat ais exactly dvb by Ga) only wher ns xk
26.08 +05 isexsetlydvisblebya th
2.x a isnot ena dive by (kta) whenn newen,
eg. 0° + iso: exmalycvble by ab.
3. ae never dvb by (=).
ega’ +47 oral? +b! isnotaiviiblebyab,
4.3 a is exactly divisible by x +8 when mis evs,
5 5 of isexcilycivistlebyx ta
GL isa factor ot oxaet divisor af 41)" — ("for say “ve
integer of 2, Now, when dl  140 is 2 factor, th last cgi in
‘he expansion ehouis be 0
Find the last nwo digits of the expansion of 2!" ~ 6 when nis
‘any positive itoger.
Soin: 25)  (64 = (on — 36"
‘Since 2n isan even integer, the above expression sust be diiee
‘ley (64+ 36) {By condition (4)}. Gonce, 64+36= 1008 the
{actor of the above expression. Hence, the last two digits aF ts
expession mast be C0.:
i
8 Elementary Algebra ey
‘The procuct of ouiptication of two Tinear polynomials also
vena quadratic polynozsial. Lat theta linea polynomials be (bl)
and Gx +), wherel > 0, p+ 6. Then the prodact ofthese polynomials
is the quadratic polynomial, Ipa? + Og + mp) + mq, This is written in
the standard form atax? + bx + ¢, Thon a=Ip, b= C+ mp)and = ma,
Factorization of Quadratic Equations : The qualraie polynomiat
ax? + bx +e can be factorized only if Garo exist two sumnbera r ~
Ex. 61 Foral integral vslues ofp the expression 7
pR 22 io ait
Soin 73 = PP_ a = oan
[By the condition (5), 49  27 = 22 is a fuetor of the exprosi
eye
x. 7: What shoul be subicacted irom 274° = 9x2 6 = 5 t0
ekatly divisible by Gx ~ 1)?
‘Soln: We will find the rervainder by the rule of remainder. OF ee
atm 3e1 =o 5= Cee ee atctncota=lge mp
(i) s= 20% pag © covefician of x? x constant
Solved Example : Factorize 92 + Thx 5
Solution «@) Here a=2, b= Ll snd c= 5S
Gi) Fine two muntecs ands such tbat r+ s=b= 11 and
ry s=axgn2x S10
So the members are 1D and 1
(Gi) Now, breale up the middle term 11x ofthe given polynesaial
a f0x + ix
te? + Ms +5222 + On + 1A t5
(5) + HS) = (ZRH) (eS)
Conattions for Factorization of a Quadratic Equation: At) quadratic
expressions cannot be factor’zod. To teat whether ean be factoized or
not follow the points given below :
(itt?  40> 0, then fe quadratic equation ean be factorized,
(@) fb? 4ac <0, then the qusétatic equatis conaot be fectorized,
‘Some important fomaulae that ave used in basi operations ad
In finding the factors ofan expressiw. are surnmerized below:
1a? b= (arnyecby
Bas by = aP + 2ab +?
3.43)? = a? 200 + bP
1) aft) of) ft
‘Thus, the rerminder is (3) x)  3)  &
te Le2e5—7 :
I We reise the given expression ty the reminder (2
‘ccpossion vil be exactly divisible by tho given divisor. H
cur required valve is 7.
“Thonrem for Zero of a Polynornial
LA) Bay xl pan"? +. + an be a polynor
with integral eoeffclonts. Ian integar ke # zoo polyno
then Kis factor of
‘Solved Example: Fir all integeal zeros ofthe polynonial,
ayes’ 22 eyed, 4
Solution : Suppose (i an integral aco of he polynomial fy).
‘by the above ton, Kiss fir af enh, 4 Hance, poss
values of are Il, 22 4 and 4
‘Now. est cack of them 0 a0 whather itis 210 of th polyno
er n0t
(A= 24 17 41444 Siew) ¥ 0,501 ismekaOat’
GED = CAP © 2) G1? + G1) + 4 = 0; Since 1) = 0, the
athe 2320 oF 1)
Gi) Sandy, 2.2 ad ae not te sof). Ths he 4a = Gry with
‘plea er of i) isl. tae a otis ato of A) S.W = (o8) ( aabed,
nothings
Gab eb! = @4t)' 0b eb)
tah —88 = b+ Bubfab)
Blas b = (ab + ab
‘Quadratic Equations: As equation In which the highest power
variuble'ie 2 ie called a quadratic equation, For example,
_eauation of the type sx? He + e~ 0 denotes a quacratic equabo quicker war
5.0 bF = sty?
Laat e oe Sebo = (orb 4y Qtr ab bee)
W@rbre Pe OrNerI EHD
V2.2? +b? = (a Hb)? ab
BaP steobe vb
HA Mfatb+e = Othen the yulue ofa? +b? 46° is Jobe.
1S.x2 x(a + b)+ab = Ge tabtx +b)
18. ab ~ 0) bP ea) +o fa b)= (a We)(ea)
B.Gosbag? obs 24 bbe)
“Theory of dees: The exresion ofa mean the prov of fo
cat oqo‘. Whanen a pstv impor milled te expr
fr indox othe power ofa Any quantity raised he power seve
always equa tL. Forexangia,
a= 1 (wherea £0)
We? = (3) = 1.7" =, 000)? 1,e.
Whenever any ind ofthe power taken from tho
{o denominatar of from the denuminator to numerator, the sign oft
changer, vor
toe
Lavy of lndices: While solving the peoblemsof exponents the fllewi
 laws aze nso:
(pat xtag
eey aa
aes
A) Kay” = x9"
(8 ait nme
16.22(b +6) 4 be +0)+ 6? wt b)+ Sabe=Q@ tb + abt be tea)
V7 aba) b6(6 18) Seale a) dade tat Oe +),
Bemsrtary aigenra 01
Note: The difference bemicen (2) & (3) can be seen i the fellowing.
examples:
er) 3 279
ey 3P 2 a369
= 3% 39 729227 = 19683
TnallBieabove laws, mand nae positive integers. algebra,
the root problems are solved by laws oF indices, for example fa means
0%, 4G masa, a! means
FBLC: The highest common factor of two oF more algebraic expres
sions be delerined bythe ftlowing methods:
1. By the factor method
2.By the dviton method
Incaseof the factor method, et fst the factors ofthe given
expressions are Sound seportcly. Then the maxitmurn numer of ene
‘mon factors are taken out and multiplied, the product of which becomes
he HCE.
“For exaople, we ote asked a fnd the HCE. of
8 (2 5n+.0) and 12629), we alfa finde asks of ie
sven expressions separately.
Thus, BO — 5x46) = 42 (63) x2
and 12 @29)=4 363443)
“Then the maximum nur of common elemento he two wl ive
{ho HCF ofthe expressions.
Therefne, HCE —4 (43) ~ 412
1.G.M The mininnura tiliptied quantities ut of wo ox more ales
‘raic expressions is callod LCM. If only two expressions are
given, en at Fist we find ther HICF by the factor method oF by
the division method and apply the following formate to find hair
1M,
Jon + Pell of the two. expressions
LEM of ore expressions Cite to
‘Tims, LCM of 8 62 Sn+ 6) and 12 (c>9) wil be equal to
BGC ~ $x 6) x 12 G29) Foon
4G) Gye Forms)we ‘QUICKER MAI
=m Gh set0) +3)
24 (x! —Sx? + x + 3x” — Lo + 18)
224 (2498418)
Solving Quadratic Equations: A quadratic ceuation wan solved
always give two values of the varuble, These values of
‘avable se called the roots ofthe equation,
"Any quaatio equation ca ether be solved bythe factor meth
ory formula
(By dhe Factor Methd: Whes we suive a cuadetisequstion by
fholor method, we fst find the fators of the even eat
‘making the righaand sie equal to zero and then by equating
factors to er, wo get the values ofthe variable, For example,
solving the quadratic equation x? ~Sx+6=0,
We fa ind te factors of 5x +6 which ah 5) ad
Then we sy that (e3)2) 9
‘Ae hat, we ake eg brackel puting it equ to 20 nara
find the vehies of
ie. wheax3= Opives x= 3
saad wien x2=0 given =2
‘Theetre, elton x3 orx=2,
(@ By Formulas When we want solvea quadatic equation
axl be +¢=6, we apply te folowing ommila
bE WP dao
2
“Taking + and sigs spomtly, wget two values of 1
‘quantity ac is called the discriminant, ‘The two v2lues of
fom a quadketie equation aie called the roots of the equation.
roots are denoted hy @.and Bs It is seen thar the sum of the roots o
auideteeqton ax? ote ve=0i ens 2 hese eB
and procuct of te rot is equal to Se, « B
Fora quale equation ax? +bx +60,
() The roots wile equal i>? = 43,
(The roots willbe equal and cea C9? > dus,
(i) The coos will be unequal and. untesd ib? < 4,
jemontary Algabea 198
rousing qesdatc equation trom even Reots: Whneve we
te given the rots of a quadratic equation x?  x {sura of the roots) +
fect fhe oo,
er exmnole ty ros ae pve a 2 and 9, he Be dno
quien Wess
PoGtNat3x 260
Pb 460
ne
{) Aquat guniona?+be# =O wiltave loca er.
{When aquatic equation 2 + ix Das ane oo eg
Sere ton 6
(i) When ie oso the ganda equations” +a“ re nove
recipeocats of exch ae, en C=
(Go) When both oe roots ar gaa 0 2, b= O and
(0) Wan one ont nite, tan 0 ae wha oth he oot
{Shite bane —Oand =D.
{) Whine oosre 9a negra bt peste sig en b= 0.
{i} If rwo quadratic equations ax? + bx + c= 0 and arx” + bix Fe)
= Gand have a cormmen toot (i.0., ane rect common}, then (be!  bre)
Ai A hey have bt the rons even han = B= S
Ga) The pte otf ay nepal mrt ity mares
Gog E EAS, Hapa, YTID, ESF, NT, er) to nt
a
have to deal wih the problems reganting imaginary narers, So 2
siraple introduotion is sufficient, 90,127
So, 4 = AC Ip Sa G8 x ~2i, which san imaginary umber
Solved examples
Ex.
ind the discriminant of the following quadratic exutions. Tel
‘onglue ofthe oot of te equations. Vesiy thom.
Ox 4430
G3 pax 3=0
Giyo¢+ Tea
Gvj2e 6+ 7=9104 ‘QUICKER wat
Sots Gi) nx? 4x +3=0,2" I, b=4,0=3
4x 1x3=1612<4>Oandalsoaparfect quar. So, the
will be distinct rational nomena. “
Bal
‘These axe itn rational ater)
(Din 43 40,03,bH4.024 Dew dacag
243 4(3)= 18+ 36" 53>0 and is wa peed mare
‘thereof il be dine atonal nomnbets.
mba tt guava
" 7a asd
Now, the roots are
ANI 20 V2,
3 a
infare,a=5,b=7, e<0,
D=b) 4zcbecomes'=7?—49 > 0 andalspa perfec squ
So, the oo wile dsne canal mambo
4
Sign schene for the quadrate expression
Rakes The sign thle forthe quadtsti expression if aways meant
fis ths seal sys of. We cannot ornate any eo aginay
rane. Soto ny that > ion 4 avy incorrect
Tora ape the oo ofthe coeapending cuacapc
equitontie wt Mocee=0) ofthe quieren ax
Se ees tpposa Ther we hive fl the el vaso
sett fa eng Baroeal nd oil obo imaginary
se,D <0 enya,’ +c wil hve fhe sees as hat
ba be coettonntof 2. Thain TD Onda s+, yi be
stay vs 00s yl balay
in the right
con 80,108 QUICKER Mar
ifD> 01
wi seam are ane
Sin ocho yan cine
‘Opposite te that
samescta otra Beamcssiinrgta
the sign scheme forthe quadkatic expression x?  4x7,
Thecoremoningeqmaon ie te oes
AF ~ 4x 1x7. IG  28 = 12 <0 i.e. roots are ima,
=1250, Three, frail heel alos of ea
expen tu says noe
Note: 1. For all the real valbes of x (x may be 0.2, 37.01.23, 4.220
2.98 e0)3? tn +720,
You can pat x ‘any ral number and verify that x2  4x 47>
Letwy appote =A Wend ae v7 C43 aah
inst tes 708
7 hen x= 5$7~(0O0) 400747
=00n007 +
7007899) 7702 75120
When x =2 5 then x?  4x + 25) 42 WE) +7
2
So, if we put x= 2+ YFior 2  V5i, tho riven expression wil
become ze, The expresiion canotbe nee ne "
When x= 2+ V5 af da ey
+ Gi 424 iy
+0618 4010 7
+361)847 (weave =1)
23170
Sinialy when x= 2,324
4. The sn scheme not valid fr maginaty value of x. Ite
2IMx=4 7 the piven ene
Pla T =U
16x €1) 16147
Etomontary Algebra 109
16  16i + 7=8  16 which ig imaginary and it canaot be
‘cornpared with any ral or imaginary number. So the porpase of
the sign scheme booomes mezuingless exeept for the roots (2
+ ¥8i whieh are rman)
Ex. 2: For what values offs, 9x’ + 42x +490
Solu: The corresponding equatinn is x? + 42x44) =9
= (42y' 4x 9% 49= 1764  17640
Here, the coefficient oFx >
So, for oll real values uf x, 9x? + 4x + 49> 0 ie. the given
exgroion is alvays posit.
Ba. 3: ind the sign scheme fort° 35428,
‘Sola: The comesponding equation i x2 + 3x +28=0
D=GP4x (1) x 2894 112= 12150
341i,
2eeD
47
‘Here, the evefticient of x7 is 1 <0. .
So, the sign scheme forthe given expression x2+ 34 +28 is as
follows:
‘The roots ofthe equition ate
Ge)
et
(v4 7 (ve)
‘That is, Case (iif A 0
Cave (i: fs <0 > Fx? +H FIR SO
Case (ii) if +A IB
Note: ¥oncaa verify the above Cases (i) and (i) by putting such values
‘of as may be easie for calculation,
Ifpeputx~0, 40% 7 wesee,
it It R= H+ BB 28 0,
Mweputx $< 4,n? +34 +28.
If we put x = 10>7, 0° + 34428 1004 30+28 = 12 <0
Bx, 4: For what range of the values of x is 2x" 4x 7 nonpositive?
Sola: The comespunding equation is 2x? —4x7=0
D=(4)4 x2 CD = 16456 = 7270
Hora, the coefficient of x2 is 2>0
251542
az<0
he nools ne DENTE 42607 2305
Tierwoae Dp ana 2
So, the sign schzwe forthe given expression 2x2 — 4x +7 is a8
fallows:10 QUICKER Mary
(9)
2eNE 2498
? 2 oe)
(ve)
22358 agin pai ie >
< 2225 te given expression wil
forx
aod or BE cy
neg or og vel expression bebe
Tous for 2=2 x 222 tn gen expression is
ive i he express is eter 2x0 or negaive
over you ant to dhe the sig stheney yo py tke
apptoriaate vahoe of 1 and Gea proceed, For snaapl, we
P= 14 (epproxioately)
Now, the rots are 23 14
43407
= 1221281,“
‘As Bw tots have been found by approximation, $0 while che
in for the sign scheme, you should sot ike Such values
‘which are nearer to the roots.
220
2
25207~23>0
Pulling x=2, 2 dy7= 24487 =920
‘Thus, me find that the sign scheme is correc,
Bx. 5: The inequality fb? + 82 9h + 14 is correct for
b25bo5 b> bet ipa sb6
Gr}b24bs4 (p26 b=4
‘Soln: The given squality is b+ Sb2 9b + 14
1a. b?+ibOb 1420 of, b?b 120.
For the equation bb  14= Owe have
De (leds x Clay 36=5750
Hae, the coefficient of b= 2 >0 and
Elementary Algebee am
ep
Dal
‘he toats are
130d 38
So, the sign scheme forthe expression == 14 sas fllows:
(oe)
3343 (se
‘Thaefor <33 of b243,0b 1420
‘To dec the comes option, we deww the points of the option on
the real number ne of he sige sobeme
i) Ge) eye)
TG SABI 443 5 6 To
‘Now, we tally wk ofthe options one by one
Ceetly, option (is corect. Option (ii also correct
Between these two options, wo slserve that opion (i is more
suitable than option (i). Though opti (i is eores, sot a5
lose as opi (i.
‘Options (iv) ant (¥) are ieorceet,
Heros (ithe ans:
6 fy ont proves xy enum hon ay
sutnsay (22) —
[SF =7.6 (ppeexioately))
ZT)?
‘Webaow fa be sare ofany ea. 2 0
ss 52) xom(t52) 20
‘Asx+ yis constant 29 i the maximum when!
oy Shove xya0 one:
Gh storxyo0 onnay
Ex, 7: Which ofthe following values ofP satisfy the inequality
=PQ3MorPIS:P Othen (P= 4) <0... (9)
apne Quicker arts
of, when (= 3)<0 then (P 4). fc)
Froo()P>2and Pet 3 Je Poa
orn Gs} P23 and PA
‘Which is notin chaices. Hence from (ave answer is (4).
Directions (Ex. 812) In each question ene or inore ey wation(s)
ehese ou have to find out the retation
isvare provided. On the ass
Detwreen p and q.
Give answer (ify =a
Give answer Q)itp> q.
wwe answer ita >p,
Give answer (9) itp 4, and
Give answer (5) iq p.
M tha$=t
Mg? + 36= 12q
wb—59 Mg? 2q1
Hbptt3~ 12, ILaq5=1ig
AW aetiso  at
Solm:
5
BR bo 2ppo3S5
hoo appo 35
te gat Fas menting
4B Bepake =
Sp bo BBaraBer apne
UL gf 12g#30=05 y9)=0
476 Therefore p=9
‘
7
Wes 294120 >(qIF
Therefore p> a
USL ps9 2 peat
He 39q21 +5 2 g3 Thorefore q=p
SNe 816 2 4
Mp wow
p2
Wah BoB
0.2 Ba Foy p
a
1 2t+p
Etemortary Aigebra 113
+ Bo! oa=t,
a+ ar)
asp
Wx. 142 Tie inequality 3u2 18n+ 24> 0 gots satistied for which ofthe
Following values of?
Yae2eerd 20d yar?
apnea 8) None of these
Solo: Tg equation for te given inequality i
3a? [in 240
= 3ia2¢0 4)
aah
‘The rea! number line of the sign scheme is
2. te
ive 2 we de
‘The two values of give the wo cud poines of tha imeeelity, On
theabuveaxia we havethreecamgcsin which valueefn can enove,
@ne2 Gad fiynet
Puta value wich ip lees than 2, Suppose n=O
‘Then 3a”  180+ 24— 00 + 24 = 24 > 0 which satisfies the
inequaliy. Hence n <2 4 valud value
‘Again puta value whigh is between 2 and 4
Suppose =, The Sn  180+ 2427 ~ 54°F 24 ~2 < Om
does not sttisies the inequality. Hence 2= n<4 isnot a val
value.
Agnin peta volus which a greater than 4. Suppase n= 3. The
Sat = 18 +24 = 75 = 90 424 — 49 > 0 which satisies the
inequality. Hence a> 4s valid value.
1 nequality (3a 6) (h4)>0 :
cn, Sem = 2) (a 4) > 0 is true when (92) and (14) hot ae
tithes tve ue,
When both ice tv, we have
a2>Gandn420
gene 2andnad ond
Wien toth ae e
(a 2) 2nd x <—%) ae eet peisibleatatine 80, front
ese {only ce anaser ie (1).
1 you have no idea about quale equatia, you can verity st
incuely By pattie the stable vate of Bom each che
‘Whichover stistcs the inequality shoald be our ase
Directions (Ex. 16203: IMeach question one o! more equation)
4s (are) provided, On the basis ofthese you havete find out relation
between pand q :
Sire answer (itp q
Give anewer Q) Epo
Give answee (3) iF p
Give answer (fp gan
Give answer (129 2 p
ater
eee
Oem a
1.Wp sou
18. ape to
1.10 gp? sp
Ba e+ 300
ip 2g? ogre


Eerrontayy Algebra 15
Solutions:
on
ct
Spo q Answer (2)
Notee howe that p13 thon ie
IM p7=9 Gil) 3q? 199+
Wp
Ai) By 39 7g +7930 GDMg=0
= G4MqY0> a= Fort
fn
Wesgethaamp
19.3.0)49Sp+t0 diyq?2q4 10
na
asa
20.356) qe tts SED
We see that p= ov a> p
Conditions for the Maxjanum and the Minimum. Values of the
‘Quoidrade Expression ax’ + bx +e(= , suppose)
Forthsitvirwum value ey, he contition is
Nae By
hus io exininnum Value). Theninae vale ot
»
Be
Pristine 
na
For the maximum value oy, the condi
‘tas no maximum value). The maxitmum value of
»
possibis when x=
‘Ex. Lr fx dered), find the maxirnim velue of 2x? +x +3 and also fi
tho coresponting valve oF
Sas Thy sorespntng cations 224 + 3~6
D=()4 (2) 3= 1424 25
1. Tye soqulzod maxiouma value ofthe given expression
_=28_ 38
128 and the comresposding value of =
OF 4709
18 Qynti2d5s
Given tha xis eal, so 2 Wor, 25 ~8y 240,25 2 By
25 2
ys 8 ce. themeximurn value ofy is 2
sutsinnsey=2 ing. wegn a exe
cx eg ax 24 =
Sie eit
or, x= 1)?
1 Ibe sel Gnd minimus vale of 2° = Sx~3 and also
tie cenesponding ali of
‘Soin: The corcesponding: equation is 3? «Sx 3
Sy 4k 2x (R25 + = Ad
“Te rquzed mins val ofthe given expression
rey 4 seer
aa 8
£2.
a2
25
125 and the comeésponding value of
lomentary Algebra uw
Paplanation; 22 $x 3=y on.)
08 24 $x(9 4 3)20
DoCS} 4x2» (439) = 25+ Hy +3) 49> BY
Given tha cereal D2U 01,49 +8920 of, 492 C8)y
»
onys 2% = 6325
3
vestemoimun ye ofy 612 an abun y= 22a
(Wy weget
axl sua
5
or, 16x? 40x 24+49=0
(r, 16x?  40x + 28 #0
on, (tx SP=0
oan 3=0 8 x
Ex. 3: A certain nuraber of tennis balla were purchased for Rs 450. Five
‘moreba!ls could have been purchased far the sameamioxrtifeach
‘all was cheaper by Rs 15. Find the numberof alls purchased.
is _2)29 3}10 425.5) NoneoF hese
Solu: Suppose he purchased x alls.
“Then comparing the prices in two conditions, we get en equation
eo
6, 306 +5)
or, 30x +150 35x +47
onyx + 5e 150=6
on x? + 154 — 10x ~ 150
on, x(x + 15)» 10x + 15)=0
oF (= 10) (C4 15) =0
2x2 10,15
Neglecting the ve value we find tbe no, of bails = 10.
Notes (3) In equation (5)
Costpsot ata 218 (QUICKER MATH
‘When we get balls more for tie same amount the cost price a
ste
We i in i oft i ecm by
1595205
(Quicker Approach: Equation %} i our frstep af the soation, Fi
this very firet step we see thet we ary going to be traped in
Sy The amen thas for Nae tes eee han Rays
four yee apn, forms ecoereqution ie, f(x A) = y 4
Converted gor form ofa by v2 0) looks ice
fany20=0
(ii) The wo samtanoas equator:
Gyixys0=0
@)6xy200
eat» =
iv) Tost for common solution 5 * 2 ie. *
“Tesco, ther exss anced pac whichoan satiny both the
exuations
(Solin or by eliotn, betting (2) am (2), 8 at
2k + 200 (by tensposition),
25> 16; puting the ie af A=
axyt0=0 40,
‘The present ges of Ravi and his ther axe 10 and 40 years
respectively
omc)
Misectiancous Examples
Bho value ore? 4
betinesd120 ‘QUICKER MAI
Bx dilfat y= aye find the veiue of x — y?
Som x? 97 = Gy) OF +9? + ny)
Now, ny Very = day ITE =)
ayl ery = (otyPoxy #90257
5237118
8 gitar
ona tS HON. yee
yee
ths given expression hocoraes 2
yond a [ans i09e (0)
Ex 6 1PR= 12,9745 find the valu ot (+9)
Sota: (c+ 9" = 16)? =4096,
Bx T:lft +b +6~6, Sind he value ofe + bP +e3,
SP ybhee = Grbrey 3040) e+ a+b)
Eementar Aged, a
Soro ergarI=3VO9
ou? bP 3 abe, (Remember)
pe sittae Eth y 4 Babine teas oft 9
wv Ber
wey, (SoA
ae Wet)
Boi oh 48
Nove epee pet
stay Ft Ee.
Site FA =e een TS
2 ey 2H? + ait =2 [eo + ]14
[ase —v? + ean? = 26? +64]
1. 9s My vaties as xand y=7 when x= 2, find y when x= 5.
Soin: x? + y?
Solas fy varies as then = consent
Lod aye
SZ 3 AID
Bx, 10; fx + 2 exactly.
Soba I+ 2 dive th
‘muse eqal ozo when equal
eo + 6C2F IG)
Stun rokn0 5 6k=6 3 ert.
x11 What must be added to to ako it?
igus’ + 6x2 + 11x + 6k; fin the value of
‘expression, then the given expression
jo, 2)=0
2
Sulu: The equi vate = — text
wy
(Bx. 12: What i the square root of 2 +e = 4) (02 + 6x +997
Solns (24 4x + 4)(02 + 6x +9) = G42)? OH
he square roots (+2) G03)
1377 =27 and 7263, find the valve ots
a
Soln: 3?
soxye3
gam tylomentay Algebea . 18
Ex.
Thesum ofthervotsofthe equation +
1
xia tubo e
ind the product of te ots.
Sols Multiplying both sides ef the equation by
(x= a) (x +b} we abinin:
cD Fete talm te tay (e tb)
(On rearrangement, we obiain
sexta +b20)+abbe~
‘Now, the sum of rants = (a+ b=2
3)
Adding (1) and (2), we get
Ss ety ocsns sd
Six=boxad
B14: 1fx=9, 9177 tho vase of — 92) i equa
Soin? y5) = @1y = d
OTS OOS Re ETT
x15: Find he vloe oF
fot pees esp
Solu: Weteve :x 28 CHM9 (Erb
are) E28
ah eee tte
Fx 16 Theroots of 2kx? + 5kx+ 2 =Oare equal if kis equal to
‘Sola: Tie outs will bo oqual ifin ax” + bx +,
Hever, he eo at ago
(w4on2=o
Sisk 16
SkASK10=0
(2+), on splint.
Bx. 19: Bind the roots ofthe cquation, Vy eT = WE
Soln: We have, on squaring
ay+iy lay
But y=1 nteans y= {Ey ica iene muniher,
Hence, no ral root exits,
are the rots ofthe mation
x24 Jax+e = Dandifo? +p? = 5, find the vatus ofa
Soln : Sines a, B satisfy the given oqanton, we most have:
a? +Rove
Pa eps cn
(On adding, we get
Ge + B+ Bae +f) +20=0
> bit + B= sum of rools~.
5545 (3+20=0
Ex. 20:
‘What isthe conltion that ono of the pots of the equation is
double theotherin ax?+hx +¢=07
Let one root be equal lo.
“Then ether rot willbe 2a
‘Now, we kewow the the
eatihepinstetions=£ (vate
soatest2e sae
Bx. 21: Ifa, Bae te root ofthe equation
x7 43ax 42a? = 0 and if a? + 6*=5, tind the value of a.
Solu: In the previous example, we oblainod:
P= S420
‘Now, pul, ¢= 23?
2
ence ron (1) and (2) ve contin tz = © 974? — 946
oaoy ‘QUICKER Mat
We get, 9s? = $4 4a? aha =$ >e?=1 a> 41
Bx. 22: The area of a rectangle is the sare as that ofa crcl of
Fm. Ethe Jeng of the rectangle exceed its breath
‘em; find the dimensions ofthe rectangle.
Sola: Aree of theeiele
‘Then the Teigth is x + 3.
Arcaofrectangle = Arca of circle
Sxaty
wae Wea
2
3 52.
Bor breads caunot be negative, Hence, we dicard x= 5
sect =2.
‘Breadth = 2 om, Lenglh~ 5 om.
“Thewufice area of pipe, open abot end, i enon 0 628
‘qm. The diffrence between is rains and its Ioogth i 13
the ength beng te lange. hope was coset one ed,
mouet of water can it hold? (Use 2 =3.1).
Soto: Let radios
Week ase 2b
Bek 7 ab tan
5
i Bothtietars ic thesane orb he tes, Th vo
frond wien the surest ofthe sud Mas ig and
‘Wien he mmecrr of ad haya hn oy on
Foes Nhs,
Toe 7
Gee _pes 2st
Ws tas pag SS
‘Note: You are suggested to reatiember the Gtrect result (*}. It will save’
you seve psions cons injour eshte
Ex. 6 Find the vale ofthe Slowing exposes cocci 4 decimal
The ebove formula Bas the fist tex &3 8d the seco
2a
Pieces ott We BaF i oe
re 1 bea "Note:The above example gives on raporta esi soul be renee
Sp Ma ga typ ght bere
Bat gree Me, ae
Oe May Ove OVS
Sotuto:
og = Lease
LG,
ag = Boose
t +1 M41
SGT rar pos
2
ot Batts soe
2 ory.
ap stsNumber System
Quantitative Aptitude deals mainly with the different topics in
Azithmetic, which is the science which deals with the relations of
numbers to one another. It includes all the methods that are applicable
to numbers. . oe .
Numbers‘até expressed by means of figures  1,2,3,4.5,6,7,8,9
and 0 —called digits. Out of these, D ts called msignificant digit whereas
the others are calied significant digits. .
‘Numerals: A group of figures, representing a number, is calleda
umeral. Numbers are divided into the following types:
Natural Number: Nunibers which we use for counting the objects are
‘known as natural numbers. They are denoted by “N’.
 ; N={1,.2,3.4,5,
Whole Number: When we include ‘zero” in the natural murtibers, it is
fmown.as whole numbers. They are denoted by “W’.
W= (0, 1,2,3,4, 5,
Prime Number: A number other than 1 is called a prime oumiber if it
is divisible only byLand itself.
‘Lo test whether a given, number is prime number or not
TE you want to test. whether any number is a prime mumber or not
take an integer larger than the approximate square root af that number.
Let it be ‘x’. Test the divisibility of the given number by every'a prime
number less than ‘x’. [fit is not divisible by any of them, therit is prime
namber; otherwise it is a composite number { otherthan prime}.
Ex. 1: Is349 a prime number ?
‘Soln. “The square riot of 349 is approximately 19. The prime numbers
Jess than.19 are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17. .
Clearly, 349 is not divisible by any of them. Therefore, 349 is a
prime wumber.
Ex. 2: Js 881 a prime number?
Seln: The approximate sq, root of 881 is 30.
Prime nutabers legs than 30 are 2, 3,5, 7,11, 13, 17, 19,23, 29,
881 is not divisible by any of the above numbers, so it is a prime
number. .
Ex. 3: Is 979 a prime number?
Soln: The approximate sq. root of 979 is 32.142 (QUIGKER War Number System “a
Rule of Simplification
4) Ie siapifying an expression, frst ofall vinevtun or bar must be
emtovad. Por exanple: we tow thet 810 =18
tut, F=W= (2)=2
{iy After removing the bat, the brackets mast be removed, sail in the
order(s (seal)
(li) Aor removing the rackola, we mast ue dhe following operations
strotly inte order given below. (a) of) division () ligicaion
() adtion and (subtraction
‘otez The nul i also known 2s the rule of ‘VBODMAS' wiste V, 3,
©, D,M, A and § sand for Vinculum, Bracket, Of, Division, Multipl
cation, Addition and Subtraction rexpactvely
2 8
fal]
Exs Simplify + Sof 648x773) + 5 +
sets 2arerann fied
Prime mimnbors test than 32 are 2,3, 5.7, 11, 13, 17,19, 23,29, 31
‘We observe that 979 is divisibie by 1, soit snot a peino number
Bx.d: Arc897, 508,757, 1003, 1009, 919, 913, 647,649, 57, 659pm
urabers? Solve it)
‘Composite Numbers: 8 number, ofber than 1, which snot a prime
timber is called a composive member
4,68, 9, 12, 13,
yeu Number: ‘The number which is divisible by 28 known oy
suber,
8, 7.4,8, 12,24, 28,..
leis also of tie fort 2n {were n= whole rumber}
(Odd Nuoiber: The number which is not divisible by 24s known as
ner.
€03,9, 117,19,
‘Comseentive Nunsbers: A sore of numbers in hick eas i ereater
‘than tha which precedes it by I isclled consecutive numbers
28, 6,7, Ber, 13, 14,15 fer, 11,103,103, 104
Tntegers: The et of aumbs whl contin oF eho tbe
nogative mura known a nega. ss dents by 1
e800 (4.8. 2f,0,1,2, 34,5, 0)
Rational Numibers: Wien thc ber ate wits intone, they ate
‘known as stionaazmbars. They are detoted by Q.
138 8
aos
(the numbers whch can he ween inthe fos # (te x a
ae integers and» #0) are called rational mares
Jtvational Numbers: Ths numbers which cannot be writen inthe foc:
‘of gare know as rational numbers where panéq ere iniowers,
andq 40),
Por gxampla: V3 = 1.732... VE
‘But recurring decimals bike
3727
2 13
21 2orovosfh ei]
retold
srs
ee, are tatfonal numbers,
tie g tocm, so they are rational numbers,
Real Numbers: Real cumbers inelide both rational as wo ag iestional
rursbers.
Daewe = Peasea4 (QUICKER MATHS:
Somb+b!
Sastb abe eb)
= ab 4 30h (a+b)
devF
Hero
yaw = a toe bho 
=P 3b OY
apt
oft i nath
Fw
oreo) = (ory GP abs
Poe oy
Fee
ona BF = aby Gah b6%
* Ph? 40° —3abe.
Pee ab — be oe
Oat = ty
1) ewe
ey
12) 9% Wt itor
1s =o other
14) a" = 1 thenx is 0 forall values ofa (excent 0).
(atbte)
Ascending or Descending Orders in Rational Nembers
ft See eam cpa
sews
id whe te mumertr an ee dexnmintr fh adn
aaa rpeer tat delun trot te bigest
HOTU STARCH be telione pee
vi
a 6
Set: ese te mera a ele demas core
Ince telco. ie gee tn
Rea: Wikhone oie! ovigtastosstegenest 
2a as
amy
‘Number Systern 145
san; Wee tare ec he es fe
ove tases as, the fo es
faction,
EX. 3: Whish one of the following factions isthe gremtes!?
1a a
3190
Sela; We s00 thatthe, umerstar increas by 3 (a constant value) and
fhe denerainator also increases by a constant value (1), 0 the last
stn inte ees actin
“ha ead eon beens
Inthe group of factions
KoSaa xe? gs3e 0 x tme
yl yah Lye yeas yen
STB fas the highest value
yenk ie
‘where ba
ward
[But what bsppens when a < b? See in the following examples
Ex. 4; Which one ofthe following isthe greatest?
23 4
Pie" 0
Soln; Inthe above example, we se thet the numevatorsand the denon
ators of the Faotions interease by constant values (Ge numerator by 1
‘and cenominaters by 4) 1f we change the above fractions into decimal
‘values, wosee thatthe factions ae in an ineressing order and hee, the
Jaw fasion 2 i te tes
Ex.S: Which one ofthe fllowing factions isthe gretest?
2 bay &
7%
Solm: In she shove example also, Wwe see thal the numerators and
‘Nenowinators increase by 2 and Brespectively But she last action, ie.
4
isneteast
Ine
Note: IES $5 Socreasc in Den.140 ‘QUICKER MATH ursor System 17
ncreae in Num,
Tas 5 perenne in Den 8
Inmuch a ease wien # iss
Sip Alte ge cet Nome aed th
57975 5
Method IT
‘Change the factions into ecizals Tike
2 7
i he » de06
Ts * Bronte Clearly,
ea: wes pees 1 or 22 Meio .
‘ on tgs sean 7 Rate of CM (erase nutpleaton)
Solu: StepT: 13.423 < 1520 ‘Step 1: Take the first two fractions. Find the greater onc by the nuleot
sett 2 i peat oe
‘You ean see how quickly this meitad works, After good! x?
Puctice,you won tee vasa before snoneng negate wT ee
23
3° 71g QUICKER tan Numer Systom ma
‘Step I+ Take the third fraction. Apply CM with th third fiction
st un of squares of stn natural numbers = 0+ UG" + 1)
the Farge vas cusnd it Ste TV. Suu of squares of fest n natural numbers t
ri
3x Foccrample F224 3%. eto? M02 D194
4x95 507
Py SLL as
x75
YV. Summ of cubes of fest n natural mumbers =
ry
brow oaeat EMEP aa
Zan ie ner? 4 ane 3,
‘Now we se that Foun ic afer 3 or Bewoen $ and 2
3 end 7 sud see that 2 > 3
ce, we apply OM with 3 end 3 end see that 3 >
7
4.03
Fy 7
Notes 1. he fst cong aries, eee Bol and en
unis poids of bes, eve ee mer
ot mmibas, od, tin ee (+3) mand 2)
sven ue
For example, from 1 to 50, theve ace 28 2 25 odd mambors
2
eat 32 25 son nmin Ak on thea Sh
Stop Tk he ot ato. Apply EM with Sal and ee
‘
3 om vwith 2 and + ena soe dae?
> Een we apply OM with Zand Lend see tat? > Therefore
ATs 2l ts
sy o> 2> 7
Step IV: With sizilar applications, we pot the Final rosult os:
Ada ds
ach
Boda
smumbers and 242! — 25 even nuribers.
3
‘ete Ts loncome hvntp sl iyo sei so cscs runes
frre Seti wehcstomstomsseet te  Ti lem tre hss faa ome
better method for you
Some Rules on Counting Numbers
ra mabe =D
Ex. 1s (Gard 25 are sqisuys of 2nd 5 respectively (nee consecutive
‘mutobets}, 25  16=9 aero number.
Ex. 2: Differonce between 26)? and (25)"= $1 (an odd muraber)
Reasoning: Derived from ths above rue
3. The difference between the squates of two consecutive nuribyrs is he
1. Sum of all he est
Forexample; 424341105 12 SUB AD S565
11 Suan ot the two corsecive numbers.
AL. Sum of first odd aucubers =n? Tu tiod?s 49
for exemple: 1434547 416 (a there ate four ocd mumbrs). Pau 06? @9) =26+ 25251
Fer example: 13454, nt20Mh odd umber (ie, 20421
20 = 400 :
ITT. Sum af frst even numbers 1 (21) a
For example: 244468... 100 for SOih even mumbes) 1}

I
 Reasoning «? 6
Solved Examples
() What is tie total of alt the even ruenburs from 1 to 400?
‘Solm: From 1 vo 400, shere are 400 numbers
ab) (at) = etd)
30 x (S041) =2550 i180 QUICKER MATHS!
So, there are “2 = 207 even mumbirs
Hove, wm =200400'1) 40209 let
@ whic ie taba nceen mers 163)
So From to) en 36 mec he ae
PAS  2890 09 pn
258
@) What is the wets oC al the odd mienbers om [10 1807
Sein hee eon aldrumims ten he gen ag $e
sem = 90)8  8160,
(4) What in tho ton] oF al the oat numisers ons 1 0 $1?
Solu: There axe S11 26 odd mambers between the given range, So,
26)?675
63) Finan sum ofa te od nutes foes 2019 101
Sito: The eee sum = Sum of al the odd nambers fogs J 19% ~
sam ofall hoo aumbers fr, (10 20
Suon pf fis 5) BL nuraber smn of fist LD odd moms
GLP ae
260110
501
Power and Tndex
a umber ‘pis mliplied by itself m times, the prnduct is
called mh power ofp cud is written asp, In pis called the base
nd called te index of he power
Soune solve examples
(0) What is te nuror fa the nit place in (729)°° 2
Solu: When 729 is maltiplied twice, the number i the unit loos is 1a
ther words i 729s multibeam even tiraber of tints, te metaber
the uni place wll be 1. Thus, the eursbor ia de unt lace (728) i
(7299? = (12998 (729) = (2.1) (720) =4 Fn the un pace
(2) ind the number inthe wnt place
e020 6 and (ona,
Numbor System 1
Soln: Winen 623 is anlipled 1wice, ths moraber inthe wait place is 9
; Whes. 8 moliplicd 4 biaes, che aumber it tv unit place % 1. Thus,
 seesay chet 1695 is muldiied Gn sumber of times, the auras in the
iu place wil be 1. $4,
628) ~ G2!" =1 athe un place
Goa & Cenayt*? (623)P= (0) (..8)=9 nthe unt place
E629) x GBP 1% (00.9)
‘nthe ait place
you solve this type of questions (loved sumer) ry
‘to get the last digit 1, as has been done in the ahve two examples,
(2) Find dhe neraber in ths‘ wnit place ic (122) , (122)? and (22279,
Sol Gondindd nd
CBr eG = 8
Bh Bel BIC
We know that 6}6¢ 8} C8)
Tus, when (122) is mots An ties, he ts digit is 6, Tevet,
1227? «(228° = 6.6} Hn the uieplace
122) = gray Se G2! (6 shud) = & inthe unit poo.
(22) = (122985 5 (22) =8)o4. 8} 8 Hn ae ut place,
(4 Find the umber inthe unit place in (98), 05y* and (98)?
Sone y=.)
e987" =(..0)
This, 98)" = 24)” =(..6)~4 inte eit place
8 = (5° 4 68)? 8x6.) =4 athe uri plece
8 = Cy!" 5 69) (..5)x(.2)=2 he uit lace
‘Note: Wien there is am sven curbs inthe unit place of base try
{0 eC 6 in the unit place, ay tas been done in dhe above two
questions.
“his chepor should be cogcluget with some geaeral gles
dived fortis Cre of ess,
Yule For ued numbers
en there an digit ia the unl place fexcept 9), melipiy
oe mussel wal you got a the em place
bo
on152 QuicKeR mas
C= C1)
where 123,
Role 2: For even mumbers
When there an even digit inthe wat place, wail 0
saber by self uni yon ges in te wl place
26)
GB = (6)
(.6F=(.8)
(8) (06) heron, 3,35
Note: fthereis 1, Sori the it place o ths yiven amber, then
‘any times ofits maulilieaton wil have the same digit in
wait place,
Gold GoD)
CPS)
C0966)
(6) What the muerte vi place when 78,325,457 ond 248
mild ogee?”
Sola: Mullply all the nscabrsin the wet place, is, S35 the ees
isa munoherin wich $ is the uni place.
Miscellaneous Examples
Fra Givision sum, we have four quate —
‘Quote sud Reminder. Thessare connected by the elation
Dividond = (Diviser » Quotient) + Remainder
‘When the division is exaed, he remainder is aeco
In hws vase, the above relation beconscs
Dividend = Divisor x Quotiont
Bx, 1: Tho quotient arising from the division of M46 by a cert
snatnber is 79 and the rerisnder is 35; what i the dvix?
‘Soln: Divisor» Quotient = Dividend  Remainder
79 Divisor ~ 24446  35 = 24411
Divisor ~ 24411 + 79= 309.
Ex, 2: What least number anist be adder 19 8961 10 make it excl
disisile by 36?
Soln: On dividing 8861 by 84, we get 57 asthe remainder.
He auatber to be udéed ~ 84 57=27
iden, Divis
Furnbor Syston 13
Ex, 3: What least sumbor aust be aubuacted fiom 8961 t0 amske it
sactly divisible by 842
Solu: On divicing 8964 by 84, we get 572s Gue remeindor. Therefore,
the martber to he subtracted i $7
Nate: la Ex 3, we soe thatthe given number mecls 2740 make it exactly
divisbte by 24. But in Fx 3, the giver number exceeds by $7.
xed: Find the lease muesber of 5 digits which i exactly diviibe by 89.
Sole: The least number of 5 digits is 10,000.
(On dividing 1D.600 by 89 we get 32 a8 femaindes,
{Fe aid (@D2) 037 to 10,000, he ce vl edtvsibley 82,
the roared umber = 10,000 + 57 = 19,087,
‘6x. Find the grees numberof Sd which s cxetiy divisible by 197
‘Soin: The preaiest miber of five xi is 99,099, On dividing 99.999
bby 137, we get 126 as minds.
‘he reviced mumibt ~'99,90  126 = 99873
Note : Do you find the diffrence Rerweer Ex. 4 and Ex. 52
Ex. 6& Find he nearest integer to 1834 which is exactly divisible by 12
Sola: On dividing 1834 by 12, we set 10 a3 thy remader
‘Sine the cerssindor 10 is oeve than the alot the divisor 12, the
‘nearest integer will bo fous by aking (1210) =2
“Ths, the requved number = 1824 (1210) 1838
xs Te Find the nearest ateger 9 1829 which is execly divisible by 12
Solu On dividing 1829 by 12, we get S as the eemainder. Since the
remainder 5 i loss than hale Use divisor 12, the nearest inteper
‘be Fouad by subtracting 5 from 1829,
‘the rguited number = 1829 $= 1824.
[Note 2 Do you realize the difference between Bx. 6 and Bx. 7%
Ex. f: A number when divided by 899 gives 9 comsinder 63. What
enuindet wil be obtained by dividing the same number by 29?
Soln; Numbe: — 699 x Quotes 63 = 2031 x Quotient+ 25295
"Therefie, the remainder cbtaned by dividing the wumibec by 29)
is cleat 5.
x. 9, A uamnbsr wien divided by 89D pives a remainder 62. What
reminder will be obtained by dividing the same auraber by 31?
SSoln: Number = 899 = Quariens + 62 ~21%29 » Quotiont © 312'8
“Therafore, the reniainder obiained by dividing the number by 31
is cleady 9.
Note: From Ex. (8) and (0) its clear thatthe diet divisor must i &
‘mulipie of the ncccnd divisor, But what kappens when the fist154 QUICKER MATHS
sivisor is nota multipte of second divisor? Sec in the folowing
camps.
Ex. 10: A number wen divided by 12 Kavos a remainder 7. What
‘reminder will be abtained by dividing the same number by 7?
Solm: We sce that im the above example, the fst disor 12 ie not a
multiple ofthe second divisor 7 Now, we take tie te sunbets
135und 15, which wien civided by 12, lave 7 as the rezindes,
Bui witen we divide the above two mumbsers by 7. we get tho
‘espective remainders as @ sna 4, Thus, we conclalo that the
{question i wrong
EX. UL. A boy wis sel co muliply 422051 by 56827, but reading one of
‘the Figures inthe question ertoncously, he obtained 21959856177
8s is answer, Which igure eid he mistake?
On dividing we find thet $6827 dows not exactly eivide
21939856177. Hence the ercor wes m reading S6827, But on
siviging the number hy 4820S, ve get 50827, Hence the hoy
Teed the figure 6 of tho mrulipie as 0
Ex. 12; A boy moltiplcd 423 by a cernin nurnber and obiaincd 65580
ss hisonswer, IF Leth che fives are wang, but the ether figures
‘ze right, find th correct answer.
Solm: Step I: Inthe prouct, the figures 9,8 ane 6 ate cone. "Tos gat 9
‘in the unit place, we must zmulipiy by 3 units, So,
423
wep
Sal
1269
oes
© Bet 8 in the t's place, we must have 2 under 6 in he fst
line. Fence, we must amply by 4 tei So,
423
a3
1269
1682,
cerns
Number System 1
‘Step I: To get 6 in the product we must have 4 under 1 inthe second
Tine, Hence, we ust mltply by I hundred. So,
423
14a
1269
1692
423
soaes
‘Thus, the eomect answer i 64RD,
‘Ex. 13: How many prime munbers exis in 6? x 357 x 11%)
Soln: 6? x 35% < 18! = cay’ a Gx x 111?
nw hx Pa le
‘Thus, there we 7+72413410~30 prime mares.
Ex. 14: On dividing a number by 5,7 and 8 saceasively the remainders
ate respoctively 2, 7 and 4. What willbe the remainders ifthe order of
Uivisen is reversed?
Som: 5 t=
kad
ate
T
Weave * 8x) 44 =12
teers De3=97
P98 SBT HD AIT
‘Ths, the eumber may be 437
‘Now, wisn order a division is reverse,
8) 437
isa .
71s
Tt
Hence, the rived eemaindees willbe 5, 5 and 2
‘Note: Weave used the wots "may be" hecaute this imber is one of
those many cumbers which satis the conditions. We have ural 7 as
‘our nal quotient und hence, got the nsraber ax 437. But forthe other
Values, like 2,3, .. the numbers will be diferent, And surptisiagly all
‘of dhem wive the sume iesule. You may vert for yourselfia
ye QUICKER MAT
Bx, 18: A watch ticks 90 simes in 95 seeonds and another watch ti
2315 mes in 32 seconde: bh te watabes ace sated loge, hi
‘many tines will taey ik together ia the Bet hour?
Som Th Bath zoey ns an esc ak
323
ticks every 323 secon
333,
$235 seconds,
19x5se17
ey wie opr alte LM at nd
LCM of 95,323
“yor 8S ana 222
Now, LOM of gpand e = Hey Se 32
‘Tae numberof times they will tic in the rst 2690 sezonds
Wx S617
3609 = AS
360045 gy 100.
Wx Sat7 325
Oneeteyhavealresy eked nthe Beginning; 6 in 1 Nout
wal Be 100+ [= 191 times
1s. 16: By what momber fess sn [000 must 3259 bo mused
he Lae thre figures to te right ofthe product may be 437?
Soln: [tis clear thst the required aumber is of three dts, Let tha
imamber be abe. Thon we bare,
43259
abe
437
Is clear hat
42259
ans
Number System “7
Now, Wwe see that he second dipit (tam right of produ is 2
‘Taisis possible only when 7 is added to 6 And forthis °b* mustbe equal
tod Thos,
43289
a4
437
‘Now for she thind digit vo seo thatthe thied columm has 1
(canied) +7 + 3~ 11 and it needs 3 more. This is possible only seen
“at iseqal 7. Thus, we finally see
33259
a3
437
Hence, tae required marsbor is 743,
Nate: The above question is given in detail so that you can greap exe
step, bot once you understand the method, you ean salve itn a single
sep, The ony thigg whigh should be Koptin mind is that when the last
three digits ofthe produc arg given, you should net ealeulaie beyond the
¢hizd coluea for any ro:
x17: Find the least number by which 19404 must te multiplied or
divided aa aa to make i perfect square?
Soln: 19404 = 242.33. tr tell =F x3 Fx ti
‘Tau, ithe number is multiplied or divided by 1, theresultext
number will be a pereet square. Therefore, the required auunber is 11.
Bx. 18: Fill in she blank incieated bya sar the mumber &* $6 s0 as 0
make stdivisible by 33
Solu: The momber should be divisible by 3 and 1, To mse the nuraber
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